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GS IP Globalization What is it? Why do we care?

2013 KOF Index of Globalization Economic (removal of trade barriers), political (diffusion of govt policies...) and social (personal, informational, cultural) flavors... Strategy focuses on the environment, and globalization is a significant factor affecting the environment. - should it reduce conflict? - the pace has increased, even though globalization (in some form) has been around forever - was empires, now two and three letter NGOs involved - increased interdependence - de-globalization...possible if nations isolate...campaign against immigration... Who globalizes? Not everyone is brought along. Economic prescriptions that accelerates globalization: - Vokler: reform systems...(Frieden: Global Capitalism) -- battle against monetarism...stop manipulating the money supply to grow economy because it creates debt, etc. -- Richard Nixon: 1971...fundamental reform of world currency system by abandoning the gold standard; changed the way world currencies and trade patterns worked...adjusted vulnerabilities to fluctuations... -- Bretton-Woods suspended: money supply is more flexible because each country is responsible - Marx: Labor Theory of Value - exploitation happens when capitalists exploit labor; labor is the source of value; Is globalization a reasonable term for what is happening? - we use the word for everything Will globalization spread resources and opportunities through education and information or widen the gap between haves and havenots or both....? Cycles of globalization - driven by war, adaptation,,... - rate of change has accelerated, limiting the time to adapt Summary: to facilitate economic globalization, we see political...social globalization is a little more difficult to measure: McDonalds? Language, access to soft power, access to diverse news, ...

Question: does globalization matter for global security? The liberal peace concept? Where are the danger zones today...and do they correspond to areas that lack globalization's impact? -

How did technology empower globalization or did it? - pace - scale/access by individuals - Darwinian perspective - degree of resistance or adaptability varies - information vs ideas: are there more ideas (original/new)? Has cognitive speed increased or do we just have access to more info. - Great thinkers: da Vinci, Shakespeare, Hobbes, ... -- translation...allows ideas not previously available in other countries to emerge -- last throws of dominance of English speaking people -- when the Internet becomes language neutral, we see globalization - repeated ideas stopped short vs propagated by information technology - but do we lose something in translation?! Countries that have evaded globalization--#73 Iran - sense that globalization means Americanization - fear that we will lose distinctiveness of culture - End of History - Fukuyama - source of internal security problems...challenge to established order Most globalizes countries in 2009: #1 Singapore, #2 Hong Kong How do you break down resistance to globalization? Did globalization triumph over economic nationalism (Friedman)? - the irrelevance of the nation-state did not occur...Citibank, Lehman-Brothers,... - EU: some EU law is above state law, but not in many cases - failure of ISI (import substitution ______) - steel mill in Alexandria, Egypt failure - end of Bretton-Woods...impact to individuals Countries Catch Up - Eastern Europe - resources came with conditions...limited choice to adapt post Cold War - location - accessibility and value for outside investors - labor - low cost, unskilled; - desire for stability regionally - North and South Korea...both dictatorships...American connection may have been preferable to PRC and USSR -

Countries Fall Behind (one fourth of humanity) - 1. Moral concerns - 2. Pragmatic: potential threats growing in the gaps - forced modernity, get-rich quick, corruption, incomplete modernization domestically (changing some institutions and not others), failures of government to care for people; - lack of care from outside...no interest -- Mali - Laos: divided government, way behind; culture--the Mung (xenophobic, insular);

-- lack of interest - Afghanistan -- would have to rebuild...but how? - Different paths by different sponsors - Failure of a country: Zambia - What about Uganda? - Amin messed it up...military tossed him...why did it survive? - some evidence that British colonized areas did better than others... Measured retrenchment? - globalization not dependent on democratization - no series of connected paths or set patterns - what happens to international institutions (UN, WTO, ...) Summary: Different strands of globalization, don't always mix. Some countries more globalizes economically than politically or socially.. Implications: conflict or mediate conflict...ignore heroic predictions...there are cycles and friction (the dialectic or own lack of change) will impact...cleavages that continue to exist...will Yuan become the next world reserve currency?...multipolarity? ... The world is not linear.