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Induction motor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An induction or asynchronous motor is a type of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction, rather than a commutator or slip rings as in other types of motor. These motors are widely used in industrial drives, particularly polyphase induction motors, because they are rugged and have no brushes. Single-phase versions are used in small appliances. Although most AC motors have long been used in fixed-speed load drive service, they are increasingly being used in variable-frequency drive (VFD) service, variable-torque centrifugal fan, pump and compressor loads being by far the most important energy saving applications for VFD service. Squirrel cage induction motors are most commonly used in both fixed-speed and VFD applications.

Two three-phase induction motors. The motor at the right has the end cover removed, showing the cooling fan. In this "totally enclosed fan-cooled" style of motor, outside air cannot freely pass through the interior of the motor.

Contents
1 History 2 Principle of operation 2.1 Synchronous speed 2.2 Slip 2.3 Torque curve 3 Construction 4 Speed control 5 Rotation reversal 6 Equivalent circuit 7 Starting 8 Linear induction motor 9 Power factor 10 Electrical energy efficiency 11 Sources 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History
The idea of a rotating magnetic field was developed by Franois Arago in 1824,[1] and first implemented by Walter Baily.[2] Based on this, practical alternating current induction motors seem to have been independently invented by Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris. Ferraris demonstrated a working model of his motor in 1885 and Tesla built his working model in 1887 and demonstrated it at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in

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1888.[3][4][5][6] Tesla's AIEE paper described three 4-stator-pole motors including a 4-pole rotor forming a non-self-starting reluctance motor, a wound rotor forming a self-starting induction motor, and a true synchronous motor with rotor winding excited with separate DC supply. Telsa's patents were promptly licensed by George Westinghouse who also employed Tesla as a consultant to help develop the Westinghouse AC system.[3][7] In 1888, in Turin, the Royal Academy of Sciences published Ferraris research detailing the foundations of motor operation;[8] Tesla, in the same year, was granted United States motor patents. [9] Three-phase transformers and cage rotor induction motors were invented by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky in 1889/1890.[10] Induction motor improvements flowing from these inventions were such that a 100 hp induction motor currently has the same mounting dimensions as a 7.5 hp in 1897.[3]

Principle of operation

Squirrel cage rotor

In both induction and synchronous motors, the AC power supplied to the motor's stator creates a magnetic field that rotates in time with the AC oscillations. Whereas a synchronous motor's rotor turns at the same rate as the stator field, a induction motor's rotor rotates at a slower speed than the stator field. The induction motor stator's magnetic field is therefore changing or rotating relative to the rotor. This induces an opposing current in the induction motor's rotor, in effect the motor's secondary winding, when the latter is short-circuited or closed through an external impedance.[11] The rotating magnetic flux induces currents in the windings of the rotor;[12] in a manner A 3-phase power supply provides a similar to currents induced in transformer's secondary windings. These rotating magnetic field in an induction currents in turn create magnetic fields in the rotor that react against the motor. stator field. Due to Lenz's Law, the direction of the magnetic field created will be such as to oppose the change in current through the windings. The cause of induced current in the rotor is the rotating stator magnetic field, so to oppose this the rotor will start to rotate in the direction of the rotating stator magnetic field. The rotor accelerates until the magnitude of induced rotor current and torque balances the applied load. Since rotation at synchronous speed would result in no induced rotor current, an induction motor always operates slower than synchronous speed. The difference between actual and synchronous speed or slip varies from about 0.5 to 5% for normal Design A and B torque curve induction motors.[13] The induction machine's essential character is that it is created solely by induction instead of being separately excited as in synchronous or DC machines or being self-magnetized as in permanent magnet motors.[11] For these currents to be induced, the speed of the physical rotor must be lower than that of the stator's rotating magnetic field ( ), or the magnetic field would not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents would be induced. As the speed of the rotor drops below synchronous speed, the rotation rate of the magnetic field in the rotor increases, inducing more current in the windings and creating more torque. The ratio between the rotation rate of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (slip speed) and the rotation rate of the stator's rotating field is called "slip". Under load, the speed drops and the slip increases enough to create sufficient torque to turn the load. For this reason, induction motors are sometimes referred to as asynchronous motors.[14] An induction motor can be used as an induction generator, or it can be unrolled to form the linear induction motor which can directly generate linear motion.

Synchronous speed
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The synchronous speed of an AC motor is the rotation rate of the rotating magnetic field created by the stator. It is always an integer fraction of the supply frequency. The synchronous speed ns in revolutions per minute (RPM) is given by:

where f is the frequency of the AC supply current in Hz and p is the number of magnetic pole pairs per phase. When using total number of poles, use 120 as constant instead of 60.;[15] For example, a small 3-phase motor typically has six magnetic poles organized as three opposing pairs 120 apart, each powered by one phase of the supply current. So there is one pair of poles per phase, which means p = 1, and for a line frequency of 50 Hz the synchronous speed is 3000 RPM.

Slip
The slip s is defined as 'the difference between synchronous speed and operating speed, at the same frequency, expressed in rpm or in percent or ratio of synchronous speed'. Thus

where is stator electrical speed, is rotor mechanical Typical torque curve as a function of [6][16] speed. Slip is zero at synchronous speed and 1 (100%) when slip (slip is represented by g here, the rotor is stationary. The slip determines the motor's torque. Since which is proportional to s in the the short-circuited rotor windings have small resistance, a small slip formula at left). induces a large current in the rotor and produces large torque.[17] At full rated load, typical values of slip are 4-6% for small motors and 1.5-2% for large motors, so induction motors have good speed regulation and are considered constant-speed motors.

Torque curve
The torque exerted by the motor as a function of slip is given by a torque curve. Over a motor's normal load range, the torque line is close to a straight line, so the torque is proportional to slip.[18] As the load increases above the rated load, increases in slip provide less additional torque, so the torque line begins to curve over. Finally at a slip of around 20%[17] the motor reaches its maximum torque, called the "breakdown torque". If the load torque reaches this value, the motor will stall. At values of slip above this, the torque decreases. In 3-phase motors the torque drops but still remains high at a slip of 100% (stationary rotor), so these motors are selfstarting. The starting torque of an induction motor is less than that of other types of motors, but still around 300% of rated torque.[18] In 2-pole single-phase motors, the torque goes to zero at 100% slip (zero speed), so these require alterations to the stator such as shaded poles to provide starting torque.

Construction
The stator of an induction motor consists of poles carrying supply current to induce a magnetic field that penetrates the rotor. To optimize the distribution of the magnetic field, the windings are distributed in slots around the stator, with the magnetic field having the same number of north and south poles. Induction motors are most commonly run on single-phase or three-phase power, but two-phase motors exist; in theory, induction motors can have any number of phases. Many single-phase motors having two windings can be viewed as twoen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induction_motor 3/11

phase motors, since a capacitor is used to generate a second power phase 90 degrees from the single-phase supply and feeds it to the second motor winding. Single-phase power is more widely available in residential buildings, but cannot produce a rotating field in the motor, so they must incorporate some kind of starting mechanism to produce a rotating field. There are three types of rotor: squirrel cage rotors made up of skewed (to reduce noise) bars of copper or aluminum that span the length of the rotor, slip ring rotors with windings connected to slip rings replacing the bars of the squirrel cage, and solid core rotors made from mild steel.[citation needed ] For information on die-cast copper rotors in energy-efficient induction motors, see: Copper die-cast rotors.

Speed control
The theoretical unloaded speed (with slip approaching zero) of the induction motor is controlled by the number of pole pairs and the frequency of the supply voltage. When driven from a fixed line frequency, loading the motor reduces the rotation speed. When used in this way, induction motors are usually run so that the shaft rotation speed is kept above the peak torque point; then the motor will tend to operate at reasonably constant speed. Below this point, the speed tends to be unstable and the motor may stall or run at reduced shaft speed, depending on the nature of the mechanical load. Before the development of semiconductor power electronics, it was difficult to vary the frequency, and squirrel-cage induction motors were mainly used in fixed speed applications. Applications such as electric overhead cranes used DC drives or wound rotor motors with slip rings to allow an external variable resistance to be inserted in the rotor circuit, allowing considerable range of speed control. Large slipring motor drives, termed slip energy recovery systems, some still in use, recover energy from the rotor circuit, rectify it, and return it to the power system using a VFD. In many industrial variable-speed applications, DC drives are being displaced by VFD-fed induction motors. The most common efficient way to control asynchronous motor speed of many loads is with VFDs. Barriers to adoption of VFDs due to cost and reliability considerations have been reduced considerably over the past three decades such that it is estimated that drive technology is adopted in as many as 30-40% of all newly installed motors.[19]

Typical winding pattern for a 3 phase, 4 pole motor (phases here are labelled U, V, W). Note the interleaving of the pole windings and the resulting quadrupole field.

Rotation reversal

The method of changing the direction of rotation of an induction motor depends on whether it is a three-phase or single-phase machine. In the case of three phase, reversal is carried out by swapping the connection of any 2 out of the 3 power phases. In the case of a single-phase motor it is usually achieved by changing the connection of a starting capacitor from one section of a motor winding to the other. In this latter case both motor windings are usually similar (e.g. in washing machines).

Typical torque curves for different line frequencies. By varying the line frequency with an inverter, induction motors can be kept on the stable part of the torque curve above the peak over a wide range of rotation speeds. However, the inverters can be expensive, and fixed line frequencies and other start up schemes are often employed instead.

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Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit and associated key equations of the induction motor are as follows.[20][21]

Induction motor equivalent circuit

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stator synchronous frequency synchronous speed in revolutions per second stator current rotor current referred to stator side imaginary number operator number of motor poles electromagnetic power rotor copper losses stator resistance and leakage reactance rotor resistance and leakage reactance referred to the stator side slip electromagnetic torque stator phase voltage magnetizing reactance motor equivalent impedance rotor speed in radians per second

Starting
Main article: Motor controller A single phase induction motor is not self-starting; thus, it is necessary to provide a starting circuit and associated start windings to give the initial rotation in a single phase induction motor. The normal running windings within such a motor can cause the rotor to turn in either direction, so the starting circuit determines the operating direction. A polyphase induction motor is self-starting and produces torque even at standstill. Available squirrel cage induction motor starting methods include direct on-line starting and reduced-voltage starting methods based on classical reactor, auto-transformer and star-delta assemblies, or, increasingly, new solid-state soft assemblies and, of course, VFDs.[20] Unlike with the wound-rotor motor, it is not possible to connect the cage rotor to external resistance for starting or speed control.

For small single-phase shaded-pole motor of a few watts, starting is done by a shaded pole, with a turn of copper wire around part of the pole. The current induced in this turn lags behind the supply current, creating a delayed magnetic field around the shaded part of the pole face. This imparts sufficient rotational character to start the motor. These motors are typically used in applications such as desk fans and record players, as the starting torque is very low and low efficiency is not objectionable.

Torque curves for 4 types of asynchronous induction motors: A) Single-phase motor B) Polyphase squirrel cage motor C) Polyphase squirrel cage deep bar motor D) Polyphase double squirrel cage motor

Larger single phase motors have a second stator winding fed with out-of-phase current; such currents may be
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created by feeding the winding through a capacitor or having it have different values of inductance and resistance from the main winding. In some designs, the second winding is disconnected once the motor is up to speed, usually either by a centrifugal switch acting on weights on the motor shaft or a thermistor which heats up and increases its resistance, reducing the current through the second winding to an insignificant level. Other designs keep the second winding on when running, improving torque. Polyphase motors have rotor bars shaped to give different speed/torque characteristics. The current distribution within the rotor bars varies depending on the frequency of the induced current. At standstill, the rotor current is the same frequency as the stator current, and tends to travel at the outermost parts of the squirrel-cage rotor bars (the skin effect). The different bar shapes can give usefully different speed/torque characteristics as well as some control over the inrush current at startup. Polyphase motors can generate torque from standstill, so no extra mechanism is required to initiate rotation. In a wound rotor motor, slip rings are provided and external resistance can be inserted in the rotor circuit, allowing the speed/torque characteristic to be changed for purposes of acceleration control and speed control. Generally, maximum torque is delivered when the reactance of the rotor circuit is equal to its resistance.

Linear induction motor


Main article: linear induction motor A linear induction motor (LIM) is an AC asynchronous linear motor that works by the same general principles as other induction motors but which has been designed to directly produce motion in a straight line. Linear motors frequently run on a 3 phase power supply. Their uses include magnetic levitation, linear propulsion, and linear actuators. They have also been used for pumping liquid metals.[22]

Power factor
The power factor of induction motors varies with load, typically from around 0.85 or 0.9 at full load to as low as 0.35 at no-load,[20] due to stator and rotor leakage and magnetizing reactances.[23] Power factor can be improved by connecting capacitors either on an individual motor basis or, by preference, on a common bus covering several motors. For economic and other considerations power systems are rarely power factor corrected to, or higher than, unity power factor.[21] Power capacitors application with harmonic currents requires power system analysis to avoid harmonic resonance between capacitors and transformer and circuit reactances.[24] Common bus power factor correction is recommended to minimize resonant risk and to simplify power system analysis.[25]

Electrical energy efficiency


Various regulatory authorities in many countries have introduced and implemented legislation to encourage the manufacture and use of higher efficiency electric motors. There is existing and forthcoming legislation regarding the future mandatory use of premium-efficiency induction-type motors in defined equipment. For more information, see: Premium efficiency and Copper in energy efficient motors.

Sources
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Henri Boy de la Tour (1906). The Induction Motor: Its Theory and Design, Set Forth By a Practical Method of Calculation (http://books.google.com/books? id=hbM_AAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=induction+motor&source=bl&ots=_JgDsnjN2s&sig= LHXibhTQ9XXIOvzsWATRSHAxkA&hl=en&ei=X1O3TOekFpCisAPomqGeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=14&sqi= 2&ved=0CFoQ6AEwDQ#v=onepage&q&f=false) . Translated Cyprien Odilon Mailloux. McGraw Pub. Co.. http://books.google.com/books? id=hbM_AAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=induction+motor&source=bl&ots=_JgDsnjN2s&sig= LHXibhTQ9XXIOvzsWATRSHAxkA&hl=en&ei=X1O3TOekFpCisAPomqGeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=14&sqi= 2&ved=0CFoQ6AEwDQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Benjamin Franklin Bailey (1911). The Induction Motor (http://books.google.com/books? id=r_dOAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=induction+motor&source=bl&ots=g7Th09trR&sig=onxjvgyC920oARs_LUDqnzV2kHg&hl=en&ei=1VS3TNTyNoKKlwfWwJ3MDA&sa=X&oi=b ook_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q&f=false) . McGraw-Hill. http://books.google.com/books? id=r_dOAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=induction+motor&source=bl&ots=g7Th09trR&sig=onxjvgyC920oARs_LUDqnzV2kHg&hl=en&ei=1VS3TNTyNoKKlwfWwJ3MDA&sa=X&oi=b ook_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q&f=false. Bernhard Arthur Behrend (1901). The Induction Motor: A Short Treatise on its Theory and Design, With Numerous Experimental Data and Diagrams (http://books.google.com/books? id=ffpOAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=induction+motor&source=bl&ots=AWJzYuRVCl&sig =Bm0VKBdRKgCfTPpeR5_YU3BCrso&hl=en&ei=1VS3TNTyNoKKlwfWwJ3MDA&sa=X&oi=bo ok_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepage&q&f=false) . Electrical world and engineer. http://books.google.com/books? id=ffpOAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=induction+motor&source=bl&ots=AWJzYuRVCl&sig =Bm0VKBdRKgCfTPpeR5_YU3BCrso&hl=en&ei=1VS3TNTyNoKKlwfWwJ3MDA&sa=X&oi=bo ok_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepage&q&f=false.

See also
Induction generator Premium efficiency Copper in energy efficient motors Circle diagram

References
1. ^ Babbage, C.; Herschel, J. F. W. (Jan. 1825). "Account of the Repetition of M. Arago's Experiments on the Magnetism Manifested by Various Substances during the Act of Rotation" (http://archive.org/stream/philtrans03806447/03806447#page/n0/mode/2up) . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 115 (0): 467496. doi:10.1098/rstl.1825.0023 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1098%2Frstl.1825.0023) . http://archive.org/stream/philtrans03806447/03806447#page/n0/mode/2up. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 2. ^ Thompson, Silvanus Phillips (1895). Polyphase Electric Currents and Alternate-Current Motors (http://archive.org/stream/polyphaseelectri00thomuoft#page/n5/mode/2up) . London: E. & F.N. Spon. pp. 261. http://archive.org/stream/polyphaseelectri00thomuoft#page/n5/mode/2up. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 3. ^ a b c Alger, P.L.; Arnold, R.E. (1976). "The History of Induction Motors in America". Proceedings of the IEEE 64 (9): 13801383. doi:10.1109/PROC.1976.10329 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1109%2FPROC.1976.10329) .
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4. ^ Froehlich, Fritz E. Editor-in-Chief; Allen Kent Co-Editor (1992). The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 17 - Television Technology to Wire Antennas (http://www.amazon.com/Froehlich-Kent-Encyclopedia-TelecommunicationsTelevision/dp/0824729153#reader_0824729153) (First ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.. p. 36. ISBN 08247-2902-1. http://www.amazon.com/Froehlich-Kent-Encyclopedia-TelecommunicationsTelevision/dp/0824729153#reader_0824729153. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 5. ^ The Electrical Engineer (21 Sep. 1888). . . . a new application of the alternating current in the production of rotary motion was made known almost simultaneously by two experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and the subject has attracted general attention from the fact that no commutator or connection of any kind with the armature was required. . . . (http://books.google.ca/books? id=_KvmAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA239&lpg=PA239&dq=The+electrical+engineer+1888+by+two+experimenters,+ Nikola+Tesla+and+Galileo+Ferraris&source=bl&ots=O9MmzKi0t&sig=GQS21Uaduwa2VUfA55rO7bx7LgM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fdG6UMrVNImBywHy44AI&ved=0CE0Q6AE wBg#v=onepage&q=The%20electrical%20engineer%201888%20by%20two%20experimenters%2C%20Nikola %20Tesla%20and%20Galileo%20Ferraris&f=false) . Volume II . London: Charles & Co.. p. 239. http://books.google.ca/books? id=_KvmAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA239&lpg=PA239&dq=The+electrical+engineer+1888+by+two+experimenters,+ Nikola+Tesla+and+Galileo+Ferraris&source=bl&ots=O9MmzKi0t&sig=GQS21Uaduwa2VUfA55rO7bx7LgM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fdG6UMrVNImBywHy44AI&ved=0CE0Q6AE wBg#v=onepage&q=The%20electrical%20engineer%201888%20by%20two%20experimenters%2C%20Nikola %20Tesla%20and%20Galileo%20Ferraris&f=false. 6. ^ a b Ferraris, Galileo (1885). "Electromagnetic Rotation with an Alternating Current". Electrican 36: 360375. 7. ^ John W. Klooster, Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates, page 305 (http://books.google.com/books?id=WKuGVIwID8C&pg=PA305&lpg=PA305&dq=tesla+hired+by+westinghouse&source=bl&ots=KDI0aTz0EK&sig=oc t2jnPyWkQ3qvURJmstK9F0FI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jRwxUKK3LtS80QHjxoGYAg&sqi=2&ved=0CEEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=te sla%20hired%20by%20westinghouse&f=false) . Books.google.com. 30 July 2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=WKuGVIwID8C&pg=PA305&lpg=PA305&dq=tesla+hired+by+westinghouse&source=bl&ots=KDI0aTz0EK&sig=oc t2jnPyWkQ3qvURJmstK9F0FI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jRwxUKK3LtS80QHjxoGYAg&sqi=2&ved=0CEEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=te sla%20hired%20by%20westinghouse&f=false. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 8. ^ The Case Files: Nikola Tesla. "Two-Phase Induction Motor" (http://www.fi.edu/learn/casefiles/tesla/motor.html) . The Franklin Institute. http://www.fi.edu/learn/case-files/tesla/motor.html. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 9. ^ Day, Lance; McNeil, Ian; (Editors) (1996). Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology (http://books.google.ca/books?id=n-ivouMng8C&pg=PA1204&lpg=PA1204&dq=tesla+induction+motor+patent&source=bl&ots=CwZdCXFBMs& sig=yHtXcB6ukl3dO26c73h884URzsI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1VpOUKCPAaLv0gGb14HwAw&redir_esc=y#v=one page&q=tesla%20induction%20motor%20patent&f=false) . London: Routledge. p. 1204. ISBN 0-203-02829-5. http://books.google.ca/books?id=n-ivouMng8C&pg=PA1204&lpg=PA1204&dq=tesla+induction+motor+patent&source=bl&ots=CwZdCXFBMs& sig=yHtXcB6ukl3dO26c73h884URzsI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1VpOUKCPAaLv0gGb14HwAw&redir_esc=y#v=one page&q=tesla%20induction%20motor%20patent&f=false. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 10. ^ Hubbell, M.W. (2011). The Fundamentals of Nuclear Power Generation Questions & Answers. (http://www.amazon.com/Fundamentals-Nuclear-Power-Generation-Questions/dp/1463424418) . Authorhouse. p. 27. ISBN 978-1463424411. http://www.amazon.com/Fundamentals-Nuclear-Power-GenerationQuestions/dp/1463424418. 11. ^ a b Alger, Philip L. et al (1949). "Sub-section of Sec. 7 - Induction Motors". Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 705. 12. ^ "AC Motors" (http://hsc.csu.edu.au/physics/core/motors/2698/Phy935net.htm) . NSW HSC Online - Charles Sturt University. http://hsc.csu.edu.au/physics/core/motors/2698/Phy935net.htm. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 13. ^ NEMA MG-1 2007 Condensed (2008). Information Guide for General Purpose Industrial AC Small and Medium Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor Standards (http://www.nema.org/Standards/Pages/Information-Guidefor-General-Purpose-Industrial-AC-Small-and-Medium-Squirrel-Cage-Induction-Motor-Standards.aspx) .
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Rosslyn, VA USA: NEMA. p. 29 (Table 11). http://www.nema.org/Standards/Pages/Information-Guide-forGeneral-Purpose-Industrial-AC-Small-and-Medium-Squirrel-Cage-Induction-Motor-Standards.aspx. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ^ "Induction (Asychronous) Motors" (http://www.ece.msstate.edu/~donohoe/ece3183asynchronous_synchronous_machines.pdf) . Mississipi State University Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Course ECE 3183, 'Electrical Engineering Systems for non-ECE majors'. http://www.ece.msstate.edu/~donohoe/ece3183asynchronous_synchronous_machines.pdf. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ^ Electric Motors Reference Center by Machine Design magazine. "Induction Motors" (http://www.electricmotors.machinedesign.com/guiEdits/Content/bdeee11/bdeee11_7.aspx) . Penton Media, Inc.. http://www.electricmotors.machinedesign.com/guiEdits/Content/bdeee11/bdeee11_7.aspx. ^ NEMA Standards Publication (2007). Application Guide for AC Adjustable Speed Drive Systems (http://www.nema.org/stds/acadjustable.cfm) . Rosslyn, VA USA: NEMA. p. 6. http://www.nema.org/stds/acadjustable.cfm. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ^ a b Herman, Stephen L. (2011). Alternating Current Fundamentals (http://books.google.com/books? id=RRbIRBUQksC&pg=PA521&dq=squirrel+cage+motor+induction&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fwz7TqqmLY2OigKGuqCXDQ&ved=0 CE0Q6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=squirrel%20cage%20motor%20induction&f=false) (8th ed.). USA: Cengage Learning. pp. 529536. ISBN 1-111-03913-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=RRbIRBUQksC&pg=PA521&dq=squirrel+cage+motor+induction&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fwz7TqqmLY2OigKGuqCXDQ&ved=0 CE0Q6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=squirrel%20cage%20motor%20induction&f=false. ^ a b Keljik, Jeffrey (2009). "Chapter 12 - The Three-Phase, Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor" (http://books.google.com/books? id=y69O8PnwLbYC&pg=PA105&dq=squirrel+cage+motor+induction&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rP_6TqbTA6aciQLs wMDQDg&ved=0CE4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=squirrel%20cage%20motor%20induction&f=false) . Electricity 4 : AC/DC Motors, Controls, and Maintenance (9th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning. pp. 112115. ISBN 1-4354-0031-3. http://books.google.com/books? id=y69O8PnwLbYC&pg=PA105&dq=squirrel+cage+motor+induction&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rP_6TqbTA6aciQLs wMDQDg&ved=0CE4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=squirrel%20cage%20motor%20induction&f=false. ^ Lendenmann, Heinz et al.. "Motoring Ahead" (http://www.lead-central.com/AssetManager/02427e68-6f154f3a-9749-d37abf613741/Documents/APW2012/Low%20Voltage%20Drives%20Motors/ABB136_WPO_Motoring%20ahead.pdf) . http://www.lead-central.com/AssetManager/02427e68-6f15-4f3a-9749d37abf613741/Documents/APW2012/Low%20Voltage%20Drives%20Motors/ABB136_WPO_Motoring%20ahead.pdf. Retrieved Apr. 18, 2012. ^ a b c Liang, Xiaodong; Ilochonwu, Obinna (Jan 2011). "Induction Motor Starting in Practical Industrial Applications" (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp? tp=&arnumber=5621895&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F28%2F4957013%2F05621895. pdf%3Farnumber%3D5621895) . IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 47 (1): 271280. doi:10.1109/TIA.2010.2090848 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1109%2FTIA.2010.2090848) . http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp? tp=&arnumber=5621895&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F28%2F4957013%2F05621895. pdf%3Farnumber%3D5621895. Retrieved 4 December 2012. ^ a b Jordan, Howard E. (1994). Energy-Efficient Electric Motors and their Applications (http://books.google.co.uk/books? id=utWtW_9NMgcC&lpg=PA89&dq=induction%20motor%20power%20correction&pg=PA89#v=onepage&q =induction%20motor%20power%20correction&f=false) (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-30644698-7. http://books.google.co.uk/books? id=utWtW_9NMgcC&lpg=PA89&dq=induction%20motor%20power%20correction&pg=PA89#v=onepage&q =induction%20motor%20power%20correction&f=false. ^ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (http://books.google.co.uk/books? id=fgsAAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA52&ots=NfAng_7A27&dq=einstein%20Linear%20induction%20motor&pg=PA52 #v=onepage&q=einstein%20Linear%20induction%20motor&f=false) . Educational Foundation for Atomic Science. 6 June 1973. http://books.google.co.uk/books? id=fgsAAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA52&ots=NfAng_7A27&dq=einstein%20Linear%20induction%20motor&pg=PA52 #v=onepage&q=einstein%20Linear%20induction%20motor&f=false. Retrieved 8 August 2012. ^ D. G. Fink, H. W. Beaty, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers Eleventh Edition, McGraw Hill 1978,
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induction_motor

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Induction motor - Wikipedia, the f ree ency clopedia

pp20-28 thorugh 20-29 24. ^ NEMA MG-1, p. 19 25. ^ NEMA MG-1, p. 19

External links
A drawing (http://aungwin.htut.googlepages.com/inductionmotor2.jpg) of an induction motor (Italian) Rotating magnetic fields (http://www.sandroronca.it/elettrotecnica/asincrono/camporotante0.html) : interactive Construct your squirrelcage electromotor (http://magrf.grf.hr/~mtodorov/tesla/build_3ph_induction.html) using povray [1] (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/indmot.html) More on Induction Motor. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Induction_motor&oldid=526706018" Categories: Energy conversion Electric motors Italian inventions AC motors

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