Joshua E. Johnson
xrs
= cross range, km
Q = heat load, kJ,cm
2
q = heat ux, W,cm
2
q
o
= freestream dynamic pressure, Pa
r = base radius, m
r
n
= nose radius of blunted cone, m
r
s
= radius of curvature of spherical segment, m
S = area of base cross section, m
2
i = time, s
i
J
= total mission duration, days
V
PR
= pressurized volume, m
3
:
1
, :
2
= superellipse parameters
V
o
= freestream velocity, m,s
x, y, z = coordinate values, m
o = angle of attack,
[ = sideslip angle,
; = trajectory ightpath angle; positive pointing away
from planet,
so
= shockstandoff distance, m
c = edge tangency angle,
j
:
= volumetric efciency
0
c
= halfcone angle,
0
s
= halfspherical segment angle,
, = density, kg,m
3
,
2
,,
1
= normalshock density ratio
= sweep angle, rad
l
= bank angle,
Subscripts
A = axial force, N
l = base
cg = center of gravity
conv = convective
D = drag, N
EI = entry interface, km (for Earth, h
i
is 122 km)
eff = effective
EV = entry vehicle
] = nal
Received 4 December 2008; revision received 4 August 2011; accepted for
publication 4 August 2011. Copyright 2011 by the University of Maryland.
Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.,
with permission. Copies of this paper may be made for personal or internal
use, on condition that the copier pay the $10.00 percopy fee to the Copyright
Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923; include
the code 00224650/12 and $10.00 in correspondence with the CCC.
cos(
1
4
m
1
)
:
1
n
2
sin(
1
4
m
1
)
:
2
n
3
1,n
1
(1)
in which m
1
corresponds to the number of sides of a polygon
:
1
=:
2
=1, n
1
and n
2
are modiers, and n
3
=n
2
to render sharp or
roundededge polygons. Increasing n
2
transforms a polygon
(n
2
<2) into an ellipse (n
2
=2) and then into a roundededge
concave polygon (n
2
>2). Example cross sections are shown in
Fig. 1, and ranges of values for parameters m
1
, n
1
, and n
2
are listed in
Table 1. This work uses n
2
2.0 to avoid regions of high heat ux
generated by corner ow that may be present around concave
geometries. Note that an ellipse is generated by Eq. (1) with n
2
=2
independent of n
1
and the chosen type of polygon. For any n
2
, oblate
(e < 0) and prolate eccentricity (e > 0) are considered. Once the
cross section is chosen, the heat shields axial prole, which is the
shape that protrudes fromits base, is selected. Three axial proles are
considered: the SS, the SC, and the power law (PL). To generate a
heatshield geometry, the axial prole is rendered and then swept
360
about the central body axis using Eq. (1), based on the selected
crosssection contour.
Figures 2 and 3 showthe SS and SCgeometries, respectively. The
PL formula y =Ax
l
offers axial proles with a wide range of
bluntness being controlled by coefcient Aand exponent l, as shown
JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY 39
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in Figs. 4a and 4b, respectively. The xedbody coordinate system
for this work is included in Fig. 2. In the xedbody coordinate
system, it is convention to combine the three orthogonal force vectors
C
A
, C
N
, and C
Y
into the two aerodynamic force vectors C
L
and C
D
.
This results invertical and horizontal components of lift (with respect
to the z axis) represented by L
V
and L
H
, respectively, for the cases
with [ 0. In calculating rolling moment stability, the sign of L
V
determines the direction of the positive rolling moment shown in
Fig. 2. This allows C
l.cg.[
to be negative for all statically roll stable
congurations. The moment coefcients are dened as the ratio of
the moment to q
o
S], in which ] is the length of the semimajor axis of
the base cross section. Additional details of both the static stability
and the heatshield shapes in this work are given in [17].
C. Entry Vehicle Mass Estimation
Mass estimation and scaling of the entry vehicle are based on the
mission prole, heatshield geometry, and dimension requirements
for incorporating the crew or payload. Vehicle scaling is necessary
due to the wide range of heat shields in the design space. High 0
s
, for
example, can allow the heat shield to encompass part of or the entire
pressurized volume. If the entry vehicle geometry is assumed to have
the same base height h
l
(top to bottom) as the Orion with 5 m, then
heat shields with base cross sections of high eccentricity would have
over 15 times Orions volume. To scale the entry vehicle, a heat shield
is categorized into one of four cases based on l
HS
. This differentiates
the procedures applied for estimating the pressurized volume based
on the heat shields geometry. The scaled vehicle must also satisfy
required crew seating dimensions. It is assumed that the seat dimen
sions required for a suited astronaut consist of a toptobottomheight
of 1.4 m, a width of 0.7 m, and a depth of 1.1 m.
Once the pressurized volume is closely matched and seat
dimensions are satised, the entry vehicle mass is estimated based on
the following empirical correlation [18]:
m
EV
=592(n
crew
i
J
V
PR
)
0.346
(2)
Based on the mission prole, Orions estimated mass of 7330 kg is
within 1%of the landing mass circa 2006 reported in the early design
phase [15]. The entry vehicle masses for this analysis are nearly
constant since heatshield scaling is designed to produce a pres
surized volume that meets the mission requirements as closely as
possible. Details on the method of calculation are documented in
[19]. This mass estimate is independent of heat load, which
determines the heatshield materials thickness in a detailed design
analysis. Several new heatshield designs are considered; thus, the
heat load for a given vehicle and ight path is unknown a priori. The
required iterative process, which would increase the computation
time by a few factors, has not been integrated into the optimization
setup. Some of the new heatshield designs would require
unshrouded launch due to their size. The presence of a shroud is an
aerodynamic requirement on some launch vehicle designs, but there
have been reentry vehicles launched unshrouded on successful test
ights including the ve aerothermodynamic elastic structural
systems environmental tests from 19631965 [20]. In this program,
the aerothermodynamic structural test vehicle was attached to the top
of a Thor launch vehicle. For unshrouded launch, there could be areas
of the reentry vehicle that are protected by the heat shield during
reentry, but not during the launch phase, and may require additional
material and weight for thermal protection.
Uniform density has been assumed here to calculate the center of
gravity location of the heat shield, and the prescribed X
cg
has been
arbitrarily modied to equal 75% of the uniform density value.
Bringing the X
cg
forward increases the feasible design space by
allowing more slender blunt bodies with higher L,D to be
longitudinally statically stable. Using the uniform density assump
tion is a limitation, as it does not account for the specic placement of
subsystems within the reentry vehicle geometry. In reentry vehicle
design, the placement of the center of gravity is important and
represents a signicant challenge. In some cases, ballasting or
redistributing mass may be needed to achieve the desired placement.
In reality, reentry vehicle conceptual design may generate a
signicantly different center of gravity than the uniform density
assumption used in this heatshield shape analysis.
Fig. 1 Examples of base cross sections.
Table 1 Superformula parameters for
roundededge polygons
a
(n
3
n
2
)
m
1
n
1
4 1.00
5 1.75
6 2.30
7 3.20
8 4.00
9 5.50
10 7.00
a
1.3 n
2
2.0
Yawing
x
z
s
r
s
y
Rolling
C
L,V
> 0
C
L,V
< 0
Pitching
Fig. 2 SS,
s
60
, n
2
n
3
2.
r
n d
l
c
Fig. 3 SC axial prole, r
n
=d 0:25,
c
60
.
40 JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY
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D. Trajectory Modeling and Validation
The University of Maryland Parallel Trajectory Optimization
Program(UPTOP) is applied for a threedegreeoffreedom(3DOF)
entry trajectory analysis [21,22]. Its capability covers not only
trajectory optimization but also heatshield shape optimization,
which is discussed in Sec. II.F. UPTOP uses a fourthorder Runge
Kutta routine to propagate the pointmass equations of motion for
rigidbody ight in a vertical plane [2123]. The time step is
normally set to 1 s. Arotating, ellipsoidal Earth model is applied with
a second harmonic gravity model J2 based on the WGS84
Geocentric Equipotential Ellipsoid model [24]. The U.S. 1976
Standard Atmosphere [25] is applied for h
i
< 85 km, and the
NRLMSISEE00 Atmosphere [26] is applied for h
i
85 km.
Trajectories generated with UPTOP are compared with those of
the benchmark Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST)
[27] inFig. 5. UPTOPis capable of optimizing multistage trajectories
where the vehicle may have multiple engines and fuel tanks. The
benchmark case [28] for the optimal space shuttle transport ascent
trajectory through space shuttle main engine cutoff is provided in
Fig. 5a to demonstrate UPTOPs comparable optimization capability.
The optimal pitch and altitude proles generated by UPTOP closely
match POSTs optimal proles. Additionally, the results from POST
as calculated by UPTOP match the POST proles. Validation for
Earth entry fromlunar returnat V
E
=11 km,s is givenin Fig. 5b. For
the given bank angle prole, which rotates the lift vector, the skip
trajectory generated in UPTOP matched POSTs and illustrates
UPTOPs suitability for highvelocity entry applications. The 3DOF
entry analysis assumes that the reentry vehicles are dynamically
stable, and a higherorder analysis would be required to determine
where in the design space this is and is not the case.
E. Aerothermodynamics
The primary physical mechanisms that contribute to the hyper
sonic aerothermodynamics, i.e., the aerodynamic forces, moments,
and heat transfer [2], in this work consist of 1) the surface pressure
distribution, 2) the velocity gradient along the heat shield, and 3) the
radiating shock layer. The local bow shock strength, imposed on the
vehicle by freestream conditions, strongly affects both the surface
pressure distribution and the resulting heat transfer along the heat
shield. The surface pressure distribution produces a velocity gradient
along the heat shield and sets the velocity at the edge of the boundary
layer. The resulting boundarylayer velocity gradient results in
convective heat transfer at the surface of the heat shield. The
thickness of the hightemperature shock layer inuences the thermal
radiative heat ux. Loworder methods have been applied to
determine the effects of these physical mechanisms on the aero
thermodynamic performance.
1. Aerodynamics
Modied Newtonian ow theory is applied to produce the
hypersonic surface pressure distribution about a bluntbody heat
shield design. This method assumes that the freestreamows normal
momentum is destroyed upon impact with the vehicle and that the
pressure is negligible on the portion of the vehicle not facing the
freestream[29]. The expression for the modied Newtonian pressure
coefcient is
C
=C
.max
(V
o
^ n,V
o
)
2
(3)
for V
o
^ n <0, and C
=0 for V
o
^ n 0, which represents the
region in aerodynamic shadow. The maximum pressure coefcient
Fig. 4 PL axial prole.
Fig. 5 Trajectory validation of UPTOP results with POST.
JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY 41
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occurs at the stagnation point, and it is calculated according to the
Rayleigh pitot tube formula [29]. Figure 6 presents Newtonian
results plotted against windtunnel data of the Apollo command
module [30]; note the excellent agreement. An indepth validation of
modied Newtonian ow is provided in [17] and indicates that
results are generally within 10% for aerodynamic coefcients for
high Earthentry velocities from both low Earth orbit and the moon.
2. Convective Heat Transfer
The properties of the hightemperature shock layer affect both
convection and radiation due to the presence of dissociated and
partially ionized air. Additionally, the heatshield geometry directly
affects the surface pressure distribution, and thus the velocity
gradient along the heat shield at the edge of the boundary layer. A
smaller local radius of curvature increases the velocity gradient,
thereby increasing the local convective heat ux [3]. Loworder
correlations based on empirical data account for these upstream
effects with a local radiusofcurvature term. The stagnationpoint
convective heat ux has been correlated [31] to nose radius and
freestream conditions:
q
s.conv
=(1.83 10
8
)r
0.5
n
(1 g
n
),
0.5
o
V
3
o
(4)
in which this work assumes g
n
1.
3. Radiative Heat Transfer
For a given set of freestream conditions and a shock layer with
emitted power density E, q
s.rad
will be greater for the heat shield with
the larger
so
[3]. Empirical results [32] indicate that the
so
for a
sphere is directly proportional to its radius as a function of the
normalshock density ratio. Kaattaris semiempirical method [33,34]
is used to estimate
so
for zero and nonzero o. This solution applies
relationships for shockstandoff and shock surface inclinations near
the sonic point for elliptical bodies at specic heat ratios from 1.0 to
1.4 for a range of high normalshock density ratios. For the present
work, it is assumed that the effective radius (r
eff
) for a given heat
shield is equal to the radius of that particular sphere that maintains an
equivalent shockstandoff distance at the stagnation point. Ried et al.
[32] offers an empirical curve t that renders an acceptable
approximation:
so
,r
eff
=
[(,
2
,,
1
) 1
2
(,
2
,,
1
)
(2,
2
,,
1
) 1
p 1
1
(5)
In this way, the
so
is incorporated in the loworder method by
means of r
eff
. As a result, this effective radius term is different from
the radiusofcurvature term applied for convection. Two q
s.rad
correlations are applied over a range of freestream velocities. For
V
o
<9000 m,s, the correlation applies the following form:
q
s.rad
=r
eff
g
1
(3.28084 10
4
V
o
)
g
2
,
o
,
sl
g
3
(6)
in which g
1
=372.6, g
2
=8.5, and g
3
=1.6 from [35] for
V
o
<7620 m,s, and g
1
=25.34, g
2
=12.5, and g
3
=1.78 from
[36] for velocities 7620 to 9000 m,s. For velocities above
9000 m,s, Tauber and Sutton [37] apply
q
s.rad
=4.736 10
4
r
H
eff
,
1.22
o
](V
o
) (7)
in which
H =1.072 10
6
V
1.88
o
,
0.325
o
and
](V
o
)
=
3.9320679310
12
V
4
o
1.6137000810
7
V
3
o
2.4359860110
3
V
2
o
16.1078691V
o
39.494.8753 9000V
o
11.500m,s
1.0023310010
12
V
4
o
4.8977467010
8
V
3
o
8.4298251710
4
V
2
o
6.25525796V
o
17.168.3333 11.500<V
o
16.000m,s
Thermochemical equilibrium is assumed. The curvet equation for
](V
o
) has a high number of signicant gures in order to have less
than 2% error with the published tabulated values [37].
The loworder heat transfer methods have been validated against
Apollo 4 and FIRE II ight data. In comparison with the ight
investigation of the reentry environment (FIRE) II calorimeter data
[38] shown in Fig. 7, the loworder code overpredicts the peak total
heat ux (radiative and convective) by 7%. Table 2 indicates
predictions of maximum total heat transfer within 9.2% of reported
values. Further descriptions of the method and validation are
provided in [12]. All of these heat transfer correlations are limited to
the stagnation area, and while this is appropriate for this level of
analysis, this work does not account for acreage heating, which could
Fig. 6 Modied Newtonian validation with Apollo windtunnel
data [30].
Fig. 7 FIRE II q
s;tot
with ight data [38].
Table 2 Apollo 4 comparison of total heat transfer [12]
Parameters Apollo 4, [8] Results, % error
q
max.tot
, W,cm
2
480 470 (2.1%)
Q
max.tot
, kJ,cm
2
42.6 38.7 (9.2%)
42 JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY
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have a signicant impact on thermal protection system (TPS) design
and requirements.
F. Optimization Setup
UPTOPs exible framework allows for an external code to
provide updated aerothermodynamics for a heatshield design
throughout the trajectory calculation. The aerothermodynamic
models have been integrated into the UPTOP setup to perform heat
shield shape optimization.
1. Optimization Method
Previous work [12] applied the modied method of feasible
directions gradientbased method to optimize over the geometric
design space (without trajectory analysis) for a single objective.
There were numerous local optima; over 200 runs were required to
locate the global optima for four objective functions. For the present
work, a more robust and global search algorithm is required to
account for both the additional complexity of multiobjective opti
mization and the broader design space with trajectory analysis.
UPTOPapplies a differential evolutionary scheme (DES) [21,39] for
this optimization. As an evolutionary algorithm, DESbases its search
for an optimumon natures evolutionary principles [40]. It begins by
randomly selecting an initial population of designs, and 100s of
iterations are required to settle on an optimal solution. Each heat
shield design, known as an individual in a population of designs, is
evolved throughout each iteration with other individuals based on
mutation intensity and crossover parameters. Details on DES and its
parameters are provided in [39,41].
2. Objective Functions
Three objective functions are applied in this work: minimizing
stagnationpoint heat load Q
s.tot
, minimizing peak stagnationpoint
heat ux q
s.max
, and maximizing cross range
xrs
. These objective
functions have been selected on the basis of 1) relevance to mission
requirements, 2) connection to lowperforming or restrictive
capabilities of existing bluntbody designs, and 3) the availability of
accurate physical models suitable for optimization purposes.
The peak heat ux of the trajectory determines which materials are
capable of surviving the selected entry conditions. Minimizing heat
load reduces the heat shields thickness and mass indirectly.
Minimizing them together requires the capability to y hundreds of
entry trajectories and to calculate the heat ux along all of those
trajectories. As a result, loworder computational models of the
aerothermodynamics are implemented to balance the need for
delity with the desire to have practical computational times. Heat
transfer is tracked at the stagnation point. There is more condence in
wellvalidated stagnationpoint correlations than in loworder
estimates of the maximum heat ux, especially when applied to a
wide range of geometries in extreme hypersonic conditions. They
also cost less computational time. In many cases, the stagnation
point heat ux is not representative of the heat ux experienced over
the entire heat shield, which is commonly lower, but its value is
usually on the order of the maximum heat ux.
Crossrange capability can enable additional landing options.
Existing designs such as the ~25
SS and the 70
SC have low
crossrange performance due to trajectory design and lowL,D. For a
vehicle ying a direct entry trajectory, lunar return with a hypersonic
L,D=0.30, the maximum cross range is limited to ~200 km
assuming a 5g constraint [1]. To increase crossrange capability, both
skip trajectories, which have been shown to increase cross range
signicantly [1], and higher L,D designs are considered feasible.
3. Multiobjective Optimization
In singleobjective optimization, the one optimal or nondominated
solution is better than all other solutions. In multiobjective optimi
zation, two or more objective functions are optimized simultaneously
to produce a set of optimal or nondominated solutions known as the
Pareto frontier. When two objective functions are optimized
simultaneously, a Pareto frontier has the form of a curve that
represents the optimal tradeoff between the two objectives. Shown in
Fig. 8, the results of minimizing Q
s.tot
and q
s.max
are provided
together. This Pareto frontier is composed of those solutions in the
feasible population that are not dominated with respect to both
objective functions; each point on the frontier represents an optimal
solution. In general, the Pareto frontier is a set of nondominated
solutions, in which one solution is better than another with respect to
at least one objective, but not all objectives [40].
Multiobjective optimization is used to optimize conicting
objectives. Since an increase in cross range produces a larger heat
load, maximizing cross range and minimizing heat load are
conicting objectives. Nonoptimal results may produce higher heat
loads than necessary for a desired cross range. Minimizing heat load
and minimizing peak heat ux are also conicting objectives. For this
work, optimal solutions are provided in the form of Pareto frontiers
between two objectives to highlight performance tradeoffs and
provide comparisons among axial proles. For entry velocities of 11
and 15 km,s, optimization is performed using two objective
function sets: 1) maximizing
xrs
and minimizing Q
s.tot
and
2) minimizing q
s.max
and Q
s.tot
.
The authors conducted a parametric study of the effects of
population size, crossover probability, and mutation intensity on the
Pareto frontier for maximizing
xrs
and minimizing Q
s.tot
in [42]. It
was found that the most comprehensive Pareto frontier for this design
space is produced with a crossover probability of 0.8 and a mutation
intensity that is randomly varied for each generation between 0 and 1.
An initial population of 390 individuals is applied since diminishing
returns were observed with increasing population. Twelve AMD
2.2 GHz Opteron 248 processors were used in this analysis, and the
time required per run was approximately 10 h.
4. Design Variables
For each axial prole, the design variables along with their side
constraints are listed in Table 3. For 0
s
, the lower limit of 5
provides
a blunt body that has a large but nite radius of curvature. For both 0
s
and 0
c
, the upper limit 89
, an aftbody
with an angle greater than 15
. Since
guidance laws are not considered in the trajectory analysis, optimal
trajectories with similar entry interface characteristics but with less
complex
l
proles tend to generate longer duration trajectories. A
compromise was chosen to be 2 h, i
]
7200 s, which is greater than
twice the upper limit to the estimated i
]
for the Orion CEV.
An arbitrary maximumaltitude for skip trajectories has been set to
3000 km. Anal altitude h
i.]
no greater than 75 km has been chosen
arbitrarily to ensure that the vehicles trajectory ends within the
atmosphere. This allows for higher L,D vehicle designs to be
feasible since their optimal trajectories may result in deceleration at
higher altitudes in the atmosphere. For V
EI
=11 km,s, a peak g load
of 6g was chosen since it is the maximum allowable acceleration
level for a deconditioned astronaut in a reclined position [43]. It is
also lower than the 7g that Apollo 10 experienced [44]. Preliminary
analysis indicated that, for a 15 km,s entry, this optimization setup
would be overconstrained with a 6g upper limit. This limit was
increased to 12g based on previous work that indicates a pilot can
sustain 12g for up to 60 s and still continue to perform the assigned
tasks [45]. Although this is not expected to conform with future
standards for manned Mars return, the results provide a sense of the
heating environment when entering at high hyperbolic velocities.
Results for V
EI
=15 km,s can be applied at least toward most
unmanned missions.
III. Results
Optimization has been performed using three types of heatshield
axial proles: the SS, the SC, and the PL. A heat shield with a
parallelogramform base cross section (m
1
=4) provides the largest
hypersonic L,D [12]. Since greater L,D increases crossrange
capability, this analysis focuses optimization on base cross sections
of parallelogram and elliptical forms, and blendings of the two. For
initial entry velocities of 11 and 15 km,s, Pareto frontiers are
provided for two multiobjective function sets: 1) minimizing heat
load Q
s.tot
and maximizing cross range
xrs
, and 2) minimizing heat
load Q
s.tot
and heat ux q
s.max
. Design variable distributions are
provided for selected Pareto frontiers, and specic designs listed in
Table 5 are discussed. Axial proles and base cross sections for the
specic designs selected from the Pareto frontiers are shown in
Figs. 9 and 10, respectively. Note that the base cross section for
design C is circular.
A. Optimal Congurations for V
EI
11 Kilometers per Second
1. Minimizing Q
s.tot
and Maximizing
xrs
The lowest possible heat load is expected to increase with cross
range
xrs
provided that down range is relatively constant or
increasing. A Pareto frontier is given for each type of axial prole in
Fig. 11a for cross ranges up to 1500 km and heat loads from 11 to
33 kJ,cm
2
. For optimal designs with
xrs
of 500, 1000, and
1500 km, the values of Q
s.tot
are 14.7, 22.6, and 29.4 kJ,cm
2
,
respectively. The optimizer produced similar Pareto frontiers for all
three axial proles. The PL Pareto frontier is expected to be the least
accurate since an articial effective nose radius is applied. All three
frontiers closely match for
xrs
> 750 km; close inspection indicates
that, for this region, the SC and PL proles are disguised SSs.
Figure 12 shows the design variable distribution for the SS Pareto
frontier shown in Fig. 11a. The transformation variable n
2
is nearly
constant at 2.0, indicating an elliptical cross section rather than a
parallelogram form is optimal for this set of
xrs
. These results
indicate that for lowL,Ddesigns, an elliptical cross section is better
due to its larger drag area (C
D
S =D,q
o
), resulting in a lower BCfor
a given m
EV
. For
xrs
700 km, nondominated or optimal designs
have highly oblate e =0.968, which is the lowest allowed value.
With an increased heatshield radius of curvature, this design allows
for less convective heat transfer. Higher e also increases the drag area,
thus decreasing BC. The nondominated heatshield geometry is held
constant by the optimizer until
xrs
=700 km, at which point there is
a jump in 0
s
from 6.8 to 18
, and
the geometric constraint [o[ [c 1
, e =0), an increase in 0
s
decreases the
magnitude [L,D[. Design A is in a similar part of the design space.
Since the [o[ is xed at 16
unless 0
s
> 15
would result in a
sufcient and incremental increase in [L,D[. The increase in 0
s
to
18
xrs
=700 km. Consequently, drag area is traded off with [L,D[ as
Table 3 Design variables with side constraints
Axial prole Prolespecic design variables Common design variables
SS 5.0
0
s
89.0
30
o 30
0.968 e 0.968
15.5
;
E
0.05
l.0
180
SC 55.0
0
c
89.0
0.15 r
n
,J 2.00
1.30 n
2
2.00
i
0
5 s i
1
7190 s
0
l.1
180
l.2
180
PL 0.900 A 10.000
0.200 l 0.650
i
1
5 s i
2
7190 s
i
2
5 s i
3
7190 s
0
l.3
180
l.4
180
[
44 JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY
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xrs
increases. Similar behavior is noted for the other axial proles
and not shown here.
For
xrs
250 km, optimal solutions use direct entry trajectories.
To increase
xrs
, the banked lift vector must turn the vehicle further.
This is achieved by steepening ;
E
to travel deeper in the atmosphere
for a given V
o
, increasing q
o
and thus, the lift dedicated for turning.
As shown in Fig. 12b,
l.0
is adjusted, pointing the lift vector slightly
upward, to keep the vehicle slightly higher in the atmosphere for
minimizing Q
s.tot
. The change in behavior of ;
E
and
l
at
xrs
~
250 km indicates a switch from direct entry trajectories to skip
trajectories. This crossrange limit for direct entry trajectories is
consistent with the work of Putnam et al. [1]. For a skip trajectory, a
steeper ;
E
is used to dissipate sufcient energy to avoid skipping out
of the atmosphere. Minimizing heat load restricts low [;
E
[ and
trajectory duration, while maximizing
xrs
and the deceleration limit
restricts high [;
E
[. For skip trajectories, larger
xrs
requires
l
to
approach 90
xrs
=520, 1010, and 1500 km, respectively. Design A represents
the SS geometry applied for
xrs
700 km. Its heatshield axial
prole is illustrated in Fig. 9, and its base cross section is illustrated in
Fig. 10a. The results shown in Table 5 indicate that, by using
design B, a 54% increase in Q
s.tot
is required to achieve double
design As cross range. Not only does q
s.max
affect Q
s.tot
but so does
the change in individual contributions fromconvectionand radiation.
By halving the radius of curvature of design B from 6.3 to 3.15 m
using 0
c
=60.4
, e =0.682, and r
n
,J =0.615, the q
s.max
is
approximately unaffected with q
s.conv
=140 W,cm
2
and q
s.rad
=
160 W,cm
2
. However, Q
s.conv
increases by 40% while Q
s.rad
decreases by 20%. As a result, Q
s.tot
increases by 20%. For a design
similar to the Vikings SC, 0
c
=70
, e =0.682, r
n
,J =0.25, and
Table 5 Specic optimal designs from two multiobjective function optimizations, m
1
4
a
Minimizing Q
s.tot
and maximizing
xrs
Minimizing Q
s.tot
and q
s.max
V
E
=11 km,s (Fig. 11a) V
E
=15 km,s
(Fig. 14a)
V
E
=11 km,s
(Fig. 11b)
V
E
=15 km,s (Fig. 14b)
Design variables A B C E F D G H
SS SC PL SS SC SC SS SC
Axial prole 0
s
=6.80
0
c
=60.4
r
n
,J =1.26
l =0.34
A =5.25
0
s
=8.1
0
c
=84.3
r
n
,J =1.29
0
c
=84.4
r
n
,J =2.00
0
s
=10.2
0
c
=84.3
r
n
,J =1.30
Base cross section n
2
=1.99
e =0.968
n
2
=2.00
e =0.682
n
2
=1.96
e =0.003
n
2
=1.98
e =0.968
n
2
=2.00
e =0.968
n
2
=2.00
e =0.968
n
2
=2.00
e =0.968
n
2
=2.00
e =0.968
Trajectory
;
E
(i
0
.
l.0
)
. . .
(i
]
.
l.]
)
o =13.7
6.01
(0 s, 59.0
)
(1440, 76.0
)
o =23.8
6.14
(0 s, 75.9
)
(1530, 55.1
)
o =30.0
6.29
(0 s, 97.9
)
(1540, 135.7
)
o =14.8
6.60
(0 s, 43.7
)
(248.4, 161.5
)
(1450, 137.4
)
o =15.9
6.44
(0 s, 143.5
)
(190, 40.7
)
(870, 84.5
)
(1214, 85.8
)
o =15.8
5.37
(0 s, 144.0
)
(267, 66.1
)
o =9.00
6.41
(0 s, 1.93
)
(219, 6.14
)
o =15.9
6.18
(0 s, 177.0
)
(197, 84.0
)
Parameters Skip trajectories Direct trajectories
n
max
, g 6.0 5.9 6.0 12.0 11.8 5.9 11.9 11.7
Q
s.tot
, kJ,cm
2
(Q
s.conv
. Q
s.roJ
)
14.7
(7.1, 7.6)
22.6
(14.9, 7.7)
29.4
(19.8, 9.6)
82.4
(13.6, 68.8)
65.2
(18.5, 46.7)
12.4
(7.4, 5.0)
76.7
(12.9, 63.8)
63.6
(16.3, 47.3)
q
s.max
, W,cm
2
(q
s.conv
. q
s.rad
)
250
(50, 200)
300
(100, 200)
380
(130, 250)
1930
(150, 1780)
1400
(200, 1200)
160
(60, 100)
1500
(140, 1360)
1100
(180, 920)
xrs
, km 520 1010 1500 990 1000 120 10 100
C
D
1.62 1.32 1.17 1.57 1.56 1.57 1.60 1.56
[L,D[ 0.22 0.36 0.50
b
0.22
b
0.24 0.24 0.12
b
0.24
C
m.cg.o
. ,rad 0.18 0.15 0.10 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.27 0.20
BC, kg,m
2
130 220 350 130 100 110 120 100
h
l.HS
, m 3.4 5.0 5.0 3.5 4.0 3.8 3.6 4.0
S, m
2
36.9 27.1 19.0 38.1 49.0 45.8 41.0 49.0
j
:.HS
38.8% 60.6% 58.5% 43.0% 41.2% 40.5% 49.1% 41.3%
i
]
, s 1440 1530 1540 1450 1214 267 219 197
a
m
EV
=7800 kg
b
The sign of L,D is negative for the listed o
Fig. 9 Axial prole designs from Table 5. Fig. 10 Specic base cross sections from Table 5.
JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY 45
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the q
s.max
increase is approximately 27% (to 380 W,cm
2
); at the
same time, the Q
s.tot
increase is 68% over that for design Bs heat
shield geometry. The results in Fig. 12a indicate that the optimal heat
shield geometry for skip trajectories at V
EI
=11 km,s is the SS with
nonzero eccentricity. Design C doubles the Q
s.tot
to triple the
xrs
over that of design A. Table 5 shows
xrs
, q
s.max
, and Q
s.tot
increasing
with BC as expected.
It is possible for Q
s.conv
> Q
s.rad
, even though the peak q
s.conv
is
less than the peak q
s.rad
. This situation occurs for designs B and C
when minimizing Q
s.tot
. Signicant convective heat transfer occurs
throughout the entire hypersonic trajectory, while radiative heat
transfer contributes signicantly only at the highest velocities for
V
o
7600 m,s. For V
o
< 7600 m,s, the q
s.rad
is less than
5 W,cm
2
.
2. Minimizing Q
s.tot
and q
s.max
Pareto frontiers are provided in Fig. 11b for q
s.max
ranging from
130 to 210 W,cm
2
, producing heat loads ranging from 11.8 to
19.3 kJ,cm
2
. UPTOP could not generate a Pareto frontier for the PL
form that followed behavior similar in form to the SSs and the SCs,
although the effective nose radius of the geometry was not
signicantly different. As a result, the output data of the PL form
were found to be inconclusive. This may be due to the lack of a
mathematical relationship that is sufciently accurate at determining
the effective nose radius for a given design with a PL axial prole.
The minimum Q
s.tot
decreases with increasing q
s.max
, as expected.
The trajectory designvariable distribution for the SCgiven in Fig. 13,
together with Fig. 11b, demonstrates that a shallower ;
E
yields a
smaller q
s.max
and larger Q
s.tot
. The optimal geometric congurations
are similar to those with low Q
s.tot
in Fig. 11a that use a direct entry
approach, as suggested by the shallower ;
E
and higher
l
, than those
reported in Fig. 12b.
Both the SS and SC geometries are relatively constant throughout
the Pareto frontiers. The SS geometry is 0
s
=6.83
, n
2
=2.00,
e =0.968, and h
l.HS
=3.2 m, and the blunted cone geometry is
listed in Table 5 as design D. The two Pareto frontiers are within
35 W,cm
2
of each other and within the calculated correlation
uncertainty. For altitudes from 66 to 72 km, stagnationpoint
convective and radiative heat transfer calculations were judged
against FIRE II ight data from [46] and highorder computational
results from [37]. The uncertainty of peak q
s.conv
is 20 W,cm
2
,
Fig. 11 Pareto frontiers for Earth entry, V
EI
11 km=s.
Fig. 12 Design variable distribution for SS designs from Fig. 11a.
Fig. 13 Trajectory design variable distribution for SC designs from
Fig. 11b.
46 JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY
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while the uncertainty of the peak q
s.rad
is 20 W,cm
2
for
V
EI
=11 km,s, and 60 W,cm
2
for V
E
=15 km,s. Differences in
q
s
within these uncertainties were not considered discriminators for
the selection of specic optimal designs.
Both congurations, the SS detailed above and SC design D, are
equally optimal. Comparing the two geometries at the freestream
conditions of q
s.max
for design D, at h
i
=73.1 km, and V
o
=
10.5 km,s, the SS would produce a different combination of heat
uxes q
s.conv
=40 W,cm
2
and q
s.rad
=140 W,cm
2
(compared
with 60 and 100, respectively, for design D, as shown in Table 5) but
result in nearly the same Q
s.tot
, although the radius of curvature is
14.3 m for the SS and 7.5 m for SC. In this problem setup, a highly
eccentric base has an increase in drag area, which reduces BC, and
thus indirectly reduces q
s.max
and Q
s.tot
since larger drag area
provides deceleration at higher altitudes for a given m
EV
. However,
the skip entry of design B has a 132% increase in time for which q
s
exceeds 5 W,cm
2
over that for the direct entry of design D. This fact,
together with a 0.77
steeper ;
E
, makes radius of curvature assume
greater importance for skip entry.
B. Optimal Congurations for V
EI
15 Kilometers per Second
1. Minimizing Q
s.tot
and Maximizing
xrs
Entry at V
EI
=15 km,s represents a kinetic energy level 85%
greater than entry at V
EI
=11 km,s, resulting in a Q
s.tot
at least three
times greater. Radiative heat transfer produces a majority of Q
s.tot
and
can be minimized by decreasing the radius of curvature to reduce
so
, which is smaller for a SC than a SS for a given L,D[
max
design.
The different thermal environment is expected to result in different
optimal congurations at 15 km,s than were found at 11 km,s.
Pareto frontiers are shown in Fig. 14a for
xrs
2200 kmwith Q
s.tot
in the range 60160 kJ,cm
2
compared with 1133 kJ,cm
2
for
V
EI
=11 km,s. The Pareto frontier of the PL is composed of
effective SS forms. For optimal designs with
xrs
of 500, 1000, and
1500 km, the values of Q
s.tot
are 64.5, 65.2, and 98.3 kJ,cm
2
,
respectively. All three axial proles followsimilar behavior: the Q
s.tot
increases ~12% from
xrs
=0 km to 1100 km.
The signicant difference in Q
s.tot
between the SS and SC Pareto
frontiers is caused primarily by differences in drag area. SS design E
has a 27.8% lower drag area than blunted cone design F because the
SS can maintain requirements with a smaller vehicle. Evidence of
this is shown in Table 5 where design E has a 12.5%lower h
l.HS
than
design F. Design E experiences q
s.max
at an altitude of 66.1 km, 2 km
deeper than design F, and sees a 26%larger Q
s.tot
than design F. Both
designs follow similar skip trajectories and experience q
s.max
at
V
o
=13.5 km,s. The trajectory for design F is illustrated in Fig. 15.
At 66.1 km, air density is 40% greater than at 68.1 km. Since the
normalshock density ratio is relatively constant between the two
altitudes with the same V
o
, the
so
does not change signicantly.
This results in a 40% increase in power density E, and thus a 31%
increase in q
s.rad
. This demonstrates the high sensitivity of heat
transfer to density, and therefore altitude for travel at hyperbolic
speeds through the atmosphere.
A proper balance of radiative and convective heat loads is
important for minimizing total heat load, but the optimal SS and SC
geometries produce nearly the same minimum Q
s.tot
. To isolate the
effects of trajectory design and geometry, the heat uxes for both
designs are compared at each others q
s.max
freestream conditions.
Table 6 provides a comparison of q
s.max
and Q
s.tot
generated at the
q
s.max
freestream conditions of designs E and F, respectively. At the
q
s.max
conditions of design E (h
i
=66.1 km, V
o
=13.5 km,s),
Fig. 14 Pareto frontiers for Earth entry, V
E
15 km=s.
Fig. 15 Heatshield skip trajectory of design F from Table 5.
Table 6 Max q
s
and Q
tot
comparison at q
s;max
freestream
conditions of designs E and F
Design E (SS) Design F (SC) Viking (SC) with
e =0.968
Freestream
Conditions
at q
s.max
q
s.max
, W,cm
2
(q
s.conv
. q
s.rad
)
q
s.max
, W,cm
2
(q
s.conv
. q
s.rad
)
q
s.max
, W,cm
2
(q
s.conv
. q
s.rad
)
Q
s.tot.
, kJ,cm
2
(Q
s.conv
. Q
s.rad
)
Q
s.tot.
, kJ,cm
2
(Q
s.conv
. Q
s.rad
)
Q
s.tot.
, kJ,cm
2
(Q
s.conv
. Q
s.rad
)
E: h
i
=66.1 km,
V
o
=13.5 km,s
1930
(150, 1780)
82.4
(13.6, 68.8)
1790
(230, 1560)
F: h
i
=68.1 km,
V
o
=13.5 km,s
1580
(120, 1460)
67.8
For h
l.HS
=4 m
1400
(200, 1200)
65.2
(18.5, 46.7)
1570
(470, 1100)
86
JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY 47
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design F would experience a 7%lower q
s.max
than design E yet result
in roughly the same Q
s.tot
as for design E. If design Ewere required to
have the same h
l.HS
as design F, h
l.HS
=4 m, then design E would
have drag area similar to design Fs (since they have nearly the same
C
D
), resulting in an equivalent BC. They would then y nearly the
same trajectories. At the q
s.max
conditions of design F(h
i
=68.1 km,
V
o
=13.5 km,s) and setting design Es h
l.HS
equal to design Fs,
design E would generate a 13% larger q
s.max
than design F, primarily
generated by the 22%increase in q
s.rad
. The resulting Q
s.tot
would be
approximately 4% greater than that of design F. At the q
s.max
conditions of design F, a geometry similar to Viking, except
e =0.968, would produce a 12% larger q
s.max
and a 32% increase
in Q
s.tot
over design F. This indicates that Q
s.tot
is sensitive to different
combinations of radius of curvature and
so
.
The design variable distributions for the blunted cone Pareto
frontier are illustrated in Fig. 16; the trends in these distributions are
consistent with those discussed for V
EI
=11 km,s (Fig. 12). Only
skip trajectories were captured for the SCas its Pareto frontier begins
at
xrs
=200 km. The SS switches from direct entry trajectories to
skip trajectories at
xrs
=170 km. As cross range is increased, the
sudden changes in geometry are produced by the optimizer to
incrementally increase L,D.
2. Minimizing Q
s.tot
and q
s.max
Pareto frontiers are shown in Fig. 14b for the SS and SC. The
results for the PL form were inconclusive for the same reasons as for
V
EI
=11 km,s (III.A.2). For the two Pareto frontiers, the geometries
are relatively constant, listed as designs Gand H in Table 5. Both the
SS and blunted cone geometries are very similar to designs E and F,
respectively. Similarly, the SS has a smaller h
l.HS
than the blunted
cone, thus having a smaller dragarea and resulting inhigher Q
s.tot
and
q
s.max
.
To isolate the effects of trajectory design and geometry, the heat
uxes for both designs are compared at each others q
s.max
freestream
conditions. Heat ux values are listed in Table 7. Design G
experiences q
s.max
at h
i
=68.7 km, V
o
=13.7 km,s, while
design H experiences q
s.max
at h
i
=70.4 km, V
o
=13.6 km,s. At
the q
s.max
freestream conditions of design G, design H would
experience a 26% increase in q
s.max
from its value at its own q
s.max
conditions. At design Gs q
s.max
conditions, this blunted cone
design Hexperiences an 8%lower q
s.max
than design G. At the q
s.max
conditions of design H, design G would experience a 21% decrease
in q
s.max
from its value at its own q
s.max
conditions; at design Hs
q
s.max
conditions, this SS design produces an 8% higher q
s.max
than
design H. The SC generates a lower q
s.max
at both the q
s.max
conditions of designs G and H in which q
s.max
is experienced.
Differences in Q
s.tot
between both cases are negligible. The q
s.rad
is
more sensitive than Q
s.tot
for these optimal designs. Since these
geometries are similar to E and F, the importance of balancing
radiative and convective heat transfer also holds.
The trajectory design variable distributions are given in Fig. 17 for
the blunted cone. For this objective function set, the aims of both o
and
l
are the same since
xrs
is not being optimized. For the blunted
cone case, o is constant, and the optimizer varies
l
to control how
much lift is applied to counteract gravity. For the SS case (not
shown),
l.0
is relatively constant at 0
xrs
of 500, 1000, and 1500km, thevalues of Q
s.tot
are 64.5, 65.2, and
98.3 kJ,cm
2
, respectively. For maximizing
xrs
and minimizing
Q
s.tot
, in general, the Q
s.tot
increases ~12% from
xrs
=0 km to
1100 km. For
xrs
>1200 km, although the optimal SS and blunted
cone designs produce nearly the same optimum Q
s.tot
with two
different sets of curvature and shock layer thicknesses, a proper
balance of convective and radiative heat transfer is necessary to
minimize Q
s.tot
.
As expected, it was observed that radiative heat transfer is more
sensitive to air density for entry at hyperbolic speeds than for entry at
lower velocities, including typical lunar return velocities of
~10.5 km,s. The blunted cone designs have higher drag area since
they are less volumetrically efcient, and thus decelerate 2 kmhigher
in altitude with 40% less air density. This reduces q
s.max
and
ultimately Q
s.tot
by 21%. The SScan satisfy the mission requirements
with a smallersized vehicle, which leads to the lower drag area and
higher Q
s.tot
. Due to the high sensitivity of Q
s.max
to drag area, vehicle
sizing and volumetric efciency can have important roles in
determining the required capability of the TPS.
For entries at 11 and 15 km,s, a highly oblate eccentricity e =
0.968 maximizes drag area, allowing deceleration at higher
altitudes, thus lowering both heat ux and heat load. As more
xrs
is
required, drag area is traded off with the need for larger L,D by
decreasing e. This behavior is consistent with previous work. An
elliptical cross section rather than a parallelogramformis optimal for
L,D 0.50, corresponding to
xrs
1500 and
xrs
2200 kmfor
V
EI
=11 and 15 km,s, respectively. The parallelogramcross section
could be applied to increase L,D beyond the capability of the
elliptical cross section, which is expected to increase
xrs
and
decrease peak g limits. The TPS would be required to handle the
expected higher Q
s.tot
.
This work has identied and demonstrated an approach for
optimizing multiple objectives in a broad design space using a
differential evolutionary algorithm. With the proper setup, it can be
used to automate the process of locating feasible solutions. This
approach can be used in a variety of disciplines to assess a broad
design space and focus it to achieve the desired objectives.
Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the Space Vehicle Technology
Institute (SVTI), one of the NASAConstellation University Institute
Projects (CUIP), under grant NCC3989, with joint sponsorship
from the Department of Defense. Appreciation is expressed to
Darryll Pines, director of the SVTI at the University of Maryland,
Claudia Meyer, programmanager of CUIP, and Jeffry Rybak, deputy
program manager of CUIP of the NASA John H. Glenn Research
Center at Lewis Field, the support of whom is greatly appreciated.
Gratitude is expressed to Falcon Rankins for software training and
support of the University of Maryland Parallel Trajectory
Optimization Program code used for planetary entry trajectory
optimization.
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50 JOHNSON, LEWIS, AND STARKEY
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