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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

Technical Standard - TS-107

Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

Published: 7 December 2012

SA Power Networks

www.sapowernetworks.com.au

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is located on the Intranet/Internet

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

Please Note: Appendix F and Appendix G are not included in this document but can be found in a separate file on the SA Power Networks intranet site.

Revision Notice:

Date

Explanation

September 2010

Interim update to TS107. Appendix-B table: “WB Sub-Transmission Poles” on pages 25, 26, & 27 updated only.

3 September 2012

Company name change only. No other content of this Technical Standard has been altered. Any revision markings are from the September 2010 edition.

 

Amended Format and Enhanced Appendix-A only.

7 December 2012

No other content of this Technical Standard has been altered.

Changes to be followed as of September 2010 edition.

SA Power Networks:

SA Power Networks means Distribution Lessor Corporation subject to a two hundred year lease to the partnership of companies trading as SA Power Networks or SA Power Networks in its own right.

SA Power Networks, ABN 13 332 330 749, a partnership of:

Spark Infrastructure SA (No.1) Pty Ltd, ABN 54 091 142 380 Spark Infrastructure SA (No.2) Pty Ltd, ABN 19 091 143 038 Spark Infrastructure SA (No.3) Pty Ltd, ABN 50 091 142 362 each incorporated in Australia. CKI Utilities Development Limited, ABN 65 090 718 880 PAI Utilities Development Limited, ABN 82 090 718 951 each incorporated in The Bahamas. 1 Anzac Highway, Keswick, South Australia, 5035.

SA Power Networks Disclaimer:

1. The use of the information contained in this Technical Standard is at your sole risk.

2. The information in this Technical Standard is subject to change without notice.

3. SA Power Networks, its agents, instrumentalities, officers and employees:

a) Make no representations, express or implied, as to the accuracy of the information contained in this Technical Standard;

b) Accept no liability for any use of the said information or reliance placed on it; and

c) Make no representations, either expressed or implied, as to the suitability of the said information for

any particular purpose.

4. SA Power Networks and its agencies and instrumentalities do not endorse or in any respect warrant any third party products or services by virtue of any information, material or content referred to or included on, or linked from or to this Technical Standard.

SA Power Networks Copyright © 2012:

This publication is copyright. SA Power Networks reserves to itself all rights in such material. You must not reproduce any content of this Technical Standard by any process without first obtaining SA Power Networks permission, except as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968.

All rights reserved

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

Contents

1. PURPOSE

2. SCOPE

3. REFERENCES

4. DEFINITIONS

5. LAND CATEGORY

6.

POLES

6.1 General

6.2 Design Information

6.3 Pole Selection

6.4 Loading Parameters on Poles

6.5 Longitudinal Wind

6.6 Standard Location of Poles

7. FOOTINGS

7.1

7.2

7.3 Footing Types

7.4

7.5

7.6 Footing Orientation

General

Soil Types

Materials

Formers

8. CONDUCTORS

8.1 Definitions for Conductor Tensions

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5 Measurements of As-Built Condition

General

Tension

Side Swing

9. POLE TOP CONSTRUCTIONS

9.1 Pole top Assemblies

9.2 Line Hardware

9.3 Network Directive ND J4

9.4 Bushfire and Non-Bushfire Risk Areas

9.5 Corrosion Zones and High Pollution Zones

9.6 High Load Corridors

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TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

10. INSULATORS

10.1

10.2

10.3 Post (66kV only)

Pin (11kV)

10.4

Suspension

Tension

11. ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

11.1 Rated Voltage

11.2 Lightning Withstand Voltage

11.3

11.4 Electrical Clearances

I 2 t Rating

12. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

12.1 Ferro-resonance

Appendix A: Conductor Design Constants

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A-1: All Aluminium Conductors (AAC) - Metric

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A-2: All Aluminium Conductors (AAC) - Imperial

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A-3: All Aluminium Conductors (ACSR/GZ & ACSR/AZ) - Metric

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A-4: All Aluminium Conductors (ACSR/GZ & ACSR/AZ) - Imperial

18

A-5: All Galvanised Steel Conductors (SC/GZ) - Metric

19

A-6: All Galvanised Steel Conductors (SC/GZ) - Imperial

20

A-7: Hard Drawn Copper Conductors - Imperial

21

A-8: All Aluminium Clad Steel Conductors (SC/AC) - Metric & Imperial

22

A-9: All Aluminium Alloy Conductors - 1120 (AAAC/1120) Metric & 6201A (AAAC/6201) - Metric

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Appendix B: Pole Design Data

B-1: Distribution Poles Data B-2: Transformer Poles Data B-3: Distribution Poles Construction Details B-4: Transformer Details B-5: Transformer Details - Continued B-6: “WB” Sub-Transmission Poles (Design Strength & Supply Item Numbers) B-7: “WB” Sub-Transmission Poles (Design Strength & Supply Item Numbers) - Continued B-8: “WB” Sub-Transmission Poles (Design Strength & Supply Item Numbers) - Continued

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TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is located on the Intranet/Internet

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

APPENDIX C: Network Directive-ND P1 - Standard Location of Poles

1. PURPOSE

2. SCOPE

3. REFERENCES

4. DEFINITIONS

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

6. DIRECTIVE

APPENDIX D: Network Directive-ND J4-Construction of New Power Lines

1. PURPOSE

2. SCOPE

3. REFERENCES

4. DEFINITIONS

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

6. DIRECTIVE

APPENDIX E: Conductor Measurement Sheet

Refer to a Separate Document for following TS-107- Appendix F & G APPENDIX F: Atmospheric Corrosion Maps of South Australia APPENDIX G: DPTI’s Maps of High Load Corridor

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TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

1. PURPOSE

The purpose of this Technical Standard is to define the design requirements of new lines in the SA Power Networks overhead distribution network. The designs must meet all appropriate regulations, guidelines and standards.

2. SCOPE

This standard is applicable to overhead lines up to and including 66kV. All mechanical loads and strengths used in this technical standard are based on working stress, not ultimate stress.

The general design requirements are specified in the General Standard TS-103.

3. REFERENCES

Line design parameters for conductors and poles (structures) shall comply with the requirements of the following:

ESAA document “Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of Distribution and Transmission Lines” Code HB C(b) 1 – 1999

The Electricity (General) Regulations 2012

The Electricity (Vegetation Clearance) Regulations 1996

SA Distribution Code

4. DEFINITIONS

NBFRA (Non Bushfire Risk Area) - as defined in the Regulations associated with the Electricity Act 1996 ie “the part of the state shown in the maps in schedule 3 as the non-bushfire risk area excluding the areas shown in those maps as bushfire risk areas”.

Bare - Bare Conductor

ABC - Aerial Bundled Cable

CCT - Covered Conductor Thick (equivalent to SA Power Networks - Insulated Unscreened Conductor, IUC)

LV (Low Voltage Mains) - electricity distribution mains of voltage less than 1000 Volts

HV (High Voltage Mains) - electricity distribution & transmission mains of voltage greater than 1000 Volts.

5. LAND CATEGORY

In determining the wind loading on structures and cables, the appropriate land category shall be selected for the conditions when applying wind loads in calculations.

The categories are:

LC1

Valleys, ridges, escarpments and suburban coastal regions or any line where

Increased security is required.

LC2

Normal rural conditions adjacent to crops, scattered trees or undulating ground

and rural coastal regions.

LC3

Built up suburbs and townships, level wooded country.

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

Calculation of wind load is based on a nominal working wind speed of 41m/s. For the permissible method the wind load on overhead conductors, cables and poles are outlined in table 1:

All wind loads in Pa, working load

Table - 1

 

LAND CATEGORY

LC 1

LC 2

LC 3

Conductor/pole heights less than 11m

Poles (steel edge)

1500

1200

800

Poles (concrete face)

2000

1500

800

Conductor/pole heights more than 11m, but less than 20m

Poles (steel edge)

1500

1200

800

Poles (concrete face)

2200

1800

1300

 

Conductors (all)

650

500

400

For conductor heights less than 20m

Broad Band Cable

650

500

400

6.

Where span length exceeds 150m, a span reduction factor (SRF) shall be applied. This must be determined in accordance with HB C(b)1.

POLES

6.1 General

Poles shall be selected such that the static (permanent) and dynamic (wind) load combination is within safe limits.

The Stobie Pole consists of two rolled steel sections tapered from a closed spacing at the top to a maximum spacing just below the top of the footing and reducing to a minimum spacing at the bottom. The space between the sections is filled with concrete and the steel sections are tied together through concrete with bolts spaced at suitable intervals.

The steel sections are considered to carry the full bending and compressive loads. The concrete and bolts provide restraint against buckling of the steel section under compressive load. The bolts also serve to transmit shear loads from the steel to the concrete.

6.2 Design Information

Strength in the strong direction is limited to a maximum of 4.5 times the weak direction strength.

Wind forces shall be selected accordingly to the worst terrain category likely during the design life of the pole. If the wind load exceeds the weak direction strength by more than 50% then these poles shall be temporarily guyed if the conductors are not strung.

Steel sections used are current production structural shapes to AS3678 and the steel rolled to AS3679 - Grade 250 (Corresponding to 250Mpa ultimate yield stress).

Designations are:

Tapered Flange Beams (TFB)

Universal Beams (UB)

Universal Columns (UC)

Top of footing level is nominally 150mm below ground level. In built up areas and in underground work, the footing level may be 300mm below ground level.

6.3 Pole Selection

Poles are commonly described by the duty they perform. They can be termed line, angle, dead- end, brace and transformer poles. Each individual pole must be examined in relation to its duty to determine that a pole of adequate strength in strong and weak directions is used without the use of guy wires.

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

6.4 Loading Parameters on Poles

The design loadings reflected to the pole top in both strong and weak direction, should not exceed the strength of the pole in either direction.

In addition to the above, the combined loading (K) of the pole should not exceed the factor given

in the table below.

The combination loading (K) is expressed as:

Where,

K

=

+

fs = applied load in strong direction

Fs = pole’s design strength in strong direction

fw = applied load in weak direction

Fw = pole’s design strength in weak direction

K Factors shall be selected from the following table-2.

Table - 2

 

Condition

K Factor

Sustained load conditions, without wind

1.0

Maintenance or erection condition (allow 20% of maximum wind loadings)

1.0

Short Duration Load conditions

 

1. All poles

1 deg C with no wind

 
 

At 15 deg C plus wind

1.1

2. Line or angle pole

1.0

3. Dead-end pole (Temporary or permanent)

1.5

Where conductors provide constraint for a “dead-end” pole, ie at tee-off positions, the wind on the pole concrete face and ½ tee-off conductor span may be reduced by up to 50% (depending on the level of constraint) when calculating fw. Strengths of commonly used poles are listed in Appendix B.

6.5 Longitudinal Wind

The assessment of the pole strength for wind blowing along the line is a difficult assessment and generally beyond the scope of a basic design process. The significance of the along line wind will depend on the location of the pole, the size of the pole and along line stiffness of the poles and conductor. Many Stobie poles will not be self-supporting and will require the interaction with the conductor to be structurally adequate.

Experience gained on transmission lines built throughout South Australia over a 50 year period has demonstrated good performance for wind along the line using the standard methods of design provided the crossarms and extension pieces are capable of resisting some basic longitudinal loads generated by wind on the pole. However, this does not guarantee that the same level of security has been achieved in the transverse and longitudinal direction for all poles.

As a minimum, it is recommended that for poles over 12 m total length where the wind on the pole exceeds the capacity, a longitudinal load equivalent to 50% of the published SA Power Networks load (working) on the pole is a minimum design load to be resisted by any component connecting the pole to the conductors.

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is located on the Intranet/Internet

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

This load should be shared between each of the conductors. This along line load is not required to be applied to the pole to determine adequacy in the direction along the line. For poles where the conductor does not deviate, the pole capacity need only be checked against strength in the transverse (strong) direction provided the ratio of strong to weak strength does not exceed 4.5 to

1.

The designer should give individual consideration to every pole and make some assessment on the effect of wind in the direction along the line and how the pole is supported. Use of a previous successful standard pole/conductor/crossarm/span length arrangement is considered a reasonable assessment criterion for a basic line design. SA Power Networks may request that the design is given a more sophisticated assessment by an independent designer.

6.6 Standard Location of Poles

7.

Poles shall be located in positions which meet the requirements of Network Directive ND-P1 (re-printed in Appendix C)

FOOTINGS

7.1 General

Poles shall be selected such that they can withstand loads without the assistance of guy wires. The footing selection shall also be based on the correct assessment of the soil type.

7.2 Soil Types

Soils are grouped into three classes, A, B, and C as follows;

Class A

Gravel, compacted sand and rock soils not subject to large variations in volume with moisture content, which offer appreciable resistance to boring and which remain stable after boring.

Note: If the excavation is in rock, the hole should be just large enough to take the pole at the recommended depth, and no reinforcement is necessary in the concrete.

Class B

Soils subject to large variations in volume with changing moisture content. Soils which offer little cohesion, ie clay.

Class C

Low bearing soil. Requires caisson to support sides during excavation. Examples are swamps, saturated soil and drift sands.

7.3 Footing Types

The footing type shall be selected from the SA Power Networks Construction Manual (Drawing E- 1800 series). Alternative footing arrangements may be used if certified by an appropriately qualified civil engineer.

The types are:

1. Full strength

a. In Situ

b. Two Block

c. Cylindrical

d. Deep Type

2. Unformed Footings

The “Unformed” footing is acceptable where it can be certified by an appropriately qualified civil engineer that loads on the pole will not exceed the strength of the pole and cause

movement.

An unformed footing may be used when :

a. a pole is not to be loaded at more than 50% of its strong direction strength, or

b. exceed half the design factor, ie 1.5 for terminal pole equates to 0.75.

An unformed footing may NOT be used when for a terminal pole.

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

7.4 Materials

Concrete for footings shall have a minimum compressive strength of 12 MPa at 7 days and 20 MPa at 28 days.

A reinforcing cage must be used for all transmission poles.

7.5 Formers

Formers shall be used for cored footings. Formers are numbered on size order from 0 to U5, where 0 is the smallest. Refer to SA Power Networks WC series drawings for former dimensions.

7.6 Footing Orientation

8.

All pole footings shall be orientated correctly in relation to the centre line of the mains, and shall be positioned so that the pole will have the direction of the resultant forces acting along the strong direction of the pole.

CONDUCTORS

8.1 Definitions for Conductor Tensions

Sustained Load means the tension in the conductor and applied to the pole at a temperature which is the mean of the winter season. This load is considered to be applied with no wind.

Table - 3

 

Winter Mean Temperature (Sustained Loads)

ST

Zone 1 (South East)

9 deg C

T 9

Zone 2 (Central - Metro Areas)

11

deg C

T

11

Zone 3 (Northern)

14

deg C

T

14

Everyday Load means the tension in the conductor at a temperature which is the mean of the twelve month period. This Load is considered to be applied with no wind.

Table - 4

 

Yearly Mean Temperature (Everyday Loads)

EDT

Zone 1 (South East)

13

deg C

T

13

Zone 2 (Central - Metro Areas)

16

deg C

T

16

Zone 3 (Northern)

20

deg C

T

20

Short Duration Load means the tension in the conductor and applied to the pole in the most severe of the following conditions:

a. A conductor temperature equal to the average minimum winter temperature in still air conditions (+ 1 deg C), or

b. A conductor temperature of +15 deg C with the maximum wind pressure on the projected area of the conductor.

Minimum Sag occurs in the conductor at a temperature of 1 deg C in still air.

Maximum Sag occurs in the conductor at a temperature of:

50°C

-

11kV radial lines in rural areas only

80°C

-

11kV backbone feeder sections, 33kV in rural and metropolitan areas.

100°C -

all 66kV lines, unless otherwise specified.

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is located on the Intranet/Internet

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

8.2 General

Vibration induced into the line shall be limited by careful selection of a tension at which the conductor operates for the majority of its design life to ensure that the fatigue endurance limit of the conductor wires is not reached.

8.3 Tension

The design conductor tension under the everyday load condition is that the horizontal tension shall be no greater than the percentage of its calculated breaking load as derived from HB C(b)1.

Under the short duration load, the tangential tension in the conductor should not exceed 50% of its calculated breaking load.

It must be stressed that this is a maximum tension which should be used to avoid damage to the conductor over its expected service life. Lesser tensions may be used accordingly to pole capacities or other considerations. Design constants for bare conductors are contained in Appendix A

8.4 Side Swing

All designs must include a check to ensure that the conductor will not swing, under the influence of wind, outside the requirements of the Electricity Act and Regulations. This design shall be checked at the conditions stated in clause 2 and 3, eg for rural application in terrain category 2, - T50 + 500pa wind.

8.5 Measurements of As-Built Condition

SA Power Networks’ Compliance Inspector shall have at all reasonable times access to the work site, and shall have the power at all reasonable times, to inspect, examine, and test materials and workmanship of the works during its manufacture or installation.

Measurement Sheets are to be completed by the Contractor throughout the progress of the works. The Measurement Sheets shall be submitted with the Certificate of Practical Completion. Measurement Sheets shall be in accordance with Appendix E. Where tests are performed i.e. earth stake resistance readings, they shall be recorded in accordance with the Testing Standard (TS 105) and submitted with the Certificate of Practical Completion.

9. POLE TOP CONSTRUCTIONS

9.1 Pole top Assemblies

Pole top assemblies shall be selected and constructed in accordance with the relevant E-Drawings. Only arrangements including combination arrangements illustrated in the E-Drawings are acceptable.

9.2 Line Hardware

Table - 5

Item

11kV, LV

33kV

66kV

Minimum failing load

   

70kN per string as per AS1154

Conductor protection

None

None

Armour grip suspension style clamps to be used at all post and suspension positions.

Vibration dampers

As per HB C(b)1

Warning markers

Aircraft warning markers to be installed on river crossings and adjacent spans and as otherwise directed by AS3891.

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

9.3 Network Directive ND J4

All new power lines constructed must conform to the Network Directive, ND J4: ‘Construction of New Power Lines’. A copy of ND J4 can be found in Appendix D.

9.4 Bushfire and Non-Bushfire Risk Areas

The Network Directive, ND J4, specifies the construction requirements for Non-Bushfire Risk Areas (NBFRA), Bushfire Risk Areas (BFRA) and High Bushfire Risk Areas (HBFRA). The following table reiterates and expands on these requirements for 11 kV applications.

Table - 6

APPLICATION OF 11 kV OVERHEAD CONSTRUCTION TYPES *

 

NBFRA’s of Adelaide Metro Area

Rural Backbones & Feeder Ties

Rural Spurs

Standard Construction

Open wire

Open wire

Open wire

Alternative Construction

CCT (IUC)

CCT (IUC)

ABC or CCT (IUC)

* Table to be read in conjunction with Network Directive ND J4. Refer to Section 4 of this standard for definitions.

9.5 Corrosion Zones and High Pollution Zones

Standards for 11, 33 & 66 kV constructions in corrosion zone areas and high pollution areas may vary from those standards that generally apply. These variations of standards can be found throughout the E drawings, eg E1017, HV Insulators, in the Overhead Construction E drawing manual. Other construction drawings show alternatives for high corrosion/pollution.

The locations of the States’ corrosion zones are shown in Appendix F, the ‘Atmospheric Corrosion Map of South Australia’. Note, the areas defined as ‘Very Severe Zones’ are regarded as the SA Power Networks Corrosion Zone Areas.

The pollution zones of the State are the same as the corrosion zones, plus, lines constructed near the coast* and any area subject to heavy atmospheric contamination. This map is intended to illustrate general areas that may be prone to corrosion or pollutants. Where additional areas are known to be corrosive or have high pollution due to local conditions, appropriate construction standards must be specified. All designs of overhead constructions for corrosion or high pollution zones must specify the appropriate standards.

* The depth of the pollution zone from the coast varies (refer to the E drawings), but the minimum depth is 1 km.

9.6 High Load Corridors

10.

New overhead road crossings (including services) must be erected so as not to compromise existing clearances along high load corridors. Refer to the Transport SA maps in Appendix G for the location of ‘Principle Routes for Over dimensional Loads’ and contact the High Load Officer, George Hudson, for further details.

INSULATORS

In all cases, SA Power Networks Standard insulators are to be used.

10.1 Suspension

Table - 7

Type

Cap and pin Standard profile

Minimum strength

refer line hardware

Corona Ring

No

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

10.2 Tension

Table - 8

 

Type

Cap

and pin Standard profile

Minimum strength

refer line hardware

Corona Ring

No

10.3 Post (66kV only)

 

Table - 9

 

Type

Line

Post AS Clamp top,

Material

Aerodynamic profile

Minimum leakage distance

1780mm (2080mm for large conductors & heavy spans)

Minimum strength

12.5kN vertical mount, 19kN horizontal mount

Corona Ring

No

10.4 Pin (11kV)

 

Table - 10

 

Type

Line

Pin,

Material

Aerodynamic profile

Minimum leakage distance

mm

(mm for large conductors & heavy spans)

Minimum strength

kN vertical mount, kN horizontal mount

11. ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

11.1 Rated Voltage

The maximum continuous rated voltage shall be:

Table - 11

11kV lines

11kV + 10 % = 12kV

33kV lines

33kV + 10 % = 36kV

66kV lines

66kV + 10% = 72.6kV

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is located on the Intranet/Internet

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

11.2 Lightning Withstand Voltage

The lightning impulse withstands voltage under full wave dry conditions using the standard 1.2/50 microsecond impulse shall be:

Table - 12

11kV lines

95kV

33kV lines

170kV

66kV lines

325kV

The wave shape for switching impulses is 250/2500 microseconds.

11.3 I 2 t Rating

Table - 13

11kV lines

Max 20kA for 1 second (400M A2.sec),

Average 8kA for 1 second (64M A2.sec)

33kV lines

Maximum fault current at the maximum backup protection clearing times, will be advised, when required

66kV lines

Maximum fault current at the maximum backup protection clearing times will be advised, when required.

11.4 Electrical Clearances

The following minimum clearances shall be maintained to supporting structures, under all conditions:

Table - 14

Clearance

11kV

33kV

66kV

Phase to Earth

255mm

350mm

690mm

Phase to Phase

255mm

400mm

800mm

The minimum clearances defined in the Electricity (General) Regulations 1997 and associated schedules shall be maintained, under all conditions.

12. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

12.1 Ferro-resonance

On 33kV be aware of the potential for Ferro-resonance and consider the availability of appropriate three phase switching devices to isolate transformers that are supplied by short lengths of 33kV cable.

TS-107

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Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

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TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

Appendix A: Conductor Design Constants

A-1: All Aluminium Conductors (AAC) - Metric

 

ALL ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR (AAC)

 
 

(Metric)

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

 

11

12

13

14

Equiv.

Alum

Area

Stranding

and

Wire

UTS

Resistance at 20 °C

Total

Diameter

Cross Sectional

Area

(A)

Mass

Conductor Load

N/m

 

Modulus

of Elasticity

(E)

Coefficient

of

Expansion

Constants

Diameter

 

(a)

mm

2

mm

kN

Ohms/km

mm

mm

2

kg/m

W

W

100

W

500

 

kPa

per °C x 10

-6

C1

C2

41.10

7/2.75

6.72

0.6890

8.3

41.6

0.113

1.099

1.377

4.293

59

x 10 6

23.0

319.7

56.4

76.30

7/3.75

11.80

0.3700

11.3

77.3

0.211

2.080

2.367

6.021

59

x 10 6

23.0

436.0

104.9

122.00

7/4.75

18.90

0.2320

14.3

124.0

0.339

3.335

3.629

7.890

59

x 10 6

23.0

552.1

168.3

180.00

19/3.50

28.70

0.1570

17.5

182.8

0.503

4.925

5.226

10.041

56

x 10 6

23.0

650.9

233.9

301.00

37/3.25

48.20

0.0940

22.8

307.0

0.845

8.289

8.594

14.055

56

x 10 6

23.0

846.2

395.3

495.00

61/3.25

75.20

0.0572

29.3

506.1

1.400

18.247

18.480

23.400

54

x 10 6

23.0

1067.0

628.5

Notes:

1. Conductor Loads in Column 9 and 10 are the result of conductor load + wind load on projected area. W 100 for 100 pascal wind and W 500 for 500 pascal wind

2. Values taken from AS1531 1991, Table 3.2

3. C1 =

and C2 =

; are conductor constants used in temperature change calculations.

Where, E = Final modulus of Elasticity, A = Cross sectional area and a = Coefficient of Linear Expansion

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is lo

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

A-2: All Aluminium Conductors (AAC) - Imperial

 

ALL ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR (AAC)

 
 

(Imperial)

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Equiv

Copper

Equiv

Alum

Stranding

and Wire

UTS

Resistance at 20 °C

Total

Diameter

Cross

Sectional

Mass

Conductor Load

N/m

 

Constants

Area

Area

Diameter

Area (A)

   

in 2

mm

2

inches

kN

Ohms/km

mm

mm

2

kg/m

W

W

100

W

500

C1

C2

.014

14.34

7/.064

2.62

1.9685

4.8

14.5

.0399

0.391

0.625

2.470

191.9

20.3

.024

26.50

7/.087

4.76

1.0641

6.6

26.8

.0733

0.719

0.977

3.392

261.5

37.6

.037

38.75

7/.1052

6.63

0.7273

8.0

39.1

.1073

1.052

1.323

4.149

314.3

54.8

.07

72.60

7/.144

11.79

0.3882

11.0

73.5

.2008

1.970

2.254

5.829

430.3

102.9

.117

121.13

7/.186

18.86

0.2329

14.2

122.7

.3362

3.298

3.589

7.817

566.8

171.2

.183

191.21

37/.102

31.58

0.1487

18.1

195.0

.5385

5.253

5.557

10.495

691.8

263.4

.28

292.24

37/.1261

45.59

0.0970

22.4

297.7

.8271

8.114

8.418

13.842

852.1

402.7

.497

518.71

37/.168

77.18

0.0546

29.9

529.2

1.4624

14.346

14.653

20.709

1136.8

714.2

.57

595.25

61/.1403

91.63

0.0477

32.0

605.8

1.6855

16.535

16.843

23.037

1206.4

807.1

Notes:

1. Conductor Loads in Column 10 and 11 are the result of conductor load + wind load on projected area. W 100 for 100 pascal wind and W 500 for 500 pascal wind

2. Design figures in column 4 to 13 are direct conversions for values shown on SA Power Networks drawing P-30750

3. C1 =

and C2 =

; are conductor constants used in temperature change calculations.

Where, E = Final modulus of Elasticity, A = Cross sectional area and a = Coefficient of Linear Expansion

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is lo

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

A-3: All Aluminium Conductors (ACSR/GZ & ACSR/AZ) - Metric

 

ALL ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR - GALVANISED STEEL REINFORCED (ACSR/GZ) ALL ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR - ALUMINISED STEEL REINFORCED (ACSR/AZ)

 
 

(Metric)

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

 

12

13

14

15

Equiv

Stranding and

UTS

Resistance at 20 °C

Total

Cross

Mass

Conductor Load

 

Modulus

Coefficient

Constants

Alum

Wire Diameter

Diameter

Sectional

 

N/m

   

of

of Expansion

Area

mm

 

Area (A)

 

Elasticity

(a)

 

(E)

mm

2

Alum

Steel

kN

Ohms/km

mm

mm

2

kg/m

W

W

100

W

500

 

kPa

per °C x 10 -6

C1

 

C2

35.2

6/2.75

1 /2.75

12.5

.8050

8.25

41.6

0.144

1.413

1.636

4.360

79

x 10 6

19.3

370.0

 

63.4

65.2

6/3.75

1/3.75

21.5

.4330

11.3

77.3

0.268

2.629

2.861

6.232

79

x 10 6

19.3

504.4

 

117.9

105.0

6/4.75

7/1.6

31.9

.2710

14.3

120.4

0.404

3.963

4.213

8.175

76

x 10 6

19.9

617.5

 

182.1

144.0

30/2.5

7/2.5

61.6

.1960

17.5

181.6

0.675

6.622

6.849

10.973

80

x 10 6

18.4

778.0

 

267.3

244.0

30/3.25

7/3.25

104.0

.1160

22.75

306.9

1.141

11.193

11.421

15.959

80

x 10 6

18.4

1011.4

 

451.8

373.0

54/3.0

7/3.0

115.0

.0758

27.0

431.2

1.440

14.126

14.381

19.540

68

x 10 6

19.9

1105.3

 

583.5

508.0

54/3.5

7/3.5

153.0

.0557

31.5

586.9

1.960

19.228

19.484

24.855

68

x 10 6

19.9

1289.5

 

794.2

Notes:

 

1. Conductor Loads in Column 10 and 11 are the result of conductor load + wind load on projected area. W 100 for 100 pascal wind and W 500 for 500 pascal wind

2. Values taken from AS1220, Part 1 and 2. 1973 except for conductor marked *

3. C1 =

and C2 =

; are conductor constants used in temperature change calculations.

Where, E = Final modulus of Elasticity, A = Cross sectional area and a = Coefficient of Linear Expansion

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is lo

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

A-4: All Aluminium Conductors (ACSR/GZ & ACSR/AZ) - Imperial

 

ALL ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR - GALVANISED STEEL REINFORCED (ACSR/GZ) ALL ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR - ALUMINISED STEEL REINFORCED (ACSR/AZ)

 
 

(Imperial)

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Equiv

Copper

Equiv

Alum

Stranding and Wire Diameter

UTS

Resistanc e at 20 °C

Total

Diameter

Cross

Sectional

Mass

Conductor Load

N/m

 

Constants

Area

Area

mm

Area

 

in 2

mm

2

Alum

Steel

kN

Ohms/km

mm

mm

2

kg/m

W

W

100

W

500

C1

C2

.03

33.14

6/.1052

1/.1052

11.83

0.5808

8.0

39.4

0.1355

1.330

1.553

4.228

360.7

59.1

.06

62.10

6/.144

1/.144

21.62

0.4538

11.0

7305

0.2544

2.496

2.726

6.027

493.5

111.3

.10

103.60

6/.186

7/.062

32.47

0.2723

14.2

118.7

0.3957

3.882

4.132

8.080

596.9

167.3

.125

128.58

30/.093

7/.093

56.58

0.2198

16.5

161.9

0.6040

5.925

6.151

10.172

723.4

221.8

.15

154.67

30/.102

7/.102

67.48

0.1826

18.1

194.8

0.7275

7.136

7.362

11.539

793.0

266.6

.225

236.40

30/1261

7/.1261

101.51

0.1203

22.4

298.1

1.1113

10.902

11.130

15.640

980.7

408.3

.35

372.35

54/.118

7/.118

116.54

0.0760

27.0

430.3

1.4430

14.156

14.410

19.553

1098.8

560.5

.5

516.92

54/.139

7/.139

159.78

0.0548

31.8

596.8

2.0009

19.629

19.884

25.253

1292.9

777.5

Notes:

1. Conductor Loads in Column 11 and 12 are the result of conductor load + wind load on projected area. W 100 for 100 pascal wind and W 500 for 500 pascal wind

2. Design figures in column 5 to 14 are direct conversions for values shown on SA Power Networks drawing P-30750

3. C1 =

and C2 =

; are conductor constants used in temperature change calculations.

Where, E = Final modulus of Elasticity, A = Cross sectional area and a = Coefficient of Linear Expansion

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is lo

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

A-5: All Galvanised Steel Conductors (SC/GZ) - Metric

 

GALVANISED STEEL CONDUCTOR (SC/GZ)

 
 

(Metric)

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

 

11

12

13

14

               

Modulus

   

Equiv

Alum

Area

Stranding

and Wire

Diameter

UTS

Resistance at 20 °C

Total

Diameter

Cross

Sectional

Area (A)

Mass

Conductor Load

N/m

 

of

Elasticity

(E)

Coefficient of

Expansion

(a)

Constants

mm

2

mm

kN

Ohms/km

mm

mm

2

kg/m

W

W

100

W

500

kPa

per °C x 10 -6

C1

C2

2.95

3/2.75

22.2

9.7

5.93

17.8

0.139

1.364

1.487

3.264

193

x 10 6

11.5

378.6

39.6

2.32

7/1.60

17.5

12.4

4.80

14.1

0.113

1.109

1.208

2.644

193

x 10 6

11.5

336.4

31.2

6.26

19/1.60

47.6

4.5

8.00

38.2

0.309

3.031

3.135

5.019

193

x 10 6

11.5

554.2

84.8

9.79

19/2.00

74.4

2.9

10.00

59.7

0.483

4.738

4.842

6.888

193

x 10 6

11.5

692.8

132.5

Notes:

1. Conductor Loads in Column 9 and 10 are the result of conductor load + wind load on projected area.

W 100 for 100 pascal wind and W 500 for 500 pascal wind

2. Values taken from AS1220, Part 1 1973 except for conductor marked *

3. C1 =

and C2 =

; are conductor constants used in temperature change calculations.

Where, E = Final modulus of Elasticity, A = Cross sectional area and a = Coefficient of Linear Expansion

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is lo

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

A-6: All Galvanised Steel Conductors (SC/GZ) - Imperial

 

GALVANISED STEEL CONDUCTOR (SC/GZ)

 
 

(Imperial)

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Equiv

Copper

Equiv

Alum

Stranding

and Wire

UTS

Resistance at 20 °C

Total

Diameter

Cross

Sectional

Mass

Conductor Load

N/m

 

Constants

Area

Area

Diameter

Area (A)

in 2

mm

2

inches

kN

Ohms/km

mm

mm

2

kg/m

W

W

100

W

500

C1

C2

0.0026

2.72

3/.104

20.51

10.31

5.7

16.5

0.1294

1.270

1.392

3.115

362.8

36.4

0.0090

9.57

7/.128

72.51

3.28

10.0

58.1

0.4880

4.787

4.885

6.834

685.5

128.1

0.0096

10.10

19/.080

76.95

3.06

10.2

61.6

0.4954

4.860

4.965

7.030

689.7

131.3

Notes:

1. Conductor Loads in Column 10 and 11 are the result of conductor load + wind load on projected area. W 100 for 100 pascal wind and W 500 for 500 pascal wind

2. Design figures in column 4 to 13 are direct conversions for values shown on SA Power Networks drawing P-30750

3. C1 =

and C2 =

; are conductor constants used in temperature change calculations.

Where, E = Final modulus of Elasticity, A = Cross sectional area and a = Coefficient of Linear Expansion

TS-107

Authorised: Jehad Ali

Date of Publication: 07 December 2012

WARNING: Printed copies of this document ARE DEEMED UNCONTROLLED. The most up-to-date version is lo

TS-107 - Overhead Line Design Standard for Transmission & Distribution Systems

A-7: Hard Drawn Copper Conductors - Imperial

 

HARD DRAWN COPPER CONDUCTOR

 
 

(Imperial)

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Equiv

Copper

Equiv

Alum

Stranding

and Wire

UTS

Resistance at 20 °C

Total

Diameter

Cross

Sectional

Mass

 

Conductor Load

N/m

 

Constants

Area

Area

Diameter

Area (A)

in 2

mm

2

inches

kN

Ohms/km

mm

mm

2

kg/m

W

W

100

W

500

C1

C2

.0125

 

7/.048

3.44

2.1905

3.7

8.1

0.0759

0.744

0.829

1.974

199.9

16.3

.0225

 

7/.064

6.09

1.2314

4.9

14.4

0.1302

1.277

1.366

2.753

265.7

28.7

.035

 

7/.080

9.43

0.7874

6.1

22.5

0.2054

2.014

2.104

3.653

333.2

45.0

.06

 

7/.104

15.75

0.4659

7.9

38.1

0.3438

3.371

3.462

5.202

434.5

76.1

.10

 

7/.136

26.11

0.2723

10.4

64.7

0.5878

5.765

5.857

7.751

567.3

130.5

.15

 

19/.101

39.59

0.1783

12.8

97.0

0.8899

8.727