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Hydrology 3

The Hydrology of Mono Lake Task 1 Water Budget

Inflow = Outflow + Changes in Storage Runoff + Precipitation + Groundwater Flow = Evaporation + Changes of Storage

Task 2 Precipitation

This above table provides data on rainfall in and around the Mono Basin area at certain stations, the location of these are shown on the map below.

-Arithmetic Average Method

Hydrology 3
The Hydrology of Mono Lake -Average: Mono Basin = 0.37m x 1,748,000,000m2 Mono Lake = 0.318m x 215,000,000m2 -Answer: Mono Basin = 646,760m3 Mono Lake = 68,370m3

-Thiessen Method (only carried out for Mono Lake) -Using graph: a1 = 72km2 = 72,000,000m2 a2 = 153km2 = 153,000,000m2 a3 = 109km2 = 109,000,000m2 -Using table 1.1: p1 = Bodie = 48.7cm = 0.487m p2 = Mono Lake = 31.8cm = 0.318m p3 = Cain Ranch = 28.1cm = 0.281m - a1 x p1 = 35,064,000m3 - a2 x p2 = 48,654,000m3 - a3 x p3 = 30,629,000m3 Total = 114,347,000m3

Hydrology 3
The Hydrology of Mono Lake

Note: Benton ignored due to distance from Mono Lake

-Isohyetal Method This method takes into account topography. First precipitation is plotted as a function of elevation to see if there is an orthographic effect. As can be seen from the graph alongside, elevation clearly does have an effect on precipitation.

Hydrology 3
The Hydrology of Mono Lake

-From Isohyetal map above: -a1 = 2.5km2 = 2500,000m2 -Ave Precipitation = p1 = 35cm = 0.35m

-a2 = 341km2 = 341,000,000m2 -Ave Precipitation = p2 = 25cm = 0.25m -a1 x p1 = 875m3 -a2 x p2 = 85250m3 Total = 86,125,000m3

With reference to Figure 1.2, it can be shown that just west of the tip of the lake the Sierra Nevada mountain start and therefore the ground level raises sharply, this is backed up with the higher levels of rainfall and the isohyets being closer together. From the 3 methods shown the rainfall is found to be reasonable similar. Due to the topography of the area, the Isohyetal method would be the most accurate with a final value of 86,125m3.

Task 3 Evaporation Q1

Hydrology 3
The Hydrology of Mono Lake Pan coefficient from map fig 1.7 = 1.5x1.6 = 36 x 2.54% = 0.9144m Estimate the average annual evaporation/lake evaporation. From fig, 1.5 average annual lake evaporation =36 inches From Average annual class A pan evaporation (inches) x Average annual class A pan coefficient (percent)= fig1.6x fig1.7 = 50 x 71 =35.5 or 36 inches.

Q2a Pan Diameter = 122cm Area of pan = r2 = 3.14 x 0.61x0.61= 1.1684m2 Calculate the pan evaporation for this period m3 MAY = 0.1274 JUNE = 0.1943 JULY = 0.3557 AUGUST = .2795 SEPTEMBER = 0.1868 OCTOBER = 0.1267 TOTAL = 1.2704 m3

Q2b Extrapolate for annual pan evaporation 1.1684 x 1.2 = 1.4021m

Q2c Correct for pan effect, determine annual lake evaporation. 71% x 1.4021 = 0.9955m

Q2d

Hydrology 3
The Hydrology of Mono Lake How does this value compare to the one off the map in Q1 0.9144 From map 0.9955 From calculation Map underestimated by 0.9275%

Q3 Calculate the annual evaporation from Mono Lake. (A) 0.9955m x (215X106) from calculation. (B) 0.9144m x (215X106) from map (A) = 211968500m3 (B) = 196596000m3 Ans = (A)+(B) = 204282250 m3 = 204.28225x106m3

Task 4 - Change in Storage Volume = 1 h(r12 r1 r2 r22 )

Date June 1954 June 1964

AOD (m) 1953.6 1948.0

Surface Area (km2) 231.5 199.4

Radius of lake in 1954 231.5 = r 2 Radius of lake in 1964 199.4 = r 2

231 .5

r1 8.58 km

199 .4

r1 7.97 km

Change in volume between 1954 and 1964

V 1 (1.9536 1.9480)(8.58 2 (8.58x7.97) 7.97 2 ) 3 1.21km3 1,205,232m 3

Hydrology 3
The Hydrology of Mono Lake Average change in volume each year

120 ,523 m 3

Task 5 - Groundwater

Runoff + Precipitation + Groundwater Flow = Evaporation + Changes of Storage Runoff + 86,125m3 + Groundwater = 204.28225x106 + 120.523

Water Budget Summary

The error analysis of this annual water budget contains many sources of errors. These will mainly come from getting areas or data off of graphs as the ones provided were of a very low quality

The element which will probably contain the greatest error is the precipitation section as there was a great deal of information gathered and measured off of graphs.