Mackenzie Austin Mrs.

Mahaffey ENGL 1102-100 28 January 2013 Stage One

Exigence
Medical research is something that will save people’s lives.I chose the medical field because I plan to go on to nursing school. I think that in my future in the nursing field I will need to stay up to date on the advances in types of treatment and medicines to cure certain ails and diseases. One day we might be able to cure all types of cancer and maybe other diseases that have been around for years as well; diseases that have been incurable. I think that we are making great advances in finding out new types of treatments and we are discovering new medical problems that we may not have known existed before. If scientists begin to discover more and more ways that ails can be cured that in several years there will be very little cures that have not been discovered yet.

Inquiry
What medical advances are going to be made in the future? Are there any health issues that have not been discovered yet? How long will it take before most issues are treatable? I think that all of these questions are very valid in helping us understand the future of medicine. The way that this world is advancing now I would say that within a couple decades we will have all of the cures we will need. This topic is going to be very interesting for me to research because I will be able to see what types of medicine are out there right now and what types are yet to come. Whenever I am in my future job I will also be able to see how things were when I start nursing and I will be able to see as I progress in my career how things have changed and how they have developed and progressed. I do not have any prejudices

because I believe that anything can work to cure any type of health issue there is.

Method
For research methods I plan to conduct a survey asking where my peers think the medical future is headed. Also, I would like to research more about what researchers are doing everyday to help the advances that we all are hoping for. I would like to learn more about if doctors and scientists think there might be any type of health problems that have not been discovered. I also plan to interview a pharmacist and ask him where he thinks medicine will be 10-20 years down the road, what type of cures we will have, and where he thinks healthcare will be at. I think these two ways of research will work best because they are effective in seeing different viewpoints. The pharmacist I plan on interviewing is a friend of mine that just started his career not too long ago, so I think that he will be able to give me feedback on what he might have learned in school and where he thinks that the future is going based on his experience so far. I think that he will also be able to share how important finding cures for cancer and other terminal illnesses is. A viewpoint of someone who sees first hand what medicine is doing and what it could possibly do is a perfect way in seeing where this field of work is headed. Mackenzie Austin Ms. Mahaffey ENGL 1102 100 17 February 2013 Annotated Bibliography Bonnie, Richard J, Carolyn Fulco, and Catharyn T. Liverman. Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press, 1999. Internet resource. Evaluation: This source tells us how to reduce injuries and how we are able to better prevent them. Even though my topic is not on sports related injuries, healing is a big part of our medical future.

Gist: If we are able to have better ways to heal any types of injuries we get that leads to faster recovery and you are less likely to have another injury later one in the same way. Whenever a break or tear is present being able to better treat it can lead to it happening again less or not even at all. Being able to better heal injuries will leave us only in advances in the ways that medicine is handled. Genetics: The Future of Medicine. Bethesda, Md: National Human Genome Research Institute, 2000. Print. Evaluation: This source is very helpful in seeing some of the types of medical advances are being made. I am able to see how genetics is able to play a role in medicine. It is also a good source because it is located in a reliable source and not from peers or students. Gist: Before reading this article I had never thought about genetics being able to help with the medical future. I had only read about new medicines and treatments being discovered. This article on genetics has opened my mind and ideas up so much. We would be able to use genes to predict cancers better and into smaller categories to be able to treat them better later on. We are able to then find better treatments and diagnose ailes better than before. Mathis, Bret. Personal Interview. 13 February 2013 Evaluation: Bret Mathis is a friend of mine from home and is working as a pharmacist. I thought he would be a great interview to have due to his experience up front with medicine. Gist: Bret has had experience up front with medicine and the types of health issues that can be cured using medicine. He deals with it daily and is able to give accurate information on how it is progressing from when he was in school a couple of years to even now working in his field. He will be able to see the medicines turn and grow and be able to heal more accurately. Medicare: Past Experience Can Guide Future Competitive Bidding for Medical Equipment and Supplies : Report to Congressional Committees. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2004. Internet resource. Evaluation: While we might tend to think more about the future of medicine itself we also need to consider medicare and its past and how we can make a better future for that. This source tells us about

the mistakes made before and what can be changed so that everyone gets the same fair treatments later on. Gist:People have always used medicare whenever they are unable to find other health insurance. I think that we should learn some about ways that have not worked before and focus on what may help us in the future in trying to figure out how to better treat these patients. These patients need as much time and care as anyone else and we should be able to learn the ways that work in treatment and those that do not. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health . Washington, D.C: National Academies Press, 2011. Print. Evaluation: This article I find very helpful to me because I am able to see nursing future. I plan to be a nurse in my own future and seeing what is to be expected of them in the medical world helps me understand what is going to be expected. Gist: Nursing is something I am very interested in doing in the future. I believe that nurses do a lot of the dirty work and do not get enough credit for it. I think that this article gives me a very good idea of what I might be doing in the future and how medicines are expected to chaneg from now or even when I was younger up until I retire. Many of the sources that I discussed above had a lot to do with each other and related in many different ways. They are all able to come together and make up different components of how to make medical advances and how they are advancing. They all tell a different way of how advances are being made or how we need to step up and make them. One of my sources strictly talks about the advances in Medicare which I think is an important subject because the health care we are using may or may not limit what a patient is able to be treated with. All of my sources agree very much on the future and moving forward of the medicine and treatments that are used, hopefully that one day we will be able to cure all illnesses. The biggest differences I would have to say are the way they each look at the progression and what they want to get done in the future. Some are very advanced and some are way behind but this could be because some are from early 2000’s and we have came a long ways since then. I agree with most of the authors viewpoints. I especially agree with my primary research, an

interview with Bret Mathis. I believe that he gave me the most accurate beliefs because he works in the field daily and is able to see progression made. He is able to work with medicine and interact with patients and see what medicines they are taking and which ones have worked best for them over the period of time they have been on them. I agree with his views because I think that overall he was the one who had the most up to date information and was able to tell me what he had learned just a couple of years ago in school and tell me about his experience so far in working. They all seem to agree except on the ways they have gone about finding out more medical research to advance with. The nursing book was talking about the treatments and ways that nurses will advance while Medicare was talking about how far it has come and how we can learn from our mistakes there to make Medicare better in the future. My interview with Bret he had also seen ways that had worked and had not worked with patients and how that even medicines now could be changed to better benefit the people using them. None of the sources I had found though seemed to counteract with one another or have confusion which I found to be very nice because I did not have to try to sort thru all of it.

Mackenzie Austin ENGL 1102 Ms. Mahaffey 18 March 2013 Where is Medicine Headed? INTRODUCTION In 1990, the Human Genome Project was brought into the United States when the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health joined together to learn and discover all of the ways that information could be stored in our genes ( ). The Human Genome Project have produced many ways of looking at genes in the human body and are still discovering more and more everyday. Our DNA contains the information that makes each person individual and different. Each person is born with different genes, no two people are exactly the same., from the color of their hair and eyes, to how short of

a temper they have or what type of music they like best. DNA are like puzzle pieces that fit perfectly together to make up each individual. Some of the more common genetic disorders are down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, even color blindness is a genetic disorder. As of now there are no ways to “cure” these disorders. Scientists are trying to mutate genes or to figure out what causes people to be born with the extra chromosome that causes these disorders. Single changes in genes cause more common diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. ( ) I think that we are able to use genetics to heal ourselves and to prevent certain illnesses. In recent years, cord blood banks have became more popular. This is to store the umbilical cord blood, which has been known to cure childhood leukemia or other diseases. I personally think it is remarkable how the blood from the cord that has supported a baby for nine months, can cure such harmful diseases. Just think about how little illnesses would be present in today’s world if humans were able to cure ourselves with our own bodies. These medical advances in curing are the types of advancements that are being made or are fixing to be made in today’s medical world. ( ) Another type of medicine advances that are being made would be health care, or Medicare. In Washington right now, the government is discussing ways to help health care. Some of the ways to help the health care situations would be to raise the age of Medicare eligibility, change the Medicare to a Premium Support Plan, or even to redesign the copays and deductibles. If we were to change the Medicare to a Premium Support Plan, Medicare beneficiaries would get their insurance through private insurance plans. One of the pros to the Premium Support Plan is having Medicare on a long term plan so that there is not a strain on the younger generations to keep up with its costs. The largest con of this plan though would simply be it is not the time, we need to figure out first how to reduce the strains on the younger generations yet still be able to afford Medicare for the people who are retired and need it. When redesigning the way the copays and deductibles work there would be different parts of the Medicare which would pay for different needs of the patients. This would work by having one part set aside for say outpatient and another set aside for inpatient care or hospice. A pro of this system would be

beneficiaries would have more financial protection caused by unexpected illness. On the downside though would be that many beneficiaries would end up paying more out of their pockets. ( ) There are a lot of ups and downs to Medicare. I think that there are a lot of issues with our healthcare system right now and a lot of ways they could be fixed but this is just a few. CONCLUSION
GENOME MAPPING AND MEDICARE: WHERE IS IT HEADED? By: Mackenzie Austin Genome Mapping In 1990, the Human Genome Project was brought into the United States when the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health joined together to learn and discover all of the ways that information could be stored in our genes (Genetics). Before the Human Genome Project it was very difficult to show that a mutated gene was the cause of a life threatening disease. In eight years since the start of the Human Genome Project geneticists had increased their list of hereditary diseases to over 100. Research now allows geneticists to deposit their test results of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, into databases that then allow them to see the sequences most common with a disease, this way testing is not needed for every person and they are able to tell certain characteristics. A human without any diseases have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. If a disease is present in someone the gene will be spelled differently than it is in someone without the gene. The Human Genome Project has produced many ways of looking at genes in the human body and is still discovering more and more everyday. Our DNA contains the information that makes each person an individual and different from others. Each person is born with different genes, no two people are exactly the same, including identical twins, from their hair and eye color to how short of a temper or what type of music they like. Human DNA are like puzzle pieces that fit perfectly together to make up each individual. DNA forms strands of long, thread-like genes. Genes are codes for proteins which send messages between other proteins, cells, form hair cells, and are used with your senses. G,C, A, T, make up the alphabet of the instructions used to form the proteins, which then form together to make long strands of DNA. If one DNA sequence is messed up a disease may occur in the human (Genetics). When a child is born with an extra set of chromosomes they are diagnosed with genetic disorders. Some of the most common genetic disorders are down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, even color blindness is considered a genetic disorder. As of now there are no ways to “cure” these disorders. Scientists are trying to mutate genes or figure out

what causes people to be born with the extra set of chromosomes that can cause these disorders. Single changes in genes cause more common diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes (Genetics). Not only can genetics heal people, they can also be used to prevent illness. In recent years cord blood banks, which are used to store blood from umbilical cords, have become popular. Remarkably, the blood from cords that a baby for nine months can cure harmful diseases including childhood leukemia. Just think about how little illnesses would be present in today’s world if humans were able to cure themselves with their own bodies. These medical advances in curing are the types of advancements that are being made or are fixing to be made in today’s medical world (Genetics). Medicare Another type of medical advances that are being made would be health care, or Medicare. In Washington right now, the government is discussing ways to help health care. Some of the ways to help health care situations would be to raise the age of Medicare to a Premium Support Plan, or even to redesign the copays and deductibles. If government officials were able to change the Medicare to a Premium Support Plan, Medicare beneficiaries would get their insurance through private insurance plans. One of the pros to the Premium Support Plan is having Medicare on a long term plan so that there is not a strain on younger generations to keep up with its costs. The largest con of this plan though would simply be that it is not the time, we need to figure out first how to reduce the strains on the younger generations yet still be able to afford Medicare for the people who are retired and need it. When redesigning the way the copays and deductibles work there would be different needs for the patients. This would work by having one part of the money set aside for say outpatient care and another set aside for inpatient care or for hospice. A pro of this type of system would be beneficiaries would have more financial protection caused by unexpected illness. On the downside though would be that many beneficiaries would end up paying more out of pocket money (AARP). Retirement is being taken away with the lack of social security funds, and the retirement has largely increased in the last decade. Ways to have a happier retirement when times might not be the best include, living below what you need even when you are in working years, getting rid of debt before retiring, save, save, save, have another back up besides social security, and reduce your stress. These are just a few ways that AARP wants to help people planning for Medicare in their future.

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