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ACCOUNTAILITY AND RELIABILITY: Accountability and Reliability of Power Generated, Transmitted and Distributed plays an important role in the field of power system while supplying power to all corner consumers. Accountability: Measuring of Power at all levels to know the quantum of Energy Generated, Energy transmitted and Energy consumed. Magnitude of energy at Generation and Transmission level is high and cannot be measured directly. Hence instrument Transformers like Current Transformers and Potential Transformers are used. These transformers will transform the primary high value Current and Voltage to a given ratio with low value on secondary. The secondary of Current Transformers will be 1 or 5Amps rating and of Potential transformer is 110Volts between phases.

Current Transformers: Current transformers are used for both metering and protection purposes. Depending up on the type of protections adopted, number of secondary cores required will be decided. All 11kV feeders requires 2 core CTS for metering and protection.

All 11kV Banks, 66kV lines and 110kV lines and 110/3311kV and 66/11kV power transformers requires 3 core CTs for metering, Primary protection (Distance protection for lines and Differential protection for Transformers) and Backup protection( Over Current and Earth fault protection) 220kV class CTs are of 5 cores for metering , Primary protection( Distance protection), Back up protection(Over Current and Earth fault protection) and 2 cores for Bus bar protection( Main and Check zones) 400kV class CTs are of 5 cores for metering , Primary protection(Main-I Distance protection), Back up protection(Main-II Distance protection only) and 2 cores for Bus bar protection( Main and Check zones) Accuracy Class of each secondary core differs depending upon the type of protection. If the type of protection is same then the class of such cores will be same. While ordering the accuracy class, VA burden, Instrument safety factor(ISF- for metering core), Accuracy limiting factor(ALF for backup protection core) and knee point voltage, Excitation current and Rct for primary protection cores will be specified. Metering core : Accuracy class(0.2s,0.2 or 0.5), BurdenVA and ISF Backup protection core ; Accuracy class ( 5P10, 5P15, 5P20), Burden and ALF Primary protection : Accuracy class (PS), Knee point voltage, Magnetizing current Io and Rct.

5P10 means when the current is 10 times the rated secondary current, the accuracy should not exceed 5% at rated burden. Similarly 5P15 and 5P20. Here P stands for protection. PS protection for special purpose. Knee point voltage (VK) Means the voltage at which the CT core saturates. It is defined as the voltage at which for an additional increase in 10% voltage, there will be 50% increase in magnetizing current. CTs can be selected as single ratio or multi ratio CTs. For single ration CTs there are only two secondary terminals for each core ( S1 and S2). If Multi ratio CTs are required, there will be required number of tapings in each secondary core and they will be marked as S1-S2-S3S4,etc. To identify the core, each secondary terminal will be marked as 1S1-1S2, 2S1-2S2, 3S1-3S2,etc.

Voltage Transformers: These transformers will be having 3 secondary cores, one for metering and the other two for protection, and the secondary voltage between any phase and neutral will be 63.5Volts and between two phases will be 110Volts. Accuracy class of metering protection core 3P, 5P. core will 0.2, 0.5 and

Each phase secondary terminal will be marked as a and n. To identify the core, the secondary terminals will be marked as 1a-1n, 2a-2n, 3a-3n.

Reliability: Some times EHT/HT Lines/ Transformers are disturbed due to faults. This will cause disturbance in power system and there is a chance of system collapse if the fault is not cleared. Hence proper protection system is a must. Protection system: Protective relaying system detects such abnormal conditions in the system and gives trip command to the respective breakers to isolate faulty lines. The relays need inputs to detect such abnormalities in the system. The main inputs to the relays are Current, Current and Voltage, Voltage, Breaker and Isolator status, input of all transformer mounted protection devices.

These inputs are to be given as per the requirements. Discrimination of protection: The protection scheme to be adopted is to be such that, it has to isolate only the faulty section.

R 4

R 3

R 2

R 1


For a fault at point F, far from the source, the relays R1-R2R3-R4 at stations D-C-B-A will detect the fault and such tripping will cause unnecessary tripping of healthy sections also and interruptions to supply points in between the stations. For such type of fault, only R1 relay has to trip and isolate the fault. Such tripping can be avoided by discriminating the fault location by Time Current

By Time: Each relay will be having a provision to adopt time delay. Hence time delay of t1 , t2, t3 and t4 seconds will be adopted to relays R1, R2, R3 and R4 such that t1<t2<t3<t4. By doing so, for a fault at F, even though all the relays sense the fault, only R1 relay will trip after set time delay and isolate the fault. For such fault, if R1 fails to detect the fault, R2 will clear the fault. Hence the relays R2, R3 and R4 are backup relays for R1. By Current: Similar to time delay grading, current setting I1-I2-I3-I4 can be adopted for all the relays R1-R2-R3-R4 such that I1<I2<I3<I4. Depending upon the load, different CT ratio can be selected for each station. If the CTs are of same

ratio at two or more stations, current gradation can be obtained by adopting different current settings. Combined Time and current discrimination can be adopted to have more reliability on the system. If the number of lines between the stations is more and there is a closed loop ring, the above scheme cannot be adopted since for one line fault, both the lines may also trip. Hence for such schemes directional feature will be included and Directional Over current and Earth fault relays are used. Directional relays: In the relay there will be one Voltage coil and One current coil and a disc in between the two coil cores. Due to current /Voltag in the respective coils, flux will be induced in each coil. The flux induced in the voltage coil will lag the voltage by 90deg and the flux induced in current coil will be in phase with current Due to these two fluxes Torque(T) will be produced and is proportional to these two fluxes and sin of the angle between them. But both these fluxes are proportional to voltage and current respectively. Hence the Torque (T) produced is proportional to VI and cosine of angle between them. So the Directional relays are proportional to the power in the circuit.

V 1

I Torque T 12 sin

Type of protections adopted: Type of protection Main-I 400kV Line bay 220kV Line bay 110kV Line bay 66kV Line bay 400/220KV Tfr.Bay 220/110-66kV Tfr.bay Distance Distance Distance Distance Differenti al Differenti al Main-II Distance OCR and EFR OCR and EFR OCR and EFR OCR and EFR OCR and EFR

Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Name of the bay

7 8 9 10

66/11kV Tfr.bay 11kV Bank 11kV Feeders 400kV and 220kV Bus

Differenti al -----


Bus bar and LBB protection

All the relays used in protection system are assigned with some number for identification and the details are given below. Relay NO.
50 50N 51 51N 67 67N 21 87 64R 99 50Z

Relay details
Instantaneous over current relay Instantaneous Earth fault relay Time delay Over current relay Time delay Earth fault relay Directional Over current relay Directional Earth Fault relay Distance relay Differential relay Restricted Earth fault relay Over Flux relay Local Breaker Backup relay

47T 86.186,286,etc. 96,196,296,etc. 95,195,295,etc 80A,80B 27 29 and 59 30A,30B,30C,etc

Pole discrepancy trip relay High speed trip relays used for protection circuit High speed trip relays used for LBB & Bus bar protection. Trip circuit supervision relays DC supervision relays Voltage supervision relays Under voltage and Over voltage relays Aux. relays for Transformer mounted protection devices

Over Current and Earth Fault protection:

R-S1 Y-S1



B-S1 S2star

For all the lines two Over current and one earth fault relays are used. Since any R-Y and Y-B phase, phase to phase faults are taken care by the over current relays provided in R and B phases. But for transformers, to monitor the load of the transformer, over current is also provided in Y phase.

Distance Relays: Distance relays operates on the principal of Impedance Z, which is V/I. During faults, when the fault impedance falls below the set value the relay will operate and sends trip command to trip the Circuit breaker and isolate the faulty section. Both current and voltage inputs are to be given to the relay. The voltage input is used as restraining torque and Current input as operating torque. The impedance/KM of a particular conductor used is fixed. Hence the impedance is proportional to the distance and the relay is called as Distance relay
R 1 R 2 B F

R 3

R 4

The recommended settings to be adopted for R1 relay is explained below. In any distance relay, there are 3 to 4 zones (Z1-Z2-Z3-Z4) and 3 zones (Z1-Z2-Z3) are set in forward direction and one zone in reverse direction. Each zone is set distances/impedance. to cover the following

Zone-1 : 80% of the protected line length (AB) with a time delay of 0 seconds. Zone-2: 100% of the protected line length (AB) + 50% of the next shortest line length (BC) with a time delay of 400ms.

Zone-3: 100% of the protected line length (AB) +100% of the next longest line length (BD) with a time delay of 800ms. Zone-4: 20% of Zone-3 setting with time delay of 1000ms. The other additional features in the latest distance relays are Carrier aid protection. Broken conductor detection Fuse failure protection Switch On To Fault Auto recluse scheme.

Carrier aid protection: For a two or more source system and for a fault at 90% of the line (AB), both the relays R1 and R2 will detect the fault and since the fault is in zone-1 for R2 relay, the relay will trip the breaker at B without any time delay. But the relay R1 will trip the breaker at A only after the set time delay of 400ms as the fault is in Zone-2 for R1 relay. This delay may damage the equipments. To avoid such happenings, as soon as relay R2 operates, it will send carried aid protection signal to the other end relay R1 through power line communication system and relay R1 will trip the breaker immediately when it receives the communication from the other end relay. With this arrangement both the end relays will trip instantaneously for any fault in the line. Broken Conductor detection:

When there is jump cut either in the station or in the line and the jump is hanging in the air, the relay will not sense this as a fault. Under this condition, the negative sequence current will exist and the ratio of negative sequence current to positive sequence current will be used to detect such type of fault and such detections can be programmed either for trip or as an annunciation as per the requirement. Fuse Failure Protection: Voltage input given to relay will be through fuses and the distance relay will sense non availability of the voltage due to blowout of any fuse as fuse failure detection and the relay will block trip command. Such detection is programmed for annunciation scheme. But during such fuse failure period, if there is a fault in the line, the relay should not block the trip command. During such conditions the relay will act as current operated relay and sends trip command. When fuse is replaced the relay will again switch on as impedance relay.
Fuse Failure detection I_phase I_Neutra lpase Fuse Failure Block Trip



De-block Trip

Switch On To Fault: This protection will enable only during switching on the breaker during fault. During maintenance work of the breaker /CTs /Isolators, normal practice is to close the earth isolator as a safety precaution. For some reason if this earth switch is not opened after maintenance work and the breaker is closed, the relay will sense such fault as SOTF and fault detection is

done on over current principle. Breaker close command status is taken as one of the binary input to the relay. Auto-Reclose scheme: Majority of the line faults are single phase to ground faults and transient in nature and they will be cleared after one fault tripping. In receiving stations, such tripping will cause unwarranted interruptions since minimum time of about 30 minutes is required to ascertain the fault and to normalize the supply. Hence AR scheme is adopted. In this scheme the relay will send single phase trip signal only to the faulty phase limb of the breaker using single phase trip logic scheme and again sends the close command after set reclaim and dead time. This process will take time delay of 100ms only and during such operation the particular phase of the other lines will take care of the load. If the AR scheme is not successful during such operations, the relay will block the AR scheme by giving 3 phase trip command to the breaker. For any fault at point F, the relays R3 and R1will detect the fault. The relay R3 will clear the fault first because the fault is in Zone-1 for relay R3 and the fault is in Zone-2 for relay R1. If relay R3 fails to clear the fault, relay R1 will clear the fault after time delay of 400ms. Hence R1 relay is backup relay for R3 and R4 relays.

Line Differential Protection:



When the distance between the two stations is short or power cable is used between the stations, Line differential protection is most suitable than distance protection since the impedance of the line will be very less and the zone desired values may be less than the minimum set value available in the distance relay. This protection works on current comparison method. In this protection communication between the two ends relays will be established through inter face units (IFU) and optical fiber cable. The analog current input to the respective relays will be converted to digital values also and the other end relay will get this feed back as second source of current and will compare both the currents. When the current exceeds the set value, the relay will operate and trips the respective breakers and at the same time the relay will send trip command to the other end relay through optical fiber cable.

Differential protection of Transformer:

CTR- 200/1A P1 P2 S1 S2

20MVA , 66/11kV, Dyn11 175/1050Amps

CTR;1200/1A P2 B S2 P1 S1 A


8 7


Differential protection scheme works on circulating current principle. Here both the HV side and LV side currents are given to the relay with 180 deg. phase shift between the two currents and the magnitude of both the currents should be same. With this arrangement, for any fault at point A, fault current is fed to the fault through both HV and LV side CTs and the resultant current in the relay will be zero. For any fault at B, the fault current will fed by HV CTs only and there will be resultant current in the differential relay and the relay will operate and trips both HV and LV breakers. From the above, it is clear that differential protection zone is restricted and it will operate only for the faults between HV and LT CTs. That means for any fault/failure of CTs, LAs, HV/LV windings, potheads on LV side, power cable and 11kV PTs. For 20MVA, 66/11kV, Dyn11 power transformer, full load current on HV side and LV side will be 175Amps and 1050Amps. Respectively.With HV and LV side CTs of 200/1A

and 1200/1A, the secondary current entering the relay will be 175/200= 0.875Amps and 1050/1200= 0.875Amps. Now the magnitude of the current entering the relay is equal. For 20MVA, Dyn11 transformer, the phase shift between HV and LV side current will be 30 deg and if these currents are given to the relay in opposite direction, there will be phase angle difference of 150 deg between the two currents and not 180deg. Due to this arrangement always there will be resultant current ( operating current) in the relay and the magnitude of the resultant current will be Ip(0.875) + Is(0.875)*cos150/2 = 0.453Amps. Due to this phase shift the relay will operate under healthy loaded condition also. So while adopting differential protection both magnitude of the current and the phase shift between primary and secondary windings of the transformer are to be matched. This can be achieved by using interposing current transformers of required ratio and connection. For above transformer with Dyn11 connection, ICTs used on HV side are to be of 0.875/1A ratio with star-star connection. ICTs used on LV side are to be of ratio 0.875/0.577 with Star-delta connection. For numerical differential relays, ICTs are not required. Only the parameters of Power Transformer like Capacity, Voltage class, Vector group, HV and LV rated current, CT ratio adopted and the current multiplying factor( if required) are to be programmed. Restricted Earth Fault protection:

R-S1 Y-S1 BS1 S2star


NCT Sec. 64 R

This is an additional protection given to the transformer and works on the circulating current principle method. This type of protection can be given only on star side of the transformer by providing a CT of the same ratio which is used for the main side. This relay will not operate for any external fault and will operate for any internal fault of the transformer /failure of pot head or power cable. Hence its zone of operation is also restricted and will operate only for faults in LV winding, 11kV pot heads, power cable and 11kV PTs and CTs. Bus Bar Protection: All the protections provided in any Transformer/Line bay will look towards Transformer or the line. For any fault in the Bus Bar arrangement, the fault is to be cleared by the source only. There will be delay in clearing the fault from source end and damage to major equipments may occur. To avoid this Bus bar protection will be provided for 400kV and 220kV buses.

Line Bay Line Bay Line Bay


Line Bay Tfr. Bay Line Bay Tfr. Bay LineBa y-1

The Bus Bar Protection relay (BBPR) works on circulating current principle. In this relay common CT ratio of all the bay CTs will be selected and wired to the relays such that the currents entering the relay from all incoming bays will be in one direction and the currents entering the relay from all out going relays will be in opposite direction. With this arrangement the resultant operating current will be zero under normal loaded condition and also during external faults. If any bus fault occurs, there will be an operating current in the relay and relay sends trip signal to all the bays connected to that Bus. Local Breaker Backup Protection (LBB): This protection is adopted in 400kV and 220kV station on both HV and LV sides. For this scheme one LBB relay (50Z) and timer (50ZT) are used. 50Z relay will be having 3 current coils and there are connected in series with the backup core over current circuit. When there is a fault the protective relay will sense the fault and sends trip command to master trip relay (86). At the same time 50Z relay also sense the fault and the NO contact this relay closes. As soon as the master trip relay sends the trip command, the breaker of the particular bay has to trip.

Protn.Rela y +v e 86 8 6
50 ZT

50 Z



The timer used in LBB protection (50ZT) will get the signal through NO contact of LBB relay (50Z) and master trip relay (86) which are connected in series. If the faulty bay breaker trip, current in 50Z will be zero and its NO contact will open. Suppose for some reason if the faulty bay breaker fails to trip, NO contact of both 50Z and 86 will be in closed condition and this circuit will send signal to LBB protection timer (50ZT). The timer stats operating and after the set time delay 50ZT relay will send signal to all the bays bus bar protection/LBB master trip relays (96) , which in turn trips all the breakers connected to that Bus.

Relay Co-Ordination:

To provide proper backup protection following points are to be considered. Current transformer ratio used. Fault level of the station at each voltage class. Current setting adopted. Time delay to be adopted as a co-ordination part.

Type of relay characteristics used 3 seconds curve or 1.3 seconds curve. Normally 3 seconds curve is used. The relay operating time depends up on the current setting, time setting and the magnitude of the fault current. Relay will operate in time which is multiple of time delay setting and the Time Setting Multiplier (TSM) required for a particular magnitude of fault current from 3 seconds curve. If for fault secondary current of multiplier from the curve will be 4.3. 5Amps, the time

For a time delay of 0.1 seconds and for a secondary fault current of 5 Amps, the relay operating time will be 4.3*0.1 seconds (0.43seconds).

Table shows the approximate Time Setting Multiplier (TSM) to be considered for K(PSM) times Is (secondary fault current)as per 3 seconds curve.

K (PSM) Upto 2

TSM 10.0

K (PSM) 4.314.50

TSM 4.40

K (PSM) 10.01 11.00

TSM 2.90

2.01- 2.30 2.31- 2.50 2.51 2.80 2.81- 3.00 3.01- 3.30 3.31- 3.50 3.51- 3.80 3.81- 4.00 4.01- 4.30

8.30 7.60 6.70 6.20 5.70 5.50 5.30 5.00 4.70

4.515.00 5.01-5.30 5.31-5.50 5.51-5.80 5.81-6.00 6.01-7.00 7.01-8.00 8.01-9.00 9.01-10.0

4.30 4.20 4.00 3.90 3.80 3.60 3.30 3.20 3.00

11.01-12.00 12.01 -13.00 13.01-14.00 14.01- 15.00 15.01-16.00 16.01- 17.00 17.01- 20.00 20.01-30.00 30.01-50.00

2.80 2.70 2.60 2.50 2.40 2.30 2.20 2.10 2.00

Calculation of Fault Level in MVA or Fault current in KiloAmps.: Study was conducted and the fault level of stations was calculated. While calculating the fault level at different voltage class, one of the station fault MVA has to be taken as reference and in the following example the 220kV Bus fault MVA of 400/220kV station is assumed as 5000MVA The length of the lines and the impedance of the line/KM is to be considered.


220kV Bus 400/220kV Stn.

220kV Bus

T2 220/66kV Stn.

66kV Bus

T3 66kV Bus 66/11kV Stn.

11kV Bus

Details for calculating fault level: AB 220kV Line of 20KM with Z of 0.5ohms/KM. T1&T2 220/66kV 100MVA power transformers with

Percentage impedance of 10% each. A 220kV Bus of 400/220kV station with fault MVA of 5000MVA B 220kV bus of 220/66kV station. C 66kV bus of 220/66kV station. CD 66kV line of 5KM with Z of 0.34 ohms/KM D 66kV bus of 66/11kV station. T3 66/11kV , 20MVA power percentage impedance of 10% E - 11kV bus of 66/11kV station. transformer with

Fault level calculation details: Fault MVA at A = 5000MVA Source impedance Zs= kV2/FMVA = 220*220/5000= 9.68ohms Line impedance ZL = 0.5*20 = 10.0 ohms Total impedance upto 220kV bus of 220/66kV station Z = 9.68+10.0= 19.68









= kV2/Z = 220*200/19.68= 2459MVA

Each Transformer impedance on HV side =Z* kV2/MVA

= (10/100) *220*220/100 = 48.4 ohms Total impedance of 2 transformers in parallel = 48.4/2 = 24.2 ohms. 220kV side total impedance including transformer impedance = 19.68+24.2= 43.88 ohms.

Impedance referred to 66kV side = ZLV


HVKV2 = 43.88 (66*66/220*220) = 3.95 ohms. Fault MVA on 66kV side = 66*66/3.95 = 1100MVA 66kV Line impedance = 0.34*5 = 1.7 ohms. Total impedance at 66kV Bus of 66/11kV station = 3.95 + 1.7 = 5.65ohms 66kV side fault MVA at D = 66*66/5.65 = 771MVA T3 HV side impedance = (10/100)*66*66/20 = 21.78 ohms

Total HV impedance ZHV = 5.65 + 21.78 = 27.43 ohms Impedance referred to 11kV 27.43(11*11/66*66) = 0.76 ohms. side=Z LV =

11kV fault MVA = 11*11/0.76 = 159MVA Fault current on 11kV side = (159)/(1.732*11) = 8.4KA

Relay Co-ordination for 66/11kV station and for sending end line at 220/66kV station: Assume fault MVA on 66kV side of a transformer as 600MVA. Calculated 11kV fault MVA for 20MVA transformer with 10% impedance is 150MVA. CT ratio of incoming line at both ends 400/1Amps HV CT ratio of 20MVA transformer 200/1Amps LV side CT ratio of 20MVA transformer 11kV out going feeder CT ratio 1200/1Amps 400/1Amps

Current plug setting of the panels will be 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 and 1.0 respectively. Time setting selected for the above will be 0.2, 0.15, 0.125, 0.1 and 0.05 respectively. Calculations: For 11kV fault:

For 11kV fault of 150MVA, fault current IF = 7.88KA

11kV fault current referred to 66kV = 7.88/6 = 1.32kA Fault current referred to secondary of each bay and the time multiplier as per the above table will be

Bay Sending end line Incoming line HV side of Transformer 11kV Bank 11kV feeder


IF Sec. 1.32A 1.32A 6.6A 6.6A 19.7

Time value setting >10 >10 3.6 3.6 2.2 0.2 0.15 0.125 0.10 0.05


Relay operating time No trip No trip 450 ms 360ms 110ms

400/1 400/1 200/1 1200/1 400/1

For 66kV fault: Fault current = 600/(1.732*66) = 5.25KA Fault current referred to secondary of each bay and the time multiplier as per the above table will be Bay Sending end line Incoming line CTR IF Sec. 13.2A 13.2A PSM value 2.6 2.6 Time setting 0.2 0.15 Relay operating time 520ms 390ms

400/1 400/1

HV side of Transformer






By comparing the above statement, following relay setting can be recommended. In such recommendations the down stream breakers have to clear the fault first.

Bay Sending end line Incoming line HV side of Transformer 11kV Bank 11kV Feeder

Time setting 0.15 0.125 0.10 0.075 0.05

Relay operating time 66kV fault 390ms 390ms 250ms ----11kV fault No trip No trip 360ms 270ms 110ms

Parallel operation of Transformers. Following conditions are to be satisfied to parallel two transformers to cater full capacity of the transformers. Same steps of voltages. Same impedance. Same vector group.

If the above conditions are satisfied and if two transformers of same capacity are paralleled, each transformer will cater 50% of the total capacity.

Two transformers of same capacity or different capacity with same step voltage and vector group and different impedance can also be paralleled.

Case-1 Assume: T-1 150MVA with 10% impedance T-2 100MVA with 8% impedance When two transformers of different capacity are paralleled, one of the transformer capacity is to be considered as base MVA. Assume base MVA as 100MVA % impedance of T1 at 100MVA base = 10*100/150 = 6.7% T16.7%

T2- 8%

Total MVA = 250 MVA Load sharing by T-1 = 250*8/(6.7+8.0) = 136 MVA

Load sharing by T-2 = 250*6.7/(6.7+8.0) = 114 MVA Since T-2 capacity is 100MVA, the load on T-2 is to be limited to 100MVA only To avoid overloading of T-2, the load that can be taken on T-1 has to be limited to 119MVA (136*100/114) only.

The total load can be catered without over loading T-2 will be 219MVA only, which is equal to 88% of the total capacity. As per the loading factor, the relay settings are to be adopted for over current relays.

Case-2 Assume: T-1 100MVA with 12% impedance T-2 100MVA with 9% impedance

T1- 12%

T2- 9% Total MVA = 200 MVA Load sharing by T-1 = 200*9/12+9.0) = 86 MVA

Load sharing by T-2 = 200*12/(12+9.0) = 114 MVA Since T-2 capacity is 100MVA, the load on T-2 is to be limited to 75MVA only To avoid overloading of T-2, the load that can be taken on T-1 has to be limited to 75MVA (86*100/114) only. The total load can be catered without over loading T-2 will be 175MVA only, which is equal to 87.5% of the total capacity.

As per the loading factor, the relay settings are to be adopted for over current relays.

Hence if two transformers of different impedances are paralleled, the transformer having lower impedance will take more load and the transformer with higher impedance less load and the full load cannot be taken.

Pre-commissioning test of Station equipments: Power generation will be normally at 11kV or 22kV and it has to be stepped up to 400/220/110/66kV for transmission depending up on the quantum of energy generated. The sub-station used for such step up scheme is called generating Sub-station. When such transmission is received at 400/220kV stations, it will be again stepped down to 110/66kV levels, These stations are called grid substations. The 110/66/33kV stations, which further step down the voltage level to 11kV for distribution are called Master Unit Sub-Stations (MUSS). In all the stations following major equipments are used. 1. Current transformers 3. Breakers 2. Voltage transformers 4. Isolators

5. Control and Relay panels 6. Battery charger 7. Battery set 8. Power Transformers

All the above equipments will be tested for their satisfactory operation before putting them to service. Current transformers:

IR Test: This test will be conducted to know the insulation resistance of the CT and it will be measured between HV to Ground, HV to LV, LV to Ground and between secondary cores. Polarity test: This test will be conducted to ascertain correctness of the markings of primary and secondary terminals. This test is conducted by applying low DC voltage across P1(+) and P2(-) terminals and measuring the deflection in secondary circuit by connecting a galvanometer in secondary circuit with

CT P1 S1 S2 P2


S1 to positive and S2 to negative. If the markings are correct, the galvanometer will deflect in positive direction when DC voltage is applied. Ratio Test: This test will be conducted to know the ratio of the CT using a current Booster. 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the CT primary current will be injected to the primary and the secondary current of all the cores are measured. Voltage transformers:

IR Test: This test will be conducted to know the insulation resistance of the CT and it will be measured between HV to Ground, HV to LV, LV to Ground and between secondary cores. Polarity test: This test will be conducted similar to that of CT. But here the voltage will be applied to the secondary winding and deflection observed in primary winding. Ratio Test: This test will be conducted to know the ratio of the Potential Transformer. 3 phase 440V supply will be applied to the primary and the secondary voltage of all the cores are measured. Breakers: Following tests are conducted on breaker IR test Contact Resistance Breaker opening, closing and close-open timings. Operation of breaker for local close/open, Remote close/open, protection trip, indications and annunciation. Isolators: Isolators are tested for Contact Resistance, Close and Open operations and for indications. Control and Relay Panel: Following tests/checks are conducted. Checking of Annunciation and Control scheme.

Checking of all the relays in the panel for their satisfactory operation after adopting the recommended settings. Checking of protection scheme. Battery Charger: Normally DC system of the station will be 220V DC in 400kV and 220kV stations and 110V DC system in 110kV and below class sub-stations. Battery charger will be having two modes of charging system. One is the Float charger used to cater the station DC load continuously and to float charge the Battery set at low current and the other mode is the Boost charging mode to Boost charge the Battery set at higher current and voltage when the Battery set is discharged. The charger is to be checked for its satisfactory in both Float and Boost charging modes. Battery Set: Battery set will store the DC energy and when the AC auxiliary supply to Battery charger fails, the DC Load of the station will be catered by the Battery Set Battery set are to be initially charged as per the recommendations of the supplier. At least minimum of 72 hours is required for two charge and discharge cycles of the Battery set. The charging and discharging is to be carried out as per the supplier recommendation only to have longer life of the Battery set. Monitoring of Station DC system: DC system of the station is very important and it has to be monitored for its healthiness continuously. Why continuous monitoring of the DC system is required?

DC system is floating and it is not earthed as AC system. If for some reason if positive or negative of the DC supply is grounded, for any fault on the feeder, neutral potential will raise and may damage the relays. Hence continuous monitoring of DC system for any earth is to be monitored.
DC +ve 110V DC 220V DC Earth B 2


110V DC DC -ve

The circuit for monitoring the DC system is shown above and it will be fixed on any one of the panel in the control room. In this circuit two bulbs of same capacity are connected in series with centre point earthed. Under healthy condition, DC voltage available across each bulb B1 and B2 will be 110V and both the bulbs will glow with same brightness. If there is DC + ve ground, the voltage across bulb B1 will be zero and the full 220V DC will appear across bulb B2. With this condition, bulb B1 will not glow and bulb B2 will glow with full brightness. Under such condition necessary action is to be taken on top priority to rectify the DC ground problem. Power Transformer: Following PC tests will be conducted before commissioning the transformer. 1. Ratio test 4. Vector group Ratio Test : 2. Short circuit test 3. MBT 4. HV test

5. Magnetizing current

This test is also called open circuit test and it is conducted by applying 3 phase 440V AC supply to primary and measuring the induced voltage between phase-phase and phase to neutral on the secondary side. The test is to be conducted for all the taps and the results are to be recorded. Short circuit Test: In this test 3 phase 440V AC supply will be applied to HV side of the transformer by shorting all the 3 phase terminals of the LV side. Applied voltage, Current on HV side and neutral current are measured at all the taps and recorded. Magnetic Balance Test: This test will be conducted to know the distribution of the flux in the core. In this test Single phase AC supply will be applied to two phases of a delta connection transformer or between phase and neutral of a star connection transformer and induced voltage on the other two phases will be measured. The applied voltage should be equal to sum of the two induced voltages measured. This test is to be done on both HV and LV windings separately. Vector Group Test: To confirm the correctness of the vector group mentioned on the transformer name plate this test will be conducted. In this test normally three conditions will be verified by drawing both HV and LV vectors separately. Magnitude of two voltages will be equal Sum of two magnitudes will be equal to the third magnitude. One voltage magnitude is less/greater than the other. Consider Dyn11 power transformer:

HV Vector

LV Vector

Combined Vector


n n y B b

Y b

This test is conducted by applying 3 phase supply to the primary terminals by shorting both HV and LV terminals of R phase (R-r) and measuring the voltage across the terminals as shown in the table.

Voltage applied RY YB BR

Voltage measured r-y r-b Y-y Y-b r-n n-y B-y B-b

From the combined vector group it is clear that, Voltage between r-y and r-b is equal. Similarly voltage between Y-y and Y-b is equal. Sum of the Voltages between r-n and n-y is equal to RY voltage. Voltage B-y is greater than B-b or B-b is less than B-y.

If the above conditions are satisfied from the voltage measurement, the test confirms with the name plate vector group. Magnetizing Current test: This test will be conducted to known the single phase/ 3 phase no load magnetizing current drawn by the transformer and in this test Sph/3Ph supply will be applied to HV/LV terminals and the magnetizing current drawn will be recorded. High Voltage Excitation Test: In the test rated Ph-Ph or Ph-N voltage will be applied, phase wise, on LV side of the transformer. After applying the rated voltage current drawn by the transformer will be noted down and the normal humming noise of the transformer will be observed. Normal humming sound indicates the healthiness of the transformer.
Transformer Under test Vector Distribution Transformer

Switc h

n y B Y y
HV Side


2ph 440V suppl y

LV side

Water Rheostat

Rated voltage will be applied between y-n gradually through a water rheostat used on 440V supply side and the applied voltage will be measured by connecting a PT across y-n. When the rated voltage is applied on LV side, primary terminal of the corresponding phase will raise to its rated voltage. In this test first the centre phase will be tested and then the other two phases. Station Earthing:

Earthing of all the station equipments through earth electrodes and then connecting to the station earth mat is very very important. Proper earthing ensures clearing of all faults by the protective relaying system without damaging the equipments. Also with proper earthing, the Touch potential and Step potential will be within the limit. Touch potential is the voltage between the raised hand fingers touching a faulted structure and the feet of a person standing on the floor of the sub station. Step potential means the voltage between the feet of a person standing on the floor of the sub station with 0.5mtrs spacing between the two feet during the flow of fault current through the earthing system.

CASE STUDIES: Failure of 11kV PT at Adugodi: During 2000 11kV PT of Bank-1 had failed. New PT was brought and commissioned by RT staff. Immediately within 2 minutes the PT failed. Suspecting manufacture defect, new PT was given by the supplier and again after commissioning, the

PT failed. Detail study was carried out to know the cause for the failure and it was found that in the 11kV panel Y phase earthed as a protection part and neutral of the PT supplied was earthed. With this arrangement, when PT was put to service Y phase getting shorted resulting in failure of PT. Hence before commissioning any equipment, care to be taken to know the existing scheme also.

Damage of control cables during station:

11KV Feeder faults at C

For any 11kV feeder fault, control cables in control room were damaging. The experts were of the opinion that earthing is to be improved. But the station was only 2 to 3 years old. Hence with field experience the 11kV panel and control panels earth points were inter connected using a guy wire. Since then there is no such incident in the station from last 5 years. Hence it is concluded that proper earthing plays an important role in the field of protection. Tripping of Transformer at HAL when loaded: HAL factory is an EHT consumer.. In 2003, 66/11kV, 20MVA Dyn11 transformer commissioned by them was tripping on differential when the load on the transformer is about 3040%. The problem could not be solved by them and they were facing problem in taking the load on the said transformer. They contact RT staff and after detail inspection, it was decided to monitor both the HV and LV input currents to the differential relay and also the operating current of the relay continuously while loading. During monitoring it was noticed that magnitude of both the input currents and operating current are equal and the relay was extending trip command when the operating current exceeds the set value.

After analysis, it was concluded that the angle between the two input currents (HV&LV) is 120 deg instead of 180 deg. Due to this the operating current was of the same magnitude as of both HV and LV input currents. Normally when adopting differential protection for Dyn11 transformer, phase shift of 30 deg between the two windings is to be nullified. But due to wrong selection of delta connection of the CTs on 11kV side, 30deg phase shift had become 60deg phase shift instead of zero. The problem was rectified and load normalized. Since the current parameters were monitored, it helped for easy analysis of the problem. Non- Tripping of Breaker on line fault failure of CT:
R-S1 Y-S1


B-S1 S2star

It was reported that the breaker is not tripping for any line fault. In such cases, one of the CT can be suspected as faulty resulting in non-tripping of breakers. When one of the CT is faulty during fault, the fault current instead of flowing through the earth fault relay, before entering S2 terminal will take the path of other CT secondary winding as the path resulting in non-tripping of the feeder on fault. Hence all the CTs are to be tested for ratio by connecting a burden across the secondary winding (normally an EFR relay). Tripping of Transformer on BZ during winter:

If the oil level in the conservator is low, during winter season, in night time the load on the transformer will be minimum and the temperature of the oil and winding will reduce. Due to low load and minimum temperature oil condenses and the oil level comes down. When the oil level falls below the Buchloz relay position, transformer trips on BZ protection. Care to be taken to monitor the oil level at regular intervals and to top up the oil as and when required to avoid such unwarranted tripping of transformer. Inter-Connecting different equipments of a particular bay:








Cable schedule for power Transformer Control and Relay panel The control and Relay panel (CRP) of a bay will be in the control room and all the equipments of the bay are to be connected to the control panel for monitoring the load parameters, Control of Breaker and Isolators and Protection scheme by using control cables. The cable schedule is shown in the sketch and the table given below shows the detail requirement of control cables.



DC auxiliary supply Sph AC Supply For Metering and protection

Cable size
2Cx6sqmm cable 2Cx6sqmm cable 3 runs cable 3 runs cable of 4Cx6sqmm



For Metering and protection



Breake r Tfr.Box DCDB ACDB ACDB ACDB Tfr.Box


Control, protection, 19Cx2.5sqmm cable Indication and annunciation Transformer protections DC supply control for 14Cx2.5sqmm cable

CRP Breake r Braker

breaker 2Cx6sqmm cable 4Cx6sqmm 4Cx10sqmm 2Cx6sqmm cable sqmm cable 14Cx2.5sqmm

AC supply for spring charge

Tfr.Box AC supply for OLTC and Fans RTCC RTCC AC supply

OLTC & cooling system 19Cx2.5 control, Indication and and annunciation calbe

Generally following alphabets are used for different purposes and the details are shown below. Alphabet Purpose
A Current circuit for primary protection like

Distance/Differential protection B C D E J K L L P U H M Current circuit for Bus Bar protection Current circuit for OCR & EFR protection Current circuit for Metering Potential circuit for Metering and protection Main DC supply

DC supply for control circuit DC supply for indication circuit DC supply for annunciation circuit DC supply for Bus Bar and LBB protection circuit spare contacts wired to terminal block Main AC supply AC supply for control, lighting and heating circuit