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# The Open University of Sri Lanka Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Diploma in Technology Level 3 ECX 3231

1 - Electrical Circuits and Measurements Academic year 2012/2013 Assignment 3 To be submitted on or before 6th April 2013 Q1) a) Explain the Loading effect of measurement instruments. b) Calculate the power dissipated by the voltmeter and by resister in Fig.1 when, R = 250 and R = 2 M. Assume that the voltmeter sensitivity is 10 k/V.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

c) An ammeter shown in Fig.2 has a full-scale deflection of 100 mA and a resistance of 50. The ammeter is used to measure the current in a load of resistance 500 when the supply voltage is 10 V. Calculate, i. The ammeter reading expected (neglecting is resistance). ii. Actual current in the circuit. iii. Power dissipated in the ammeter. iv. Power dissipated in the load. b) The current flowing through a resister of 5 k 0.4% is measured as 2.5 mA with an accuracy of measurement of 0.5%. Determine the nominal value of the voltage across the resister and its accuracy. Q2) It is required to design a simple digital voltage measuring instrument that indicates the voltage through displaying devices. The voltage range to be measured is between 0V to 200 V and at least it should indicate measured values in step of 100 mV. a) Draw a functional block diagram of such a digital voltmeter. b) Select appropriate Analog to Digital Convertor (ADC) for the above application which used to measure the random voltage samples. Briefly explain the operation of the selected ADC by using a sketch and with proper justification of your selection. c) Determine the number of bits required to achieve the required resolution of the measuring device.

Q3) a) The a.c. bridge shown in Fig.3 is used to measure the capacitance Cx and resistance Rx. Rx R4 Cx E G R2 R3 C2 Fig. 3 i. ii. Derive the balance equations of the bridge. Given R3 = R4, C2 = 0.2 F, R2 = 2.5 k and the frequency of the supply is 1 kHz, determine the values of Rx and Cx at balance.

Q4) a) Briefly explain curl, grad and div operators and their physical significance. b) What is the physical significance of Cube Gauss Theorem? Explain using an example. c) The state of excitation which is established in space by presence of electric charges can be represented by two vectors, Electric vector (E) and Magnetic induction (B). In addition, for material media, it is necessary to introduce the vectors, Electric current density (J), Electric displacement (D) and Magnetic vector (H). These five vectors are related by the following two equations.

Where c is the speed of light in space and dot (.) denotes differentiation with respect to time. From the equation, derive following equation.

All symbols/notations carry their conventional meaning. [Hint: Use the relation, A A curl B]