Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

HOMEWORK NO: 1 CSE402: Artificial Intelligence Name :-Sahil Bakshi Roll no :-RB1804B31 Reg No:10804734 Part-A

1. Discuss and compare between deduction, reasoning and problem solving approaches. Ans:- Deduction, reasoning, problem solving Human beings solve most of their problems using fast, intuitive judgments rather than the conscious, step-by-step deduction that early AI research was able to model.AI has made some progress at imitating this kind of "sub-symbolic" problem solving: embodied agent approaches emphasize the importance of sensor motor skills to higher reasoning; neural net research attempts to simulate the structures inside human and animal brains that give rise to this skill. Comparison between deduction, reasoning and problem solving approaches: Deductive reasoning starts from general observations rather than specific ones. It is also called the "top-down" approach, and is the opposite of inductive reasoning. For example: We know that all men are mortal. We also know that John is a man. Therefore, by deductive reasoning, we can say that John is mortal. Problem solving is a process in which we perceive and resolve a gap between a present situation and a desired goal, with the path to the goal blocked by known or unknown obstacles. In general, the situation is one not previously encountered, or where at least a specific solution from past experiences is not known. In contrast, decision making is a selection process where one of two or more possible solutions is chosen to reach a desired goal. The steps in both problem solving and decision making are quite similar. In fact, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably Q2.-The Turing test has often been incorrectly interpreted as being a test of whether or not a person could distinguish between responses from a computer and responses from a person. Make 5 questions which a machine is expected to fail in Turing Test. Justify your answer? Ans. Five questions on which the computer(AI machine) will fail Turing test:1) How many hair do you have? Machine based on calculation will try to find out,but human will respond it cannot be done.

2) What will you do your own will die? Human will respond in anger or emotional way but a machine will not be able to answer. 3) What is your aim in life? Human will answer but a machine cannot since it not made for any aim,it just do what it is made for. 4) Which song do you like? Human according to his choices ,for machine how it will respond mean it has no sense or emotions. 5) Whom do you love? Here, machine will definitely will fail since it is matter of human emotions 6) which dress do you like? Human according to his choices ,for machine how it will respond mean it has no sense or emotions. 7 ) which dish you like? Human according to his choices ,for machine how it will respond mean it has no sense or emotions. 8)which movie do you like? Human according to his choices ,for machine how it will respond mean it has no sense or emotions. 9)which book you like? Human according to his choices ,for machine how it will respond mean it has no sense or emotions. 10)which mobile you like? It depends on the human nature and the features of the laptop and choice. 3. Discuss state space representation for the following problem a. Suppose we have a tower which has five disks of different sizes on it, with largest at the bottom and smallest on the top. We have two more towers. How will these disks be placed on third disk in the same order in which they were on the first? Do take care that only one disk can be moved at a time. Ans

a b c

d e

b c d e

c d e

c d e

a b

d e a d e a d e

a b

b c

e d e

c a b c a b c

e b e a b e a b e

a d a d

b c

c d

b e b e

c d c d

e a b

a b c d b c d

c d c d

a e a e

a b a b

c d

e c e c e b c e a b c e

d a d a d

b d a

c e

a b d

b d

a e

b c

a e

a d b c e

a b c

d e

b c

e d e

a b

d e

a b

c d e

c d b a e

b c d e a b c d e

31 steps are performed


b. Four persons are standing on one end of the river from which two are children and one is mother and another one is father. Both of children having weigh of 40kg and mother is of 60kg and father is of 80kg.A boat is available in which can take a maximum of 100kg weight How will they arrange to cross the river? Ans: It as follows: Let sides to be considered as Side A and Side B and now we will manage them to cross the river. Consider father-80, mother-60,children-40,40 Side A Null 40,40 40 40,80 80 40,60,80 60,80 40,40,60,80 Side B 40,40,60,80 60,80 40,60,80 40,60 40,40,60 40 40,40 Null

PART B Specify rules and termination condition to solve the following problems for a production system: 4. Given a 5-liter jug filled with water and an empty 2-liter jug, how can one obtain precisely 1-liter in the 2-liter jug? Water may either be discarded or poured from one jug to another; however, no more than the initial 5 liters is available. Ans:

Solution of the problem Water in 5- liter jug Water in 2-liter jug 5 0 5 2 5 0 3 2 3 0 1 2 1 0 0 1

5. Provide the definition of the word heuristic. In what ways can heuristic be useful in search? Name three ways in which you use heuristic in your everyday life? Ans. Heuristicis an experience-based technique that help in problem solving, learning and discovery. A heuristic method is used to come to a solution that is hoped to be close to the best possible answer, or 'optimal solution'.Heuristics are considered as educated guesses, intuitive judgments or simply common sense. Following are the ways in which it is useful: 1) 2) 3) 4) in finding the efficient answer. in solving tough problems. in solving problems that take an infinite time. it always finds the good solution.

Three ways in which we use heuristic in our daily life: 1) Hostel to 8th block - Generate and test When we head towards our classes in 8th block from the hostel we will find on the way different paths to reach there such as hurdles in between or choosing between the paths. 2) Pizza delivery - Steepest hill climbing During the delivery of the pizza,the pizza delivery boy can select different ways to reach to the destiny making the best efforts and thinking of the timings. 3) Selecting good students in a course Means-ends analysis In this, if a teacher wants to find top ten student from section A B C then we know that depending on CGPA C section is not good so excluded then B is not also so good So,excluded then we will move to section A and find top ten student from that class.

6. Given the following graph: 1 4

5 7

a. Find the path from node 1 to node 7 using depth first search. Ans:path from 1 to 7:1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 5 -> 7 b. Find the path from node 1 to node 7 using breadth first search. Ans:path from 1 to 7:1 ->2 -> 3 -> 4 -> 5 -> 7