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Mommsen, Broszat (1970s <) Opportunistic, non-determinist, weak dictator.

Confusion of Private Empires

(Mommsen) HITLER led state through propaganda rather than organisation and leadership. WAR YEARS permanent confusion and conflict in planning (admitted needed army more onside) ECONOMIC RECOVERY was shaky. A full war-economy didnt exist until 1942. SPEER often privately over ruled Hitlers orders during war that would have caused further destruction for Germany. HITLER MANIPULETED by key figures eg Martin Borman. HITLER didnt create policy he sanctioned whichever competing parts of states had succeeded in seeing off rivals. HITLER was an opportunist. He only sprung into action in emergencies. IDEOLOGY Confused and contradictory. LEGACY of Bismark, Kaiser and Weimar continuation of Germanys past. DUALISM chaos in Germany as Nazi and State organisations overlapped and clashed. Eg Police v Army v SS v Gestapo.Econ Schacht v Goering v Tadt v Darre. Educ von Shirach v Rust v Himmler. NO CLEAR LINES OF AUTHORITY Eg big businesses didnt know where to go to get effective action. POLYCRATIC REGIME Large no of power bases Eg Goering, Goebbles and Himmler sought power and titles. Gauleiters could become very powerful at local level. NAZI LEADERS IN CONFLICT Continually clashed in seeking power INDIVIDUAL MINISTERS left to own devices because Hitler was lazy, hated paperwork and was preoccupied with pet projects like re-building Berlin!


HITLER destroyed State Organisations with destructive policies. Gradually previously strong organisations like the army and civil service were worn down to collapse.

EARLY 20s Hitler said he was the drummer for the Volkish movement, making way for a more major figure to follow.

Bullock, Bracher, Fest, Shirer 1945-c.1970s Planned, Determinist, Totalitarianism, Strong Dictator.

Nazism was Hitlerism (Bracher)

DURING WAR Persuaded Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg to allow Nazi to enter Gov Feb 38. Persuaded Czech President Hacha to allow Nazis into country. Nullified Anglo-German Naval Agreement and planned invasion of Poland, once Britain had given ultimatum. ARMY swore to die for him and to protect him. WAR CRIMES TRIALS Nazi officials declared they had simply followed orders ECONOMY strong, as unemployment was virtually nil and Germany was preparing for autarky. PLANNED rise to power policy of legality after Munich confused everyone, achieved broad-based support. TOTALITARIANISM one leader, one party, one ideology. FUHRER PRINZIP All powerful leader. ALL POLICIES went through Hitler, his word was law. CULT OF LEADERSHIP charismatic leader underpinned by propaganda Eg Nuremburg Rallies. WORSHIPPED by other leading Nazis. POWER STRUGGLES were allowed between ministers to gain more power for Hitler. ELIMINATED OPPOSITION: EXTERNALLY 1933 Enabling Act, Law Against Formation of Parties, becoming Fuhrer. INTERNALLY 1934 Night of the Long Knives. EDUCATION SYSTEM strong, from teachers, to students in the class room and the Hitler Youth.


IDEOLOGY strong core of War, Racial Extermination and Fuhrer Prinzip.

TERROR HOUSE SS, Gestapo and to some extent SA all under Hitlers control and in turn controlled masses through fear. FEW REBELLIONS Generally people supported his policies and ultimately supported him.