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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. I ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS AND THE STATUS OF ECOSYSTEMS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ......................1 WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? ........................................................................................................................1 TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Terrestrial Ecosystems .................................................................................................................................. 2 The Marine Ecosystem .................................................................................................................................. 3 The Freshwater Ecosystem ........................................................................................................................... 3 ECOSYSTEMS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO......................................................................................................3 ECOSYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS...................................................................................................................4 Habitat and Communities ............................................................................................................................. 4 HUMAN IMPACTS ON WORLD ECOSYSTEMS AND HABITATS........................................................................................ 5 BIOTIC FACTORS - ADAPTATION AND EVOLUTION ...........................................................................................5 HUMAN IMPACTS ON THE BIOTIC FACTORS IN ECOSYSTEMS ....................................................................................... 6 ABIOTIC FACTORS CYCLING OF ENERGY, NUTRIENTS AND ELEMENTS .................................................................8 The Water Cycle ............................................................................................................................................ 8 Human Impacts on the Global Water Cycle .................................................................................................. 9 NUTRIENT CYCLING ............................................................................................................................................ 9 The Carbon Cycle ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Human impacts on the Global Carbon Cycle .............................................................................................. 10 Phosphorus Cycle ........................................................................................................................................ 11 Human Alteration of the Global Phosphorus Cycle .................................................................................... 11 Nitrogen Cycle ............................................................................................................................................. 12 Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences............................................. 12 Human impacts on other important elemental cycles ............................................................................... 13 HUMAN IMPACTS ON THE ABIOTIC FACTORS IN ECOSYSTEMS ........................................................................... 14 THE SOLUTION .................................................................................................................................... 14 WATER AND SOCIETY ....................................................................................................................... 15 HISTORY OF WATER.......................................................................................................................................... 16 WATER AND CULTURE ...................................................................................................................................... 17 WATER AND HINDUISM .................................................................................................................................... 18 GANGA DHAARAA FESTIVAL .............................................................................................................................. 18 OSUN RIVER FESTIVAL ...................................................................................................................................... 19 RECREATIONAL PURPOSES ...................................................................................................................... 19 CULTURAL FOLKLORE AND WATER...................................................................................................................... 20 WATERSHED QUALITY AND ASSESSMENT ......................................................................................... 21 WHAT IS A WATERSHED? ....................................................................................................................... 21 DEFINITION .................................................................................................................................................... 21 WATERSHEDS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ............................................................................................................ 21 WATERSHED ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................................................... 23 WATER QUANTITY ........................................................................................................................................... 23 i

WATER QUALITY ............................................................................................................................................. 25 1. Suspended Sediment (TSS) ..................................................................................................................... 25 2. Conductivity (COND) ............................................................................................................................... 25 3. pH ............................................................................................................................................................ 26 4. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) ............................................................................................................................ 27 5. Turbidity (TURB) ...................................................................................................................................... 27 6. Free Ammonia ......................................................................................................................................... 28 7. Nitrates.................................................................................................................................................... 28 8. HYDROCARBONS (PAH) ................................................................................................................................ 29 9. HEAVY METALS ............................................................................................................................................ 29 LANDUSE CHANGES.......................................................................................................................................... 30 Natural vegetation/Forest versus Deforestation ........................................................................................ 30 Agriculture .................................................................................................................................................. 31 Industrial/Commercial ................................................................................................................................ 32 Residential and Spontaneous Settlements ................................................................................................. 33 BIOLOGY (1996 UNESCO/WHO/UNEP).......................................................................................................... 34 WATERSHED STATUS (WRMU, 2005)...................................................................................................... 34 INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ............................................................................. 39 WHAT CONSTITUTES WATER MANAGEMENT? ........................................................................................... 41 Water Allocation ......................................................................................................................................... 41 River Basin Planning .................................................................................................................................... 41 Stakeholder Participation ........................................................................................................................... 41 Pollution Control ......................................................................................................................................... 41 Monitoring .................................................................................................................................................. 42 Economic Management .............................................................................................................................. 42 Information Management .......................................................................................................................... 42 Flood and Drought Management ............................................................................................................... 42 THE HUMAN SYSTEMS................................................................................................................................. 44 ENABLING ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................................................................. 46 INSTITUTIONAL ROLES ....................................................................................................................................... 47 MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS ........................................................................................................................... 47 MANAGING WATER AT THE BASIN OR WATERSHED ................................................................................................ 50 OPTIMIZING SUPPLY ......................................................................................................................................... 50 MANAGING DEMAND ....................................................................................................................................... 50 PROVIDING EQUITABLE ACCESS .......................................................................................................................... 50 ESTABLISHING POLICY ....................................................................................................................................... 50 INTERSECTORAL APPROACH ............................................................................................................................... 51 MANAGING WATER AT THE BASIN OR WATERSHED .................................................................................................... OPTIMIZING SUPPLY ............................................................................................................................................. MANAGING DEMAND........................................................................................................................................... INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICY (2005) ............................................................................ 54 PROVIDING EQUITABLE ACCESS .............................................................................................................................. ESTABLISHING POLICY........................................................................................................................................... OTHER POLICIES .............................................................................................................................................. 54 LEGISLATION ................................................................................................................................................... 55 IWRM STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS ....................................................................................................................... 56 ii

INTERSECTORAL APPROACH ................................................................................................................................... ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF STAKEHOLDERS .................................................................................................. 57 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................... 58 ADOPT A RIVER PROGRAM............................................................................................................... 59 REASONS FOR ADOPT A RIVER ................................................................................................................ 59 WHAT IS THE OBJECTIVE OF THE WASA ADOPT A RIVER PROGRAM ................................................................ 62 THE ADOPT A RIVER PROCESS ............................................................................................................... 63 PROJECT DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................... 64 The initiatives under the Adopt-A-River program ...................................................................................... 64 Education .................................................................................................................................................... 64 School visits and lectures ............................................................................................................................ 64 Community-based lectures and outreach programs .................................................................................. 64 Television advertisements and segments ................................................................................................... 65 Websites ..................................................................................................................................................... 65 Employee Initiatives .................................................................................................................................... 65 Reforestation, Repopulation and Rehabilitation exercises ........................................................................ 66 Clean-up programs...................................................................................................................................... 68 Water monitoring programs ....................................................................................................................... 69 School involvement and competitions ....................................................................................................... 69 Community based projects and competitions ............................................................................................ 71 Voluntary Effluent Clean-up........................................................................................................................ 71 How the Adopt-A-River will work ............................................................................................................... 72 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................................ 75 CHAPTER 1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 75 Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences............................................. 75 CHAPTER 3 ......................................................................................................................................... 76

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Introduction
The health and state of a nations watersheds is a reflection of the culture and character of a people. At the core of our social and economic functions is water. The dynamic interactions between the demand for water to facilitate human and ecological functions, require an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach. The Adopt-a-River initiative offers a unique opportunity for the promotion of a better understanding of the impact of environmental conditions and human behaviour on water and society. It facilitates the involvement of schools, civil society and the corporate sectorin the holistic, coordinated and sustainable approach to improving the status of our rivers and watersheds. This manual is intended to provide a foundation for the study of watersheds in Trinidad and Tobago for students participating in the Water and Sewerage Authoritys 3rd National Secondary Schools Quiz Competition In the Know with H20 on the theme Adopt-a-River. The challenges of water resource management and measures for restoration of Trinidad and Tobagos watersheds are addressed in great detail. Ecosystems as building blocks of the environment are strategically introduced in the first section of the manual. A description is presented of the types of ecosystems and those native to Trinidad and Tobago. The biotic (living) and abiotic (mineral) characteristics of ecosystems are examined. The intent is to capture the concept of cyclic flows within ecosystems, including animals, humans and minerals, a rhythm which has been in harmony for millenniums. As a consequence of human development, this synchronisation has become disturbed, creating excessive pressures on the system. An important factor toward understanding the relationship between water and society is exploring the intricate history of the human influence on Trinidad and Tobagos water resources. This is outlined in the historical uses of rivers, in a less industrialised Trinidad and Tobago. The manual also describes the cultural value of local rivers and waters, including our local folklore. The idea is to remind and in some cases inform on our forefathers use and respect for water. A deeper recognition of the natural elements of a river system is defined by outlining the concept of watersheds. Hydrological theories and water quality parameters are explained to provide a scientific background for watershed assessment. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the natural water quantity and quality characteristics of a watershed and the tracers that are typically utilised to ascertain anthropogenic changes.

The (IWRM) paradigm as a possible solution to the stresses placed on water resources is discussed subsequent to the examination of scientific and social aspects of water. The discussion highlights the role of IWRM as a best practice approach to the coordinated development and management of all natural water resources. It explains the various aspects of water management and the roles of the human system, regulatory and institutional in achieving the goals of IWRM. The manual concludes with a focus on the Adopt A River initiative where the project objectives are outlined drawing reference to current local and international watershed improvement projects. The programme aims to discover avenues by which society can become custodians of their waterways. At its core, the Adopt A River Student Study Manual will seek to deliver the message of balance between development and conservation, which is desperately needed at this time. The ultimate goal is to share information and empower the society via the student population to change their behaviour toward protection of the natural environment and to secure this precious, finite resource, WATER, for now and future generations.

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Ecosystem dynamics and the status of ecosystems in Trinidad and Tobago

What is an ecosystem?
As humans, we have forgotten that we are part of a nature. We sometimes get carried away in the belief that the natural environment is under our control and we can do what we want. In order to completely understand the role that humans are supposed to place in the environment, we must understand how the environment works. The natural environment consists of ECOSYSTEMS. An ecosystem, short for 'ecological system', includes all the living organisms existing together in a particular area (Sydenham and Thomas 2009). An ecosystem consists of a complex set of relationships amongst the living resources or biotic factors and the non-living or abiotic resources, Figure 1. Biotic factors are the living organisms such as plants, trees, animals, birds, fishes and people. The abiotic resources refer to the elements which all organisms need to survive such as oxygen, water and minerals in the soil.

Figure 1.1 Elements of an Ecosystem

Although there are different types of ecosystems, most have similar characteristics, which will be discussed further. In understanding ecosystems and their functions, you must consider that most of the ecosystems are cyclic or better said, part of the circle of life. It is important to know that in a natural environment there is a great deal of dependency among organisms, populations and communities which live in ecosystems.

Types of Ecosystems
There are different types of ecosystems. They can be broadly characterized as Terrestrial Ecosystems and Aquatic Ecosystems. Most ecosystem types are natural however, there are a few which are generated due to human impacts. These include secondary forests, agricultural lands, freshwater dams 1

and reservoirs. In this section, we will look at different types of ecosystems across the world Figures 2 and 3. Terrestrial Ecosystems Terrestrial ecosystems are land-based ecosystems. They are broadly classed into: Forest, desert, grassland and mountain ecosystems. Aquatic Ecosystems Aquatic ecosystems are found in water. It encompasses aquatic flora, fauna and water properties, as well. Familiar examples are ponds, lakes and rivers, but aquatic ecosystems also include areas such as floodplains and wetlands, which are flooded with water for all or only parts of the year. There are two main types of aquatic ecosystem - Marine and Freshwater.

Figure 1.2 Distribution of Biomes across the world

Figure 1.3 Climate patterns affect biome distributions

The Marine Ecosystem Marine ecosystems are the biggest ecosystems, which cover aapproximately 71% of Earth's surface and consists 97% of out planet's water. They have high amounts of salts and mineral, hence its saltiness. The seas have an average depth of more than 3 kilometers. The different divisions of the marine ecosystem are oceanic (shallow water), profundal (deep water), benthic (ocean bottom), inter-tidal (place between low and high tides), estuaries (area where rivers met the sea), coral reefs and salt marshes (coastal wetlands which are flooded and drained by tidal saltwater) and hydrothermal vents (underwater vents where chemosynthetic bacteria make up the food base). The Freshwater Ecosystem Contrary to the Marine ecosystems, the freshwater ecosystem covers only 0.8% of Earth's surface and contains 0.009% of the total water in the world. Three basic kinds of freshwater ecosystems exist: Lentic: Slow-moving or still water like pools, lakes or ponds. Lotic: Fast-moving water such as streams and rivers. Wetlands: Places in which the soil is inundated or saturated for some lenghty period of time. These ecosystems are habitats to reptiles, amphibians and around 41% of the worlds fish species.

Ecosystems in Trinidad and Tobago


Trinidad and Tobago hosts a variety of ecosystem types which include forests, mountain ecosystems, swamp/mangrove forests (wetlands), savannahs, rivers and streams. The mountain ecosystems are mostly found in the Northern Range. Forest ecosystems span all three mountain ranges across the country. Forests contribute directly to a variety of functions: maintaining the integrity of an ecosystem, providing wildlife habitats, protecting watersheds, mitigating impacts of extreme weather, sequestering carbon, and generating goods and services for direct use by people for consumption, other economic uses, and recreation. It is known that the forests of the Northern Range have continued to be altered from forest clearance for various uses such as housing developments and supporting infrastructure, agriculture, quarrying, and timber harvesting. Forest fires are also a source of forest degradation (NRA 2005). The Aripo Savannas are a natural savanna ecosystem which in August 2007, was given the designation of Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) under the ESA Rules 2001. It is dominated by sedges, grasses and herbs and a number of rare species including the sundew, an insectivorous plant which consume insects due to low soil nitrogen. The savannas are the only remaining natural ecosystem of this type in Trinidad and Tobago and has been under threat varying from quarrying, fires, illegal human settlements to 3

Figure 1.4 Sundew Insect-eating plant

hunting. This has resulted in greater fragmentation of the savannas as well as degradation of the existing vegetation. Trinidad and Tobago contains 69 watersheds 54 in Trinidad and 15 in Tobago. These watersheds comprise rivers that are not only a major source of potable water but are also important for cultural and recreational aspects as well as a source of food. There are approximately 50 freshwater fish species and 43 species of crabs and prawns described for both Trinidad and Tobago. According to the Cropper Foundation, the current status of local freshwater ecosystems is fair but they are being threatened by housing, agriculture, industry, quarrying, chemical and solid waste pollution, alien invasive species and overharvesting. There are a number of man-made systems as well, which include secondary forest, agricultural lands, freshwater dams and reservoirs. This country is also rich with coastal ecosystems which include coral reefs, seagrass beds, beaches, rocky shores and the open sea. Table 1 summarizes the services that our forest and freshwater ecosystems provide to our country. Wetlands in both Trinidad and Tobago have undergone significant alterations especially on account of human activities. Significant losses have occurred along the west coast of Trinidad (including the Caroni Swamp), on the east coast of Trinidad (Nariva swamp), and in south-western Tobago (Institute of Marine Affairs, 2010). Opadeyi (2010) reports a decrease of 17% in the extent of wetlands in Trinidad. It has been estimated that there has been a 17% reduction in the size of the Nariva Swamp, an environmentally sensitive area and Ramsar site. Its size has dropped by 135 hectares as a result of rice farming activities, slash and burn agriculture and infrastructural development (Carbonell et al 2007).

Ecosystem Characteristics
No matter the ecosystem, there are similar characteristics and functions which we will outline in this section. Habitat and Communities Step into a forest and look around. If you focus on the biotic aspects of the environment, you will see trees and plants as well as birds, insects and if you are lucky, animals such as rodents or snakes. The section of forest you are looking at represents the habitat in which these organisms live. So, within any particular ecosystem, there can be different types of habitats. A habitat is defined as the natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism (Oxford, 2012). Groups of different kinds of organisms living together in this habitat are called populations so you may have noted a
Figure 1.5 Description of an Ecosystem

(www.nps.gov)

school of fish (which is a population) or a flock of birds (another population). These populations of different organisms share the same space and hence, interact with each other. Groups of different populations interacting with each other in the same habitat are called communities.

Human impacts on world ecosystems and habitats


The major impact to the world habitat by humans is deforestation. Deforestation is not just the removal of forests but the conversion of that area into a use which does not allow for environmental functions to continue smoothly. Lets look at some important facts about deforestation across the world: In the U.S., less than 25% of native vegetation remains in many parts of the East and Midwest. Only 15% of land area remains unmodified by human activities in all of Europe. From the approximately 16 million square kilometers of tropical rainforest habitat that originally existed worldwide, less than 9 million square kilometers remain today. The current rate of deforestation is 160,000 square kilometers per year, which equates to a loss of approximately 1% of original forest habitat each year. Tropical deciduous dry forests are easier to clear and burn and are more suitable for agriculture and cattle ranching than tropical rainforests; consequently, less than 0.1% of dry forests in Central America's Pacific Coast and less than 8% in Madagascar remain from their original extents. Work done at the University of the West Indies states that 21% of Trinidad and Tobagos vegetation (which includes forests) was degraded. Further work showed that forest cover has been reduced by 1.8% from 1976 to 2007.

Biotic factors - Adaptation and Evolution


All communities need to survive in their habitat and hence, they must all adapt. Charles Darwin stated, in his theory of Natural Selection, that within a particular ecosystem, resources such as space, water, food and shelter are all limited. Hence, all populations must compete for these resources. He stated that due to limited resources, the environment places pressure on populations to struggle to survive and only those that are most adapted will. The process is slow but each subsequent generation includes more individuals which are better adapted. An important aspect of adaption is the ability to find food. All organisms must be able to do so in order to survive. All feeding relationships can be arranged into food chains. Food chains are energy flows within an ecosystem based on members of one population

Figure 1.6 Food chain versus Food Web

feeding on another population. The food chain indicates only direct relationships. A food web is more complicated since it includes all the organisms within the ecosystem and how they interact. Food chains and food webs are the mechanism by which energy flows in an ecosystem. Each level of a food chain or web is called a trophic level. The energy is passed on from trophic level to trophic level and each time about 90% of the energy is lost (respiration or digestion). This energy is obtained from external sources e.g. sun, plants, other animals consumed (primary, secondary, tertiary trophic levels).

Human impacts on the biotic factors in ecosystems


Humans have removed the natural cover of a large part of the earths surface and by so doing, has reduced the habitat in which many organisms can survive. This has resulted in extinction of species and endangerment of many others. Of the 44,838 species assessed worldwide using the IUCN Red List criteria, 905 are extinct and 16,928 are listed as threatened to be extinct. Animals are going extinct 100 to 1,000 times faster than at the normal background extinction rate, which is about 10 to 25 species per year. Many researchers claim that we are in the middle of a mass extinction event faster than the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction which wiped out the dinosaurs (ESI 2011). Humans have also impacted on food chains and webs. Biodiversity is the variety of life (its ecosystems, populations, species and genes). Saving endangered species (plants and animals) from becoming extinct and protecting their wild places is crucial for our health and the future of our children. The impacts of biodiversity loss include fewer new medicines, greater vulnerability to natural disasters and greater effects from global warming. Biodiversity provides us with tremendous vital benefits: Table 1.0 Benefits derived from protecting biodiversity and endangered species
Type Environmental Benefit Air Purification Explanation Forests filter particulates and help regulate the composition of the atmosphere and purify our air. Losing forest around the world increases air pollution. Biological diversity provides the world's population, particularly the poor, with food, medicines, building materials, bioenergy and protection against natural disasters. Of the medicines currently available, about 50% are derived from natural products. At least 120 chemical compounds, derived from 90 plant species, are important drugs currently in use in many countries around the world! By losing biodiversity, we are losing the chance to discover new medicines that could end the suffering of millions of people and save national economies billions of dollars each year. of Fresh Nitrogen pollution became a serious problem many parts of the world. Protecting and restoring wetlands to reduce nitrogen loading is less

Social (Human)

Poverty Alleviation

Social (Human)

Health

Environmental

Purification Waters

expensive than the construction of wastewater treatment plants. Wetlands contain exceptional biodiversity and generate critical services such as purification of fresh waters. They also support the livelihoods of local communities. Social (Human) Agriculture Many of the benefits of biodiversity accrue to agriculture itself. For example, the marine environment is a source for insecticides. Nereistoxin is an insecticidal poison isolated from the marine worm, Lumbrineris brevicirra. Others benefits include crop pollination, soil fertility services provided by microorganisms and pest control services provided by insects and wildlife. Biodiversity loss has important implications for agriculture. Floodplains are ecosystems that border rivers subject to flooding. Following excessive rains, flood waters flow over riverbanks and into these floodplain forests and wetlands. Some of the water is soaked up by the soil. Many flowering plants rely on animals to help them mate by ensuring fertilization. Bees, butterflies, beetles, hummingbirds, bats, and other animals transport pollen, the male reproductive structures, from one plant to another, with enormous benefits to humanity. Approximately one third of the worlds food crops depend on these natural pollinators. In the U.S., honeybees pollinate about U.S. $10 billion worth of crops. Carbon storage (sequestration) occurs in forests and soils primarily through the natural process of photosynthesis. The movement of carbon in and out of trees and soils is part of the Earth's global carbon cycle. Forests and coral reefs contain massive carbon reservoirs, which significantly contribute to regulating the global climate. Mangrove forest protect coastlines against oceanic storms. Vegetated banks bind the soil which prevent erosion caused by wave and surface water flow. Soils, with their active microbial and animal populations, have the capacity to supply adequate nutrients to plants in suitable proportions. Natural forest soil have a higher content of total nutrients and biomass. The natural world is beautiful and valued for its aesthetic appeal. Loss of biodiversity impoverishes our world of natural beauty and wonder, both for ourselves and for the future generations.

Environmental

Mitigation of Floods

Environmental

Pollination of Crops and Natural Vegetation

Environmental

Carbon Sequestration

Environmental

Buffering the Land against Ocean Storms

Environmental

Preservation Fertility

of

Soil

Social (Human)

Aesthetics and Spiritual

Taken from: Cropper Foundation (2010)

Abiotic Factors Cycling of energy, nutrients and elements


If you look carefully at the abiotic aspects of the same forest environment we mentioned earlier, you will see clouds, breathe in air, see soil rich with nutrients and water flowing in a river or off leaves. These represent the vital nutrients and elements that all organisms need to survive. Some of the most important chemicals cycled in our environment are phosphorus, nitrogen, water and carbon. The Water Cycle

Figure 1.7 The Water Cycle

The water cycle does not have a definite starting point, however since most of the earths water lies in the ocean lets begin there. The sun, which pilots the water cycle, heats the water in the oceans. Some of it then evaporates as a vapour or gas into the air or ice (snow) sublimes directly to water vapour. The air currents rise taking the water vapour into the atmosphere, along with water from evapotranspiration. This is water that is transpired from plants and evaporated from soil. As the vapour rises, the cooler temperatures in the atmosphere cause the vapour to condense into clouds. Air currents constantly move clouds around the world. The cloud particles collide, grow and fall out of the sky as rain or precipitation. Some of the rain can fall as snow and accumulate as ice caps and glaciers, which can store water frozen as ice for thousands of years. Most times rain falls into the oceans or onto land, where it flows over the ground as surface runoff. A segment of this runoff enters rivers and streams moving the water towards the oceans. Sometimes, the surface water runoff, can accumulate and be stored as freshwater in lakes.

Not all surface water runoff flows into rivers. A measurable sum soaks into the ground as infiltration or percolation. The water penetrates deep into the ground and replenishes aquifers (saturated subsurface rock). These aquifers store vast amounts of freshwater for long periods of time. This water can also stay close to the surface of the land and can find openings in the land surface to emerge as freshwater springs. Over time, all this water keeps moving and moving and eventually re-enters the ocean, where the cycle begins again. Human Impacts on the Global Water Cycle The water cycle is affected as land-use changes from unpaved to paved surfaces. As vegetation is removed, less water infiltrates the ground and surface runoff increases. This means the lag time between peak rainfall and peak discharge in rivers is reduced when compared to unpaved surfaces. Conversely, as more vegetative cover is added water infiltrates the soil more and river peak discharge is less over a longer time period. Groundwater recharge is then increased as a result of more water entering the soil. Humans have also altered the water cycle by increasing greenhouse gases. These gases prevent some of the suns radiation from exiting the earths atmosphere, thereby increasing the worlds overall temperature. This has resulted in the melting of ice caps and an increase in sea levels. Large-scale human manipulation of water has significantly altered global patterns of stream flow. According to a study, damming of rivers, abstraction of water for water supply to populations and deforestation has reduced river runoff by around 324 km3 per year, representing 10% of the yearly volume of fresh water used by people (3240 km3/yr). Close to 5000 km3 of water are presently stored in large reservoirs across the world. However, if it were not for human diversion of runoff, sea levels would be rising faster than it is. Deforestation has also severely affected the retention of water on land. Tree cover is very important as we discussed earlier in the section on why we should save our biodiversity.

Nutrient Cycling
Land-use changes also affect nutrient cycles similarly. In natural ecosystems, regulation of nutrient cycling operates at different scales of time and space, allowing the flow of nutrients released by microbial activities to adjust to plant demand thus limiting losses to other parts of the ecosystems or to different ecosystems. In natural ecosystems, this synchrony between release of nutrients and their use by microorganisms and plants is determined by complex interactions among physical, chemical, and biological processes (Millennium Assessment). Input of nutrients to ecosystems occurs through five processes (Millennium Assessment): Weathering Atmospheric Biological processes 9

Biomass Anthropogenic The output of nutrients from ecosystems also involves five processes: Soil erosion Leaching Gaseous Emissions Emigration of fauna or harvest The effective permanent removal of nutrients from the biosphere only occurs at a slow rate and through a small number of processes. The Carbon Cycle

Figure 1.8 The Carbon Cycle

Figure 1.8 of the fast carbon cycle shows the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons of carbon per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions in gigatons of carbon per year. White numbers indicate stored carbon. Human impacts on the Global Carbon Cycle In the natural carbon cycle, there are two main processes which occur: photosynthesis and metabolism. During photosynthesis, plants use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. During metabolism oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is a product. 10

Humans impact the carbon cycle during the combustion of any type of fossil fuel, which include oil, coal, or natural gas. During combustion in the presence of air (oxygen), carbon dioxide and water molecules are released into the atmosphere. Many chemical compounds found in the Earths atmosphere act as greenhouse gases. These gases allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. When sunlight strikes the Earths surface, some of it is reflected back towards space as infrared radiation (heat). Greenhouse gases absorb this infrared radiation and trap the heat in the atmosphere. Over time, the amount of energy sent from the sun to the Earths surface should be about the same as the amount of energy radiated back into space, leaving the temperature of the Earths surface roughly constant. During the past 20 years, about three-quarters of human-made carbon dioxide emissions were from burning fossil fuels. This carbon dioxide has resulted in an increase in the earths temperature and as such, has changed the climate of the world. Phosphorus Cycle

Figure 1.9 Phosphorus Cycle Weathering of rocks releases phosphates, which enter producers and then cycles through organism. Run-off from land takes phosphates to the oceans, where it is incorporated into sediments that are sometimes uplifted by geological upheavals (Mader 1997)

Human Alteration of the Global Phosphorus Cycle Humans have increased the phosphorus loading in the natural environment. They mine the phosphorus from the earth to produce fertilizers and pesticides, and by so doing, they have accelerated the amount of phosphorus that exists in our environment. Much of this phosphorus ends up in runoff, where it can end up in large stores of water causing eutrophication or algal blooms. When algae or other microbes increase in large numbers due to high phosphate concentrations in water, they consume the oxygen in the water and deplete the levels which should be available for other organisms. These changes lead to reduced species diversity within the water body.

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Nitrogen Cycle

Figure 1.10 Nitrogen Cycle Several types of bacteria are at work: nitrogen-fixing bacteria reduce nitrogen gas (N2); nitrifying bacteria, which include both nitrite-producing and nitrate-producing bacteria, convert ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate; and the denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate back to nitrogen gas. Humans contribute to the cycle by using nitrogen gas to produce nitrate for fertilizers. Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences Human activities are greatly increasing the amount of nitrogen cycling between the living world and the soil, water, and atmosphere. In fact, humans have already doubled the rate of nitrogen entering the land-based nitrogen cycle, and that rate is continuing to climb. In many ecosystems on land and sea, the supply of nitrogen is a key factor controlling the nature and diversity of plant life, the population dynamics of both grazing animals and their predators, and vital ecological processes such as plant productivity and the cycling of carbon and soil minerals. This is true not only in wild or unmanaged systems but in most croplands and forestry plantations as well. Excessive nitrogen additions can pollute ecosystems and alter both their ecological functioning and the living communities they support. The impacts of human domination of the nitrogen cycle that we have identified with certainty include: Increased global concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, in the atmosphere as well as increased regional concentrations of other oxides of nitrogen (including nitric oxide, NO) that drive the formation of photochemical smog; Losses of soil nutrients such as calcium and potassium that are essential for long-term soil fertility; 12

Substantial acidification of soils and of the waters of streams and lakes in several regions; Greatly increased transport of nitrogen by rivers into estuaries and coastal waters where it is a major pollutant. We are also confident that human alterations of the nitrogen cycle have: Accelerated losses of biological diversity, especially among plants adapted to low-nitrogen soils, and subsequently, the animals and microbes that depend on these plants; Caused changes in the plant and animal life and ecological processes of estuarine and nearshore ecosystems, and contributed to long-term declines in coastal marine fisheries. Human impacts on other important elemental cycles Mature ecosystems are stable in the sense that they perpetuate themselves and require little, if any, additional materials each year. The sizes of the many and varied populations are held in check by the interactions between species, such as competition and predation. The amount of energy that enters and the amount of matter that cycles is appropriate to support those populations (Mader, Inquiry into life). Pollution, defined as any undesirable change in the environment that can be harmful to humans and other life, does not normally occur. Human-impacted ecosystems, however, are quite different. Human impacted ecosystems essentially have two added parts: the country, where agriculture and animal husbandry are found and the city, where most people live and where industry is carried on. This representation of human impacted ecosystems, although simplified, allows us to see that these systems require two major inputs: fuel energy and raw materials (e.g. metals, wood, synthetics). The use of these necessarily results in waste and pollution as outputs. The Country is usually characterized by: Planting of a few genetic varieties which reduces the diversity of organisms in the environment, Heavy use of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, Generous irrigation which results in water pollution, Excessive fuel consumption, Loss of land quality. The City is usually characterized by: Little or no recycling, Energy wastage e.g. lights being left on during the night, Burning of fossil fuels for transportation, commercial needs and industrial processes which causes air and water pollution, Poor treatment of sewage which results in water pollution.

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Human impacts on the abiotic factors in ecosystems


Humans have removed large areas of ecosystem types. Ecosystems vary greatly in size and the elements that make them up, but each is a functioning unit of nature. Everything that lives in an ecosystem is dependent on the other species and elements that are also part of that ecosystem. If one part of an ecosystem is damaged or disappears, it has an impact on everything else. For example in South America, the removal of large areas of Amazon tropical rainforest not only reduced the population of organisms in the wild but it also changed the flow in the rivers, caused excessive soil erosion and flooding and resulted in water pollution. The Amazon alone creates 50-80 percent of its own rainfall through transpiration and hence, the large scale deforestation changed the climate of the area. But, on a larger scale, cutting the rainforests in South America changes the reflectivity of the entire earth's surface, which affects global weather by altering wind and ocean current patterns, and changes rainfall distribution. Nobody thought that cutting down the trees in a forest would have such global impacts.

The Solution
In human-impacted ecosystems, fuel combustion by products, sewage, fertilizers , pesticides and solid wastes are all added to the environment in the hope that natural cycles will cleanse the biosphere of these pollutants however, we have exploited natural ecosystems to the extent that the environment is overloaded. More and more natural ecosystems are impacted because an ever-increasing number of people want to maintain a standard of living that requires many goods and services. Conservation can be achieved in one of three ways: Wise use of only what is actually needed, Recycling of nonfuel minerals such as iron, copper, lead and aluminium and Use of renewable energy resources and development of more efficient ways to utilize all forms of energy.

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Water and Society


Water, H2O, is a crucial element responsible for the many achievements, social structuring and other factors of historical importance related to humankind's evolution, even though it is constantly and consistently unfairly neglected. The story of changing human relationships with water over the centuries tries to answer some basic questions:

How have human attitudes to water changed since people first began to manage their water supplies? What major events in the past have defined our present relationship with water? Why are we now facing a global water crisis and what are prospects for the future?

Of all the resources that we utilize on this planet, water is the least appreciated and certainly the most misunderstood. The relationship involves far more than drinking, washing or watering crops. In most societies water was something to be treasured and revered. Water and humans have had a very complex relationship.

Figure 2.1 Crossing the Caura River

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History of water
Amerindian societies, like many civilizations throughout history, were strategically located near water courses to quench their need for water to drink, acquire food (fishing), transportation and washing their clothes and themselves. The rivers were the only reservoirs of freshwater in those times. The Rivers that our forefathers knew were much larger than they are today. Ships and canoes were the major form of transportation and aided in the discoveries of many of our towns as villages. In 1592, under the Spanish flag, a ship sailed up the Caroni River and turning into a tributary, now known as the St Joseph River, the first capital of Trinidad was founded and called San Jos de Orua. The Lopinto River once transported a great deal of cocoa from the estates high in the hills to the main road and then into Port of Spain. The major Amerindian settlements inhabited areas of St Joseph, Tacarigua, Arouca and Arima where abundant river systems are present. The word Arima, itself is Amerindian, meaning water, which points to the fact that the village sprang up on the banks of the Arima River. Blanchisseuse which is French for washerwoman got its name when the surveyor, Fredrick Mallet, anchored his vessel off the settlement and noticed the women washing their clothes in the river. Society evolved from hunter/gatherer, where water was utilized for basic needs to horticultural/agrarian, where water was stored for the purposes of irrigation and livestock rearing. Women would go to the river to do their washing and collect water in clay jugs for storage. Accessibility to sources of water greatly shaped human settlement. One of the first efforts in the conservation and protection of water sources in the western hemisphere was the establishment of the first forest reserve in Tobago in 1765. The Colonials reserved this area for the protection of the rains and their direct environmental benefits. The dawn of the industrial age saw the distribution of water go underground and out of sight. In 1853 the Maracas Waterworks became the first organized distribution DID YOU KNOW? system in Trinidad and Tobago. It served with the purpose of The Dial, the most famous granting 25,000 people that lived in Port of Spain, at that time, pipe borne water. There was no need to live near the source; pipelines were established to bring water to your home no matter how far you were from a source. Humans now controlled its supply and distribution. New technologies ensured accessibility to the masses. landmark in Arima, when installed used machinery which was powered by a stream that flowed through the town.

In 1942 water had been the cause for the movement of an entire village. After water shortages in several parts of the country the Government decided to build a dam in the village of Caura to protect the water supply. From 1943-1944 lands were taken and the villagers were called upon to evacuate the area, all in the name of water.

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Figure 2.2 The Maraval Waterworks in the 1850s

Water and Culture


Water and Culture are inseparable elements of human life. Culture should be regarded as the permanently evolving set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or social group. It encompasses- in addition to art and literature- lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs. The way water is used and valued constitutes an integral part of a societys cultural identity. Cultural differences play a key role in the way water is perceived, valued and managed. Water management practices should be adapted to specific cultures as they constitute distinct systems of knowledge and behavior. Within the array of cultures found in this twin island society, multi-spiritual groups and societies help support the mould that creates a synergy of aspects which provides the driving force of the people and the country as a whole. In Trinidad and Tobago we feel entitled to water because it is so easy to access. We can bring it into our homes by merely turning on a faucet. This means that we tend to take cheap, abundant, good quality water for granted. This situation describes the theory of Tragedy of the Commons. It describes an ongoing condition of unsustainability that arises when a shared resource is continuously depleted even when it is in the best interest of all to prevent this from happening. Without responsible use our water resources can be severlely affected. Millions of people throughout the world do not have the same access to water that we do. We feel entitled to cheap waterand thats not going to last as populations rise and there is more competition for what will, inevitably, become a market commodity like oil.

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Water and Hinduism


The worldwide practice of Hinduism encompasses a wide variety of beliefs. However, a prevailing belief that is shared by most, if not all Hindus, is the importance of physical and spiritual cleanliness and wellbeing, a striving to attain purity and avoid pollution. This widespread aspiration lends itself to a reverence for water as well as the integration of water into most Hindu rituals, as it is believed that water has spiritually cleansing powers. Holy places are usually located on the banks of rivers, coasts, seashores and mountains. Sites of convergence between land and two, or even better three, rivers, carry special significance and are especially sacred. Sacred rivers are thought to be a great equalizer. For example, the Marianne and South Oropouche Rivers are two popular rivers chosen to perform many rituals.

Ganga Dhaaraa Festival


One such festival is the Ganga Dhaaraa which reflects a much larger celebration on India's Ganges River. The Dhaaraa or flow of the event, ebbs back and forth along the riverbed of the Marianne River over the course of a day but it begins quietly, with three women carefully preparing a Pooja for Lord Ganesh on a table set in the middle of the riverbed. Further up the river, along a stretch that winds gently along, the stream of water runs brisk and shallow, and tents, platforms and ramps have been built to create spaces of worship. The most impressive of these is the Trinnaadeeshshwar Mahadev Ghaat, nestled in a large natural grotto on the bank of the river where singing and offerings continue throughout the morning. For the Hindu devotees in attendance, it is a teerath, a pilgrimage to different destinations in this single space. Some seek blessings on their young sons; others refresh their marriage commitment. The date is set by the lunar calendar and is convened on the Sunday following each years celebration of the importance of the Ganges. The next day, every trace of these elaborate and inventive constructs will be gone. The festival, a religious assembly of worship and faith, completely disappears after echoing its inspiration half a world away and reflecting the synergies of the flow of the Mother Ganga in India.

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Osun River Festival


Ancient tradition holds that for a long time people had great trouble in finding good water until Osun helped through divination. Orisa Osun is the Orisa of fertility, wealth and riches. She is the epitome of beauty. Osun is the spirit of the river - with the transparent, cleansing, fluid and life-giving qualities of water - in the Orisa pantheon. A feast of food, bread, cake, sweets, fruit and flowers, is laid upon the sand for the tide to backwash into the sea. Celebrants wear festive robes in mainly white or yellow. The significance of the festival lies in focusing attention on the importance of good water and the cleansing of the river. River mouths all over Trinidad are possible venues; Manzanilla, Salybia, Grande Riviere and Blanchisseuse.

Recreational Purposes
Many rivers of Trinidad and Tobago especially within the Northern Range where the upper regions of watersheds are still relatively intact are popular destinations for social gatherings or river limes. A very popular past time experienced by most if not all citizens of the country. Equipped with an assortment of dishes, (usually prepared on site) and activities allows for a truly unique and unforgettable experience for all that attend. The natural vegetation and forestry that surrounds these natural water sources provides ideal relaxation from the urban society. This is one of the main reasons visitors come to these various pristine locations in a bid to acquire entertainment, relaxation and great memories. Some of these rivers include; Lopinot River, Marianne River, Caura River, Aripo River,Guanapo River, Valencia River, Quare River, Matura River, Rio Seco River, Turure River, Gran Riverie River, Matelot River and Yarra River.

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Cultural Folklore and Water


"Mama Glow" or "Mama Dlo" or "Mama Dglo" whose name is derived from the French "maman de l' eau" which means "mother of the water" is one of the lesser known personalities of Trinidad and Tobago folklore. A half woman, half snake with long flowing hair which she combs constantly. Her upper torso is a naked, beautiful woman, the lower part coils into a large form of an anaconda snake that is hidden beneath the water. She is sometimes thought to be the lover of Papa Bois, and old hunters tell stories of coming upon them in the 'High Woods'. They also tell of hearing a loud, cracking sound which is said to be the sound made by her tail as she snaps it on the surface of a mountain pool or a still lagoon. Mortal men who commit crimes against the forest, like burning down trees, indiscriminately putting animals to death or fouling the rivers could find themselves married to her for life, both this one and the one to follow. Sometimes she takes the form of a beautiful woman 'singing silent songs on still afternoons, sitting at the water's edge in the sunlight, lingering for a golden moment, a flash of green gone. Nothing but a big Morte Bleu, rising in the sun beams. The only hope for a man who finds himself in the presence of Mama Dlo is to remove his left shoe, place it upside-down on the ground and leave the scene with haste, walking backwards the entire way home so as not to turn his back upon her.

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Watershed Quality and Assessment


What is a Watershed?
Definition

A watershed is defined as the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place (United States Environmental Protection Agency). It is also considered as an area or region drained by a river, river system, or other body of water which is separated by an area or ridge of land that prevents waters from flowing into different rivers or basins (Oxford Dictionaries).

Figure 3.1 A Conceptual Watershed (Department of Public Works)

Figure 3.1 illustrates the concept of watersheds as defined above. All the water moving through the area of land eventually accumulates at a lower point. The watershed is also bound by ridges on either side from its upper to lower reaches. This physical barrier prevents any interaction with other watersheds.

Watersheds in Trinidad and Tobago


Trinidad and Tobago is subdivided into fourteen (14) hydrometric units, nine (9) in Trinidad and five (5) in Tobago. Trinidad is further sub-divided into 54 catchment areas (watersheds) and Tobago sub-divided into 15 catchment areas (watersheds)m(refer to Maps 3.1 and 3.2)

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Map 3.1 Trinidad Hydrometric Areas and Watersheds (GENIVAR, 2009)

Map 3.2 Tobago Hydrometric Areas and Watersheds (GENIVAR, 2009)

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Watershed Assessment
Watershed assessment is a necessary component of a monitoring program in order to determine what degraded or impaired areas may exist in the watershed and why. Several characteristics of a watershed are taken into consideration during the assessment process including land use, land cover, hydrology and biodiversity . It is important to also consider the natural and cultural resources of the watershed as well as the human activities. This information may be obtained from various sources including topographic maps to determine drainage area and land features as well as land use data (North Carolina Cooperative Extension ). Watershed assessment is also an efficient and cost-effective means of evaluating and categorizing water quality. It provides valuable information for use in community planning, identification of pollution sources, and maintenance of the health and aesthetics of a water body (Watershed Assessment Associates , 2001). Watersheds can therefore be assessed using several methods under the following categories: Water quantity Water quality Land-use changes Biology

Water Quantity
Water quantity can be used as an indicator in watershed assessment, especially in terms of flooding. A river requires a minimum flow of 20% to sustain aquatic life and biodiversity. When water levels in rivers get too low, the lives of aquatic organisms and water supply to humans becomes limited. Excessively high volumes of water leads to flooding and destruction of aquatic ecosystems and their communities. In extreme cases, it may also lead to landslides or mudslides which can permanently change the features of any watershed.Water quantity is therefore an important factor in conducting watershed assessments. Figure 3.2 is a hydrograph which shows the relationship between rainfall (precipitation) and river flow (discharge) or better explained, the movement of water in a watershed. When rain falls, it takes some time for the rain to pass over the ground or through the soil and end up in the rivers. As the rain falls, the amount of water in the river increases and hence, the river level or river stage increases (rising limb). The peak discharge, sometimes called peak flow, is the maximum rate of flow of water passing a given point during or after a rainfall event. Peak flow determines the lag time of a basin, which is the time that it takes from the rainfall event to the peak flow value.

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Groundwater seepage into a stream channel is called baseflow. During most of the year, stream flow is composed of both groundwater discharge and land surface runoff. When groundwater provides the entire flow of a stream, baseflow conditions are said to exist (Schilling 2012) The shape of this graph is heavily determined by the type of watershed or environment. Changes in land-use can also be used to explain changes in hydrographs.

Figure 3.2 Hydrograph illustrating water movement in a watershed for precipitation events (BBC).

This is shown in Figures 3.3 and 3.4. Higher peak flows, rising limbs and shorter lag times usually indicate that water is entering the river via surface runoff much faster than compared to usual forested conditions. This results from decreased unpaved surface areas and reduced infiltration and percolation.

Figure 3.3 Hydrograph illustrating changes in land-use affecting changes in water movement (TalkTalk, 2012)

Figure 3.4 Hydrographs illustrating how different changes in land-use affect water movement (Yang, 2011)

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Water Quality
Pollution is the contamination of the earths environment with materials that interfere with human health, the quality of life or the natural funcitoning of the ecosystem. Water pollutants can be classified into three types: solids, liquids and gases. Solid pollutants would be garbage and trash which we litter our rivers with for example, old fridges and cars. Domestic wastewater or untreated water from our sinks and toilets are examples of pollutants. Gaseous pollutants include steam which is a waste product of industrial processing. There are many parameters which are used to assess water quality. Some of the more commonly measured parameters are as follows:

1. Suspended Sediment (TSS) TSS or Total Suspended Solids are solid materials that are suspended in the water which result from erosion from urban runoff and agricultural land, industrial wastes, bank erosion, algae growth or wastewater discharges (NDDH 2005). High concentrations of suspended solids give water a brown colour and blocks out light, thus preventing the growth of aquatic plants, reducing the oxygen in the water and kills aquatic organisms e.g. fish and crabs. Locally, TSS values range between 1-500 mgL-1 however local standards dictate that effluent values should not be over 50mg/L (WHO 2008). Prevention methods include protection of the land in our watershed from erosion by use of proper soil conservation techniques (such as terracing or creating of settling ponds) and giving urban runoff time to settle out (daming) before reaching our surface waters (NDDH 2005).

High TSS in the Guanapo (a), Maraval (b) and East Dry (c) Rivers. This resulted in flooding of nearby business in the Ellerslie Mall in Maraval (b) and in Port of Spain (c). 2. Conductivity (COND) Conductivity is a measure of the ability of water to pass an electrical current. It is affected by the presence of inorganic dissolved solids in the water. Organic compounds like oil do not conduct electrical 25

current very well and therefore have a low conductivity in water. Conductivity is also affected by temperature: the warmer the water, the higher the conductivity (USEPA 2011). The basic unit of measurement of conductivity is the mho or siemens. Distilled water has a conductivity in the range of 0.5 to 3 mhos/cm. Conductivity values in Trinidad and Tobago range between 100-20000 S however, the most commonly recorded reading was 350S. It was found that conductivity values increase at severely impaired sites and it is suggested that run-off from agricultural, domestic or industrial sources may be the cause (Maharaj and Alkins-Koo 2007).
Garbage afloat on the Beetham River, Port of Spain.

3. pH pH is a measurement of the acidity or alkalinity (base) of a solution. pH is measured on a scale of 0 to 14. Neutral water has a pH of 7. Low pH values in freshwater are also caused by the dissolution of acidsforming substances in precipitation. As rain drops fall through the atmosphere, they dissolve gaseous carbon dioxide, creating a weak acid. Pure rainfall has a pH of about 5.6. High organic matter content in the water will also decrease the pH of water. The presence of minerals such as aluminum or iron can also influence the pH of the water.

pH range and common examples. Across Trinidad and Tobago, pH values range 6 9 whilst the most common value was 8.4. This indicates that local rivers are slightly alkaline, possibly due to the presence of limestone in the area.

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4. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Dissolved oxygen analysis measures the amount of gaseous oxygen (O2) dissolved in an aqueous solution. Oxygen gets into water by diffusion from the surrounding air, by aeration (rapid movement), and as a product of photosynthesis. Oxygen levels that remain below 1-2 mg/l for a few hours can result in large fish kills (KY Water Watch 2011). Dissolved oxygen values locally range from 0.6 to 8.2, whilst the most commonly recorded value was 5.5. Low dissolved oxygen values found in the Lower Caroni, San Juan, and St. Joseph Rivers were as a result of the release of untreated industrial effluents into these rivers. Industries contributing to the low dissolved oxygen of these rivers were; brewing, food processing, and distilling (IMA 2001).
Downstream of the agriculture and wastewater plant on the Caparo River.

5. Turbidity (TURB) Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency (Lenntech 2011). There are various parameters which influence the cloudiness of the water. Some of these are: - Phytoplankton - Sediments from erosion - Re-suspended sediments from the bottom (frequently stir up by bottom feeders like carp) - Waste discharge - Algae growth - Urban runoff Turbidity is measured in NTU: Nephelometric Turbidity Units. The instrument used for measuring is called a nephelometer or turbidimeter, which measures the intensity of light scattered at 90 degrees as a beam of light passes through a water sample (Lenntech 2011). There is a direct relationship between turbidity and TSS values and as such, the impacts of turbidity on a river system are the same as for TSS. The World Health Organisation establishes that the turbidity of drinking water shouldn't be more than 5 NTUs, and should ideally be below 1 NTU (Lenntech 2011).

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Water colour and turbidity before (a) and after (b) a Quarry in Northern Trinidad

6. Free Ammonia The term free ammonia refers to NH3. It is highly reactive and can affect the health of organisms, including humans. Ammonia is an indicator of faecal (sewage) pollution. It affects the taste and smell of water and makes disinfection more difficult (WHO 2008). Ammonia in the environment can originate from metabolic, agricultural and industrial processes, from disinfection with chloramines (WHO 2011), fertilizer runoff and sewage release (Bellingham 2011). The local rivers in which free ammonia values were greater than 1mg/L are the Mausica, Guanapo, Maracas and Tacarigua Rivers. These rivers receive effluents from housing developments, agriculture and lifestock rearing and industrial effluent from food processing, brewing and distilling companies (NRA 2005; IMA 2001). 7. Nitrates Nitrate ion (NO3-) is the common form of nitrogen in natural water (Bellingham 2011). Natural sources of nitrates include igneous rock, plant decay and animal debris. Nitrate levels over 5mg/L indicate manmade pollution which include fertilizers, livestock, urban runoff, septic tanks and wastewater discharges. In general, nitrates are less toxic to people than ammonia or nitrites however, they are toxic to infants. In the environment, nitrates will become toxic to fish at about 30 mg/L. Nitrate pollution will cause eutrophication or algal blooms where algae and aquatic plant growth will consume the oxygen and increase the TSS of the water (Bellingham 2011). Locally, nitrate values range between 0-6.5 mg/L across the country, however the most commonly measured value was 1.0mg/L.

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Small scale farming (a) and large scale livestock farming (b) which contribute to high nitrate levels in local rivers.

8. Hydrocarbons (PAH)
PAHs are compounds formed from the incomplete burning of carbon-containing materials like oil, wood, garbage or coal (ATSDR 1995, 1996; WWF 1997; WDHFS 2000; Bellingham 2011). Automobile exhaust, industrial emissions and smoke from burning wood, charcoal and tobacco contain high levels of PAHs (Bellingham 2011). PAHs can enter surface waters through discharges from industrial plants and waste water treatment plants. PAHs in general do not easily dissolve in water. They are present in air as vapors or stuck to the surfaces of small solid particles and can travel long distances before they return to earth in rainfall or particle settling (ATSDR 1995).

Major sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Trinidad and Tobago.

9. Heavy metals
A metal is an element which is malleable, ductile and is a good conductor of electricity and heat (Forstner and Wittmann 1979). Metals are the most widely used of all the elements in construction of buildings, in electrical circuitry and appliances, vehicles, alloys, roofing and food processing. Some of the more commonly used metals are referred to as heavy metals due to their large atomic size. 29

Metals are a natural part of the earths geology and organisms cannot develop and survive without the participation of metal ions. A metal which is found in the environment in trace amounts is considered to be essential when an organism fails to grow or complete its life cycle in the absence of it. It is well known that major ions such as sodium and calcium are essential to sustain life, but metals such as cobalt, manganese, zinc and mobidium are also important (Forstner and Wittmann 1979). Within recent times, mans activities have resulted in increased loading of trace metals to natural ecosystems at concentrations far above acceptable environmental standards (Bryan 1976; Forstner and Wittmann 1979; Adriano 1986; Manahan 2000). When this occurs, heavy metals become important pollutants because of their environmental persistence, biogeochemical recycling and ecological risks (Liu et al. 2003). Metals cannot be destroyed through biodegradation, as are some organic pollutants. Instead, metals change biogeochemical form and media according to prevailing ambient characteristics (Forstner and Wittmann 1979). They are natural components of our geology and their chemical reactivity and solubility make them easily transported by aquatic systems and accumulated by organisms (Bervoets et al. 1997).

Landuse Changes
There are several different land uses in a watershed: natural vegetation, deforested/clear-felled, agriculture, industrial, commercial and residential. Each of these uses can impact on the dynamics of a watershed. In addition to processes within the watershed, land-use changes also affect its physical and biological makeup. Natural vegetation/Forest versus Deforestation Forests play a significant role in the movement of water through a watershed. Their presence or absence both result in considerable benefits or ramifications respectively. Forests improve the health of the ecosystem and regulate processes within them. Recall the hydrological and nutrient cycles in Chapter One. Firstly, vegetation slows the movement of water as it enters and travels through the system. Secondly, forests regulate the flow of nutrients through the watershed. Trees capture, store and use nutrients such as nitrogen and carbon thus preventing excess accumulation anywhere in the watershed. They may then slowly release them in litter decay or through respiration. Without forests the watershed would quickly become degraded. Deforestation is the cutting down and removal of all or most of the trees in a forested area. Deforestation can cause soil erosion, contribute to desertification and the pollution of waterways and decrease biodiversity through the destruction of habitat (The Free Disctionary).
Figure 3.5 How trees affect water flows in the watershed (Stormwater Central, 2012)

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Deforestation also leads to the pollution of waterways. Forests act as physical and biological filters for many nonpoint source pollutants, whereas cleared lands serve as conduits for eroding soils and contaminants that flow directly into streams and rivers, or indirectly, through groundwater. Downstream effects of deforestation may include eutrophication of rivers and lakes due to increased nutrient loadings. Additionally, the acidity of drainage water may increase as organic material from the previous forest floor decomposes. This potential increase in acidity may be toxic to many invertebrates and fish, and also result in a release of metals from the sediment into the open water (Institute of Water Research, 1997). Studies conducted on soil loss in the Maracas Valley between 1984 and 1989 show that areas under cultivation lost 279 times more soil than areas under forest cover. Additionally, land under burnt forest plantation was found to be nineteen times more susceptible to soil erosion than land under unburnt forest plantation (Faizool 2002).
Table 3.1 Soil loss for an annual average rainfall of 161.7cm under varying vegetative cover between 1984 and 1989 (Faizool, 2002)

Agriculture Agriculture is heavily dependent on water availability. Without water resources there can be no easy/cheap solution to the growing of crops. Agricultural activities have tended to be concentrated near rivers, because river floodplains are exceptionally fertile due to the many nutrients that are deposited in the soil when the river overflows (Lenntech). Agriculture, like forests, does have several benefits to watersheds. Agriculture may protect water quality by utilizing pollutants from the atmosphere. Nitrogen dissolved in rainwater can be utilized by crop plants. The filtering of both inland surface runoff and rainfall helps maintain a good watershed quality. Agriculture also prevents flooding by increasing vegetative cover in the watershed compared to other land uses. Also, by increasing vegetative cover, ground water recharge is encouraged (Rutgers, 2008). Agriculture does however carry several disadvantages to a watershed. Firstly, the improper and extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides leads to water pollution. These chemicals are usually used in excess and during irrigation or rainfall, they are made mobile through water movement and enter water bodies. They may then enter organisms, combine with other soil surfaces or sediments and even kill aquatic species. 31

Furthermore, agriculture aids in soil erosion. As fields are prepared or left exposed after harvesting they are subject to water and wind erosion. Agriculture, especially on larger scales leaves the soil without natural barriers or buffers to these weathering agents. The increased suspended solids in water bodies then affect aquatic life and quality of the watershed. With respect to Trinidad the planting of crops, especially short-term crops, has been identified as a major source of pollution within catchments. The rearing of livestock was identified as a source of pollution, with chicken farming being the most predominant. According to a WASA (2011), it is estimated that farm waste produces over fifty-five percent (55 %) of the total waste load. Serious contamination of over four (4) waterways has been attributed to primarily farm waste. This follows from historical reports which all identified agriculture as a source of high Biological Oxygen Demand, excessive nutrients and heavy metals. One of the major mechanisms of initiating agricultural activities is deforestation via slash-and-burn, which has been identified as a major source of sedimentation in rivers (Gonzales, 2011). A Government of Trinidad and Tobago 1976 report stated that intensive sugar cane farming in the western parts of the island involved heavy, unregulated application of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers and there was evidence that these chemicals were leaching into the Caroni River Basin. Mahabir Sampath (1982) found that the levels of pesticides and herbicides, specifically organocarbons (OC) and poly chlorinated byphenyls (PCB), in water and sediments from the Caroni Swamp were higher than appropriate standards ten years after their use was banned. He was the first to recommend a regular monitoring program locally, with a focus on OC and PCB in order to monitor the fate of these compounds in the local environment. Industrial/Commercial Industrial/commercial activities often require large inputs of natural resources such as water and fossil fuels to manufacture or develop products or commodities. This then takes away from the watershed in several ways, with negative effects. The removal of vegetated surfaces to erect industries or buildings depletes ground water availability and increases surface runoff to water bodies. Increased surface runoff increases the likelihood of flooding and reduces the capacity of base flow to sustain biodiversity and water availability throughout the year. This also increases the input of pollutants from land, water and air sources as there is less vegetative buffering/filtering. Industrial/commercial activities usually add large amounts of pollutants to the receiving environment and with a reduced capacity to mitigate their effects the watershed may become critically affected. Modern industrial and commercial activities do however possess the ability to positively affect watersheds. Humans have created cleaner less demanding methods of manufacture and development. Laws and regulations have been put in place to ensure companies pay for their negative impacts on receiving environments such as watersheds. Importantly however, large industries and businesses also 32

adopt Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSRs) and fund many environmental projects. They may even go beyond the scope of their impact and ensure their country of operation or area of business maintains a healthy environment. There are a large number of light and large-scale industries within Trinidad, of which oil production is the largest. Industrial effluents have historically been identified as important pollutants, as far back as 1962 and because the governmental focus has historically been on development, industrial effluents continue to be a water quality issue. Contamination of the Caroni River and some of its tributaries with industrial effluents (notably synthetic organic chemicals) is documented. Industrial and other sources of heavy metals also contaminate water and sediments of these rivers at levels above the United States and Canadian standards (Gonzales, 2011). Ronnie Sookhoo (1987) established that there was a progressive worsening of the quality of water from the upper through the middle to the lower section of the Caroni River Basin and that this was as a result of the rapid industrialisation and urbanisation of the river basin. He stated that the polluted state of the lower section of the river was created by a policy of the Central Government to treat the Lower Caroni River Area as an open sewer, allowing industrial and domestic wastes to be emptied into the streams, most times directly (Sookhoo 1987). Residential and Spontaneous Settlements A residential area is one that is designed for people to live in (Oxford Dictionaries). Unlike areas which are predesigned for human settlement, spontaneous settlement or squatting is defined as the unlawful occupation of an uninhabited building or settlement on a piece of land (Oxford Dictionaries). While it is beneficial and necessary to develop human settlements it may also be harmful to the watershed. During the construction phase of these developments, vegetation is removed and the soil is left exposed. This exposed soil adds large amounts of suspended solids to water bodies. This in turn affects aquatic life and quality of water that may be intended for human consumption. In designing sites for human settlement, there are several major changes to the watershed. Firstly, unpaved surfaces are compacted and paved which reduce ground water recharge and increases surface runoff. As a result, it also increases the amount of pollutant entering water bodies. As the flow of water is disrupted so too are other processes in the watershed, such as, nutrient cycles and life cycles. The removal of trees and other vegetation also reduces soil fertility and habitat structure and space. This in turn affects population types, densities and numbers. As new niches are created as a result of changes in the environment different species may be given an opportunity to enter and thrive. This in turn puts competitive pressure on existing species. The creation of human settlements in a watershed also fragments existing populations. This fragmentation can affect faunal life cycles and feeding patterns as well as create border or fringe areas which further reduce the effective area for population dynamics and expose resident species to foreign threats. Spontaneous settlements pose other threats in addition to those mentioned already. Due to the unplanned nature of these developments no assessments were done to determine extent of impact on the watershed. Also, the methods of development may lead to uncontrolled degradation such as the 33

continuous erosion of slopes and blockage of watercourses. Waste removal or disposal systems may also be unplanned, creating sources of pollution and also affecting natural cycles. Squatting was identified as a cause of deforestation in the Northern Range. These squatting areas are usually located on river banks and are not serviced with proper wastewater systems. Aside from clearing lands for residential purposes, clearing via slash-and-burn is also done for agricultural purposes. The multiple impacts of deforestation, agriculture and poor wastewater management make squatting areas a risk for maintaining good water quality (Gonzales, 2011). Although human settlement in any form will impact on the watershed there are modern best building and construction practices as well as technology available to minimize these impacts. Eco-designs further reduce effects from human settlements.

Biology (1996 UNESCO/WHO/UNEP)


Most organisms living in a water body are sensitive to any changes in their environment, whether natural (such as increased turbidity during floods) or unnatural (such as chemical contamination or decreased dissolved oxygen arising from sewage inputs). Different organisms respond in different ways. The most extreme responses include death or migration to another habitat. Less obvious responses include reduced reproductive capacity and inhibition of certain enzyme systems necessary for normal metabolism. Once the responses of particular aquatic organisms to any given changes have been identified, they may be used to determine the quality of water with respect to its suitability for aquatic life. Organisms studied directly from rivers can show the integrated effects of all impacts on the water body, and can be used to compare relative changes in water quality from site to site, or over a period of time. Alternatively, aquatic organisms can be studied in the laboratory (or occasionally in the field) using standardised systems and methods, together with samples of water taken from a water body or effluent. These tests, sometimes known as biotests, can be used to provide information on the intensity of adverse effects resulting from specific anthropogenic influences, or to aid in the evaluation of the potential environmental impact of substances or effluents discharged into surface or groundwater systems. Most kinds of biological analysis can be used alone or as part of an integrated assessment system where data from biological methods are considered together with data from chemical analyses and sediment studies. Biological methods include assessing the presence/absence of certain species of organisms for example aquatic insects or fish or counting the number of members of each species.

Watershed Status (WRMU, 2005)


Trinidad and Tobago has a long history of watershed protection. As mentioned before, the first forest reserve in the Western Hemisphere, the Main Ridge of Tobago, was created in 1765 for the protection of the rains. Most of Trinidad and Tobagos existing forest reserves protect critical water resources. However, major changes in land use have taken place over the past 30 years. Forest cover has decreased from nearly 60 percent to less than 50 percent in the past 30 years and the acreage under urban development has increased substantially. These changes, which are the result of forest fires, 34

indiscriminate quarrying, slash and burn agriculture, demand for land development for residential, industrial and other uses, as well as other inappropriate land-use practices have impacted negatively on the water resource Trinidad and Tobago has historically enjoyed good potable water quality. Increasing pollution from sewage and industrial effluents combined with soil erosion and unmitigated development however, are threatening the quality of potable water while increasing treatment costs. At the same time, pollution can have significant implications for public health and natural ecosystems. The quality of the surface water resources is deteriorating in many places, as evident by high levels of biological oxygen demand, bacterial content, turbidity and the presence of chemical pollutants in rivers. The main threats are uncontrolled point waste discharges, in particular from industries and domestic sources, as well as the high level of erosion in the upper catchment of the watercourses. Pollution of surface water not only affects the production of potable water but also the ability of the rivers to provide productive habitats for terrestrial and aquatic species. In-stream problems due to pollution are further exacerbated during periods of low flows when the dilution effect is at its lowest. Most aquifers in the absence of thick overlying clay layers are very vulnerable to contamination. Although there has been no recent major incident of groundwater contamination, intermittent high levels of nitrates were detected in three sub-aquifer of the Northern Gravel System. A recent preliminary survey has also detected the presence of trihalomethanes, BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene), lead, and MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) in the groundwater along the EastWest Corridor. Although the levels pose no immediate danger, this indicates that there is a trend towards increasing health risks, which should be monitored, halted or preferably reversed. The potential sources of pollution to groundwater systems include hazardous waste dumps, underground fuel storage tanks, untreated sewage and industrial effluents. Flooding is a significant recurring problem in Trinidad and Tobago that imposes serious economic and social costs each year. It occurs frequently in both urban and rural areas leading to substantial losses of property, crop damage, health problems and severe inconvenience to whole communities. Perennial flash floods occur along the foothills of the Northern Range and in the Caparo and South Oropouche basins. The alleviation of flooding in the flood plains of the larger rivers such as Caroni, Caparo, North Oropouche and South Oropouche may require substantial investments in capital works in the short term. However the long-term solution will require land use control and source control, such as reafforestation to reduce runoff and the capturing of flood water resources in surface and sub-surface systems.

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Table 3.2 Overall status of rivers in Trinidad and Tobago Parameters (High) Habitat impairment (Low) Biotic Diversity (High) Nitrates (Poor) pH (Low) Dissolved Oxygen (High) Total Suspended Solids* (High) Phosphates (High) Biological Oxygen Demand (High) Heavy metals in sediments (High) Heavy metals in water % of sites with negative impacts 83 78 84 7 40 64 92 20 63 100 Status of the country Poor Poor Poor Good Fair Poor Poor Fair Poor Poor

*- Greater than 15mg/L which is the value at which TSS is recognized as a pollutant (EMA 2001)

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Integrated Water Management


ITS A THIRSTY WORLD

Resources

With the Worlds water resources under intense pressure from competing uses, the need for a more efficient and effective management system is required. Water is the center of our world. It is a vital resource that we cannot live without. It is necessary to sustain over 7 billion people, for food, sanitation, industries and other basic necessities as well as support our natural ecosystems. The Earth has less than 1% of freshwater available for us and we are already water stressed. As populations increase, (which it has exponentially), the need for water will increase three fold. That means. its a thirsty world.

A woman carries water across the dry-bed of Neyyar reservoir, www.bologi.com

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DUBLIN PRINCIPLES
The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development (1992), also known as the Dublin Principles, was adopted by the United Nations on the 31st of January 1992 at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE), Dublin, Ireland. This conference was the last technical preparatory meeting before the UN Conference on Environment and Development (the "Earth Summit") in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992.

The Dublin Principles have been the basis for much of the subsequent water sector reform.
1. Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource. It is essential to sustain life, development and the environment. Since water sustains life, effective management of water resources demands a holistic approach, linking social and economic development with protection of natural ecosystems. Effective management links land and water uses across the whole of a catchment area or groundwater aquifer. 2. Participatory Approach. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving user, planners and policymakers at all levels. The participatory approach involves raising awareness of the importance of water among policy-makers and the general public. It means that decisions are taken at the lowest appropriate level, with full public consultation and involvement of users in the planning and implementation of water projects

3.

Role of women. Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water. The role of women as providers and users of water and guardians of the living environment should be reflected in institutional arrangements. 4. 4. Social and economic value. Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good. Basic right of all human beings to have access to clean water and sanitation at an affordable price. Failure to recognize the full value of water has led to wasteful and environmentally damaging uses of the resource. Treating water as an economic good is an important means for decision making on the allocation of water. 5. 5. Integrating the three (3) Es: economic efficiency, equity and environmental and ecological sustainability.

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WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


Water is an essential natural resource that shapes regional landscapes and is vital for ecosystem functioning and human well-being. At the same time, water is a resource under considerable pressure. It is not just about supply but about how much water there is and how clean it is. Alterations in the hydrologic regime due to global climatic, demographic and economic changes have serious consequences for people and the environment. Human overuse of water resources, primarily for agriculture, and diffused contamination of freshwater from urban regions and from agriculture are stressing the water resources in the terrestrial water cycle. As a consequence, the ecological functions of water bodies, soils and groundwater in the water cycle are hampered (e.g. filtration, natural decomposition of pollutants, buffer capacity).

WHAT CONSTITUTES WATER MANAGEMENT?


Functions of water resources management are very complex and may involve many different activities conducted by many different players. The following components constitute water resources management (Adapted from CapNet Training Manual: IWRM for RBO, June 2008): Water Allocation Allocating water to major water users and uses, maintaining minimum levels for social and environmental use while addressing equity and development needs of society. River Basin Planning Preparing and regularly updating the Basin Plan incorporating stakeholder views on development and management priorities for the basin. Stakeholder Participation Implementing stakeholder participation as a basis for decision making that takes into account the best interests of society and the environment in the development and use of water resources in the basin. Pollution Control Managing pollution using polluter pays principles and appropriate incentives to reduce most important pollution problems and minimize environmental and social impact.

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Monitoring Implementing effective monitoring systems that provide essential management information and identifying and responding to infringements of laws, regulations and permits. Economic Management Applying economic and financial tools for investment, cost recovery and behavior change to support the goals of equitable access and sustainable benefits to society from water use. Information Management Providing essential data necessary to make informed and transparent decisions and development and sustainable management of water resources in the basin. Flood and Drought Management The approach to managing these extreme events will include prevention, mitigation, response and rehabilitation (GoTT 2005).

INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (IWRM)


IWRM is a process that promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems (GWP-TAC, 2000) The IWRM approach promotes a coordinated development and management of land and water, surface water and groundwater, the river basin and its adjacent coastal and marine environment, and upstream and downstream interests. The concept of Integrated Water Resources Management in contrast to traditional, fragmented water resources management at its most fundamental level is as concerned with the management of water demand as with its supply. IWRM has gained worldwide acceptance as a successful way to tackle the challenges associated with water resources management. Thus, integration can be divided into two (2) basic categories: The natural system, with its critical importance for resource availability and quality, The human system, which fundamentally determines the resource use, waste production and pollution of the resource, and which must also set the development priorities.

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THE NATURAL SYSTEMS

INTEGRATION OF FRESHWATER MANAGEMENT AND COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT


Water is the major integrating force in coastal resource systems and the freshwater issues in the upstream watersheds are inextricably linked to the water issues in the adjoining coastal zones. By definition, from a spatial point of view, a coastal zone includes all those areas that drain out to the sea as well as those that are either periodically inundated by the tides or are permanently covered by the sea, down to the edge of the continental shelf where the sea bottom slopes rapidly to deep sea (Clarke, 1977). From this, the coastal zone includes the coastal watersheds, flood plains, the rivers, wetlands, beaches, coral reefs, seagrass beds and other marine ecosystems to the exclusive economic zone where we hold our oil and gas reserves. This definition is what drives the ridge to reef concept that management must start from the mountains to the wetlands, the rivers to the plains and out to the sea. Marine issues cannot be held in isolation and the linkages between the inland activities and the marine environment must be realized. The driving concept of an integrated approach to coastal management embraces the merging of various sectors inclusive of the freshwater systems that act as pathways for the distribution of pollutants out to the sea. Not only is pollution an issue but sea level rise also plays a significant role in freshwater systems in particular salt water intrusion into aquifer systems that are utilized for potable water distribution to citizens.

INTEGRATION OF LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT


The integration of land management and water utilizes the impact of different land uses on the hydrological cycle. The hydrological cycle is the transportation or the movement of water between compartments of air, soils, vegetation, surface and groundwater sources. As a result land use developments and vegetation cover (including crop selection) influence the physical distribution and quality of water and must be considered in the overall planning and management of the water resources.

INTEGRATION OF SURFACE WATER AND GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT


One component of the hydrological cycle is the movement of water from the surface that infiltrates into the ground. The use of agro-chemicals and pollution from other non-point sources pose significant threats to our groundwater reserves known as aquifers, a water bearing stratum of permeable rock or soil to hold or transmit water. The linkages between surface and groundwater is unquestionable and for all practical purposes. Groundwater pollution is irreversible over a human timescale given present technologies and the remedial costs involved.

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INTEGRATION OF QUANTITY AND QUALITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


The amount of water available to us is irrelevant if the quality of does not suit our needs. Water quality management is thus an essential component of IWRM. The deterioration of water quality reduces the usability of the resource for downstream stakeholders.

INTEGRATION OF UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM WATER RELATED INTERESTS


An integrated approach to water resources management entails identification of conflicts of interest between upstream and downstream stakeholders. As water is used upstream this reduces the amount available to stakeholders downstream. The pollution loads discharged upstream will degrade river water quality. Land use changes upstream may alter groundwater recharge and river flow seasonality. Flood control measures upstream may threaten flood dependent livelihoods downstream. Such conflicts of interest must be considered in IWRM with full acknowledgment of the range of physical and social linkage that exists in complex systems. Recognition of downstream vulnerability to upstream activities is imperative.

THE HUMAN SYSTEMS


CROSS-SECTORAL INTEGRATION IN NATIONAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT
The IWRM approach implies that water related developments within all economic and social sectors should be taken into account in the overall management of the water resources. Thus, water resources policy must be integrated with national economic policy, as well as with national sectoral policies. Conversely, economic and social policies need to take account of the water resource implications; for instance, national energy and food policies may have profound impact on water resources and vice versa. The water management system must include cross sectoral information exchange and co-ordination procedures, as well as techniques for the evaluation of individual projects with respect to their implications of the water resources in particular and society in general.

BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR INTEGRATED POLICY MAKING


Cross-sectoral and integrated policy-making is extremely hard to achieve in practice but there are basic principles, such as: economic planners must carefully assess the inflation, balance of payments, and macroeconomic growth impacts before embarking on any large-scale capital investment program in the water sector;

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land use policy-makers must be informed about the water consequences downstream and the external costs and benefits imposed on the natural water system (e.g. deforestation or urbanization of catchments could alter water flow regimes and exacerbate risks such as floods). policies which act to increase the demand for water, should be developed with knowledge of the full incremental costs involved policies which effectively allocate water between various uses should take into account the relative values in use, measured in economic and social terms; policy-makers need to be aware of the trade-offs between short term benefits and long-term costs and of situations where the application of the precautionary principle can reduce total costs over time; policy-makers should be aware that subsidiary in water resources management is essential so that different tasks are undertaken at the lowest appropriate level.

INFLUENCING ECONOMIC SECTOR DECISIONS


The decisions of economic sector actors (from trans-national or large state-owned companies to individual farmers or households) will in most countries have significant impact on water demands, water-related risks and the availability and quality of the resource. These decisions will not be water sensitive unless clear and consistent information is available on the full costs of their actions. Importantly, incentives to take account of the external costs of their decisions have to be given. Education and shifts in cultural attitudes can play an important role.

INTEGRATION OF ALL STAKEHOLDERS IN THE PLANNING AND DECISION


The involvement of the concerned stakeholders in the management and planning of water resources is universally recognized as a key element in obtaining a balanced and sustainable utilization of water. But in many cases stakeholders represent conflicting interests and their objectives concerning water resources management may substantially differ. An important issue here is the need to identify and designate water resources management functions according to their lowest appropriate level of implementation; at each implementation level the relevant stakeholders need to be identified and mobilized.

INTEGRATING WATER AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT


Water is a renewable and reusable resource. Where use is non-consumptive and returned after use, mechanisms are needed to ensure that wastewater flows are a useful addition to resource flows or water supply. Without co-ordinated management waste flows often simply reduce effective supplies by impairing water quality and increasing future costs of water supply. Incentives for reuse can be provided to individual users but to be effective reuse opportunities have to be designed into the political, economic, social and administrative systems. 45

cr
ENABLING
ENVIRONMENT

Cross

Water Water for people Water for Food Water for Nature for industry and other uses
Figur 4.1 IWRM and its

INSTITUTIONAL
ROLES

MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS

KEY OBJECTIVES
IWRM explicitly challenges conventional, fractional water development and management systems and places emphasis on an integrated approach with more coordinated decision making across sector and scales. It recognizes that exclusively top-down, supply oriented, technically based and sectoral approaches to water management are imposing unsustainable high economic costs on human societies and on the natural environment. This integrated approach to water management is not a one shot approach but a process that achieves three (3) key strategic objectives: 1. Efficiency to make water resources go as far as possible 2. Equity in the allocation of water across different social and economic groups 3. Environmentally sustainable, to protect the water resources base and associated ecosystems.

IWRM PILLARS
Enabling environment
A proper enabling environment ensures the rights and assets of all stakeholders (individuals as well as public and private sector organizations and companies, women as well as men, the poor as well as the better off), and protects public assets such as intrinsic environmental values. Basically the enabling environment is determined by national, provincial and local policies and legislation that constitute the rules of the game and facilitates all stakeholders to play their respective roles in the development and management of water resources. It also includes the forums and mechanisms, information and capacity46

building, created to establish these rules of the game and to facilitate and exercise stakeholder participation. Areas to target for change: Policies setting goals for water use, protection and conservation. Policy development gives an opportunity for setting national objectives for managing water resources and water service delivery within a framework of overall development goals. Legislative framework the rules to follow to achieve policies and goals. The required water laws cover ownership of water, permits to use (or pollute) it, the transferability of those permits, and customary entitlements. They underpin regulatory norms for e.g. conservation, protection, priorities, and conflict management. Financing and incentive structures allocating financial resources to meet water needs. Water projects tend to be indivisible and capital-intensive, and many countries have major backlogs in developing water infrastructure. Countries need smart national and international financing approaches and appropriate incentives to achieve development goals. Financial resources need also be allocated to public sector financing e.g. for the management of the resource, not only the water services. This requires comparatively small budgets, which give huge benefits because proper resource management minimizes the risk of misallocations by applying IWRM, securing sound data acquisition etc.

Institutional roles
It is often said that the current water crisis is mainly a crisis of governance, much more than a crisis of water shortage or water pollution per se. In the context of IWRM governance is defined as the range of political, social, economic and administrative systems that are in place (or need to be in place) to develop and manage water resources and the delivery of water services, at different levels of society. Water governance deals with the design and implementation of public policies for sustainable water investments and management that elicit the support of all sections of society government at different levels, private sector, civil society, communities and different user groups. 1. creating an organizational framework 2. institutional capacity building

Management instruments
Management instruments are the elements and methods that enable and help decision-makers to make rational and informed choices between alternative actions. These include a wide range of methods, both quantitative and qualitative, based on disciplines such as hydrology, hydraulics, environmental sciences, system engineering, legal sciences, sociology and economics. 47

Water resources assessment: Considers the collection, analysis, and modeling of the information from the physical (specifically hydrological), biological and human medium related to the management of water. Plans for IWRM: Includes tools for the planning process, integrating environmental, social and economic aspects of the management of hydrological resources. Demand Management: Refers to actions that are oriented to improving the efficiency in use, conservation, recycling and reuse of water. Social Change Instruments: Considers the instruments that seek to improve water management through a change in the behavior of the different parties that are involved in its management. Conflict Resolution: Includes those tools that seek to foresee, prevent and manage the conflicts, avoiding ending up in an impasse and favoring the construction of win-win solutions. Regulatory Instruments: Considers the regulatory standards that require or allow for certain actions, or prescribe a number of results in relation to water management, services associated to water, or usage of the land. Economic Instruments: Economic mechanisms such as the development of markets, pricing systems, fines and subsidies oriented to obtaining a greater efficiency in water allocation, seizing and conservation of the hydrological resources by the users, or the correct provision of services associated to water are introduced. Information Management and Exchange: Includes the instruments that seek to place the information in the power of the different stakeholders, specialists and general public, in order to improve the participation and the decision making process.

APPLICATION OF IWRM
IWRM is a process and should not be considered a one-shot approach. It is one that is long-term and forward-moving but iterative rather than linear in nature. It is a process of change which seeks to shift water development and management systems from their currently unsustainable forms; IWRM has no fixed beginnings or endings. There is not one correct administrative model. The art of IWRM lies in selecting, adjusting and applying the right mix of these tools for a given situation. Agreeing on milestones and time-frames for completing the strategy is critical for success. Implementation may take place on a step-by-step basis, in terms of geographical scope and the sequence and timing of reforms. Scope, timing, and content of measures can be adjusted according to experience. This offers room for change, improvement and process adjustment, provided that the proper bases for sound decision making have been established. In developing a strategy and framework for change, it is important to recognize that the process of change is unlikely to be rapid. 48

ESTABLISH STATUS AND


OVERALL GOALS Water resources issues Goals and objectives

MONITOR AND EVALUATE


PROGRESS Indicators of progress

towards IWRM and water infrastructure development framework -

BUILD COMMITMENT TO
REFORM PROCESS Political will Public Awareness Multi stakeholder dialogue

THE IWRM
IMPLEMENT FRAMEWORK
IWRM framework Framework for water infrastructure development Building capacity

PLANNING CYCLE
-

ANALYZE GAPS
Water resources management functions Management potentials and constraints

BUILD COMMITMENT TO
ACTIONS Political adoption Stakeholder acceptance Identify financing

PREPARE STRATEGY AND ACTION PLANS


Enabling environment Institutional roles Management instruments Links to national policies

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COMPONENTS OF IWRM
Managing water at the basin or watershed
This includes integrating land and water, upstream and downstream, groundwater, surface water, and coastal resources.

Optimizing supply
This involves conducting assessments of surface and groundwater supplies, analyzing water balances, adopting wastewater reuse, and evaluating the environmental impacts of distribution and use options.

Managing demand
This includes adopting cost recovery policies, utilizing water-efficient technologies, and establishing decentralized water management authorities.

Providing equitable access


This may include support for effective water users associations, involvement of marginalized groups, and consideration of gender issues.

Establishing policy
Examples are implementation of the polluter-pays principle, water quality norms

and standards, and market-based regulatory mechanisms.

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Intersectoral approach
Utilizing an intersectoral approach to decision-making, where authority for managing water resources is employed responsibly and stakeholders have a share in the process.

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Where are we?


Trinidad and Tobago has long struggled with the management of our land and water resources within our physical environment, our watersheds. Though not considered a water scarce country, water management has always been a challenge especially since water supply has always been the main focus for the country. Global events such as the Stockholm Conference on Development and management (Sweden, 1972) and the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (Rio 1992) have highlighted the critical importance of environmental considerations in sustainable development. The linkages between the growing population, water resources, the environment and the threat to sustainable development were raised at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (Dublin 1992). Water management cannot be successfully accomplished in isolation of the varying users of the resource. These stakeholders are not just the users in industry, agriculture and domestic but also the policy makers, the planners, the economists and the ecosystems themselves. Owing to the complexity of the issues involved, a better understanding is required for the integrated analysis of hydrology, water availability and water demand, relative to the socio-economic and land-use changes that are taking place in the watersheds of the country. Management of the water resources requires the evaluation of environmental factors that impact quantity and quality of the resource and influence water-resource management decisions. Management decisions must speak to the integration of strategies for the conservation of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems into planned, water conscious development activities.

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Current legislation places the responsibility for water planning, management, conservation and protection of the water resources under the ambit of the Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA), (WASA Act [1965], Part III Sections 42). The Water Resources Agency (WRA), a department in WASA has the responsibility in monitoring and managing the watersheds in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1987, the WASA established a Water Resources Committee in recognition of the need for an integrated approach to water management in Trinidad and Tobago. This Committee consisted of representatives from various governmental organizations and private sector groups, whose activities impact o n water. One of the most important achievements of this committee was the preparation of a draft Water Management Policy, known today as the Integrated Water Resources Management Policy (2005). Protection of the ambient quality of the water resource is a major environmental need, since water, like any resource, must be available for use in sufficient quantity and quality, at a location and over a period of time appropriate to the demand. In many river systems of T&T, freshwater resources have been deteriorated rapidly due to pollution from a number of sources. Pollution not only affects the production of potable water by WASA but it also impacts upon the ability to provide productive habitats for terrestrial and aquatic species. River assessments done in 1962 identified the major sources of pollution were sewage; oil; domestic effluents, agricultural runoff and industrial effluent. The Caroni River, one of the largest in our country was being used as a drain for industrial discharge; this is the source of 35% of the populations water supply. Since then our river water quality has not improved but have worsened over the years as changes in land use evolve over time. Over extraction of our groundwater resources have left our aquifers at an all time low and these are not as easily replenished as our surface counterparts. The move to a more integrated approach to water management has been adopted by WRA, which seeks towards institutional development to create an enabling environment for the pursuit of proper management instruments necessary to foster an integrative action approach to water resources management.

Managing water at the basin or watershed


Watershed assessments are an integral part of managing of the water resources, where landuse and competing water related activities are investigated and the impacts determined. Consistent monitoring of surface water and groundwater, hydrological, hydrogeological and water quality. Quarrying, industrial waste and their impact on the water quality particularly in the Northern range. Education is of paramount importance and WASA does this via the Public Education Center (PEC), hosting of summer camps, school quizzes and tours.

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Optimizing supply
Yearly assessments on the State of the Water Resources to support allocation for water supply to various sectors and users. Water balance analyses. Alternative sources of water e.g. water reuse from the Beetham Wastewater Facility, Desalination.

Managing Demand
The regulation of water abstraction from raw water sources, by issuing licenses to interested parties. In times of decreased supply or drought, WASA establishes a schedule to ensure that water is not wasted and customers get the water that is necessary.

Providing Equitable Access


Everyone has the right to access clean drinking water WASAs drive to provide potable water to all customers. WASA has been on a drive to repair old pipelines in areas of decreased supply as well as establish new booster stations to areas that did not receive a constant supply of water, Rainwater harvesting in rural areas e.g. Biche, Matelot, Icacos. Water use efficiency.

Establishing Policy
In keeping with the Mar del Plata Action Plan of the United nations Water Conference held in 1977, which states Each country should formulate and keep under review a general statement of Policy in relation to the use, management and conservation of water, as a framework for planning and implementing specific programmes and measures for efficient operation of schemes. National Development Plans and Policies should specify the main objectives of water use policy, which should in turn be translated into guidelines and strategies subdivided as far as possible into programmes for integrated management of resources. There are numerous policies that guide the use and conservation of our nations water resources, they include but are not limited to the following: 53

Integrated Water Resources Management Policy (2005)


The Integrated Water Resources Management Policy (IWRMP) was approved by cabinet in 2005 seeking to establish the foundation of IWRM in Trinidad and Tobago. This policy speaks to the integration of sectors and maps the way forward towards improved legislative framework for water management. The policy provides an overview of the status of the countrys water resources and outlines the goal and objectives of water resources management. Some of the guiding principles outlined in this policy include: Water resource management will be participatory and responsibility for this will be delegated to local communities and non-governmental entities to the maximum extent possible. Users of water will have a civic duty to take no more than what they need and to take all reasonable measures to conserve water and eliminate its wastage. No actions will be taken that will result in the degradation of the ecological functioning of a watercourse unless measures are taken to mitigate or compensate for the negative impacts of the action. The cost of preventing pollution or of minimizing the environmental damage due to pollution will be borne by those responsible for the pollution. Efforts to improve water quality will favour pollution prevention over treatment. Priority will be placed on conservation and reuse of water over the development of new water supplies. The quality of service provided should meet or exceed established national standards. All inhabitants and institutions will have access to timely and relevant water-related information, allowing them to be aware of the state of water resources so that they may participate meaningfully in the decision making and management process. Water infrastructure will be as simple as practicable, minimizing the need for complex operation and maintenance programmes. If there are threats of serious irreversible damage to human health, ecosystem, aquifers, surface and coastal waters, watersheds, or water supply systems, lack of full scientific certainty will not be used as a reason for postponing preventative or mitigating measures. Responsibility for water resource policy, planning and regulation will be kept distinct and separate from responsibility for water resource development and distribution.

Other policies
National Environmental Policy (NEP) : this includes provisions for the designation of
Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs), integrated planning and designation of areas to protect coastal 54

and marine areas, maintaining strictly protected forest areas, and preserving representative samples of wetland areas.

National Forest Policy (2011): promotes the designation and management of areas for conservation
of forest biological diversity and sustainable use of forests. The 1942 approved Forest Policy and the 1981 and 1998 drafts provide current policy guidance.

National Tourism Policy: recognizes the importance of enhancing, protecting and preserving the
natural and social environment, including through the designation of areas for management. A 2007 draft has been presented to the public for comment.

Quarry Policy Draft: similarly takes note of the environmental and health effects of uncontrolled
quarrying on people living near quarry sites and the need to use tools to predict quarrying impacts on the environment.

Legislation

Some legislation that governs the use, conservation and protection of our water resources:

Water Pollution Rules (2001, Amended 2006) Created under Sections 26, 48 and 52-54 of the
Environmental Management Act, Chapter 35:05 (EM Act). The Water Pollution (Amendment) Rules 2006 was re-laid in parliament in early January 2007 and came into effect on 27th February, 2007. The overall objective of the Rules is to improve and preserve water quality in Trinidad and Tobago.

Environmental Management Act No. 34 (1995, Revised 2005): This Act is the legislative framework
for comprehensive control and protection of the countrys natural resources. It has a very important role in regulating land-use and land development, and the prevention and control of water pollution. The Act provides for the requesting of a Certificate of Environmental Clearance by developers before proceeding with certain types of activities. It also provides for the designation of environmentally sensitive areas in order to protect and/or conserve the nations natural resources.

Regulated Industries Act (No.26, 1998): This Act came into effect on June 01, 2000 with the
establishment of the Regulated Industries Commission (RIC) that has jurisdiction over standards for services and to impose sanction for non-compliance. One of the main objectives of this Act is referred to as Quality of Service Standards, Section 6 which is to ensure that service providers, such as WASA meets specified levels of service quality. This relates to water quality, efficiency, tariffs and customer service of the utility. 55

Town and Country Planning Act (1969): This is the principal legal instrument for regulating land use
in the country. It provides for the orderly and progressive development of land and gives power of control over land-use and its acquisition. Policy instruments are also available for restricting development below the one hundred metre (100 m) contour level, preserving trees and correcting injuries to any garden, vacant site or other open land.

Waterworks and Water Conservation Act (Revised 1980): This Act provides for matters relating to
the control and use of water in the country. It also provides for the making of regulations for the control of the supply and use of water in Water Improvement Areas and the prevention of waste or misuse of water in those areas.

State Lands Act (1980): Provision is made for the management of all state lands: the prevention of
squatting and encroachment, the prevention of injury to forests, and the settlement and allotment of State lands. The protection of our water assets is vital and any anthropogenic activity that can affect the quality, quantity and accessibility of these resources can also be governed under this Act.

Forest Act (Revised 1980): Provides for the


preservation of trees and by extension the upper watersheds which are crucial in the protection of our water sources.

Water

and

Sewerage

Authority

Act

(1965): This Act is intended, inter alia, to


ensure the development and control of the water supply as well as to promote the conservation and proper use of water resources. It also provides for the making of bye laws to prevent the pollution of surface and underground water.

Public Health Ordinance (1917): Ensuring the health of both the integrity of the receiving
environment (water quality) and human settlements (disposal of refuge).

IWRM Stakeholder Meetings Intersectoral Approach


One of the major milestones in the water sector was the establishment of the Integrated Water Resources Management Stakeholders Meetings in November 2009. Since then, there have been 10 general meetings and several sub-committee meetings. This elite group composes of over thirty (30) 56

representatives from Governmental Organizations, NGOs and CBOs that come together every quarter to discuss and implement the way forward in water resources management. The members of this group have gained a better understanding of the IWRM principles and the philosophy that it adheres to. Coming out of these meetings have been projects to improve our watersheds, water quality and the public perception and understanding of water related activities.

Roles and Responsibilities of Stakeholders


There are over ten (10) government agencies and ministries with interests in and responsibilities towards water resources management. There needs to be a better coordinated effort because this arrangement creates confusion in who has the jurisdiction for enforcement and responsibilities towards water. The following are the Governmental Ministries and Agencies Water stakeholders:

Organization
Water Resources Agency

Roles and responsibilities


Water Resources Strategy and Master Plan Water Resources Assessment Allocation Plan Establishment of Water Resources Policy Water Resources Protection and Conservation Plan Water Resources Stakeholder Coordination National Water Resources Information Management Water Supply and Wastewater Policies and Plans Water use efficiency and Conservation Plan Climatic Forecasting Land use plan and management Regulating land development and zoning National Physical Development Plan Coastal Zone Management Plan

Water and Sewerage Authority

Meteorological Office (MET) Ministry of Planning

Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) 57

Environmental Management Authority (EMA)

Standards and guidelines for Environmental quality Environmental Impact Assessment and CEC Environmental compliance and policing of the environment Setting Standards for water quality Petroleum Exploration, Production and related downstream activities Water Use Plan Mineral Extraction Plan (Quarrying) Irrigation Management Plan Agriculture water use efficiency plan Soil Conservation Plan Upper Watershed Management Plan Emergency management Plan for flooding

Ministry of Health Ministry of Energy and Energy Affairs

Ministry of Food Production

Forestry Division Office of Disaster Management (ODPM) Preparedness and

Solid Waste Management Company Limited (SWMCOL) Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards (TTBS)

Solid Waste Management Plan

Standards and Guidelines

CONCLUSION
Trinidad and Tobago is still far from being fully immersed into the integrated approach to water management and many changes have to take place within legislation, institutional arrangements and simply the culture and attitude in which work is done. A first step is the education of the youth with accurate information on best practices and the reality that is our water sector. Water resources management is critical to the well being of the country. However, water resources cannot be managed in isolation of the environment, the delicate balances between securing water for people, food and ecosystems, while maintaining the long term sustainability of the water resource must involve the management integration of the interdependent water, land and ecosystems. Management of the environment is the actual key to sustainable water resources management.

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5
59

Adopt A River Program


The Adopt a River project is an initiative to involve the community and corporate citizens in the improvement of watersheds in Trinidad and Tobago in a sustainable, holistic and coordinated manner. Currently, there are a number of organizations and agencies carrying out work in rivers, however, their work has not been regular or sustainable. As such, the Adopt a River Program is an umbrella managerial approach aimed at improving the health of watersheds and the people who depend on it.

The Adopt a River program will encourage the active participation of stakeholders within the river basin at all stages of the program life cycle. Stakeholders will design and implement projects that are applicable, implementable and sustainable, therefore, promoting a sense of ownership of the watershed and encouraging a commitment towards its rehabilitation and conservation.

Reasons for Adopt A River


Since 1962, improper sewage treatment, oil pollution, domestic effluent, agricultural runoff, quarrying and other industrial effluents were identified as the major sources of water pollution. More recently, work done on water quality, habitat impairment and biodiversity in rivers illustrates that overall local rivers are in a poor state and need urgent attention. The largest supply of water (60% = 132MGD) in Trinidad and Tobago comes from surface water sources which are rivers and streams. The total water demand is expected to almost double from 1997 to 2025. Presently, the annual water supply deficit is 14% and is expected to increase to 41% by 2015. In 2010, the estimated water availability for the country is 1477 m 3/yr, which is a drop of 1000 m3/yr from 1998 (2500 m3/yr). Deforestation, for housing, agriculture, quarrying and road-laying, has increased the incidence of siltation of rivers and severe flooding (Figure 5.4) Compensation costs paid out to affected citizens have also increased from $580,000 (TTD) in 1993 to almost $40,000,000(TTD) in 2010 Figure 5.2 Siltation in local rivers has been identified as a major pollutant to the Caroni Water Treatment Plant (Figure 5.3 and 5.4). This has increased the cost of potable water production. In 2009 2010, the production/treatment cost increased by $4,000,000(TTD). Siltation has resulted in a loss in water production. Climate change predictions indicated that by 2099, Trinidad and Tobago will become hotter and drier (less rain). The worst case scenario estimates for global warming have been surpassed and as such, climatic changes may be accelerated globally (IPPC, 2007).

800 Water Demand (MCM/yr) 600

Water demand values and water availability estimates for Trinidad and Tobago

3000 2500 2000 Water Availability (MCM)

400 200

1500 1000 500

0 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year 2015 2020


Domestic Unaccounted water Industrial Total Demand

0 2025
Irrigated Agriculture Total Availability

Figure 5.1 Water Demand values and Water Availability (MCM/year) - Trinidad and Tobago (1997 2025)

40,000,000 35,000,000 30,000,000

ODPM (relief items)

Dollars (TT$)

25,000,000 20,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Min of Housing and Environment (Emergency aid)

Min of the People and Social Dev (urgent temporary assistance) Ministry of Food Production (payments to farmers)

Years

Figure 5.2 Compensation Costs from flooding 2006 - 2010

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Figure 5.3 Monthly Turbidity values recorded at the Caroni Treatment Plant (2000 - 2010)

Figure 5.4 Heavy siltation affecting the Upper Guanapo Catchment, Caroni Treatment Plant which resulted in its shut-down in 2011, flooding of business in Maraval in November 2011 and in Saddle Road, Maraval in November 2011

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What is the objective of the WASA Adopt a River program


The overall objective of the Adopt a River program is to bring awareness to local watershed issues and to facilitate the participation of public and private sector entities in sustainable and holistic projects aimed at improving the status of rivers and their watersheds in Trinidad and Tobago. The specific objectives to be achieved by the WASA program are: Educating citizens of all sectors on the water pollution issues locally, how they contribute towards the problem and how they can help Fostering appreciation for the natural environment and by extension national pride whilst maintaining an open, sharing, facilitating atmosphere within the Adopt a River' project Promoting a volunteerism ethic to benefit all levels of society Empowering all users of water private and public sector agencies, communities and schools - to protect water resources and participate in water resource management Facilitating the involvement of patrons and sponsors in stakeholder empowerment and resource management strategies Developing and making available the necessary tools for training and empowering local implementing agents and other role-players Ensuring optimum efficiency through involvement and linkages with other existing programs and water resource initiatives. Managing the initiative towards achieving a change in culture and behaviour towards sustaining the health and aesthetics of a river

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The Adopt a River Process

Choose a river

Identify the issues in the river

Choose your projects or create one from within the following headings: Education, Reforestation and rehabilitation exercises, Clean-up programs, Water monitoring programs, School participation and competition, Community based projects, Voluntary Effluent Clean-up

Meet with the Adopt A River Secretariat - Water Resources Agency

Register with the Adopt a River program

Signing of the Adopt A River contract

Identify stakeholders from the area and from government or other sectors. This will be through the Adopt A River Secretariat

Community meeting to discuss project

Preparation of full project proposal

Submission to the Adopt A River Committee for ratification

Secretariat acts as an advisor and monitors progress

Performance appraisal and submission of final report

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Project Description
The initiatives under the Adopt-A-River program Participation in exercises can be direct (active participation) or indirect (funding or sponsorship programs). The participants are encouraged to adopt either an entire watershed or a part thereof and work within these areas, implementing any of the suggested projects. The adopter can also design their own project for implementing within their watershed of adoption, however, this project should meet at least 3 of the objectives of the overall program. Education Education is the foundation on which the following projects will be successful. Educational programs would include: School visits and lectures Community-based lectures and outreach programs Television and radio Websites Employee initiatives School visits and lectures WASA and other private and public sector agencies together with approval and endorsement from the Ministry of Education would launch a series of school-oriented environmental awareness activities including camps, lectures and workshops on water quality and conservation. During the school terms, representatives from the Adopt a River program would also visit schools around the country, delivering to them a standardised water pollution/conservation presentation. Students could be invited to participate in workshops dealing with various water topics. Much of the material presented is relevant to Trinidad and Tobago and can contribute to the understanding of water issues as outlined in their curriculum. The Public Education Centre at WASA can also facilitate such programs since they specialise in water education. Community-based lectures and outreach programs Wherever possible, registrants are encouraged to work together with communities to facilitate better water management practices. In order to implement these, the following steps can be taken. Registrants should identify the key community stakeholders within the catchment of interest. A list of community based organisations can be provided for ease of starting the Adopt a River program. They should then communicate their interest to implement the Adopt a River program within their area. Registrants should host talks and exchange sessions where they communicate with communities about water pollution sources and solutions and how they can help improve the issues.

64

In the case of residential, agricultural, commercial and industrial areas, these exchange sessions should also include discussion on WASAs water supply issues and monitoring of water usage (policing) during the dry season. In the case of agricultural areas or other land management issues, registrants should visit these with a view towards advising on proper agricultural or land management practices and features that may be able to reduce water pollution from agriculture for example, buffer zone. These can also be discussed in the talks/exchange session. This should be done in conjunction with other important stakeholders such as the Ministry of Food Production, Land and Marine Affairs (MFPLMA), Ministry of Planning Economic and Social Restructuring and Gender Affairs, etc.. Television advertisements and segments Following the Chase Charlie Away Program, there is a need to create a new series of similar environmentally conscious video and radio advertisements that draw the support of the public. Currently, environmental videos tend to be very informational and stoic, thereby emitting no emotive response from the viewer. Videos should be personal in order for viewers to relate to the issues being addressed, thereby encouraging responsibility and ownership for our water resources. Radio interviews and discussions with experts in the field of water management or water monitoring and assessment, as well as persons who have been able to sustainably manage their water supply or have been severely affected by poor management can appeal to the general public for their participation in exercises which would help to reduce the negative impact on rivers. Websites An Adopt-A-River website will be a complete source of information pertaining to the program itself and for the purpose of understanding the issues that affect water locally. The website will be geared to different age groups with pages and links available for children (3-12yrs), teenagers (13-20 yrs) and adults. Videos, music, games, articles, blogs and other methods of informing and educating via entertainment will be made available online. Employee Initiatives Corporate entities should get their employees involved in their environmental projects since there is a need to propagate a heightened environmental consciousness from within an organization. This initiative involves staff members actively participating in environmental projects such as maintaining the aesthetics of the rivers or tree planting. One example of this initiative is the Best Kept Facility Competition (BKFC) which is currently ongoing within WASA. The BKFC initiative involves WASA employees participating in clean-up projects at all facilities, including those at which water is being extracted or treated. It is recommended that incentives be awarded to employees who regularly participate in these activities. Incentives could include: company organized limes, cinema tickets, vouchers for fast food or invitations to attend cultural events. Two possible benefits of this program include the reduced cost of 65

maintenance of the adopted river (since the manpower comes from within the organization) and building employee morale. WASA held a Clean and Beautification project at the Kelly Weir in 2010 and was supported by staff members. In exchange, they were provided with lunch and refreshments and a token of a clean-up teeshirt. This is a very good example of a local company employee-supported environmental program.

Figure 5.5 Clean and Beautification project hosted by WASA for the clean-up of the Kelly Weir.

Reforestation, Repopulation and Rehabilitation exercises Since deforestation has been identified as a major cause of water pollution and flooding, especially in the Northern Range (NRA 2005), tree-planting exercises can be done in catchments of greatest concern. Lack of vegetation along watercourses and its poor management has been identified as an important contributor to increased erosion and sedimentation of rivers (Maharaj and Alkins-Koo 2007) therefore, it is very important to implement a reforestation program, not only on river banks but also on deforested slopes and plains which become denuded regularly during the dry season. Replanted trees can serve purposes other than reforestation such as exotic fruit trees which are becoming more difficult to source. The trees listed in Table 1 are suggestions of these trees which are available from the Ministry of Agriculture Farms. Fruit trees offer an alternative source of income especially to those who practice slash and burn agriculture and it is hoped that this will deter further deforestation from occurring. Wa Samaki (2011) also has trees for sale and offers courses in permaculture for a small cost. They work with the Fondes Amandes Community Group and are another organisation that can be contacted for assistance in tree planting. Table 1: Possible trees to be use in reforestation project Chatigne Goolabjamoon Pipar Sapodilla 66 Mango Long Avocado Breadfruit Governor Plum Doodus mango Brazilian Cedar Pommerac Green Plum Starch mango Peewah Pommecythere Langilang

Kaimet SoursopAckee Padu

Immortelle Canistrel Poui

Guava Biriba Pommegranate

Genip(Chennette) Kola Nut Tonka Bean

Gaining the support of popular celebrities can also drive the exercise not only in terms of planting a tree but also in terms of providing entertainment during and after the exercise.
Figure 5.6 (a) Woman planting in Fondes Amandes, St. Anns (Taken from My Chutney Garden (2007))

Figure 5.6 (b) National Reafforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Program project in Kernahan. (Taken from Ministry of Education (2011))

As previously mentioned, the Fondes Amandes Community Reforestation Project (FACRP) is an excellent local example of a public/private sector supported project which has facilitated watershed management through community-based tree-planting and forest fire management. They receive funding from the National Reafforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Program which provides governmental financial support to community-based groups charged with the responsibility of planting and maintaining forested areas (Ministry of Education 2011). The Fondes Amandes Community Reforestation Project has received almost $150,000/year as salaries for 25 workers within the community since 1994 (Lum Lock and Geoghegan 2006). Additional funding of almost $300,000 has also been provided by the Green fund to employ a further 13 persons (McDermott 2010). After almost 30 years, the Fondes Amandes project has expanded to include organic gardening/permaculture, clean trees organic nursery, community eco-tourism; community recycling/composting; craft and cottage industry and music, culture and community empowerment. The FACRP has identified many benefits and beneficiaries of this project which include an improved water supply for WASA and their customers, reduced incidence of forest fires for residents of the area and cost savings in terms of forest protection and fire fighting (Lum Lock and Geogehan 2006; McDermott 2010).

67

Figure 5.7 (a) Clean tree Organic Nursery at Fondes Amandes, St. Anns, Trinidad. Taken from FARP (2004)

Figure 5.7 (b) Farmer involved in the IWCAM Courland replanting project (Taken from IWCAM 2011)

Adopters can also facilitate by repopulating forests or rivers with indigenous fauna which may have been lost from the area due to deforestation or water pollution. For example, adopters can reintroduce agouti into the forests after planting or they can reintroduce tilapia or cascadu into rivers. Since these represent alternative sources of food, it is hoped that this would be a further impetus for keeping the areas forested and the rivers clean. Clean-up programs This involves regularly cleaning up the watersheds to ensure that garbage or debris does not block waterways and encourage flooding. It would include regular clean-up exercises, landscaping and the establishment of proper waste disposal facilities as required. One possible example of a clean-up exercise would be a River Clean-up Lime where persons walk a particular length of a river, cleaning as they go and arrive at a particular point at which food is being prepared as in a river lime, just in time for lunch. One advantage of adopting a river in this manner is the possibility of using the adopted area for retreats and company functions such as family days.

Figure 5.8 Participants from the Guanapo Water Champion Training Program, sponsored by WASA (taken by Kyle De lIma)

A very good example of corporate participation in an Adopt a River program is in Japan where Mitsubishi Electric Shizuoka Works joined the "Adopt a River Program" in 2003 and has been sponsoring the Abe River volunteer cleanup activities ever since. The company reports that the amount of trash collected annually has been 68

decreasing and that the program has been instrumental in improving environmental awareness and actions among their employees (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation 2011 a and b). Another important manner in which clean-ups can be done is via sponsorship where workers could be sourced from communities within or outside of the catchment area. For example in South Africa, teams consisting of 595 workers were hired for the purpose of cleaning and maintaining the rivers. Some important benefits of the program in South Africa include the improved quality and aesthetics of the adopted rivers, removal of alien invasive species and a reduction in crime (Saving Water SA 2011). Water monitoring programs Since there is a need for continuous monitoring of our rivers, baseline water quality monitoring can be included aside from clean-up and tree planting exercises. A very good example of a community-based monitoring program is the ProEcoServ project which is being implemented by the Institute of Marine Affairs. Under this project, community and farming groups from the Caura/Tacarigua area have received training in water quality monitoring so that they can conduct monitoring exercises and also act as trainers in their communities (IMA 2011). The Globe Program is an international program that facilitates the coordination of monitoring of water, atmosphere and soils across the world. Corporate sponsors should consider sponsoring a Globe Program Competition within the monitoring categories, thereby encouraging the schools to participate for monetary award, titles and trophies.
Figure 5.9 (a) The

Guanapo Community participating in water quality testing Figure 5.9 (b) Students testing the water quality in the Couva River for the Globe Program. (Taken from Tinto (2007))

School involvement and competitions Schools can be involved in the Adopt a River drive in a number of ways: Tree Planting Exercise - Schools can participate in a tree planting exercise at least once per academic year . During these tree planting sessions, students gain practical knowledge on the methods of planting, learn local tree names and understand the need for implementing these measures to reduce water loss. A good example of this is school participation in the Fondes Amandes Community Reforestation Project (FACRP) which hosts a gayap to have students come and learn about their work as well as help with their planting exercises. Another excellent example is The Greening Project hosted by Wa Samaki Ecosystems from Freeport, Trinidad. This project has consisted of a number of phases in which students 69

were taught about seeds, planting, permaculture, nature observations, data recording and water conservation (Wa Samaki 2011).

Figure 5.10 (a) Students participating in Fondes Amandes Community Activities (FARP 2004). Figure 5.10 (b) Students being taught about seeds at Wa Samaki, Freeport (Wa Samaki 2011).

School Water Conservation Competitions A school water conservation competition can be launched where the school with the most impressive, inexpensive water recycling model wins. This system will be completely functional and a permanent addition to the infrastructure at the school with no threat to safety of the students. An excellent example of such a competition was the RBTT Young Leaders Program 2011 Water: Beyond the SurfaceSustaining Life, Securing Our Future. For this project, students were challenged to consider efficient methods in water management as they debate the theme and implemented projects that promote water conservation and protection. The winners built a greenhouse and used greywater generated from the school to irrigate agricultural plants.

Figure 5.11 Students of Brazil High School explain plans for using recycled water in farming. (Taken from RBTT (2011))

Another example is the Tap for Tap competition hosted by the New Jersey American Waterworks and Scholastics Incorporated. In this competition, classrooms of students between the ages of 4-14 years will sing and dance to a song they compose on the theme of water. Alternative competitions for creativity which can be implemented locally include an art (sculptures or painting, possibly made with garbage), photography, calypso or poetry competition.

70

Water Camps - Water camps, which would include activities in water conservation and monitoring, could be hosted on an annual basis to further educate children and young adults on the importance of water. Camps will be done for different age groups at different times.
Figure 5.12 Students participate in the annual WASA school camp at the Public Education Centre, St. Joseph.

Community based projects and competitions Community based clean-up projects and groups (see Clean-up Projects). Community based water quality monitoring (see Water Monitoring Projects). With community visits and exchange a level of trust can develop between communities and adopters which would facilitate the easy formation of a feedback system amongst participants whereby further water issues are easily communicated so that adopters and communities can work together to fix them. Best Kept Competitions-Registrants can also consider the implementation of a Best Kept River or Best Kept Community competition thereby increasing the awareness of communities on environmental pollution and the need for cleanliness. Voluntary Effluent Clean-up Most rivers industrial, agricultural and domestic effluents are major sources of contaminants. Hence, companies or individuals can become involved in the Adopt a River activities by voluntarily cleaning up their effluents before release. In many cases, companies which release their effluent into rivers have little knowledge or understanding of their impacts on downstream activities. For example, the Mausica River and Tacarigua Rivers receive effluents from industrial and residential areas and are still used by farmers to irrigate crops. Recently, the Water and Sewerage Authority has begun to crack down on water offenders (polluters, wasters and illegal connections) and as such, in order to avoid severe fines or litigation, it is recommended that persons or companies begin voluntary effluent correction. Domestic wastewater can be recycled thereby reducing the need for release into drains and rivers. Recycling techniques include using greywater to wet plants or using air conditioner water to wash cars.

71

How the Adopt-A-River will work All 69 watersheds across Trinidad and Tobago will be put up for adoption and participants are encouraged to adopt either an entire watershed or a part thereof and work within these areas, implementing any of the suggested projects. A list of possible watersheds to adopt is included in Table 5.1 .
Table 5.1 watersheds will be put up for adoption under the Adopt A River Program

TRINIDAD WATERSHEDS Toco Yarra Madamas Marianne Rest North North Oropuche Salybia Matura Chaguaramas Santa Cruz Maraval Maracas Tacarigua Guanapo Arima Hollis Arouca Aripo Quare Rest North Oropuche 1 Port of Spain Huevos Is. Monos Is. Chacachacare Is. Tunapuna Mausica El Mamo Gaspar GrandeIs. Carerra Is. Cronstadt Is. Orupuna Caroni Swamp Rest North Oropuche 2 Rest Caroni Swamp Guayamare Cunapo Cumuto Cunupia Talparo L'Ebranche Caroni Arena Dam Tumpuna Caparo Couva Nariva Upper Navet Rest West Lower Navet Poole Guaracara Ortoire Pilote Cipero South Oropuche Guapo Moruga Cedros Moriquite Erin Rest South

TOBAGO WATERSHEDS Tobago East Bloody Bay Louis Dor Tobago North Roxborough Richmond Goldsborough Hillsborough Dam Courland Hillsborough West Tobago South 1 Tobago South 2 Sandy River Hillsborough East Tobago West

The adopter can also design their own project for implementing within their watershed of adoption, however, this project should meet at least 3 of the objectives of the overall program. These programs can include elements from the suggested projects above or can include completely new ideas however, it must make a positive impact on the watershed of interestThe following are the key elements of the Adopt A River process: 72

Launch and Registration - The Adopt A River program is launched and advertised for the public. Invitation letters and registration forms will be sent out to all agencies across the country, especially those already identified as having an impact on or having some responsibility towards watersheds across the country. Brochures will also be made available online and from all offices of WASA. Information on the program will appear in the newspapers, television and on radio, both in terms of advertisements as well as discussions talk-shows. Those with internet access can also register for the program online. It is important to know before registering, the river of part thereof, that the organisation wishes to adopt. In order to guide their decision, WASA has ecological and/or water quality assessment documents which outline in greater detail the status of rivers across the country. An adopter can choose a river from the list or choose another which they would like to work on. WASA can also provide a list of community organisations within each catchment with whom adopters should communicate in order for full participation and success of the Adopt a River venture. Rivers are adopted for a period of 1 year during which organisations/NGOs/individuals are required to organise and participate in at least three clean-ups and/or reforestation projects. Adopters are required to summarise the kind of project they wish to embark on when registering. They are also encouraged to implement other measures listed below which include corporate initiatives to encourage employee participation in environmental projects and participation in community-based or school-based projects. This plan only suggests rivers and projects that can be pursued under the Adopt A River program. There may be a stream or river which has not been suggested in these pages which an adopter wishes to work with and this is encouraged. Also, each catchment is very unique in terms of its services and problems and as such, adopters are encouraged to use their creativity in coming up with projects to implement under this plan. Mobile H2O Lab In order to carry the message of the program and to educate the public on water pollution and management, a mobile lab will be established (see section; Mobile H2O Lab). This lab will consist of water testing kits, informational brochures on water quality in Trinidad and Tobago and water conservation practices and biota sampling equipment which will be used to bring greater awareness of the rivers and their life. It is hoped that these activities at rivers will draw the support of the surrounding communities and thereby provide an open forum for educating them on their impacts and how they can reduce them. Collection of registration forms All completed registration forms will be forwarded to the Secretariat of the Adopt A River program from the different source locations. The Secretariat will be based within the Water Resources Agency, WASA at 179 - 181 Eastern Main Road, Barataria. The Secretariat will begin a database of prospective adopters and create file for each in order to track progress. Assignment to teams Completed registration forms will be assigned to teams which correspond to different areas of the country. These teams will begin the Adopt A River process for each applicant. This process includes:

73

Meeting with the prospective adopter After registering, support will be provided to monitor and assist every 3 months to ensure that adopters implement the intended plans. Support may include field visits to adopted sites and meeting with adopters and the stakeholders in their areas. An initial meeting will be held to provide background information on the status of the chosen watershed and the issues to be addressed as well as to suggest possible projects for the area. In this first meeting, the adopter will be informed of the terms and conditions and the rules. The initial meeting is also important in terms of planning for a stakeholder meeting in which representatives of the Adopt A River Secretariat, the adopter and all the stakeholders of a watershed come together to discuss the issues and how they can be solved. Signing of contract for AAR program Preparation of the project proposal Taking into consideration the ideas, issues and suggestions from the stakeholder meeting, a project proposal will be drafted for consideration from the Adopt A River Committee. If projects are not approved Work with the adopter in making the required changes for approval. If projects are approved - Work with the AAR Secretariat to implement projects which will begin with another stakeholder meeting informing the stakeholders of the approval and plan of action with respect to the project. Act as an advisor to the adopter until the project flows smoothly and progresses on its own. The Adopt a River Secretariat is committed to providing technical support to the adopters throughout the program. Monitor progress After 3-6 months (based on the project type), the adopter is required to submit a progress report based on particular metrics. After 6 months, the Adopt A River Committee members will be invited to review the overall success of the project. This will feed into the performance appraisal of the project. The Adopt a River committee intends to host an appreciation ceremony annually to honour those who have participated in the program and successfully met their annual project objectives. It is hoped that as the initiative develops, this appreciation session can also include tangible incentives for registrants so as to encourage their participation.

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Chapter 3
Abdul-Hamid, M. (2010, March 16). WASA declares a meteorological drought. Retrieved August 03, 2012, from Trinidad And Tobago Governemnt News: http://www.news.gov.tt/index.php?news=3483 BBC. (n.d.). Hydrographs. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from BBC - Intermediate Geography Rivers: http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/int/geog/rivers/hydrographs/index.shtml Carlsen, W. S. (2004). Watershed Dynamics. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from Google Books: http://books.google.tt/books?id=GXJyGa3uAikC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Department of Public Works, C. o. (n.d.). Watershed Resources. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/Public_Works/Sewers_-_Storm/Watershed_Resources.aspx Faizool. (2002). Based on GOTT 2009 biodiversity convention, Forestry Division, Watershed Management Unit. GENIVAR. (2009). The Development of a Water and Wastewater Master Plan and Policy for Trinidad and Tobago: Watershed Management Plan Final. WASA. Gonzales, R. (2011). The Effects of Urbanization on Water Resources in SIDS: A Trinidad Case Study. Institute of Water Research, M. S. (1997, January 28). Forest Land Cover Effects on Water Quality. Retrieved July 27, 2012, from http://www.iwr.msu.edu/edmodule/water/wtrfrm19.htm Lenntech. (n.d.). River water quality and pollution. Retrieved July 27, 2012, from http://www.lenntech.com/rivers-pollution-quality.htm Lucas, F. M.-K. (2004). A case study in pollution in a major river catchment, Trinidad. Second Caribbean Environmental Forum, (p. 11). Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Maharaj, L., & Alkins-Koo, M. (2007). Use of Benthic Macroinverterbrates to assess anthropogenic impacts in the rivers of Trinidad and Tobago. Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies report to the Environmental Management Authority of Trinidad and Tobago. St.Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies. McLamb, E. (2011, September 18). Ecology Global Network. Retrieved July 27, 2012, from Impact of the Industrial Revolution: http://www.ecology.com/2011/09/18/ecological-impact-industrial-revolution/ Millennium Assessment. (n.d.). Chapter 12 - Nutrient Cycling. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from millenniumassessment.org: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.281.aspx.pdf Ministry of Energy and Energy Affairs. (2009). Mineral Industry - Quarrying. Retrieved August 02, 2012, from http://www.energy.gov.tt/mineral_industry.php?mid=22 NEMA. (2000). Forest Fires In Trinidad And Tobago - A Background. Retrieved August 03, 2012, from http://wikieducator.org/images/temp/c/c6/20080722170356!Forest_Fire_In_TrinidadandTobago.pdf NOAA. (n.d.). What is meant by the term drought? Retrieved August 03, 2012, from National Weather Service Forecast Office: http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/fgz/science/drought.php?wfo=fgz North Carolina Cooperative Extension . (n.d.). Chapter 1: Watershed Assessment. Retrieved August 07, 2012, from On-Line Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Guidebook: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/wqg/volunteer/man_ch1.htm 76

ODPM. (2012). Drought. Retrieved August 03, 2012, from Office Of Disaster Preparedness and Management: http://www.odpm.gov.tt/node/20 ODPM. (2012). Earthquakes. Retrieved August 07, 2012, from Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management: http://www.odpm.gov.tt/node/18 ODPM. (2012). Fires. Retrieved August 03, 2012, from Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management: http://www.odpm.gov.tt/node/19/ ODPM. (2011, March). Flood Susceptibility Map: Trinidad. Retrieved August 03, 2012, from The Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management : http://www.odpm.gov.tt/sites/default/files/floodsusceptibility-trinidad_lg.jpg ODPM. (2012). Hurricanes and Tropical Storms. Retrieved August 07, 2012, from Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management: http://www.odpm.gov.tt/node/21 ODPM. (2012). Landslides. Retrieved August 07, 2012, from Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management: Natural causes of landslides include: O'Keefe, T. C., H. J., & N. R. (n.d.). Agents Of Watershed Change. Retrieved August 03, 2012, from The United States Environmental Protection Agency: http://cfpub.epa.gov/watertrain/pdf/modules/agents.pdf Oxford Dictionaries. (n.d.). Definition of Residential. Retrieved July 30, 2012, from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/residential?q=residential Oxford Dictionaries. (n.d.). Definition of Squat. Retrieved July 30, 2012, from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/squat?q=squatting Oxford Dictionaries. (n.d.). Definition of Watershed. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/watershed Rostant, W. G. (2005). Freshwater decapod communities of Trinidad and Tobago, M. Phil. Thesis. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies . Rutgers. (2008). Multiple Benefits of Agriculture in a Watershed (Salem County). Retrieved from http://salem.njaes.rutgers.edu/nre/benefits/benefits.html Schuster, R. L., & Highland, L. M. (2001). Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Landslides in the Western Hemisphere. Retrieved August 07, 2012, from U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-0276: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0276/ Stormwater Central. (2012, April 25). Stormwater Central - Urban Forests. Retrieved July 27, 2012, from http://managingstormwater.blogspot.com/2012/04/urban-forests.html Surujdeo-Maharaj, S. A. (2010). Heavy metals in Rivers of Trinidad and Tobago. PhD. Thesis. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies. TalkTalk. (2012). Hydrograph. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from http://www.talktalk.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0035316.html The Free Disctionary. (n.d.). Deforestation - Definition of Deforestation. Retrieved July 27, 2012, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/deforestation 77

The Water Resources Agency. (2001, March). National Report on Integrating The Management of Watersheds and Coastal Areas in Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from http://www.oas.org/reia/iwcam/pdf/trinidad%20and%20tobago/trinidad%20and%20tobago%20nation al%20report.pdf TheFreeDictionary. (2012). Earthquakes - Definition. Retrieved August 07, 2012, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/earthquake United States Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). What is a Watershed? Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://water.epa.gov/type/watersheds/whatis.cfm University of Rhode Island. (2011). Hurricanes: Science and Society: Ecosystem Perspective: What can a hurricane do to the environment? Retrieved August 07, 2012, from hurricanescience.org: http://www.hurricanescience.org/society/impacts/environmentalimpacts/ USEPA. (n.d.). Urbanization and Streams: Studies of Hydrologic Impacts. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/nps/urban/report.cfm USGS. (2012, July 23). Caribbean Seismic Hazard Map. Retrieved August 07, 2012, from United States Geological Survey: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/caribbean/gshap.php Watershed Assessment Associates . (2001). Retrieved August 07, 2012, from Watershed Assessment Associates: http://www.rwaa.us/ WRMU, W. R. (2005). National Integrated Water Resources Management Policy. Ministry of Public Utilities and The Environment. Yang, L. (2011, April). IS2104 Blog. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from http://jh402is2104.blogspot.com/2011_04_01_archive.html Keith E. Schilling. 2012. Baseflow: Where Groundwater Meets Surface Water. http://www.igsb.uiowa.edu/browse/baseflow/baseflow.htm Adapted from Iowa Geology 2001, No. 26, Iowa Department of Natural Resources

CHAPTER 4
Global Water Partnership (GWP): Technical Advisory Committee (TAC).2000). Integrated Water Resources Management: TAC Background Papers. Global Water Partnership. Water Resources Agency and Ministry of Environment. Integrating the Management of Watersheds and Coastal Areas in Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Public Utilities and the Environment, Water Resources Management Unit. 2005. Integrated Water Resources Management Policy. Government of Trinidad and Tobago WASA 2011. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Plan for The Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA). WASA, St. Joseph, Trinidad and Tobago. Pp. 120.

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Government of Trinidad and Tobago. 2011. National Protected Areas Policy. IWRM for River Basin Organizations Training Manual. June 2008 Francis, J. Water Resources and Management of the Environment. (Publisher unknown)

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