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School of Graduate Studies

TM
NIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

Research Report Writing


(The format of UTM thesis/project reports) http://www.sps.utm.my/ 13 January 2005 Dr. Hishamuddin Jamaluddin
Associate Professor Academic Manager (Research Programme) School of Graduate Studies, UTM Email: hishamj@fkm.utm.mt Webpage: http://www.fkm.utm.my/~hishamj

Dr.Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

August 2004

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THE BODY OF A RESEARCH REPORT 1. Introduction


a) b) c) d) e) Background of the research Review of related literature Statement of hypothesis or research question Limitations Definition of terms

2. Methodology
a) Procedures for collection and treatment of data

3. Presentation and Analysis of Data


a) b) Presentation of data Analysis of data

4. Conclusions and Recommendations


a) b) c)
Dr.Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

Summary Conclusions Recommendations


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Types (Definition) of Thesis


1. Undergraduate 2. Masters Degree
a) Taught Course b) Taught Course & Research c) Research : : : Masters Project Report Masters Dissertation Masters Thesis

Final Year Project Report

3. Engineering Doctorate (Eng.D) 4. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


a) Taught Course & Research b) Research
Dr.Hishamuddin Jamaluddin 3

: :

Ph.D. Dissertation Ph.D. Thesis


August 2004

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GUIDELINES ON THE WRITING OF A THESIS/RESEARCH REPORT


(The format of thesis or project reports)

I) General Guidelines II) Preparation and Binding of a Thesis III) Writing References IV) Writing Note or Footnote
Dr.Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

V) Electronic Thesis and Dissertation


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SECTION I: GENERAL GUIDELINES

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ARRANGEMENT ORDER OF A THESIS

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1.3

The status of thesis (FORM:


> needed Lamp. B

PSZ19:16(Pind.1/97)) Lamp. A

If the status is restricted or confidential, a letter of request is

reasons for the request status duration of the status requested (3 - 5 yrs)

Restricted Confidential

= =

can not be photocopied or taken away from the library can not be disclosed to the public (normally for security reasons)

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1.4 Declaration
> >

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Supervisors Declaration - Lamp. C1 Declaration on Cooperation with Outside Agencies and Certification of Examination Lamp. C2

1.5

Tittle Page Lamp.D


TITTLE OF THE THESIS NAME OF THE AUTHOR Statement of Award for the Thesis Lamp.E Name of the Faculty/School Universiti Teknologi Malaysia MONTH year (Final submission of the bound thesis)

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August 2004

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1.7 1.8 1.9

Declaration Dedication

Lamp. F - Lamp. G - Lamp. H

Acknowledgements

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1.10 Abstract Lamp. I & Lampiran J


Abstract (English) and Abstrak (in Malay) One paragraph, one page (about 300 words) May be single or 1.5 spacing Content:
# # # # General introduction/background: area of research Problem statement Methodology Finding/Conclusion

What is the difference ?

Abstract Synopsis Summary


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1.11 Table of Contents Lamp. K 1.12 List of Tables Lamp.L 1.13 List of Figures Lamp. M 1.14 List of Symbols and Abbreviation Lamp. N

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1.15 List of Appendices Lamp O


> A thesis may not have an appendix > Materials that are not directly discussed or referred to should be placed in the appendix

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1.16 Text

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> Text in a thesis contains chapters and each chapter is given a tittle > Begin each chapter with a new page > Chapter may be divided into small tittle and sub-tittle (each must be numbered) > Text is written in paragraphs: each paragraph describes one issue/subject > Maintain continuity between subsequent paragraphs > Text :
Introduction to the research Literature review Methodology of the research Results (data analysis) and discussion Conclusions and recommendations
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1.16.1 Reference in the Text


An information, idea or quote taken from any source must be referred to and indicate the reference in the text. Referencing System: i) Author and Year (Harvard) System

ii) Number System

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1.16.2
> >

Quotation in the Text Lamp. P

Quotation in the text must be written in a separate paragraph Quotation in a different language should be written in italic

1.16.3
> > >

Table in the Text Lamp. Q

Each table must be numbered in Arabic (1, 2 .) Caption (Tittle) of the table is placed above the table Tables are placed immediately after they are mentioned for the first time in the text

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1.16.4 Figures in the Text Lamp. R


> > > > > Illustrative materials, such as maps, charts, drawings, graphs, diagrams and photographs are classified as Figures Each Figure must be numbered in Arabic (1, 2 .) Caption (Tittle) of the Figure is placed below the Figure Figures are placed immediately after they are mentioned for the first time in the text Other illustrative materials (e.g. diskette or slides) are kept in a special pocket at the back of the thesis APPLICATION FOR PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE AIR PHOTO/MAPS OF MALAYSIA (Lamp. S)
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1.18 Appendix
> Appendix is not part of the Text It is an additional material which is not directly referred to and discussed in the Text > It is placed outside the Text (at the back of the thesis) to ensure smooth reading of the thesis

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SECTION II: GUIDELINES ON THE PREPARATION AND BINDING OF THESIS

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2.1 Paper and Size


> > Simile 80 gm high quality paper Size A4 (210 mm x 297 mm)

2.2 Margins
For all pages: > >
Dr.Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

4 cm on the left 2.5 cm on the right


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2.3 Numbering the Page


> top-right of the page - 1.25 cm from the top margin - last digit 2.5 cm from the right margin

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2.3 Numbering the Page


> Numbering Procedure:
- Preliminary section of the thesis is numbered in small Roman (i, ii, etc.) - The first page of the thesis is the Tittle Page (numbered as i) but not written - Text is numbered in Arabic (1, 2, etc.) - The first page of the text is numbered as 1 but not written - Number for the first page of each chapter is not written - The page separating each section of the thesis is not numbered (not counted in the paging of the text)

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2.4 Numbering the Chapters and Sub-Tittles in the Chapters


> Chapter number: CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2, etc.

> Numbering the sub-tittle (Arabic): e.g.: 2.1 Level two (sub-tittle) 2.1.1 Level-three (sub-sub-tittle) 2.1.1.1 Level-four (sub-sub-sub-tittle)

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2.5 Typing Lamp T


> Use computer, normal lettering (no fancy font) > Font size: 0.2 cm for CAPITAL LETTERS 0.15 cm for small letters e.g.: Microsoft Words 6.0: New Times Roman: font 12 or bigger. > Use 1.5 spacing > Type on one side of the paper > Typing Tittle of the Chapters: CAPITAL LETTERS at the middle of the paper between the left and right margins
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2.6
i) ii)

Distance and Format Lamp. U

Distance from the top margin to the chapter number is 2.5 cm Distance from the chapter tittle to the chapter number is 4 lines and distance from the chapter tittle to the first line of the text is 4 lines iii) Distance from a sub-tittle and the last line of the previous paragraph is 4 lines iv) Distance between a sub-tittle to its first line of the text is 2 lines v) Distance between two paragraphs is 2 lines vi) Begin the sub-tittle and its numbering from the left vii) Indent first line of the paragraph: 1.27 cm (0.5 in) from the left margin viii) Avoid widow and orphan situation ix) Distance between the last line and the Table or Figure is 2 lines

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2.9
# # #

Maximum Limits
Undergraduate Reports 100 pages Masters Project Report/Dissertation/ Thesis 250 pages Ph.D. Thesis/Dissertation 350 pages These limits include all figures, tables and appendices

Maximum pages for the main text:

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TEXT CAN BE JUSTIFIED

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2.10 Binding
> Spiral (temporary) binding for examination purposes a) Colour and Lettering of Thesis Cover > After examination: permanent binding with buckram cover > Cover lettering: golden, size 18 points (Microsoft Word 6.0)

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2.10 Binding
Thesis cover colour (Code):
i) ii) iii) Ph.D. Thesis Masters Thesis Undergraduate Final Year Project: a) Fac. Built Environment b) Fac. Civil Eng. c) Fac. Geoinfo. Sci. & Eng. d) Fac. Electrical Eng. e) Fac. Chemical & Natural Res. Eng. f) Fac. Mech. Eng. g) Fac. Education h) Fac. Manag. & Human Res. Dev. i) Fac. Science j) Fac. Comp. Sci. & Info. System Maroon Brown Purple Green Light Blue Yellow Black Red Sky Blue New Blue Light Green Red (567) (537) (551) (557) (548) (520) (585) (530) (562) (550) (531) (532)

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2.10 Binding (contd)


b) Front Cover - Lamp. V
# IN CAPITAL LETTERS: TITTLE OF THE THESIS NAME OF THE AUTHOR UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

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2.10 Binding (contd)


c) Back Bone Lamp. W
NAME OF THE AUTHOR NAME OF THE DEGREE (Short-Malay) Year UTM MUST BE WRITTEN IN BAHASA MALAYSIA
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Section III Guidelines on the Writing of References

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3.1 References Format
i) ii) Author and year (Harvard) System Number System

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3.2 Author and Year (Harvard) System 3.2.1 Writing Reference in the Text
Use surname of the author:
a) According to Paredis (1993) most of the various fields such as economic and engineering are categorised as constraints optimization problems. b) Therefore, research in the pursuit of solving problems related to constraints optimisation is now becoming more popular (Paredis, 1993)
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3.2.1
c)

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Writing Reference in the Text (contd)

Maintenance of scheduling has long been studied, an example of which is given in Kralj and Petrovic (1995)

d) Safaai et al. (1997) used this approach to solve the organisations staff scheduling requirements e) ILOG Solver by Puget and Albert (1994a) is an example of software using constraints programming language The use of an object in the artificial intelligent software development is very common (Puget and Albert, 1994b)

f)

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3.2.2

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List of References According to the Author and Year (Harvard) System Lamp. X

> Sort into alphabetical order > Use chronological order for the same author(s) > Use extra notation (a, b, c, ) for the same author(s) and year

3.2.3

Name of the author(s)


Surname followed by initials: Magee R.J. (for Robert John Magee )

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3.2.4 The Content and Format of a List of References


(i) Book Author (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first). Placed published: Publisher. Example: Theusen, G. J. and Fabrycky, W. J. (1984). Engineering Economy. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.
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(ii) Article in a book Author of the article (Year). Title of the article. In: Author of the book. Title of the book. Place published: Publisher. page. Example: Hussein,S.B., Jamaluddin,H., Mailah,M. and Zalzala,A.M.S. (2000). An Evolutionary Neural Network Controller for Intelligent Active Force Control. In: Parmee, I.C. ed. Evolutionary Design and Manufacturing. London: Springer-Verlag. 351 362.
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(iii) Journal

articles

Author (Year). Title of the article. Title of the Journal. Volume (Number): page. Example: Billings. S. A. (1980). Identification of Nonlinear Systems: A survey. Proc. IEE, Part D. 127(6): 272-284.

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(iv)

Conference articles

Author (Year). Title of the article. Name of the conference. Date of the conference. Place published: Publisher, page. Example: Sheta, A. F. and De Jong, K.(1996). Parameter Estimation of Nonlinear Systems in Noisy Environments Using Genetic Algorithms. Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control. September 15-18. Dearborn, Michigan: IEEE, 360-365.
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(v)

Thesis

Author (Year). Title of the thesis. Institution: Thesis award. Example: Adnan bin Hassan (2002). On-line Recognition of Developing Control Chart Patterns. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia: Ph.D. Thesis.

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3.2.5 Types of Reference Materials
i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) Book Article in book Article in journal Thesis Legal Standards Paten Business catalogue Measured and technical drawing Unpublished materials Personal communication Web site ?

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3.3 Number System 3.3.1 Writing References in the Text


Every reference is numbered in Arabic:
If the name of the author is mentioned in the text, put the reference number in bracket ( ) or [ ] or superscript immediately and close to the name or at the end of the sentence.

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3.3 Number System 3.3.1 Writing References in the Text Every reference is numbered in Arabic:
According to Paredis (1) most of the scheduling problems such as in the areas
of economic and engineering are categorised as constraints optimisation. According to Paredis most of the scheduling problems such as in the areas of economic and engineering are categorised as constraints optimisation [1]. According to Paredis1 most of the scheduling problems such as in the areas of economic and engineering are categorised as constraints optimisation.

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3.3.2

Guidelines on the Writing of List of References According to the Number System

Sort the list of references according to the order in which they are written first time in the text

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3.4

References From Internet


> In principle, internet is used as a tool to search for a reference. Therefore, the original reference must be quoted instead. > Web site as a reference material is questionable due to its impermanence ?

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Section IV Guidelines on Writing Note and Footnote

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4.1 General Guidelines
Note : additional information

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footnote, final note etc. is not allowed in a thesis of Science and Engineering A limited use of note and footnote is allowed in a thesis of humanity and social studies. It is used to clarify or to give an extra information about an item written in the text of the relevant page. Footnote is numbered in Arabic and follow an order 1, 2, 3.

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4.2

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Writing a Footnote
Name of the author is written in full Pause notation ( , ) or bracket ( ) is used to separate the name of the author, the tittle and the publisher Font size is 2 points smaller than the text font size

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4.2 Writing a Footnote:
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Name of the author, Tittle of the article. publication information, year, page

Example: 10 Mary Duncan Carter, Wallace John Bonk, and Rose Mary Magrill, Building Library Collection. Fourth edition (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1974), pg 61 - 66.

Writing a List of Reference: Name of the author (year). Tittle of the Article. publication information. page number. Example: Carter M.D., Bonk, W.J. and Magrill, R.M. (1974). Building Library Collection. 4th Edition. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press. Pg 61 - 66.
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Section V Electronic Thesis and Dissertation

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Definition

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Electronic Theses and Dissertations or ETD is a document which records results of research or scholarship of a graduate student. This document is prepared in a form that is accessible globally through the Internet. ETD is the same as original paper document which has been approved by a panel of examiners and the Senate.

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Contents of ETD

An ETD consisted of two (2) files, namely pre-access file and full text file.

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Pre-access File Pre-access file is a file that contains information about the author, the panel of examiners and a brief contents of the thesis. By reading this file, a reader will be able to assess the relevance of the document to the readers research interest. If a reader wishes to access the whole thesis, the reader should contact the librarian for the full text file

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Contents of pre-access file

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ALL preliminary pages and the first ten pages of Chapter 1

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Full Text File all contents of the thesis that has been approved by the Senate. includes all preliminary pages, main contents of the thesis and all appendices Writing style as the original bind hardcopy All these pages are saved into one (1) file.

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Preparation Guideline i. The electronic version must be the same as the final bound thesis as approved by the Senate; ii. Convert the thesis into PDF format. Use the latest version of Adobe Acrobat PDFMaker. Do not set Document Security. iii. All pages which contain signatures of student and supervisor must be scanned.

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iv. If the status of a thesis is CONFIDENTIAL or RESTRICTRED, electronic version is still required but must be properly indicated in the Thesis Status Declaration form. v. v. Two files must be generated. The first file is for the purpose of pre-access that will be make accessible to public. The second file contains the whole thesis which has been approved. The files are named as follows: <name><matrixno><p><tt><ss><c>.pdf

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vi. If the status of a thesis is CONFIDENTIAL or RESTRICTED, the pre-access file will contain only information that can be distributed. A full text file is still required but it is only for archive. vii. ETD must be submitted using high quality CD. Proper conversion according to this guideline must be verified by the student and witnessed by the supervisor before submitted to SPS. viii. Two (2) CDs with three (3) copies of bind thesis must be submitted to SPS together with ETD verification form. Example of ETD verification form is shown in Dr.Hishamuddin Jamaluddin August 2004 Appendix Z. 57

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FILE NAMING

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<name><matrixno><p><tt><ss><c>.pdf Code description <name> = students first name <matrixno> is the students matrix card number <p> is the university where the thesis was submitted D UTM, L other than UTM <tt> is the year approved <ss> is the thesis status SU confidential, TH limited, TT unlimited <c> is the file type P pre-access file T full texts file
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Example:

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Wan Ahmad Nazri bin Wan Abdullah, a masters student at FKM, UTM. His matrix card number is mm100123. The thesis is declared restricted. His thesis was approved in the year 2002.

Therefore: <name> = wanahmadnazri <matrixno> = mm100123 <p> = d <tt> = 02 <ss> = th The files are named as follows: wanahmadnazrimm100123d02thp.pdf (pre-access file) wanahmadnazrimm100123d02tht.pdf (full texts file)
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