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UNIT II: A travs de la aplicacin de estrategias de lectura que incluyan las etapas de pre-lectura, lectura y post-lectura, se debe orientar

el proceso de comprensin hacia el desarrollo del vocabulario a travs de los siguientes aspectos morfolgicos: morfologa, cognados y falsos cognados, sinnimos y antnimos. Suffixes Nouns -ance -ence -or -er -ist Verbs -ize -ate -fy -en -ify -ish -ive Adjectives -able -ible -less -ic -ical Adverbs

-ian

Pertaining to

electrician compilation readiness, cleanliness, happiness conversion multiplexing measurement, requirement electricity magnetism freedom relationship, partnership

-tion, -ation the act of -ness -ion -ing -ment condition of action/state Activity state, action state, quality condition/state domain/condition condition/state

-ly

-ity -ism -dom -ship

2. Verb-forming suffixes:
Suffix -ize/-ise Meaning Examples computerize automate, activate, calculate to make -ify -en simplify harden, widen, lengthen, shorten

1. Noun-forming suffixes: Suffix -ance -ence -er, -or -ist, -yst Meaning state quality of a person who a thing which a person who Examples performance independence programmer, operator, biographer compiler, accumulator, processor, calculator analyst, typist

-ate

3. Adverb-forming suffix:
Suffix Meaning in the manner -ly of 1. Programming is an interesting job (noun) 2. Programming in C is interesting (part of a noun phrase) electronically, logically, comparably, slowly, quickly, automatically, carefully Examples 5.(Palabras terminadas en ing) Words ending in ing Observe que las palabras terminadas en ing se forman de los verbos. La forma ing puede ser utilizada como un sustantivo (a noun), parte de una frase nominal ( part of a noun phrase), o parte de un verbo( or part of a verb)

4. Adjective-forming suffixes:
Suffix -al -ar -ic -ical -able -ble -ous -ful -less -ish -ed -ive capable of being like, full of Meaning Examples computational, logical circular, rectangular, cellular, regular having the quality magnetic, automatic of Electrical Comparable Divisible dangerous, insiduous, miraculous

1. He is working as a programmer (part of a verb) Programming is an interesting job (noun) 2. Programming in C is interesting (part of a noun phrase) 3. He is working as a programmer (part of a verb)

characterized by helpful, careful without Like careless, meaningless Yellowish computed, processed having the quality Interactive of

UNIT II: A travs de la aplicacin de estrategias de lectura que incluyan las etapas de pre-lectura, lectura y post-lectura, se debe orientar el proceso de comprensin hacia el desarrollo del vocabulario a travs de los siguientes aspectos morfolgicos: morfologa, cognados y falsos cognados, sinnimos y antnimos.

reverse underPositive: reovertoo little Do again underestimate reorganize

too much overload

1. Negative and positive prefixes: 2.


Prefix Negative: uninimilirMeaning Not Not Not Not Not Examples Unmagnetized Incomplete Imposible Illegal irregular, irrelevant Prefix Meaning semi- half, partly Equi- Equal Mini- Small micro- very small macro- large, great mega- large, great

3. Prefixes of size:
Examples semiconductor equidistant minicomputer microcomputer, microscopic macroeconomics megabyte 3. Prefixes of location:

non-

not connected non-programmable with bad, wrong bad, wrong opposite feeling opposite action Against reduce, Misdirect

mis-

Prefix Meaning Malfunction inter- between, among super- Over Disagree trans- Across Disconnect antiglare, antistatic subAnder exOut

Examples interface, interactive supersonic transmit, transfer exclude, extrinsic extraordinary subschema, subtraction

mal-

dis-

disantide-

extra- Beyond

demagnetize, decode

infra- Below PeriAround

infra-red peripheral, periscope

5. Prefixes of numbers:
Prefix semiMeaning Half One Two Three Tour Five Six Seven Eight Ten Many Examples semicircle monochromatic binary triangle quadruple pentagon hexadecimal September octal decimal multiplexor, multicoloured

4. Prefixes of time and order:


Prefix AntepreprimePostretroMeaning Befote Befote First Alter Backward Examples antecedent prefix, preceding, precedent primary, primitive postdated, post-natal retrograde, retroactive

monobitriquadpentaHexSept(em)oct-

6. Other prefixes:
Prefix Meaning Examples

decmulti-

pro- before, in advance, forward programme, progress, procreation Auto- Self cotogether with automatic Co-ordinate, co-operate connect

con- together with

UNIT II: A travs de la aplicacin de estrategias de lectura que incluyan las etapas de pre-lectura, lectura y post-lectura, se debe orientar el proceso de comprensin hacia el desarrollo del vocabulario a travs de los siguientes aspectos morfolgicos: morfologa, cognados y falsos cognados, sinnimos y antnimos. READING SKILLS:

dont ask another students or the teacher about the words. Try to guess the meanings from the context. After you finish each exercise, you may check your answers with another student your teacher, or a dictionary. List the key words that you found while surveying. Write meanings for them, in your own words, as soon as you have read enough to know what they mean. WORDS MEANINGS

PRE-READING STRATEGIES 1) PREDICTION The title of a text may help us make assumptions about its contents. Understanding the first paragraph of a text may allow us to make a prediction as to what will follow in the second and so on. Reading as a confirmation of the readers assumptions can be both fast and effective. We should not forget that the reader brings a certain body of knowledge to any given text and this fact can be exploited to improve a reading efficiency. In your own words, what is the subject of the article?. Ask one question that you think the article will answer? 4) ASKING QUESTIONS ABOUT THE READING a. Do you have any boss?______________________________ b. Do you think that people dont need any bosses? ___________________________________________________ 4) SCANNING FOR SPECIFIC DETAIL: Complete the following sentences with information from the text. 2) BRAINSTORMING a. An interesting description of the modern era is the ____________________that describes the general use of technology to transmit information. The mainframe in the 1970s, the PC in the 1980s and the office network in the first part of the 1990s were ______________that drove massive product development and growth for the technology industry. ____________________________ include graphics and text on computers around the world, sound, video and simultaneous voice communications

b.

c.

3) INFERRING UNFAMILIAR WORD MEANING. When you want to guess the meaning of a new word, use the context. When you do the following exercise you should work alone. Dont use a dictionary, and

6) SKIMMING FOR GENERAL IDEA. Skimming is a reading used by good readers to find general ideas quickly. Readers skim for three reasons. 1) To anticipate the general content of a chapter they are going to read.

2) To decide if a chapter has the kind of information they are looking for. 3) To get the general idea of a chapter they do not have time to read.

the sentence. Do not look these words up in the dictionary until after you have guessed their meanings. a. In order to keep pace with the increased speed and complexity of business, new means of calculating, sorting and processing information were invented.______________________________________________ Thus, the Information Age implies a time for a revolution in the information environment for business and management.___________________________________________ Managers provide guidance, implementation, and coordination so those organizational goals can be reached.

Skim the paragraphs quickly. Then answer the questions which follow the paragraph. After you complete paragraph 1 through 4, reread the paragraphs carefully and check your answers. You may have your teacher or classmates time you. Try skimming each paragraph for only 10 minutes. The general idea of the article is that: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Paragraph 1 The main idea of paragraph 1 is that ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ The paragraph is mainly: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2 The topic of the paragraph is ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ DURING-READING STRATEGIES 1) FIGURE OUT THE MEANING OF UNKNOWN WORDS FROM CONTEXT.

b.

c.

2) LOOKING FOR THE MEANING OF UNKNOWN WORDS THROUGH MORPHOLOGICAL CLUES. Read the article again, as you read, completes the table and underlines the prefixes. NEGATIVE POSITIVE SIZE LOCATION TIME AND ORDER NUMBER

Read the article again, as you read, completes the table and underlines the suffixes. NOUNS VERB ADJECTIVES ADVERBS

Context Clues: students read printed materials; they use a variety of context clues to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. Research indicates that their use of these context clues can be improved by direct instruction. Try to guess the meanings of the underlined words in the following sentences from the text. Begin by underlining the words and phrases that give you the clues you need to make a good guess, and then write your definition of the word on the line under

3) UNDERLINE COGNATES AND FALSE COGNATES 4) SYNONYM AND ANTONYM ( LEXICAL RELATION) Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i.e. words with a similar meaning) for the following words. a) Management____________________________ b) Vast __________________________________ c) Inmense _______________________________ d) Converge______________________________ e) Implies________________________________ f) Significant_____________________________ g) enhance_______________________________ Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i.e. words with an opposite meaning) for the following words. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Private___________________________________ Modern __________________________________ Traditional _______________________________ Share____________________________________ Massive__________________________________ Instant___________________________________ Profit____________________________________ POST-READING STRATEGIES 1) ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS ABOUT THE READING. Discussion During the Industrial Revolution, people moved to the cities to be near their work. This led to the centralization of work and the growth of large organizations and cities. Before the Industrial Revolution, crafts people worked from their homes or cottages and had a certain control over their working hours. Today we could be witnessing the opposite, as telecommuters begin to operate from home. Telecommuters choose to live away from the cities, with all their noise, pollution and traffic. They work, from their homes or electronic cottages, on their computer and send the work to their employer by modem. How might telecommuting transform management?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ What advantages do you see in telecommuting for the employee and the manager? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2) PARAPHRASE. Read the article again and paraphrase the general idea

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ COMPREHENSION MONITORING. Evaluate your comprehension of this assignment;

Excellent ____ Very Good ____ Satisfactory ____ Poor _____