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summary on flight dynamics

summary on flight dynamics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Air to Air Radar Flight Test Handbook AFFTC-TIH-87-001
- Flight dynamics
- USAF Flight Test Engineering Handbook
- Agard Flight Test Technique Series Volume 19 Simulation in Support of Flight Testing
- Memoirs of an Aeronautical Engineer Flight Tests at Ames Research Center 1940-1970
- History of the USAF Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB, California, 1 Jan - 30 Jun 1961
- Bitteswell Flight Testing
- The Orbital Flight Test Program
- Agard Flight Test Technique Series Volume 18 Flight Testing of Radio Navigation Systems
- NASA Master Videos Catalog
- Flight basics
- NASA-Flight Test Techniques for Performance During Formation Flight
- AGARD FLIGHT TEST TECHNIQUE SERIES VOLUME 21 Flying Qualities Flight Testing of Digital Flight Control Systems
- USNTPS FTM 108
- Analytical Design of Radial Turbine Design-nasa
- Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling
- Flight Test Guide AC25-7C
- AC 23-8B Flight Test Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes
- Evaluation of flight dynamics model simulation DAVEML
- nasa dfr

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1. Introduction

In this summary we examine the ight dynamics of aircraft. But before we do that, we must examine

some basic ideas necessary to explore the secrets of ight dynamics.

1.1 Basic concepts

1.1.1 Controlling an airplane

To control an aircraft, control surfaces are generally used. Examples are elevators, aps and spoilers.

When dealing with control surfaces, we can make a distinction between primary and secondary ight

control surfaces. When primary control surfaces fail, the whole aircraft becomes uncontrollable.

(Examples are elevators, ailerons and rudders.) However, when secondary control surfaces fail, the

aircraft is just a bit harder to control. (Examples are aps and trim tabs.)

The whole system that is necessary to control the aircraft is called the control system. When a control

system provides direct feedback to the pilot, it is called a reversible system. (For example, when using

a mechanical control system, the pilot feels forces on his stick.) If there is no direct feedback, then we

have an irreversible system. (An example is a y-by-wire system.)

1.1.2 Making assumptions

In this summary, we want to describe the ight dynamics with equations. This is, however, very dicult.

To simplify it a bit, we have to make some simplifying assumptions. We assume that . . .

There is a at Earth. (The Earths curvature is zero.)

There is a non-rotating Earth. (No Coriolis accelerations and such are present.)

The aircraft has constant mass.

The aircraft is a rigid body.

The aircraft is symmetric.

There are no rotating masses, like turbines. (Gyroscopic eects can be ignored.)

There is constant wind. (So we ignore turbulence and gusts.)

1.2 Reference frames

1.2.1 Reference frame types

To describe the position and behavior of an aircraft, we need a reference frame (RF). There are several

reference frames. Which one is most convenient to use depends on the circumstances. We will examine

a few.

1

First lets examine the inertial reference frame F

I

. It is a right-handed orthogonal system. Its

origin A is the center of the Earth. The Z

I

axis points North. The X

I

axis points towards the

vernal equinox. The Y

I

axis is perpendicular to both the axes. Its direction can be determined

using the right-hand rule.

In the (normal) Earth-xed reference frame F

E

, the origin O is at an arbitrary location on

the ground. The Z

E

axis points towards the ground. (It is perpendicular to it.) The X

E

axis is

directed North. The Y

E

axis can again be determined using the right-hand rule.

The body-xed reference frame F

b

is often used when dealing with aircraft. The origin of the

reference frame is the center of gravity (CG) of the aircraft. The X

b

axis lies in the symmetry

plane of the aircraft and points forward. The Z

b

axis also lies in the symmetry plane, but points

downwards. (It is perpendicular to the X

b

axis.) The Y

b

axis can again be determined using the

right-hand rule.

The stability reference frame F

S

is similar to the body-xed reference frame F

b

. It is rotated

by an angle

a

about the Y

b

axis. To nd this

a

, we must examine the relative wind vector

V

a

. We can project this vector onto the plane of symmetry of the aircraft. This projection is then

the direction of the X

S

axis. (The Z

S

axis still lies in the plane of symmetry. Also, the Y

S

axis is

still equal to the Y

b

axis.) So, the relative wind vector lies in the X

S

Y

S

plane. This reference frame

is particularly useful when analyzing ight dynamics.

The aerodynamic (air-path) reference frame F

a

is similar to the stability reference frame F

S

.

It is rotated by an angle

a

about the Z

S

axis. This is done, such that the X

a

axis points in the

direction of the relative wind vector V

a

. (So the X

a

axis generally does not lie in the symmetry

plane anymore.) The Z

a

axis is still equation to the Z

S

axis. The Y

a

axis can now be found using

the right-hand rule.

Finally, there is the vehicle reference frame F

r

. Contrary to the other systems, this is a left-

handed system. Its origin is a xed point on the aircraft. The X

r

axis points to the rear of the

aircraft. The Y

r

axis points to the left. Finally, the Z

r

axis can be found using the left-hand rule.

(It points upward.) This system is often used by the aircraft manufacturer, to denote the position

of parts within the aircraft.

1.2.2 Changing between reference frames

Weve got a lot of reference frames. It would be convenient if we could switch from one coordinate system

to another. To do this, we need to rotate reference frame 1, until we wind up with reference frame 2. (We

dont consider the translation of reference frames here.) When rotating reference frames, Euler angles

come in handy. The Euler angles

x

,

y

and

z

denote rotations about the X axis, Y axis and Z axis,

respectively.

We can go from one reference frame to any other reference frame, using at most three Euler angles. An

example transformation is

x

y

z

. In this transformation, we rst rotate about the X axis,

followed by a transformation about the Y axis and the Z axis, respectively. The order of these rotations

is very important. Changing the order will give an entirely dierent nal result.

1.2.3 Transformation matrices

An Euler angle can be represented by a transformation matrix T. To see how this works, we consider

a vector x

1

in reference frame 1. The matrix T

21

now calculates the coordinates of the same vector x

2

in reference frame 2, according to x

2

= T

21

x

1

.

2

Lets suppose were only rotating about the X axis. In this case, the transformation matrix T

21

is quite

simple. In fact, it is

T

21

=

_

_

1 0 0

0 cos

x

sin

x

0 sin

x

cos

x

_

_. (1.2.1)

Similarly, we can rotate about the Y axis and the Z axis. In this case, the transformation matrices are,

respectively,

T

21

=

_

_

cos

y

0 sin

y

0 1 0

sin

y

0 cos

y

_

_ and T

21

=

_

_

cos

z

sin

z

0

sin

z

cos

z

0

0 0 1

_

_. (1.2.2)

A sequence of rotations (like

x

y

z

) is now denoted by a sequence of matrix multiplications

T

41

= T

43

T

32

T

21

. In this way, a single transformation matrix for the whole sequence can be obtained.

Transformation matrices have interesting properties. They only rotate points. They dont deform them.

For this reason, the matrix columns are orthogonal. And, because the space is not stretched out either,

these columns must also have length 1. A transformation matrix is thus orthogonal. This implies that

T

1

21

= T

T

21

= T

12

. (1.2.3)

1.2.4 Transformation examples

Now lets consider some actual transformations. Lets start at the body-xed reference frame F

b

. If we

rotate this frame by an angle

a

about the Y axis, we nd the stability reference frame F

S

. If we then

rotate it by an angle

a

about the Z axis, we get the aerodynamic reference frame F

a

. So we can nd

that

x

a

=

_

_

cos

a

sin

a

0

sin

a

cos

a

0

0 0 1

_

_x

S

=

_

_

cos

a

sin

a

0

sin

a

cos

a

0

0 0 1

_

_

_

_

cos

a

0 sin

a

0 1 0

sin

a

0 cos

a

_

_x

b

. (1.2.4)

By working things out, we can thus nd that

T

ab

=

_

_

cos

a

cos

a

sin

a

cos

a

sin

a

sin

a

cos

a

cos

a

sin

a

sin

a

sin

a

0 cos

a

_

_. (1.2.5)

We can make a similar transformation between the Earth-xed reference frame F

E

and the body-xed

reference frame F

b

. To do this, we rst have to rotate over the yaw angle about the Z axis. We then

rotate over the pitch angle about the Y axis. Finally, we rotate over the roll angle about the X

axis. If we work things out, we can nd that

T

bE

=

_

_

cos cos cos sin sin

sinsin cos cos sin sinsin sin + cos cos sincos

cos sin cos + sinsin cos sin sin sincos cos cos

_

_. (1.2.6)

Now thats one hell of a matrix . . .

3

1.2.5 Moving reference frames

Lets examine some point P. This point is described by vector r

E

in reference frame F

E

and by r

b

in

reference frame F

b

. Also, the origin of F

b

(with respect to F

E

) is described by the vector r

Eb

. So we

have r

E

= r

Eb

+r

b

.

Now lets examine the time derivative of r

E

in F

E

. We denote this by

dr

E

dt

E

. It is given by

dr

E

dt

E

=

dr

Eb

dt

E

+

dr

b

dt

E

. (1.2.7)

Lets examine the terms in this equation. The middle term of the above equation simply indicates the

movement of F

b

, with respect to F

E

. The right term is, however, a bit more complicated. It indicates

the change of r

b

with respect to F

E

. But we usually dont know this. We only know the change of r

b

in F

b

. So we need to transform this term from F

E

to F

b

. Using a slightly dicult derivation, it can be

shown that

dr

b

dt

E

=

dr

b

dt

b

+

bE

r

b

. (1.2.8)

The vector

bE

denotes the rotation vector of F

b

with respect to F

E

. Inserting this relation into the

earlier equation gives us

dr

E

dt

E

=

dr

Eb

dt

E

+

dr

b

dt

b

+

bE

r

b

. (1.2.9)

This is quite an important relation, so remember it well. By the way, it holds for every vector. So instead

of the position vector r, we could also take the velocity vector V.

Finally, we note some interesting properties of the rotation vector. Given reference frames 1, 2 and 3, we

have

12

=

21

and

31

=

32

+

21

. (1.2.10)

4

2. Deriving the equations of motion

The ight dynamics of an aircraft are described by its equations of motion (EOM). We are going to

derive those equations in this chapter.

2.1 Forces

2.1.1 The basic force equation

To derive the equations of motion of an aircraft, we start by examining forces. Our starting point in

this is Newtons second law. However, Newtons second law only holds in an inertial reference system.

Luckily, the assumptions we have made earlier imply that the Earth-xed reference frame F

E

is inertial.

(However, F

b

is not an inertial reference frame.) So we will derive the equations of motion with respect

to F

E

.

Lets examine an aircraft. Newtons second law states that

F =

_

dF =

d

dt

__

V

p

dm

_

, (2.1.1)

where we integrate over the entire body. It can be shown that the right part of this equation equals

d

dt

(V

G

m), where V

G

is the velocity of the center of gravity of the aircraft. If the aircraft has a constant

mass, we can rewrite the above equation into

F = m

dV

G

dt

= mA

G

. (2.1.2)

This relation looks very familiar. But it does imply something very important. The acceleration of the

CG of the aircraft does not depend on how the forces are distributed along the aircraft. It only depends

on the magnitude and direction of the forces.

2.1.2 Converting the force equation

There is one slight problem. The above equation holds for the F

E

reference frame. But we usually work

in the F

b

reference frame. So we need to convert it. To do this, we can use the relation

A

G

=

dV

G

dt

E

=

dV

G

dt

b

+

bE

V

G

. (2.1.3)

Inserting this into the above equation will give

F = m

dV

G

dt

b

+m

bE

V

G

= m

_

_

u +qw rv

v +ru pw

w +pv qu

_

_. (2.1.4)

By the way, in the above equation, we have used that

V

G

=

_

_

u

v

w

_

_ and

bE

=

_

_

p

q

r

_

_. (2.1.5)

Here, u, v and w denote the velocity components in X, Y and Z direction, respectively. Similarly, p, q

and r denote rotation components about the X, Y and Z axis, respectively.

5

2.1.3 External forces

Lets take a look at the forces F our aircraft is subject to. There are two important kinds of forces:

gravity and aerodynamic forces. The gravitational force F

gravity

is, in fact, quite simple. It is given by

F

E

gravity

=

_

0 0 mg

_

T

, (2.1.6)

where g is the gravitational acceleration. The superscript E indicates that the force is given in

the F

E

reference frame. However, we want the force in the F

b

reference frame. Luckily, we know the

transformation matrix T

bE

. We can thus nd that

F

b

gravity

= T

bE

F

E

gravity

= mg

_

_

sin

sincos

cos cos

_

_. (2.1.7)

The aerodynamic forces F

aero

are, however, a lot more dicult. For now, we wont examine them in

depth. Instead, we simply say that

F

b

aero

=

_

X

b

Y

b

Z

b

_

T

. (2.1.8)

By combining this knowledge with the equation of motion for forces, we nd that

m

_

_

u +qw rv

v +ru pw

w +pv qu

_

_ = mg

_

_

sin

sincos

cos cos

_

_ +

_

_

X

b

Y

b

Z

b

_

_. (2.1.9)

2.2 Moments

2.2.1 Angular momentum

Before were going to look at moments, we will rst examine angular momentum. The angular mo-

mentum of an aircraft B

G

(with respect to the CG) is dened as

B

G

=

_

dB

G

= r V

P

dm, (2.2.1)

where we integrate over every point P in the aircraft. We can substitute

V

P

= V

G

+

dr

dt

b

+

bE

r. (2.2.2)

If we insert this, and do a lot of working out, we can eventually nd that

B

G

= I

G

bE

. (2.2.3)

The parameter I

G

is the inertia tensor, with respect to the CG. It is dened as

I

G

=

_

_

I

x

J

xy

J

xz

J

xy

I

y

J

yz

J

xz

J

yz

I

z

_

_ =

_

_

_

(r

2

y

+r

2

z

)dm

_

(r

x

r

y

)dm

_

(r

x

r

z

)dm

_

(r

x

r

y

)dm

_

(r

2

x

+r

2

z

)dm

_

(r

y

r

z

)dm

_

(r

x

r

z

)dm

_

(r

y

r

z

)dm

_

(r

2

x

+r

2

y

)dm

_

_. (2.2.4)

We have assumed that the XZ-plane of the aircraft is a plane of symmetry. For this reason, J

xy

= J

yz

= 0.

This simplies the inertia tensor a bit.

6

2.2.2 The moment equation

It is now time to look at moments. We again do this from the inertial reference frame F

E

. The moment

acting on our aircraft, with respect to its CG, is given by

M

G

=

_

dM

G

=

_

r dF =

_

r

d (V

p

dm)

dt

, (2.2.5)

where we integrate over the entire body. Luckily, we can simplify the above relation to

M

G

=

dB

G

dt

E

. (2.2.6)

The above relation only holds for inertial reference frames, such as F

E

. However, we want to have the

above relation in F

b

. So we rewrite it to

M

G

=

dB

G

dt

b

+

bE

B

G

. (2.2.7)

By using B

G

= I

G

bE

, we can continue to rewrite the above equation. We eventually wind up with

M

G

= I

G

d

bE

dt

b

+

bE

I

G

bE

. (2.2.8)

In matrix-form, this equation can be written as

M

G

=

_

_

I

x

p + (I

z

I

y

)qr J

xz

(pq + r)

I

y

q + (I

x

I

z

)pr +J

xz

(p

2

r

2

)

I

z

r + (I

y

I

x

)pq +J

xz

(qr p)

_

_. (2.2.9)

Note that we have used the fact that J

xy

= J

yz

= 0.

2.2.3 External moments

Lets take a closer look at M

G

. Again, we can distinguish two types of moments, acting on our aircraft.

There are moments caused by gravity, and moments caused by aerodynamic forces. Luckily, the moments

caused by gravity are zero. (The resultant gravitational force acts in the CG.) So we only need to consider

the moments caused by aerodynamic forces. We denote those as

M

b

G,aero

=

_

L M N

_

T

. (2.2.10)

This turns the moment equation into

_

_

I

x

p + (I

z

I

y

)qr J

xz

(pq + r)

I

y

q + (I

x

I

z

)pr +J

xz

(p

2

r

2

)

I

z

r + (I

y

I

x

)pq +J

xz

(qr p)

_

_ =

_

_

L

M

N

_

_. (2.2.11)

2.3 Kinematic relations

2.3.1 Translational kinematics

Now that we have the force and moment equations, we only need to nd the kinematic relations for our

aircraft. First, we examine translational kinematics. This concerns the velocity of the CG of the aircraft

with respect to the ground.

7

The velocity of the CG, with respect to the ground, is called the kinematic velocity V

k

. In the F

E

reference system, it is described by

V

k

=

_

V

N

V

E

V

Z

_

T

. (2.3.1)

In this equation, V

N

is the velocity component in the Northward direction, V

E

is the velocity component

in the eastward direction, and V

Z

is the vertical velocity component. (The minus sign is present because,

in the Earth-xed reference system, V

Z

is dened to be positive downward.)

However, in the F

b

reference system, the velocity of the CG, with respect to the ground, is given by

V

G

=

_

u v w

_

T

. (2.3.2)

To relate those two vectors to each other, we need a transformation matrix. This gives us

V

k

= T

Eb

V

G

= T

T

bE

V

G

. (2.3.3)

This is the translational kinematic relation. We can use it to derive the change of the aircraft position.

To do that, we simply have to integrate the velocities. We thus have

x(t) =

_

t

0

V

N

dt, y(t) =

_

t

0

V

E

dt and h(t) =

_

t

0

V

Z

dt. (2.3.4)

2.3.2 Rotational kinematics

Now lets examine rotational kinematics. This concerns the rotation of the aircraft. In the F

E

reference

system, the rotational velocity is described by the variables ,

and

. However, in the F

b

reference

system, the rotational velocity is described by p, q and r. The relation between these two triples can be

shown to be

_

_

p

q

r

_

_ =

_

_

1 0 sin

0 cos cos sin

0 sin cos cos

_

_

_

_. (2.3.5)

This is the rotational kinematic relation. It is interesting to note that, if = = = 0, then p = ,

q =

and r =

. By the way, we can also invert the above relation. We would then get

_

_ =

_

_

1 sintan cos tan

0 cos sin

0 sin/ cos cos / cos

_

_

_

_

p

q

r

_

_. (2.3.6)

8

3. Rewriting the equations of motion

The equations of motion are quite dicult to deal with. To get some useful data out of them, we need

to make them a bit simpler. For that, we rst linearize them. We then simplify them. And after that,

we set them in a non-dimensional form.

3.1 Linearization

3.1.1 The idea behind linearization

Lets suppose we have some non-linear function f(X). Here, X is the state of the system. It contains

several state variables. To linearize f(X), we should use a multi-dimensional Taylor expansion. We

then get

f(X) f(X

0

) +f

X1

(X

0

)X

1

+f

X2

(X

0

)X

2

+. . . . . . +f

Xn

(X

0

)X

n

+ higher order terms. (3.1.1)

Here, X

0

is the initial point about which we linearize the system. The linearization will only be valid

close to this point. Also, the term X

i

indicates the deviation of variable X

i

from the initial point X

0

.

When applying linearization, we always neglect higher order terms. This signicantly simplies the

equation. (Although its still quite big.)

3.1.2 Linearizing the states

Now lets apply linearization to the force and moment equations. We start at the right side: the states.

We know from the previous chapter that

F

x

= m( u +qw rv), (3.1.2)

F

y

= m( v +ru pw), (3.1.3)

F

z

= m( w +pv qu). (3.1.4)

So we see that F

x

= f( u, q, w, r, v). The state vector now consists of ve states. By applying linearization,

we nd that

F

x

= m( u

0

+q

0

w

0

r

0

v

0

) +m( u +q

0

w +w

0

q r

0

v v

0

r), (3.1.5)

F

y

= m( v

0

+r

0

u

0

p

0

w

0

) +m( v +r

0

u +u

0

r p

0

w w

0

p), (3.1.6)

F

z

= m( w

0

+p

0

v

0

q

0

u

0

) +m( w +p

0

v +v

0

p q

0

u u

0

q). (3.1.7)

We can apply a similar trick for the moments. This would, however, give us quite big expressions. And

since we dont want to spoil too much paper (safe the rainforests!), we will not derive those here. Instead,

we will only examine the nal result in the end.

3.1.3 Linearizing the forces

Now lets try to linearize the forces. Again, we know from the previous chapter that

F

x

= W sin +X, (3.1.8)

F

y

= W sin cos +Y, (3.1.9)

F

z

= W cos cos +Z, (3.1.10)

9

where the weight W = mg. We see that this time F

x

= f(, X). Also, F

y

= f(, , Y ) and F

Z

=

f(, , Z). It may seem that linearization is easy this time. However, there are some problems.

The problems are the forces X, Y and Z. They are not part of the state of the aircraft. Instead they

also depend on the state of the aircraft. And they dont only depend on the current state, but on the

entire history of states! (For example, a change in angle of attack could create disturbances at the wing.

These disturbances will later result in forces acting on the tail of the aircraft.)

How do we put this into equations? Well, we say that X is not only a function of the velocity u, but

also of all its derivatives u, u, . . .. And the same goes for v, w, p, q and r. This gives us an innitely

big equation. (Great. . . .) But luckily, experience has shown that we can neglect most of these time

derivatives, as they arent very important. There are only four exceptions. v strongly inuences the

variables Y and N. Also, w strongly inuences Z and M. We therefore say that

F

x

= f(, X) with X = f(u, v, w, p, q, r,

a

,

e

,

r

,

t

), (3.1.11)

F

y

= f(, , Y ) with Y = f(u, v, w, v, p, q, r,

a

,

e

,

r

), (3.1.12)

F

z

= f(, , Z) with Z = f(u, v, w, w, p, q, r,

a

,

e

,

r

,

t

). (3.1.13)

When creating the Taylor expansion, we have to apply the chain rule. We then nd that

F

x

(X) F

x

(X

0

) W cos

0

+X

u

u +X

v

v +X

w

w +X

p

p +. . . +X

t

t

, (3.1.14)

F

y

(X) F

y

(X

0

) W sin

0

sin

0

+W cos

0

cos

0

+Y

v

v +. . . +Y

r

r

, (3.1.15)

F

z

(X) F

z

(X

0

) W cos

0

sin

0

W sin

0

cos

0

+Z

w

w +. . . +Z

t

t

. (3.1.16)

Now thats one big Taylor expansion. And we havent even written down all terms of the equation.

(Note the dots in the equation.) By the way, the term X

u

indicates the derivative X/u. Similarly,

X

v

= X/v, and so on.

You may wonder what

a

,

e

,

r

and

t

are. Those are the settings of the aileron, elevator, rudder

and thrust. These settings of course inuence the forces acting on the aircraft. We will examine those

coecients later in more detail. (You may also wonder, why doesnt Y depend on the thrust setting

t

?

This is because we assume that the direction of the thrust vector lies in the plane of symmetry.)

3.2 Simplication

3.2.1 Symmetry and asymmetry

Lets try to simplify that monstrocity of an equation of the previous part. To do that, we have to apply

several tricks. The most important one, is that of symmetry and asymmetry.

We can make a distinction between symmetric and asymmetric forces/deviations. The symmetric devia-

tions (the deviations which dont break the symmetry) are u, w and q. The symmetric forces/moments

are X, Z and M. Similarly, the asymmetric deviations are v, p and r. The asymmetric forces/moments

are Y , L and N.

It can now be shown that there is no coupling between the symmetric and the asymmetric properties.

(That is, as long as the deviations are small.) In other words, X is uneected by v, p and r. Thus

X

v

= X

p

= X

r

= 0. The same trick works for the other forces and moments as well. This causes a lot

of terms to disappear in the force equations.

10

3.2.2 Simplifying the force equations

There is also another important trick we use, when simplifying the force equations. We assume that the

aircraft is ying in a steady symmetric ight. This means that

u

0

= 0 u

0

= 0 p

0

= 0 p

0

= 0

0

= 0

0

= 0 X

0

= 0

X

0

= 0,

v

0

= 0 v

0

= 0 q

0

= 0 q

0

= 0

0

= 0

0

= 0 Y

0

= 0

Y

0

= 0,

w

0

= 0 w

0

= 0 r

0

= 0 r

0

= 0

0

= 0

0

= 0 Z

0

= 0

Z

0

= 0.

(3.2.1)

This greatly simplies the F

x

(X

0

), F

y

(X

0

) and F

z

(X

0

) terms.

Now it is nally time to apply all these simplications and tricks. It will give us the force equations for

small deviations from a steady symmetric ight. These equations are

W cos

0

+X

u

u +X

w

w +X

q

q +X

e

e

+X

t

t

= m( u +w

0

q), (3.2.2)

W cos

0

+Y

v

v +Y

v

v +Y

p

p +Y

r

r +Y

a

a

+Y

r

r

= m( v +u

0

r w

0

p), (3.2.3)

W sin

0

+Z

u

u +Z

w

w +Z

w

w +Z

q

q +Z

e

e

+Z

t

t

= m( w u

0

q). (3.2.4)

Of these three equations, the rst and the third correspond to symmetric motion. The second equation

corresponds to asymmetric motion.

You may wonder, where did all the s go to? Well, to simplify our notation, we omitted them. So in

the above equation, all variables indicate the displacement from the initial position X

0

.

Finally, there is one more small simplication we could do. We havent fully dened our reference system

yet. (We havent specied where the X axis is in the symmetry plane.) Now lets choose our reference

system. The most convenient choice is in this case the stability reference frame F

S

. By choosing this

frame, we have u

0

= V and w

0

= 0. (V is the velocity.) This eliminates one more term.

3.2.3 The moment equations

In a similar way, we can linearize and simplify the moment equations. We wont go through that tedious

process. By now you should more or less know how linearization is done. Well just mention the results.

They are

L

v

v +L

p

p +L

r

r +L

a

a

+L

r

r

= I

x

p J

xz

r, (3.2.5)

M

u

u +M

w

w +M

w

w +M

q

q +M

e

e

+M

t

t

= I

y

q, (3.2.6)

N

v

v +N

v

v +N

p

p +N

r

r +N

a

a

+N

r

r

= I

z

r J

xz

p. (3.2.7)

Of these three equations, only the second one corresponds to symmetric motion. The other two correspond

to asymmetric motion.

3.2.4 The kinematic relations

The kinematic relations can also be linearized. (This is, in fact, not that dicult.) After we apply the

simplications, we wind up with

= p +r tan

0

, (3.2.8)

= q, (3.2.9)

=

r

cos

0

. (3.2.10)

Of these three equations, only the second one corresponds to symmetric motion. The other two correspond

to asymmetric motion.

11

3.3 Setting the equations in a non-dimensional form

3.3.1 The dividing term

Aerospace engineers often like to work with non-dimensional coecients. By doing this, they can easily

compare aircraft of dierent size and weight. So, we will also try to make our equations non-dimensional.

But how do we do that? We simply divide the equations by a certain value, making them non-dimensional.

The question remains, by what do we divide them? Well, we divide the force equations by

1

2

V

2

S, the

symmetric moment equation by

1

2

V

2

S c, the asymmetric moment equations by

1

2

V

2

Sb, the symmetric

kinematic equation by V/ c and the asymmetric kinematic equations by V/b. Here, S is the wing surface

area, c is the mean chord length, and b is the wing span. (Note that we use c for symmetric equations,

while we use b for asymmetric equations.)

3.3.2 Dening coecients

Dividing our equations by a big term wont make them look prettier. To make them still readable, we

need to dene some coecients. To see how we do that, we consider the term X

u

u. We have divided this

term by

1

2

V

2

S. We can now rewrite this term to

X

u

u

1

2

V

2

S

=

X

u

1

2

V S

u

V

= C

Xu

u. (3.3.1)

In this equation, we have dened the non-dimensional velocity u. There is also the coecient C

Xu

=

X

u

/(

1

2

V S). This coecient is called a stability derivative.

We can apply the same trick to other terms as well. For example, we can rewrite the term X

w

w to

X

w

w

1

2

V

2

S

=

X

w

1

2

V S

w

V

= C

X

, (3.3.2)

where the angle of attack is approximated by = w/V . We can also rewrite the term X

q

q to

X

q

q

1

2

V

2

S

=

X

q

1

2

V

2

S c

c

V

d

dt

= C

Xq

D

c

. (3.3.3)

This time we dont only see a new coecient. There is also the dierential operator D

c

. Another

dierential operator is D

b

. D

c

and D

b

are dened as

D

c

=

c

V

d

dt

and D

b

=

b

V

d

dt

. (3.3.4)

In this way, a lot of coecients can be dened. We wont state the denitions of all the coecients here.

(There are simply too many for a summary.) But you probably can guess the meaning of most of them

by now. And you simply have to look up the others.

3.3.3 The equations of motion in matrix form

So, we could now write down a new set of equations, with a lot of coecients. However, we know that

these equations are linear. So, we can put them in a matrix form. If we do that, we will nd two

interesting matrix equations. The equations for the symmetric motion are given by

_

_

C

Xu

2

c

D

c

C

X

C

Z0

C

Xq

C

Zu

C

Z

+ (C

Z

2

c

)D

c

C

X0

2

c

+C

Zq

0 0 D

c

1

C

mu

C

m

+C

m

D

c

0 C

mq

2

c

K

2

Y

D

c

_

_

_

_

u

q c

V

_

_

=

_

_

C

X

e

C

X

t

C

Z

e

C

Z

t

0 0

C

m

e

C

m

t

_

_

_

t

_

.

(3.3.5)

12

You may note that, instead of using the subscript M, we use the subscript m. This is just a writing

convention. You also havent seen the variable K

2

Y

yet. It is dened as K

2

Y

=

Iy

m c

2

. Also,

c

=

m

S c

.

The equations for the asymmetric motion are given by

_

_

C

Y

+ (C

Y

2

b

)D

b

C

L

C

Yp

C

Yr

4

b

0

1

2

D

b

1 0

C

l

0 C

lp

4

b

K

2

X

D

b

C

lr

+ 4

b

K

XZ

D

b

C

n

+C

n

D

b

0 C

np

+ 4

b

K

XZ

D

b

C

nr

4

b

K

2

Z

D

b

_

_

_

pb

2V

rb

2V

_

_

=

_

_

C

Y

a

C

Y

r

0 0

C

l

a

C

l

r

C

n

a

C

n

r

_

_

_

r

_

.

(3.3.6)

Again, note that, instead of using the subscripts L and N, we have used l and n. Also, the slip angle

is dened as = v/V .

3.3.4 Equations of motion in state-space form

We can also put our equation in state-space form, being

x = Ax +Bu and y = Cx +Du. (3.3.7)

Here, A is the state matrix, B is the input matrix, C is the output matrix and D is the direct

matrix. Since the system is time-invariant, all these matrices are constant. Also, x is the state vector,

u is the input vector and y is the output vector.

The state-space form has several advantages. First of all, the parameters can be solved for at every

time t. (The complicated equations for this are known.) Second, computers are very good at performing

simulations, once a situation has been described in state-space form.

After some interesting matrix manipulation, the state-space form of the symmetric motions can be derived.

The result is

_

q c

V

_

_

=

_

_

x

u

x

0

z

u

z

z

q

0 0 0

V

c

m

u

m

m

q

_

_

_

_

u

q c

V

_

_

+

_

_

x

e

x

t

z

e

z

t

0 0

m

e

m

t

_

_

_

t

_

. (3.3.8)

There are quite some strange new coecients in this equation. The equations, with which these coecients

are calculated, can be looked up. However, we will not mention those here.

You may notice that, in the above equation, we only have the state matrix A and the input matrix B.

The matrices C and D are not present. That is because they depend on what output you want to get

out of your system. So we cant generally give them here. They are often quite trivial though.

Similarly, the state-space form of the asymmetric motions can be found. This time we have

_

pb

2V

rb

2V

_

_

=

_

_

y

y

p

y

r

0 0

2V

b

0

l

0 l

p

l

r

n

0 n

p

n

r

_

_

_

pb

2V

rb

2V

_

_

+

_

_

0 y

r

0 0

l

a

l

r

n

a

n

r

_

_

_

r

_

. (3.3.9)

And that concludes this collection of oversized equations.

13

4. The aerodynamic center

In this chapter, were going to focus on the aerodynamic center, and its eect on the moment coecient

C

m

.

4.1 Force and moment coecients

4.1.1 Aerodynamic forces

Lets investigate a wing. This wing is subject to a pressure distribution. We can sum up this entire

pressure distribution. This gives us a resultant aerodynamic force vector C

R

.

Figure 4.1: The forces and moments acting on a wing.

Lets split up the aerodynamic force vector C

R

. We can do this in multiple ways. We can split the force

up into a (dimensionless) normal force coecient C

N

and a tangential force coecient C

T

. We

can also split it up into a lift force coecient C

L

and a drag force coecient C

D

. Both methods

are displayed in gure 4.1. The relation between the four force coecients is given by

C

N

= C

L

cos +C

D

sin, (4.1.1)

C

T

= C

D

cos C

L

sin. (4.1.2)

The coecients C

L

, C

N

, C

T

and C

D

all vary with the angle of attack . So if the angle of attack changes,

so do those coecients.

4.1.2 The aerodynamic moment

Next to the aerodynamic forces, we also have an aerodynamic moment coecient C

m

. This moment

depends on the reference position. Lets suppose we know the moment coecient C

m

(x

1

,z

1

)

about some

point (x

1

, z

1

). The moment coecient C

m

(x

2

,z

2

)

about some other point (x

2

, z

2

) can now be found using

C

m

(x

2

,z

2

)

= C

m

(x

1

,z

1

)

+C

N

x

2

x

1

c

C

T

z

2

z

1

c

. (4.1.3)

Here, c is the mean aerodynamic chord length. (The mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) can be

seen as the average chord of the entire 3D wing.) Also, x and z denote the position of the reference

point in the vehicle reference frame F

r

. We dene (x

0

, z

0

) to be the position of the leading edge of the

MAC.

14

4.2 Important points of the wing

4.2.1 The center of pressure

Lets put our reference point (x, z) (for calculating C

m

) on the chord. (We thus set z = z

0

.) There now

is a certain value of x, for which C

m

= 0. This point is called the center of pressure (CP). We denote

its coordinates by (x

d

, z

0

). (The CP is the point where the line of action of C

R

crosses the chord.)

Lets suppose that we know the moment coecient C

m

(x

0

,z

0

)

about the leading edge. We can then nd

x

d

using

C

m

(x

d

,z

0

)

= 0 = C

m

(x

0

,z

0

)

+C

N

x

d

x

0

c

. (4.2.1)

Lets dene e = x

d

x

0

. We can then nd that

e

c

=

C

m

(x

0

,z

0

)

C

N

. (4.2.2)

4.2.2 Lines and metacenters

Lets examine a wing at a certain angle of attack . This wing is subjected to a resultant force C

R

. For

all points on the line of action of C

R

, we have C

m

= 0.

Now lets examine all points for which dC

m

/d = 0. These points also lie on one line. This line is called

the neutral line. The point where this line crosses the MAC (and thus z = z

0

) is called the neutral

point. The crossing point of the neutral line and the line of action of C

R

is called the rst metacenter

M

1

. This point has both C

m

= 0 and dC

m

/d = 0.

Lets take another look at the neutral line. On this line is a point for which d

2

C

m

/d

2

= 0. This point

is called the second metacenter.

It is important to remember that all the lines and points discussed above change as changes. However,

the second metacenter changes only very little. We therefore assume that its position is constant for

dierent angles of attack .

4.2.3 The aerodynamic center

Previously, we have dened the second metacenter. However, in aerodynamics, we usually refer to this

point as the aerodynamic center (AC). Its coordinates are denoted by (x

ac

, z

ac

). The corresponding

moment coecient is written as C

mac

. We know that we have dC

mac

/d = 0 and d

2

C

mac

/d

2

= 0. We

can use this to nd x

ac

and z

ac

.

To nd x

ac

and z

ac

, we have to dierentiate equation (4.1.3) with respect to . Dierentiating it once

gives

dC

mac

d

= 0 =

dC

m

(x

0

,z

0

)

d

+

dC

N

d

x

ac

x

0

c

dC

T

d

z

ac

z

0

c

. (4.2.3)

(Note that we have used the fact that the position of the AC doesnt vary with .) Dierentiating it

twice gives

d

2

C

mac

d

2

= 0 =

d

2

C

m

(x

0

,z

0

)

d

2

+

d

2

C

N

d

2

x

ac

x

0

c

d

2

C

T

d

2

z

ac

z

0

c

. (4.2.4)

We now have two equations and two unknowns. We can thus solve for x

ac

and z

ac

. After this, it is easy

to nd the corresponding moment coecient C

mac

. And since dC

mac

/d = 0, we know that this moment

coecient stays the same, even if varies.

We have just described an analytical method to nd the AC. There are also graphical methods to nd

the AC. We wont go into detail on those methods though.

15

4.2.4 Simplications

We can make a couple of simplications. Usually, dC

T

/d is rather small compared to dC

N

/d. We

therefore often neglect the eects of the tangential force coecient C

T

. If we do this, we nd that the

AC lies on the MAC (z

ac

= z

0

). In fact, the AC coincides with the neutral point.

Finding the position of the AC has now become a lot easier. We know that z

ac

= z

0

. We can use this to

show that x

ac

satises

x

ac

x

0

c

=

dC

m

(x

0

,z

0

)

dC

N

. (4.2.5)

Once x

ac

has been determined, we can nd the moment coecient about any other point on the wing.

Based on our simplications, we have

C

m

(x) = C

mac

+C

N

x x

ac

c

. (4.2.6)

We can also see another interesting fact from this equation. If C

N

= 0, the moment coecient is constant

along the wing. And the value of this moment coecient is equal to C

mac

. In other words, the value of

C

mac

is the value of C

m

when C

N

= 0. (This rule holds for every reference point.)

4.3 Static stability

4.3.1 Stability types

Lets suppose that the aircraft is performing a steady ight. The aircraft is then in equilibrium. This

means that the moment coecient about the center of gravity (CG) must be 0. (C

mcg

= 0.) Now lets

suppose that the aircraft gets a small deviation from this steady ight. For example, increases to

+d. What happens?

Due to the change in angle of attack, C

mcg

is no longer zero. Instead, it will get a value of dC

mcg

. We

can now distinguish three cases.

The change in moment dC

mcg

is in the same direction as d. We thus have dC

mcg

/d > 0. In this

case, the moment causes to diverge away from the equilibrium position. The aircraft is therefore

unstable.

The change in moment dC

mcg

is directed oppositely to d. We now have dC

mcg

/d < 0. In this

case, the moment causes to get back to its equilibrium position. The aircraft is thus stable.

The change in moment dC

mcg

= 0, and thus also dC

mcg

/d = 0. In this case, we are in a new

equilibrium position. This situation is called neutrally stable or indierent.

4.3.2 The position of the center of gravity

We just saw that, to have a stable aircraft, we should have dC

mcg

/d < 0. It turns out that the position

of the CG is very important for this. To see why, we dierentiate equation (4.2.6) with respect to . We

nd that

dC

mcg

d

=

dC

N

d

x

cg

x

ac

c

. (4.3.1)

In general, dC

N

/d > 0. So, to have a stable aircraft, we must have x

cg

x

ac

< 0. The aerodynamic

center should thus be more to the rear of the aircraft than the CG. (This is also why airplanes have a

stabilizing horizontal tailplane: It moves the aerodynamic center to the rear.)

16

4.4 Three-dimensional wings

4.4.1 Basic and additional lift distributions

Previously, we have only examined 2D wings. We will now examine a 3D wing. The wing has a wing

span b. Also, at every point y, the 2D airfoil has its own chord c(y) and lift coecient c

l

(y, ). It also has

a contribution to the lift. By summing up all these lift contributions, we can nd the total lift coecient

C

L

of the wing. This goes according to

C

L

1

2

V

2

S = 2

_

b/2

0

c

l

(y)

1

2

V

2

c(y) dy C

L

= 2

_

b/2

0

c

l

(y)

c(y)

c

dy. (4.4.1)

Note that we have used that S = b c. We also have used the assumption that the wing is symmetric, by

integrating over only one half of the wing.

We can split the lift coecient distribution c

l

(y, ) up into two parts. First, there is the basic lift

distribution c

l

b

(y). This is the lift distribution corresponding to the zero-lift angle of attack

C

L

=0

.

(So c

l

b

(y) = c

l

(y,

C

L

=0

).) Per denition, we thus have

2

_

b/2

0

c

l

b

(y)

c(y)

c

dy = 0. (4.4.2)

Second, there is the additional lift distribution c

la

(y, ). This lift distribution takes into account

changes in . It is dened as c

la

(y, ) = c

l

(y, )c

l

b

(y). So, if we have =

C

L

=0

, then c

la

(y,

C

L

=0

) = 0

for all y.

4.4.2 The aerodynamic center of a 3D wing

You may wonder, what is the use of splitting up the lift distribution? Well, it can be shown that the

position of the aerodynamic center of the entire wing x

ac

only depends on c

la

. In fact, we have

x

ac

x

0

c

=

1

C

L

2

S c

_

b/2

0

c

la

(y, ) c(y) (x

ac

(y) x

0

) dy. (4.4.3)

It is important to note the dierence between all the xs. x

ac

is the position of the AC of the 2D airfoil.

x

ac

is the position of the AC of the entire 3D wing. Finally, x

0

is the position of the leading edge of the

MAC. By the way, the above equation only holds for reasonable taper and wing twist angles. For very

tapered/twisted wings, the above equation loses its accuracy.

Now lets examine the moment coecient of the entire wing. This moment coecient only depends on

the moment coecients c

mac

and the basic lift distribution c

l

b

of the individual airfoils. In fact, it can

be shown that

C

mac

=

2

S c

_

_

b/2

0

c

mac

(y) c(y)

2

dy

_

b/2

0

c

l

b

(y) c(y) (x

ac

(y) x

0

) dy

_

. (4.4.4)

4.4.3 Eects of the 3D wing shape

Lets investigate how the wing shape eects x

ac

and C

mac

. There are several properties that we can give

to our 3D wing.

A cambered airfoil. Camber causes the value c

mac

of the individual airfoils to become more

negative. So C

mac

also becomes more negative. x

ac

doesnt really change.

17

A swept wing. When dealing with swept wings, the term (x

ac

(y) x

0

) becomes important. Wings

with high sweep angles tend to have a shifting AC at high angles of attack. Whether this

improves the stability or not depends on other parameters as well.

A tapered wing. The taper ratio = c

t

/c

r

(the ratio of the tip chord and the root chord) slightly

inuences stability. For swept back wings, a low taper ratio tends to have a stabilizing inuence.

A slender wing. The aspect ratio A has only little inuence on the position of the AC. However,

a slender wing (high A) with a large sweep angle will become unstable at large angles of attack.

A twisted wing. Applying a wing twist angle causes the basic lift distribution c

l

b

to change.

This causes C

mac

to change as well. In what way C

mac

changes, depends on the direction of the

wing twist.

Predicting the exact behaviour of the wing is, however, rather dicult. A lot of parameters inuence the

wing behaviour. So dont be surprised if the above rules dont always hold.

18

5. Examining an entire aircraft

In the previous chapter, weve only considered the wing of an aircraft. Now were going to add the rest

of the aircraft too. How do the various components of the aircraft inuence each other?

5.1 Adding a fuselage

5.1.1 Changes in moment coecient

Previously, we have only considered a wing. This wing had a moment coecient C

mw

. Now lets add a

fuselage. The combination of wing and fuselage has a moment coecient C

m

wf

. The change in moment

coecient C

m

is now dened such that

C

m

wf

= C

mw

+ C

m

. (5.1.1)

Lets take a closer look at this change C

m

. What does it consist of? We know that a fuselage in a ow

usually has a moment coecient C

m

f

. However, the wing causes the ow around the fuselage to change.

This also causes a moment coecient induced on the fuselage, denoted by C

m

fi

. Finally, the fuselage

eects the ow around the wing. There is thus also a factor C

mwi

. We thus have

C

m

= C

m

f

+ C

m

fi

+ C

mwi

. (5.1.2)

In this equation, the coecients C

m

f

and C

m

fi

are usually considered together as C

m

fi

.

5.1.2 Eects of the fuselage

We can use inviscid incompressible ow theory to examine the fuselage. We then nd that the moment

coecient of the fuselage, in the induced velocity eld, is

C

m

fi

= C

m

f

+ C

m

fi

=

2S c

_

l

f

0

b

f

(x)

2

f

(x) dx. (5.1.3)

Here, b

f

(x) is the fuselage width and

f

(x) is the (eective) fuselage angle of attack. We also

integrate over the entire length l

f

of the fuselage.

If there was only a fuselage (and no wing), then the fuselage would have a constant angle of attack.

However, the wing causes the angle of attack to vary. In front of the wing, the ow goes up a bit. Behind

the wing, there is a downwash. To deal with these complicated eects, we apply linearization. We thus

approximate

f

(x) as

f

(x) =

f0

+

d

f

(x)

d

(

0

). (5.1.4)

Here,

0

is the zero normal force angle of attack

C

N

=0

.

f0

is the corresponding fuselage angle of

attack. By using the above equation, we can nd a relation for C

m

fi

. We get

C

m

fi

=

f0

2S c

_

l

f

0

b

f

(x)

2

dx +

(

0

)

2S c

_

l

f

0

b

f

(x)

2

d

f

(x)

d

dx. (5.1.5)

5.1.3 The shift of the aerodynamic center

Adding the fuselage causes the aerodynamic center to shift. We know that

C

mw

= C

macw

+C

Nw

x x

acw

c

and C

m

wf

= C

mac

wf

+C

N

wf

x x

ac

wf

c

. (5.1.6)

19

Lets assume that adding the fuselage doesnt eect the normal force. Thus C

Nw

= C

N

wf

= C

N

. In this

case, we have

C

m

= C

m

wf

C

mw

= C

mac

C

N

x

ac

wf

x

acw

c

. (5.1.7)

We can dierentiate this equation with respect to . From the denition of the AC follows that

d(C

mac

)/d = 0. If we then also use the fact that dC

N

/d = C

N

, we nd that

x

ac

wf

x

acw

c

=

x

ac

c

=

1

C

N

d(C

m

)

d

. (5.1.8)

Part of this shift is caused by the fuselage, while the other part is caused by the new ow on the wing.

The shift in angle of attack, due to the fuselage, is

_

x

ac

c

_

fi

=

1

C

N

dC

m

fi

d

=

1

C

N

2S c

_

l

f

0

b

f

(x)

2

d

f

(x)

d

dx. (5.1.9)

The shift due to the ow induced on the wing is denoted by

_

xac

c

_

wi

. We dont have a clear equation for

this part of the shift. However, it is important to remember that this shift is only signicant for swept

wings. If there is a positive sweep angle, then the AC moves backward.

5.2 Adding the rest of the aircraft

5.2.1 The three parts

It is now time to examine an entire aircraft. The CG of this aircraft is positioned at (x

cg

, z

cg

). We split

this aircraft up into three parts.

First, there is the wing, with attached fuselage and nacelles. The position of the AC of this part is

(x

w

, z

w

). Two forces and one moment are acting in this AC. There are a normal force N

w

(directed

upward), a tangential force T

w

(directed to the rear) and a moment M

acw

.

Second, we have a horizontal tailplane. The AC of this part is at (x

h

, z

h

). In it are acting a normal

force N

h

, a tangential force T

h

and a moment M

ac

h

.

Third, there is the propulsion unit. Contrary to the other two parts, this part has no moment. It

does have a normal force N

p

and a tangential force T

p

. However, these forces are all tilted upward

by the thrust inclination i

p

. (So they have dierent directions then the force T

w

, T

h

, N

w

and

N

h

.) Also, the tangential force T

p

is dened to be positive when directed forward. (This is contrary

to the forces T

h

and T

w

, which are positive when directed backward.)

5.2.2 The equations of motion

We will now derive the equations of motion for this simplied aircraft. We assume that the aircraft is in

a fully symmetric ight. We then only need to consider three equations of motion. Taking the sum of

forces in X direction gives

T = T

w

+T

h

T

p

cos i

p

+N

p

sini

p

= W sin. (5.2.1)

Similarly, we can take the sum of forces in Z direction, and the sum of moments about the CG. (This is

done about the Y axis.) We then get

N = N

w

+N

h

+N

p

cos i

p

+T

p

sini

p

= W cos , (5.2.2)

20

M =M

acw

+N

w

(x

cg

x

w

) T

w

(z

cg

z

w

) +M

ac

h

+N

h

(x

cg

x

h

) T

h

(z

cg

z

h

) +. . .

. . . + (N

p

cos i

p

+T

p

sini

p

)(x

cg

x

p

) + (T

p

cos i

p

N

p

sini

p

)(z

cg

z

p

) = 0. (5.2.3)

We can simplify these equations, by making a couple of assumptions. We want to examine the stability of

the aircraft. The propulsion doesnt inuence the stability of the aircraft much. So we neglect propulsion

eects. We also neglect T

h

, since it is very small compared to T

w

. We assume that (z

cg

z

w

) 0. And

nally, we neglect M

ac

h

. This gives us

T = T

w

= W sin, (5.2.4)

N = N

w

+N

h

= W cos , (5.2.5)

M = M

acw

+N

w

(x

cg

x

w

) +N

h

(x

cg

x

h

) = 0. (5.2.6)

That simplies matters greatly.

5.2.3 Non-dimensionalizing the equations of motion

Lets non-dimensionalize the equations of motion of the previous paragraph. For that, we divide the force

equations by

1

2

V

2

S and the moment equation by

1

2

V

2

S c. This then gives us

C

T

= C

Tw

=

W

1

2

V

2

S

sin, (5.2.7)

C

N

= C

Nw

+C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

S

=

W

1

2

V

2

S

cos , (5.2.8)

C

m

= C

macw

+C

Nw

x

cg

x

w

c

C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

= 0. (5.2.9)

A lot of new coecients have suddenly disappeared. These coecients are dened, such that

N = C

N

1

2

V

2

S, T = C

T

1

2

V

2

S, M = C

m

1

2

V

2

S c, (5.2.10)

N

w

= C

Nw

1

2

V

2

S, T

w

= C

Tw

1

2

V

2

S, M

acw

= C

macw

1

2

V

2

S c, (5.2.11)

N

h

= C

N

h

1

2

V

2

h

S

h

, T

h

= C

T

h

1

2

V

2

h

S

h

, M

ac

h

= C

mac

h

1

2

V

2

h

S

h

c

h

. (5.2.12)

Here,

1

2

V

2

h

is the average local dynamic pressure on the horizontal tail plain. Also, S

h

is the tailplane

surface area and c

h

is the MAC of the tailplane. The quantity

S

h

l

h

S c

is known as the tailplane volume.

And nally, we have dened the tail length l

h

= x

h

x

w

x

h

x

cg

.

5.3 The horizontal tailplane

5.3.1 Important angles

We will now take a closer look at the horizontal tailplane. There are three parameters that describe

the conguration of the horizontal tailplane. These parameters are the eective horizontal tailplane

angle of attack

h

, the elevator deection

e

and the elevator trim tab deection

te

. The three

angles are visualized in gure 5.1.

There is one angle which we will examine more closely now. And that is the eective angle of attack

h

.

It is dierent from the angle of attack of the aircraft . There are two important causes for this. First,

21

Figure 5.1: The angles of the horizontal tailplane.

the horizontal tail plane has an incidence angle i

h

, relative to the MAC of the wing. And second, the

tailplane experiences downwash, caused by the wing of the aircraft. The average downwash angle is

denoted by . By putting this all together, we nd that

h

= +i

h

. (5.3.1)

We can elaborate a bit further on this. The downwash mainly depends on . Linearization thus gives

d

d

(

0

). It follows that

h

=

_

1

d

d

_

(

0

) + (

0

+i

h

). (5.3.2)

From this follows that the derivate d

h

/d is given by

d

h

d

= 1

d

d

. (5.3.3)

This derivative is thus generally smaller than 1.

5.3.2 The horizontal tailplane normal force

Lets examine the normal force C

N

h

of the horizontal tailplane. This is a function of the three angles

h

,

e

and

te

. Applying linearization gives

C

N

h

= C

N

h

0

+

C

N

h

h

+

C

N

h

e

+

C

N

h

et

et

. (5.3.4)

The eect of the trim tab to the normal force is usually negligible. So, C

N

h

/

et

0. Also, since most

horizontal tailplanes are (nearly) symmetric, we have C

N

h

0

0. This simplies the above equation to

C

N

h

=

C

N

h

h

+

C

N

h

e

= C

N

h

h

+C

N

h

e

. (5.3.5)

Note that we have used a shorter notation in the right part of the above equation. The variables C

N

h

and C

N

h

are quite important for the balance of the control surface. If they are both negative, then the

control surface is called aerodynamically underbalanced. If, however, they are both positive, then

the control surface is called aerodynamically overbalanced.

5.3.3 The elevator deection necessary for equilibrium

We can ask ourselves, what elevator deection

e

should we have, to make sure our aircraft is in equilib-

rium? For that, we examine the moment equation (5.2.9). In this equation are the coecients C

Nw

and

22

C

N

h

. We can replace these by the linearizations

C

Nw

= C

Nw

(

0

) and C

N

h

= C

N

h

h

+C

N

h

e

. (5.3.6)

If we do this, we nd that

C

m

= C

macw

+C

Nw

(

0

)

x

cg

x

w

c

_

C

N

h

h

+C

N

h

e

_

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

= 0. (5.3.7)

We can now also substitute the relation (5.3.2) for

h

. Doing this, and working the whole equation out,

gives

C

m

= C

m0

+C

m

(

0

) +C

m

e

e

= 0, (5.3.8)

where C

m

is known as the static longitudinal stability and C

m

e

is the elevator eectivity. To-

gether with the constant C

m0

, they are dened as

C

m0

= C

macw

C

N

h

(

0

+i

h

)

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

, (5.3.9)

C

m

= C

Nw

x

cg

x

w

c

C

N

h

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

, (5.3.10)

C

m

e

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (5.3.11)

We can now solve for

e

. It is simply given by

e

=

C

m0

+C

m

(

0

)

C

m

e

. (5.3.12)

This is a nice expression. But do remember that we have made several linearizations to derive this

equation. The above equation is thus only valid, when all the linearizations are allowed.

23

6. Longitudinal stability derivatives

We have seen a lot of stability derivatives in previous chapters. However, it would be nice to know

their values. Were therefore going to derive some relations for them. In this chapter, we will look at

longitudinal stability derivatives. In the next chapter, well examine lateral stability derivatives.

6.1 Nominal stability derivatives

6.1.1 Methods of nding the stability derivatives

There are three methods to nd the stability derivatives. The rst one is of course by performing

ight tests or wind tunnel tests. These tests are, however, quite expensive. An alternative is using

computational uid dynamics (CDF). This is usually less expensive, but it still requires a lot of work.

Finally, simple analytic expressions can be used. They are usually not very accurate. (Especially not

for strange aircraft congurations.) However, they dont require a lot of work. In this chapter, were

going to examine these analytic expressions.

6.1.2 Equations of motion

Before we will nd stability derivatives, we rst need to re-examine the equations of motion. The

symmetric equations of motion, for an airplane in a steady ight, are

X =Dcos +Lsin +T

p

cos(

0

+i

p

) = W sin

0

, (6.1.1)

Z =Lcos Dsin T

p

sin(

0

+i

p

) = W cos

0

. (6.1.2)

Here,

0

is the initial angle of attack. (It is now not the zero-lift angle of attack.) Also, now denotes

the deviation from this ight condition. We assume

0

+ i

p

is small, so we can use the small angle

approximation. If we also non-dimensionalize the above relations, we nd that

C

X

=C

D

cos +C

L

sin +T

c

=

W

1

2

V

2

S

sin

0

, (6.1.3)

C

Z

=C

L

cos C

D

sin T

c

(

0

+i

p

) =

W

1

2

V

2

S

cos

0

, (6.1.4)

where we have dened

T

c

=

T

p

1

2

V

2

S

. (6.1.5)

6.1.3 Nominal ight conditions

Lets examine an aircraft ying a steady horizontal ight. We will now try to nd the nominal stability

derivatives C

X0

, C

Z0

and C

m0

. Since the aircraft is ying horizontally, we have =

0

= 0. (Remember

that is the deviation from the steady ight.) The relations of the previous paragraph now turn into

C

X0

= C

D

+T

c

= 0 and C

Z0

= C

L

T

c

(

0

+i

p

) =

W

1

2

V

2

S

. (6.1.6)

Finally, from moment equilibrium follows that C

m0

= 0.

24

6.2 Velocity stability derivatives

6.2.1 The basic relations

Now lets nd the stability derivatives with respect to the velocity. They are C

Xu

, C

Zu

and C

mu

. They

are very hard to determine experimentally. This is because wind tunnels and ying aircraft cant change

their velocity in a very accurate way. Luckily, we can nd expressions for them.

Lets start to examine C

Xu

. We can recall that

C

Xu

=

1

1

2

V S

X

V

and X = C

X

1

2

V

2

S. (6.2.1)

(We have used the fact that V/u 1.) Taking the derivative of the second relation, with respect to

V , gives

X

V

= C

X

V S +

C

X

V

1

2

V

2

S. (6.2.2)

Inserting this into the rst relation will give

C

Xu

= 2C

X

+

C

X

V

V. (6.2.3)

In a similar way, we can nd the expressions for C

Zu

and C

mu

. They are

C

Zu

= 2C

Z

+

C

Z

V

V and C

mu

= 2C

m

+

C

m

V

V. (6.2.4)

6.2.2 Rewriting the relations

There are still some terms we dont know in the relations of the previous paragraph. They are C

X

, C

Z

,

C

m

, C

X

/V , C

Z

/V and C

m

/V . How can we rewrite them?

We are considering deviations from the steady horizontal ight. So we can replace C

X

by C

X0

= C

D

+T

c

.

Similarly, C

Z

is replaced by C

Z0

= C

L

T

c

(

0

+i

p

) and C

m

by C

m0

= 0. That simplies the equations

quite a bit.

The derivatives are a bit harder to rewrite. At a steady horizontal ight, we have C

X

= C

D

+ T

c

and

C

Z

= C

L

T

c

(

0

+i

p

). Dierentiating this gives

C

X

V

=

C

D

V

+

T

c

V

and

C

Z

V

=

C

L

V

T

c

V

(

0

+i

p

). (6.2.5)

That leaves us with some more derivatives. First, lets examine C

D

/V , C

L

/V and C

m

/V . To

nd them, we have to know why the coecients C

D

, C

L

and C

m

vary with airspeed. These variations

are partly caused by changes in Mach number M, changes in thrust T

c

and changes in Reynolds number

Re. Although changes in the Reynolds number may be neglected, we do have to consider M and T

c

.

This implies that

C

D

V

=

C

D

M

M

V

+

C

D

T

c

T

c

V

, (6.2.6)

C

L

V

=

C

L

M

M

V

+

C

L

T

c

T

c

V

, (6.2.7)

C

m

V

=

C

m

M

M

V

+

C

m

T

c

T

c

V

. (6.2.8)

25

If we use this, in combination with earlier equations, we will nd that

C

Xu

=2C

D

+ 2T

c

+

_

1

C

D

T

c

_

dT

c

dV

V

C

D

M

M, (6.2.9)

C

Zu

=2C

L

2T

c

(

0

+i

p

)

_

(

0

+i

p

) +

C

L

T

c

_

dT

c

dV

V

C

L

M

M, (6.2.10)

C

mu

=

C

m

T

c

dT

c

dV

V +

C

m

M

M. (6.2.11)

6.2.3 The thrust derivative

The equations of the previous paragraph still have a lot of derivatives. We wont go into detail on

derivatives with respect T

c

or M. However, we will consider dT

c

/dV . It turns out that we can write this

derivative as

dT

c

dV

= k

T

c

V

, (6.2.12)

where the constant k depends on the ight type. If we have a gliding ight, then T

c

= 0. Thus also

dT

c

/dV = 0 and therefore k = 0. If we have a jet-powered aircraft, then T

p

= T

c

1

2

V

2

S = constant.

From this follows that k = 2. Finally, for propeller-powered aircraft, we have T

p

V = T

c

1

2

V

3

S =

constant. This implies that k = 3.

Lets use the above relation to simplify our equations. The equations for C

Xu

, C

Zu

and C

mu

now become

C

Xu

=2C

D

+

_

2 k

_

1

C

D

T

c

__

T

C

D

M

M, (6.2.13)

C

Zu

=2C

L

+

_

(k 2)(

0

+i

p

) +k

C

L

T

c

_

T

C

L

M

M, (6.2.14)

C

mu

=k

C

m

T

c

T

c

+

C

m

M

M. (6.2.15)

When specic data about the type of ight is known, the above equations can be simplied even further.

For example, when the ight is at low subsonic velocities, then Mach eects may be neglected. Thus

C

D

/M = C

L

/M = C

m

/M = 0. In other cases, there are often other simplications that can be

performed.

6.3 Angle of attack stability derivatives

6.3.1 The basic relations for C

X

and C

Z

We will now try to nd relations for C

X

, C

Z

and C

m

. First we examine C

X

and C

Z

. They are

dened as

C

X

=

1

1

2

V S

X

w

=

C

X

and C

Z

=

1

1

2

V S

Z

w

=

C

Z

. (6.3.1)

If we take the derivative of equations (6.1.3) and (6.1.4), we nd that

C

X

=C

D

cos +C

D

sin +C

L

sin +C

L

cos , (6.3.2)

C

Z

=C

L

cos +C

L

sin C

D

sin C

D

cos . (6.3.3)

We are examining an aircraft performing a steady horizontal ight. Thus = 0. This simplies the

above equations to

C

X

= C

L

C

D

and C

Z

= C

L

C

D

C

L

C

N

. (6.3.4)

In the last part of the above equation, we have used the fact that C

D

is much smaller than C

L

.

26

6.3.2 Rewriting the relation for C

X

We can try to rewrite the relation for C

X

. To do this, we examine C

D

. Lets assume that the aircraft

has a parabolic drag curve. This implies that

C

D

= C

D0

+

C

2

L

Ae

, which, in turn, implies that C

D

= 2

C

L

Ae

C

L

. (6.3.5)

If we combine this with the former expression for C

X

, we wind up with

C

X

= C

L

_

1 2

C

L

Ae

_

. (6.3.6)

6.3.3 The relation for C

m

In a previous chapter, we have already considered C

m

. After neglecting the eects of many parts of the

aircraft, we wound up with

C

m

= C

Nw

x

cg

x

w

c

C

N

h

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (6.3.7)

6.4 Pitch rate stability derivatives

6.4.1 The reasons behind the changing coecients

We will now try to nd C

Xq

, C

Zq

and C

mq

. Luckily, C

X

doesnt get inuenced a lot by q. So it is usually

assumed that C

Xq

= 0. That saves us some work. We now only need to nd C

Zq

and C

mq

. They are

dened as

C

Zq

=

1

1

2

V S c

Z

q

=

C

Z

q c

V

and C

mq

=

1

1

2

V S c

2

M

q

=

C

m

q c

V

. (6.4.1)

To nd C

Zq

and C

mq

, we rst have to understand some theory behind rotations. Why do the coecients

change, when the aircraft rotates? This is because the eective angle of attack changes. Imagine an

aircraft with its nose pitching upward. The tailplane of the aircraft is thus pitching downward. Now

imagine youre sitting on the tailplane. As seen from the tailplane, it looks like the ow of air is coming

upward. This means that the tailplane experiences a bigger angle of attack.

To nd the exact value of the change in angle of attack , we examine the center of rotation. This

is the point about which the aircraft appears to be rotating. The center of rotation lies on the Z

s

-axis.

The apparent rotation itself is performed with a radius R, which is given by

R =

V

q

. (6.4.2)

The change in angle of attack , at any point x on the airplane, is then given by

=

x x

cg

R

=

x x

cg

c

q c

V

. (6.4.3)

6.4.2 The changing coecients

We know that the apparent angle of attack changes across the aircraft. This is especially important for

the horizontal tailplane. In fact, the change in angle of attack of the tailplane is given by

h

=

x

h

x

cg

c

q c

V

l

h

c

q c

V

. (6.4.4)

27

This change in angle of attack causes the normal force of the tailplane to change. In fact, it changes by

an amount

C

N

h

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

S

h

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

q c

V

. (6.4.5)

Similarly, the change of the moment is given by

C

m

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

h

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

2

h

S c

2

q c

V

. (6.4.6)

We know that C

Zq

= C

Z

/

q c

V

and C

mq

= C

m

/

q c

V

. By using this, we can nd the contributions of the

horizontal tailplane to C

zq

and C

mq

. They are

_

C

Zq

_

h

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

and

_

C

mq

_

h

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

2

h

S c

2

. (6.4.7)

(The minus sign in the left part appeared, because C

N

is dened upward, while C

Z

is dened downward.)

There is, however, one small problem. The aircraft doesnt consist of only a horizontal tailplane. It also

has various other parts. But it is very dicult to calculate the eects of all these parts. For that reason,

we make an estimate. We say that the contribution of the full aircraft C

Zq

is twice the contribution of

the horizontal tailplane

_

C

Zq

_

h

. This implies that

C

Zq

= 2

_

C

Zq

_

h

= 2C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (6.4.8)

For C

mq

, we apply the same trick. But instead of a factor 2, a factor between 1.1 to 1.2 should now be

used, depending on the aircraft. We thus get

C

mq

= (1.1 1.2)

_

C

mq

_

h

= (1.1 1.2)C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

2

h

S c

2

. (6.4.9)

6.5 Other longitudinal stability derivatives

6.5.1 Vertical acceleration stability derivatives

We now examine C

Z

and C

m

. (We assume C

X

= 0.) To do this, we look at the horizontal tailplane.

During a steady ight, it has an eective angle of attack

h

= +i

h

=

d

d

+i

h

. (6.5.1)

Now lets suppose that the aircraft experiences a change in angle of attack. This causes the downwash

angle of the wing to change. A time t = l

h

/V later will this change be experienced by the horizontal

tailplane. In other words, the downwash (t) at time t depends on the angle of attack (t t) at time

t t. A linear approximation of (t t) is given by

(t t) = (t) t. (6.5.2)

By using this, we nd that the downwash is given by

(t) =

d

d

(t t) =

d

d

(t)

d

d

l

h

V

. (6.5.3)

This implies that the eective angle of attack is given by

h

=

d

d

+

d

d

l

h

V

+i

h

. (6.5.4)

28

The change in eective angle of attack is

h

=

d

d

l

h

c

c

V

. (6.5.5)

We now have enough data to nd the coecients C

Z

and C

m

. We know that

C

Z

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

S

h

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

d

d

c

V

, (6.5.6)

C

m

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

h

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

2

h

S c

2

d

d

c

V

. (6.5.7)

The coecients C

Z

and C

m

are now given by

C

Z

=

1

1

2

S c

Z

w

=

C

Z

c

V

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

d

d

, (6.5.8)

C

m

=

1

1

2

S c

2

M

w

=

C

m

c

V

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

2

h

S c

2

d

d

. (6.5.9)

6.5.2 Elevator angle stability derivatives

The last stability derivatives we will consider in this chapter are C

X

e

, C

Z

e

and C

m

e

. Usually C

X

doesnt vary a lot with

e

, so we assume that C

X

e

= 0. But what about C

Z

e

? Well, this one is given by

C

Z

e

= C

N

h

e

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

S

. (6.5.10)

Finally there is C

m

e

. We can nd that it is

C

m

e

= C

Z

e

x

h

x

cg

c

C

N

e

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (6.5.11)

The coecient C

Z

e

usually isnt very important. However, C

m

e

is very important. This is because the

whole goal of an elevator is to apply a moment to the aircraft.

6.5.3 Eects of moving the center of gravity

We have one topic left to discuss. What happens when the CG moves from position 1 to position 2? In

this case, several coecients change. This goes according to

C

m

2

= C

m

1

C

Z

x

cg2

x

cg1

c

, (6.5.12)

C

Zq

2

= C

Zq

1

C

Z

x

cg2

x

cg1

c

, (6.5.13)

C

mq

2

= C

mq

1

_

C

Zq

1

+C

m

1

_

x

cg2

x

cg1

c

+C

Z

_

x

cg2

x

cg1

c

_

2

, (6.5.14)

C

m

2

= C

m

1

C

Z

x

cg2

x

cg1

c

. (6.5.15)

29

7. Lateral stability derivatives

In the previous chapter, we found relations for the longitudinal stability derivatives. Now well examine

the lateral stability derivatives.

7.1 Sideslip angle stability derivatives

7.1.1 Horizontal forces

We start by examining derivatives with respect to the sideslip angle . This angle is dened as

= arcsin

_

v

V

_

v

V

. (7.1.1)

We will now examine C

Y

. Lets examine an aircraft with a sideslip angle . This sideslip angle causes

a horizontal force Y on the aircraft. The most important contributors to this horizontal force are the

fuselage and the vertical tailplane.

First lets examine the vertical tailplane. Luckily, this tailplane has a lot of analogies with the horizontal

tailplane, so we can use some short cuts. For example, the force acting on the vertical tailplane is given

by

_

C

Y

_

v

= C

Yv

d

v

d

_

V

v

V

_

2

S

v

S

, (7.1.2)

where S

v

is the vertical tailplane surface area and V

v

is the average velocity over it. Also, C

Yv

=

C

Yv

v

.

Lets take a closer look at the eective angle of attack of the tailplane

v

. Its not equal to .

This is because the fuselage also alters the ow by an angle . ( is similar to the downwash for the

horizontal tailplane.) The vertical tailplane thus has an angle of attack of

v

= ( ). (The minus is

present due to sign convention.) Inserting this relation into the above equation gives

_

C

Y

_

v

= C

Yv

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

v

S

. (7.1.3)

Usually, most terms in the above equation are known. Only d/d is still a bit of a mystery. It is very

hard to determine. However, it usually is negative. (So d/d < 0.)

Next to the tailplane contribution, there is usually also a contribution by the fuselage. However, we dont

go into depth on that here.

7.1.2 Rolling momemts

Now lets examine the so-called eective dihedral C

l

. The coecient C

l

was dened as

C

l

=

L

1

2

V

2

b

. (7.1.4)

It is important to note that L is not the lift. It is the moment about the X axis. C

l

is thus not the lift

coecient either.

The eective dihedral C

l

mostly depends on the wing set-up. Both the wing-dihedral and the

sweep angle strongly eect C

l

. (The wing-dihedral is the angle with which the wings have been

tilted upward, when seen from the fuselage.)

First lets examine an aircraft with a wing-dihedral . We suppose that the aircraft is sideslipping to

the right. From the aircraft, it now appears as if part of the ow is coming from the right. This ow

30

crouches under the right wing, pushing it more upward. However, it ows over the left wing, pushing

that one downward a bit. This thus causes the aircraft to roll to the left.

To nd more info about the moment caused by the wing-dihedral, we need to examine the new angle of

attacks of the wings

w

l

and

wr

. By using small angle approximations, we can nd that

w

l

and

wr

+. (7.1.5)

The changes in the angles of attack are thus

w

l

= and

wr

= . So the moment caused by

the wing-dihedral is approximately linearly dependend on both and . (We thus have C

l

.)

Second, we look at an aircraft with a wing sweep angle . The lift of a wing strongly depends on the

ow velocity perpendicular to the leading edge. Again, we suppose that part of the ow is coming in

from the right. This causes the ow to be more perpendicular w.r.t. to the right wing leading edge, thus

increasing the lift. However, the ow is more parallel w.r.t. the leading edge of the left wing. The left

wing thus has reduced lift. It can be shown that the change in lift for the aircraft, due to a sweep angle

, is

L = C

L

1

2

V

2

S

2

_

cos

2

( ) cos

2

( +)

_

C

L

1

2

V

2

S sin(2) . (7.1.6)

The rightmost part of the equation is an approximation. It only works for small values of . The above

equation shows that the lift more or less linearly depends on and . It can be shown that the same

holds for the moment C

l

. The eective dihedral C

l

is thus proportional to .

Next to the wing, also the horizontal tailplane and the fuselage eect C

l

these eects.

7.1.3 Yawing moments

The stability derivative C

n

is called the static directional stability. (Its also known as the Weath-

ercock stability.) It is about just as important as C

m

. It can be shown that, if C

n

is positive, then

the aircraft is stable for yawing motions. However, if C

n

yawing motions.

Naturally, we want to have C

n

> 0. Luckily, the wings and the horizontal tailplane have a slightly

positive eect on C

n

n

tailplane is used, strongly increasing C

n

.

Lets examine the eects of this tailplane. You may remember that the normal force on it was

_

C

Y

_

v

= C

Yv

_

1

d

d

__

V

v

V

_

2

S

v

S

. (7.1.7)

This normal force causes a moment

_

C

n

_

v

=

_

C

Y

_

v

_

z

v

z

cg

b

sin

0

+

x

v

x

cg

b

cos

0

_

. (7.1.8)

We can usually assume

0

to be small. (Thus cos

0

1.) Also,

zvzcg

b

sin

0

is usually quite small,

compared to the other term, so we neglect it. If we also use the tail length of the vertical tailplane

l

v

= x

v

x

cg

, we can rewrite the above equation to

_

C

n

_

v

= C

Yv

_

1

d

d

__

V

v

V

_

2

S

v

l

v

Sb

. (7.1.9)

From this, the correspondence to C

m

again becomes clear. To emphasize this, we once more show the

equation for the horizontal tailplane contribution to C

m

. Rather similar to

_

C

n

_

v

, it was given by

(C

m

)

h

= C

N

h

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (7.1.10)

31

7.2 Roll rate stability derivatives

7.2.1 Horizontal forces

It is time to investigate the eects of roll. In other words, we will try to nd the stability derivatives C

Yp

,

C

lp

and C

np

. (Of these three, C

lp

is the most important.) First we examine C

Yp

. It is dened such that

Y

p

= C

Yp

pb

2V

1

2

V

2

S. (7.2.1)

The only part having a more or less signicant contribution to C

Yp

is the vertical tailplane. Lets examine

a rolling aircraft. Due to this rolling, the vertical tailplane is moving horizontally. It will therefore get an

eective angle of attack. This causes a horizontal force. A positive roll rate gives a negative horizontal

force. C

Yp

is thus negative.

However, C

Yp

is usually rather small. For this reason it is often neglected. So we say that C

Yp

0.

7.2.2 Rolling moments

Now we will try to nd C

lp

. Again, we examine a rolling aircraft. One wing of the aircraft goes up, while

the other one goes down. This motion changes the eective angle of attack and thus also the lift of the

wings. The upward going wing will get a lower lift, while the downward moving wing will experience a

bigger amount of lift. The wing forces thus cause a moment opposite to the rolling motion. This means

that C

lp

is highly negative. It also implies that the rolling motion is very strongly damped. (We will see

this again, when examining the aperiodic roll in chapter 10.)

We can also investigate the actual eects of the rolling motion. To do this, we examine a chord at a

distance y from the fuselage. This chord will have an additional vertical velocity of py. The change in

angle of attack of this chord thus is

=

py

V

=

pb

2V

y

b/2

. (7.2.2)

So a chord that is far away from the fuselage will experience a big change in angle of attack. The change

in lift is therefore biggest for these chords. These chords also have a relatively big distance to the CG of

the aircraft. For this reason, they will signicantly eect the resulting moment.

Other parts of the aircraft may also inuence C

lp

slightly. However, their inuence is very small, compared

to the eects of the wings. The contributions of the other parts are therefore neglected.

7.2.3 Yawing moments

To nd C

np

, we again examine a rolling aircraft. The rolling of the aircraft has two important eects.

First, we look at the vertical tailplane. As was discussed earlier, this tailplane will move. It thus has an

eective angle of attack, and therefore a horizontal force. This horizontal force causes the aircraft to yaw.

A positive rolling motion causes a positive yawing moment. The vertical tailplane thus has a positive

contribution to C

np

. (So

_

C

np

_

v

> 0.)

But now lets look at the wings. Lets suppose that the aircraft is rolling to the right. For the right wing,

it then appears as if the ow comes (partially) from below. The lift is per denition perpendicular to the

direction of the incoming ow. The lift vector is thus tilted forward. Part of this lift causes the aircraft

to yaw to the left. The opposite happens for the left wing: The lift vector is tilted backward. Again, this

causes a yawing moment to the left. (This eect is known as adverse yaw.) So we conclude that, due

to the wings, a positive rolling motion results in a negative yawing moment. We thus have

_

C

np

_

w

< 0.

32

For most normal ights, the eects of the vertical stabilizer are a bit bigger than the eects of the wing.

We thus have C

np

> 0. However, high roll rates and/or high angles of attack increase the eect of the

wings. In this case, we will most likely have C

np

< 0.

7.3 Yaw rate stability derivatives

7.3.1 Horizontal forces

In this part, well try to nd the stability derivatives C

Yr

, C

lr

and C

nr

. We start with the not very

important coecient C

Yr

. Lets examine a yawing aircraft. Due to the yawing moment, the vertical

tailplane moves horizontally. Because of this, its eective angle of attack will change by

v

=

rl

v

V

=

rb

2V

l

v

b/2

. (7.3.1)

The contribution of the tailplane to C

Yr

is now given by

(C

Yr

)

v

= 2C

Yv

_

V

v

V

_

2

S

v

l

v

Sb

. (7.3.2)

The contribution is positive, so (C

Yr

)

v

> 0. Next to the vertical tailplane, there are also other parts

inuencing C

Yr

. Most parts have a negative contribution to C

Yr

. However, none of these contributions

are as big as (C

Yr

)

v

. The stability derivative C

Yr

is therefore still positive. It is only slightly smaller

than (C

Yr

)

v

.

7.3.2 Rolling moments

We will now examine C

lr

. There are two important contributions to C

lr

. They come from the vertical

tailplane and the wings.

First we examine the vertical tailplane. We just saw that a yawing motion causes a horizontal force on

the vertical tailplane. This horizontal force causes a moment

(C

lr

)

v

= (C

Yr

)

v

_

z

v

z

cg

b

cos

0

x

v

x

cg

b

sin

0

_

. (7.3.3)

A positive yawing motion results in a positive moment. We thus have (C

lr

)

v

> 0.

Now lets examine the wings. Because of the yawing motion, one wing will move faster, while the other

wing will move slower. This causes the lift on one wing to increase, while it will decrease on the other

wing. This results in a rolling moment.

Sadly, its rather hard to nd an equation for the moment caused by the wings. So we wont examine

that any further. However, it is important to remember that a positive yawing motion causes a positive

rolling moment. We thus have (C

lr

)

w

> 0. The total coecient C

lr

is then, of course, also positive.

7.3.3 Yawing moments

Finally, we examine C

nr

. The most important contribution comes from the vertical tailplane. We know

that a yawing motion causes a horizontal force on the vertical tailplane. This force is such that it damps

the yawing motion. The contribution (C

nr

)

v

is thus very highly negative. In fact, it is given by

(C

nr

)

v

= (C

Yr

)

v

l

v

b

= 2C

Yv

_

V

v

V

_

2

S

v

l

2

v

Sb

2

. (7.3.4)

33

The vertical tailplane is about the only part seriously eecting the coecient C

nr

. Sometimes also the

fuselage eects it. This eect is also negative. (So (C

nr

)

f

< 0.) The coecient C

nr

itself is thus also

very strongly negative. This implies that the yawing motion is highly damped.

7.4 Other lateral stability derivatives

7.4.1 Aileron deections

Lets consider the ailerons. The aileron deection

a

is dened as

a

=

a

right

a

left

. (7.4.1)

A deection of the ailerons causes almost no change in horizontal forces. We thus have C

Y

a

= 0. The

so-called aileron eectiveness C

l

a

is, of course, not negligible. (Causing moments about the X axis

is what ailerons are for.) The coecient C

n

a

usually isnt negligible either. By the way, the moments

caused by an aileron deection are given by

L = C

l

a

a

1

2

V

2

Sb and N = C

n

a

a

1

2

V

2

Sb. (7.4.2)

C

l

a

is negative. A positive aileron deection causes a negative rolling moment. C

n

a

is, however, positive.

So a positive aileron deection causes positive yaw.

7.4.2 Rudder deections

The rudder stability derivatives are C

Y

r

, C

l

r

and C

n

r

. The forces and moments caused by a rudder

deection are given by

Y = C

Y

r

r

1

2

V

2

S, L = C

l

r

r

1

2

V

2

Sb. and N = C

n

r

r

1

2

V

2

Sb. (7.4.3)

The coecient C

Y

r

is given by

C

Y

r

= C

Yv

_

V

v

V

_

2

S

v

S

. (7.4.4)

The coecient C

l

r

is then given by

C

l

r

= C

Y

r

_

z

v

z

cg

b

cos

0

x

v

x

cg

b

sin

0

_

. (7.4.5)

C

l

r

is positive. This means that a positive rudder deection causes a positive rolling moment. This

eect is generally not desirable. Especially if z

v

z

cg

is big, measures are often taken to reduce this

eect.

Finally, the rudder eectiveness C

n

r

is given by

C

n

r

= C

Y

r

l

v

b

. (7.4.6)

This coecient is negative. A positive rudder deection thus causes a negative yawing moment.

7.4.3 Spoiler deections

The last things we examine are the spoilers. Spoilers are often used in high-speed aircraft to provide roll

control. A spoiler deection

s

on the left wing is dened to be positive. Due to this denition, we have

C

l

s

< 0 and C

n

s

< 0. Of these two, the latter is the most important.

34

8. Longitudinal stability and control

In this chapter, we will start to investigate the stability of the entire aircraft. This can be split up into

two parts: longitudinal and lateral stability. In this chapter, we will only look at longitudinal stability.

8.1 Stick xed longitudinal stability

8.1.1 Eects of the wing and the tail on stability

To start our investigation in the stability of an aircraft, we reexamine the moment equation. In an earlier

chapter, we found that

C

m

= C

mac

+C

Nw

(

0

)

x

cg

x

w

c

C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

= 0, (8.1.1)

where C

N

h

is given by

C

N

h

= C

N

h

_

(

0

)

_

1

d

d

_

+ (

0

+i

h

)

_

+C

N

h

e

e

. (8.1.2)

We can also rewrite the moment equation to C

m

= C

mw

+C

m

h

. In this equation, C

mw

is the contribution

due to the wings. Similarly, C

m

h

is the contribution from the horizontal tailplane. They are both given

by

C

mw

= C

mac

+C

Nw

(

0

)

x

cg

x

w

c

and C

m

h

= C

N

h

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (8.1.3)

Taking a derivative of the moment equation will give us C

m

= C

mw

+C

m

h

, where

C

mw

= C

Nw

x

cg

x

w

c

and C

m

h

= C

N

h

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (8.1.4)

To achieve stability for our aircraft, we should have C

m

< 0. Usually, the wing is in front of the CG.

We thus have x

cg

x

w

> 0 and also C

mw

> 0. The wing thus destabilizes the aircraft. Luckily, the

horizontal tailplane has a stabilizing eect. This is because C

m

h

< 0. To achieve stability, the stabilizing

eect of the tailplane should be bigger than the destabilizing eect of the wings. We should thus have

|C

mw

| < |C

m

h

|. (8.1.5)

8.1.2 Eects of the center of gravity on stability

We will now examine the eects of the CG on the stability. To do this, we suppose x

cg

increases (the

CG moves to the rear). However, the other parameters (including

e

) stay constant. The movement of

the CG causes C

m

to increase. At a certain point, we will reach C

m

= 0. When the CG moves beyond

this position, the aircraft becomes unstable.

Lets examine the point at which C

m

= 0. We remember, from a previous chapter, that this point is

called the neutral point. And, because the stick deection is constant (

e

is constant), we call this point

the stick xed neutral point. Its x coordinate is denoted by x

n

fix

. To nd it, we can use

C

m

= C

Nw

x

n

fix

x

w

c

+C

N

h

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

S

x

n

fix

x

h

c

. (8.1.6)

35

After some mathematical trickery, we can nd the position of the stick xed neutral point, with respect

to the wing. It is given by

x

n

fix

x

w

c

=

C

N

h

C

N

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (8.1.7)

From this, we can also derive the position of the stick xed neutral point, with respect to the aircraft

CG. This is given by

C

m

= C

N

x

cg

x

n

fix

c

. (8.1.8)

The quantity

xcgxn

fix

c

is known as the (stick xed) stability margin. It is an indication of how much

the CG can move, before the aircraft becomes unstable.

8.1.3 The elevator trim curve

Now lets examine the eects of the elvator deection

e

. We know from a previous chapter that the

elevator deection necessary to keep the aircraft in equilibrium is

e

=

1

C

m

e

(C

m0

+C

m

(

0

)) . (8.1.9)

e

depends on . To see how, we plot

e

versus . We usually do this, such that the y axis is reversed.

(Positive

e

appear below the horizontal axis.) Now we examine the slope of this graph. It is given by

d

e

d

=

C

m

C

m

e

. (8.1.10)

We always have C

m

e

< 0. To make sure we have C

m

< 0 as well, we should have d

e

/d < 0. The line

in the

e

, graph should thus go upward as increases. (Remember that we have reversed the y axis of

the graph!)

e

also depends on the aircraft velocity V . To see how, we will rewrite equation (8.1.9). By using

C

N

C

N

(

0

)

W

1

2

V

2

S

, we nd that

e

=

1

C

m

e

_

C

m0

+

C

m

C

N

W

1

2

V

2

S

_

. (8.1.11)

We can now plot

e

against V . (Again, we reverse the

e

axis.) We have then created the so-called

elevator trim curve. Its slope is given by

d

e

dV

=

4W

V

3

S

1

C

m

e

C

m

C

N

. (8.1.12)

To have C

m

< 0, we should have d

e

/dV > 0. The line in the graph should thus go downward. Also, if

you want to y faster in a stable aircraft, you should push your stick forward.

8.2 Stick free longitudinal stability

8.2.1 The stick free elevator deection

Previously, we have assumed that

e

is constant. The pilot has his stick xed. But what will happen if

the pilot releases his stick? It would be nice if the aircraft remains stable as well.

36

Lets suppose the pilot releases the stick. In that case, aerodynamic force will give the elevator a certain

stick free elevator deection

e

free

. To nd

e

free

, we examine the moments H

e

about the elevator

hinge point. (Or, to be more precise, we look at the non-dimensional version C

he

.) Contributing to this

hinge moment are the horizontal tailplane, the elevator and the trim tab. By using a linearization, we

nd that

C

he

free

= C

h

h

+C

h

e

free

+C

h

te

= 0. (8.2.1)

It follows that the stick free elevator deection is

e

free

=

C

h

C

h

C

h

t

C

h

te

. (8.2.2)

From this, we can also derive that

_

d

e

d

_

free

=

C

h

C

h

_

1

d

d

_

. (8.2.3)

The elevator deection thus changes as the angle of attack is changed.

8.2.2 Dierences in the moment due to the stick free evelator

The free elevator deection eects the contribution C

m

h

of the horizontal tailplane to the moment C

m

.

Lets investigate this. We can remember that

C

m

h

=

_

C

N

h

h

+C

N

h

e

_

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (8.2.4)

We now substitute

e

by

e

free

. If we also dierentiate with respect to , and work things out, we will

get

C

m

h

free

=

_

C

N

h

C

N

h

C

h

C

h

__

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

. (8.2.5)

If we compare this equation to the right side of equation (8.1.4), we see that only C

N

h

has changed. In

fact, we can dene

C

N

h

free

= C

N

h

C

N

h

C

h

C

h

. (8.2.6)

If we use C

N

h

free

, instead of C

N

h

, then our stability analysis is still entirely valid.

Lets take a closer look at the dierences between C

N

h

free

and C

N

h

. This dierence is the term

C

N

h

C

h

C

h

. We know that C

N

h

h

shown that the elevator position is unstable. So, we have to have C

h

h

. This

term can be either positive or negative. If it is positive (C

h

> 0), then the stick free aircraft will be

more stable than the stick xed aircraft. If, however, it is negative (C

h

< 0), then it will be less stable,

or possibly even unstable.

8.2.3 The stick free neutral point

Lets nd the stick free neutral point x

n

free

. Finding x

n

free

goes similar to nding x

n

fix

. In fact, we

can adjust equations (8.1.7) and (8.1.8) to

x

n

free

x

w

c

=

C

N

h

free

C

N

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

, (8.2.7)

37

C

m

free

= C

N

free

x

cg

x

n

free

c

. (8.2.8)

In this equation, we have C

N

free

C

N

. This is because the elevator has a negligible inuence on C

N

,

compared to the inuence of the wing.

We can also nd the position of the stick free neutral point, with respect to the stick xed neutral point.

Subtracting equation (8.1.7) from equation (8.2.7) gives

x

n

free

x

n

fix

c

=

C

N

h

C

N

C

h

C

h

_

1

d

d

__

V

h

V

_

2

S

h

l

h

S c

=

C

m

C

N

C

h

C

h

_

1

d

d

_

. (8.2.9)

8.2.4 Elevator stick forces

Now we will examine the stick forces which the pilot should exert. We denote the stick deection by

s

e

. By considering the work done by the pilot, we nd that F

e

ds

e

+ H

e

d

e

= 0. From this follows that

the stick force F

e

is given by

F

e

=

d

e

ds

e

H

e

=

d

e

ds

e

C

he

1

2

V

2

h

S

e

c

e

. (8.2.10)

By the way S

e

is the elevator surface and c

e

is the mean elevator chord. If we massively rewrite the

above equation, we can eventually nd that

F

e

=

d

e

ds

e

S

e

c

e

_

V

h

V

_

2

_

C

h0

1

2

V

2

+C

h

W

S

1

C

N

_

. (8.2.11)

We see that F

e

consists of two parts. One part varies with the airspeed, while the other part does not.

By the way, the coecients C

h0

and C

h

are given by

C

h0

=

C

h

C

m

C

mac

C

h

C

N

h

C

N

h

free

(

0

+i

h

) +C

h

te

, (8.2.12)

C

h

=

C

h

C

m

C

m

free

=

C

h

C

m

C

N

x

cg

x

n

free

c

. (8.2.13)

We see that C

h0

depends on

te

. To simplify our equation, we can apply a small trick. We dene

te

0

to

be the value of

te

for which C

h0

= 0. It follows that

te

0

=

1

C

h

t

_

C

h

C

m

C

mac

+

C

h

C

N

h

C

N

h

free

(

0

+i

h

)

_

. (8.2.14)

We can now rewrite the stick deection force as

F

e

=

d

e

ds

e

S

e

c

e

_

V

h

V

_

2

_

W

S

C

h

C

m

e

x

cg

x

n

free

c

1

2

V

2

C

h

t

_

te

te

0

_

_

. (8.2.15)

The control forces, which the pilots need to exert, greatly determine how easy and comfortable it is to

y an airplane. The above equation is therefore rather important.

We can also derive something else from the above equation. Lets dene the trim speed V

tr

to be the

speed at which F

e

= 0. We now examine the derivative dF

e

/dV at this trim speed. (So at F

e

= 0.) If

it is positive (dF

e

/dV > 0), then the aircraft is said to have elevator control force stability in the

current ight condition. It can be shown that this derivative is given by

_

dF

e

dV

_

Fe=0

= 2

d

e

ds

e

S

e

c

e

_

V

h

V

tr

_

2

W

S

C

h

C

m

e

x

cg

x

n

free

c

1

V

tr

. (8.2.16)

Its the job of the designer to keep this derivative positive.

38

8.3 Longitudinal control

8.3.1 Special manoeuvres

Previously, we have only considered steady ight. Now we suppose that we are performing some special

manoeuvre. We will consider both a steady pull-up manoeuvre and a horizontal steady turn.

During these manoeuvres, we will have a certain load factor n = N/W. There are two parameters that

are important for the manoeuvres. They are the elevator deection per g, denoted by d

e

/dn, and

the stick force per g, denoted by dF

e

/dn. Both these parameters should be negative. And they may

not be too high or too low either.

8.3.2 The elevator deection per g

We will now nd an expression for d

e

/dn. Lets suppose were initially in a horizontal steady ight. But

after a brief moment, well be in one of the special manoeuvres. In this brief moment, several aircraft

parameters have changed.

Lets examine the change in normal force C

N

and the change in moment C

m

. The change in normal

force is eected by the angle of attack and the pitch rate q. This gives us

C

N

=

N

1

2

V

2

S

=

W

1

2

V

2

S

n = C

N

C

Zq

q c

V

. (8.3.1)

Similarly, the change in moment is eected by the angle of attack , the pitch rate q and the elevator

deection

e

. This gives us

C

m

= 0 = C

m

+C

mq

q c

V

+C

m

e

e

. (8.3.2)

You may wonder, why is C

m

= 0? This is because both in the initial situation and the nal situation,

we have a steady manoeuvre. There is thus no angular acceleration present. The moment must thus stay

constant.

From the rst of the above two equations, we can nd the derivative of with respect to n. It is given

by

d

dn

=

1

C

N

W

1

2

V

2

S

+

C

Zq

C

N

d

q c

V

dn

. (8.3.3)

From the second of these equations, we can nd that

d

e

dn

=

1

C

m

e

_

C

m

d

dn

+C

mq

d

q c

V

dn

_

. (8.3.4)

Inserting the value of d/dn will eventually give us

d

e

dn

=

1

C

m

e

_

C

m

C

N

W

1

2

V

2

S

+

_

C

m

C

Zq

C

N

+C

mq

_

d

q c

V

dn

_

. (8.3.5)

We will determine the term d

q c

V

/dn later, since it depends on the type of manoeuvre that is being

performed.

8.3.3 The stick force per g

Its time to nd an expression for dF

e

/dn. From equation (8.2.10), we can derive that

dF

e

dn

=

d

e

ds

e

1

2

V

2

h

S

e

c

e

_

C

h

d

h

dn

+C

h

d

e

dn

_

. (8.3.6)

39

We already have an expression for d

e

/dn. The expression for

h

is a bit tricky. This is because we also

have a rotation q. If we take this into account, we will have

h

= (

0

)

_

1

d

d

_

+ (

0

+i

h

) +

l

h

c

q c

V

. (8.3.7)

The derivative of

h

, with respect to n, will then be

d

h

dn

=

_

1

d

d

_

d

dn

+

l

h

c

d

q c

V

dn

. (8.3.8)

Luckily, we still remember d/dn from equation (8.3.3). From this, we can derive an equation thats way

too long to write down here. However, once we examine specic manoeuvres, we will mention the nal

equation.

8.3.4 The pull-up manoeuvre

Lets consider an aircraft in a pull-up manoeuvre. When an aircraft pulls its nose up, the pilot will

experience higher g-forces. This will thus cause the load factor n to change.

To be able to study pull-up manoeuvres, we simplify them. We assume that both n and V are constant.

If this is the case, the aircrafts path will form a part of a circle. The centripetal accelaration thus is

N W = mV q. By using n = N/W and W = mg, we can rewrite this as

q c

V

=

g c

V

2

(n 1). (8.3.9)

Dierentiating with respect to n gives

d

q c

V

dn

=

g c

V

2

=

1

2

c

W

1

2

V

2

S

, where

c

=

m

S c

=

W

gS c

. (8.3.10)

By using this, we can nd the elevator deection per g for a pull-up manoeuvre. It is

d

e

dn

=

1

C

m

e

W

1

2

V

2

S

_

C

m

C

N

_

1 +

C

Zq

2

c

_

+

C

mq

2

c

_

. (8.3.11)

Often the term C

Zq

/2

c

can be neglected. This simplies matters a bit. We can also derive a new

expression for the stick force per g. We will nd that

dF

e

dn

=

d

e

ds

e

W

S

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

e

c

e

C

h

C

m

e

_

C

m

free

C

N

+

C

mq

free

2

c

_

. (8.3.12)

In this equation, we can see the parameters C

m

free

and C

mq

free

. These are the values of C

m

and C

mq

when the pilot releases his stick. They are given by

C

m

free

= C

Nw

x

cg

x

w

c

+C

m

h

free

and C

mq

free

= C

mq

C

m

e

C

h

C

N

l

h

c

. (8.3.13)

(The relation for C

m

h

free

was already given in equation (8.2.5).)

8.3.5 The steady horizontal turn

Now lets consider an aircraft in a steady horizontal turn. It is performing this turn with a constant roll

angle . From this, we can derive that

N cos = W and N W cos = mV q. (8.3.14)

40

If we combine the above relations, and rewrite them, we will get

q c

V

=

g c

V

2

_

n

1

n

_

. (8.3.15)

Dierentiating with respect to n will then give us

d

q c

V

dn

=

1

2

c

W

1

2

V

2

S

_

1 +

1

n

2

_

. (8.3.16)

By using this, we can nd the elevator deection per g for a horizontal steady turn. It is

d

e

dn

=

1

C

m

e

W

1

2

V

2

S

_

C

m

C

N

+

_

C

m

C

N

C

Zq

2

c

+

C

mq

2

c

__

1 +

1

n

2

__

. (8.3.17)

Again, we may often assume that C

Zq

/2

c

0. This again simplies the equation. We also have the

stick force per g. In this case, it is given by

dF

e

dn

=

d

e

ds

e

W

S

_

V

h

V

_

2

S

e

c

e

C

h

C

m

e

_

C

m

free

C

N

+

C

mq

free

2

c

_

1 +

1

n

2

_

_

. (8.3.18)

It is interesting to see the similarities between the pull-up manoeuvre and the steady horizontal turn. In

fact, if the load factor n becomes big, the dierence between the two manoeuvres disappears.

8.3.6 The manoeuvre point

An important point on the aircraft, when performing manoeuvres, is the manoeuvre point. It is dened

as the position of the CG for which d

e

/dn = 0. First we will examine the stick xed manoeuvre

point x

m

fix

. To have d

e

/dn = 0 for a pull-up manoeuvre (neglecting C

Zq

/2

c

), we should have

C

m

C

N

+

C

mq

2

c

=

x

cg

x

n

fix

c

+

C

mq

2

c

= 0. (8.3.19)

If the above equation holds, then the CG equals the manoeuvre point. We thus have

x

m

fix

x

n

fix

c

=

C

mq

2

c

and also

x

cg

x

m

fix

c

=

C

m

C

N

+

C

mq

2

c

. (8.3.20)

(Remember that the above equations are for the pull-up manoeuvre. For the steady turn, we need to

multiply the term with C

mq

by an additional factor

_

1 + 1/n

2

_

.) By using the above results, we can

eventually obtain that

d

e

dn

=

1

C

m

e

W

1

2

V

2

S

x

cg

x

m

fix

c

. (8.3.21)

By the way, this last equation is valid for both the pull-up manoeuvre and the steady horizontal turn.

We can also nd the stick free manoeuvre point x

m

free

. This goes, in fact, in a rather similar way.

We will thus also nd, for the pull-up manoeuvre, that

x

m

free

x

n

free

c

=

C

mq

free

2

c

and

x

cg

x

m

free

c

=

C

m

free

C

N

+

C

mq

free

2

c

. (8.3.22)

(For the steady turn, we again need to multiply the term with C

mq

free

by

_

1 + 1/n

2

_

.)

41

9. Lateral stability and control

In this chapter, we will examine lateral stability and control. How should we control an aircraft in a

non-symmetrical steady ight?

9.1 The equations of motion

9.1.1 Derivation of the equations of motion for asymmetric ight

Lets examine an aircraft in a steady asymmetric ight. It has a roll angle and a sideslip angle . By

examining equilibrium, we can nd that

W sin +Y = mV r, L = 0 and N = 0. (9.1.1)

Non-dimensionalizing these equations gives

C

L

4

b

rb

2V

+C

Y

= 0, C

l

= 0 and C

n

= 0, (9.1.2)

where we have

b

=

m

Sb

. We can also apply linearization to the above equations. This will then give us

C

L

+C

Y

+ (C

Yr

4

b

)

rb

2V

+C

Y

a

a

+C

Y

r

r

= 0, (9.1.3)

C

l

+C

lr

rb

2V

+C

l

a

a

+C

l

r

r

= 0, (9.1.4)

C

n

+C

nr

rb

2V

+C

n

a

a

+C

n

r

r

= 0. (9.1.5)

9.1.2 Simplifying the equations of motion

Lets examine the equations of the previous paragraph. There are quite some terms in these equations

that are negligible. They are C

Y

a

, C

l

r

, C

Yr

, C

n

a

and C

Y

r

. By using these neglections, and by putting

the above equations into matrix form, we will get

_

_

C

L

C

Y

4

b

0 0

0 C

l

C

lr

C

l

a

0

0 C

n

C

nr

0 C

n

r

_

_

_

rb

2V

r

_

_

=

_

_

0

0

0

_

_. (9.1.6)

Lets assume that the velocity V is already set. We then still have ve unknowns and three equations.

That means that there are innitely many solutions. This makes sense: You can make a turn in innitely

many ways. How do we deal with this? We simply set one of the parameters. We then express three of

the remaining parameters as a function of the last parameter. (This fth parameter is usually

rb

2V

.) So

lets do that.

9.2 Steady horizontal turns

9.2.1 Turns using ailerons only

Lets try to turn the aircraft, by only using ailerons. We do not use the rudder and thus have

r

= 0.

We can insert this into the equations of motion. We then solve for the parameters , and

a

. This will

42

give us

d

d

rb

2V

=

C

nr

C

n

> 0 (since C

nr

< 0 and C

n

d

d

rb

2V

=

4

b

+C

Y

Cnr

Cn

C

L

> 0, (9.2.2)

d

a

d

rb

2V

=

1

C

l

a

C

l

C

nr

C

lr

C

n

C

n

. (9.2.3)

The sign of the last equation is still a point of discussion. We would like to have d

a

/d

rb

2V

. If this is the

case, then we have so-called spiral stability. We know that C

l

a

< 0 and C

n

is achieved if

C

l

C

nr

C

lr

C

n

> 0. (9.2.4)

We will nd out in the next chapter why they call this the spiral stability condition.

9.2.2 Turns using the rudder only

We can also make a turn using only the rudder. So we have

a

= 0. This again gives us three equations,

being

d

d

rb

2V

=

C

lr

C

l

> 0 (since C

lr

> 0 and C

l

d

d

rb

2V

=

4

b

+C

Y

C

lr

C

l

C

L

> 0, (9.2.6)

d

r

d

rb

2V

=

1

C

n

r

C

l

C

nr

C

lr

C

n

C

l

. (9.2.7)

In the last equation, we have C

n

r

< 0 and C

l

d

r

/d

rb

2V

< 0.

9.2.3 Coordinated turns

In a coordinated turn, we have = 0. This means that there is no sideward component of the force

acting on the aircraft. This is an important factor for passenger comfort. For the coordinated turn, we

again have three equations. They are

d

d

rb

2V

=

4

b

C

L

> 0, (9.2.8)

d

a

d

rb

2V

=

C

lr

C

l

a

> 0 (since C

lr

> 0 and C

l

a

< 0), (9.2.9)

d

r

d

rb

2V

=

C

nr

C

n

r

< 0 (since C

nr

< 0 and C

n

r

< 0). (9.2.10)

43

9.2.4 Flat turns

If we want the aircraft to stay at during the turns, then we have = 0. It then follows that

d

d

rb

2V

=

4

b

C

Y

< 0. (9.2.11)

From this, we can also derive that

d

a

d

rb

2V

> 0 and

d

r

d

rb

2V

< 0. (9.2.12)

9.3 Other ight types

9.3.1 Steady straight sideslipping ight

Lets examine a steady straight sideslipping ight. This type of ight is usually only used during landings

with strong sidewinds. However, sometimes the aircraft is brought into a steady straight sideslipping ight

involuntarily. It is therefore important to know how the aircraft behaves.

In a straight ight, we have

rb

2V

= 0. We can now derive that

d

d

=

C

Y

C

L

> 0,

d

a

d

=

C

l

C

l

a

and

d

r

d

=

C

n

C

n

r

. (9.3.1)

We generally want to have d

a

/d < 0 and d

r

/d > 0. We also always have C

l

a

< 0 and C

n

r

< 0.

This implies that we should have C

l

< 0 and C

n

> 0.

9.3.2 Stationary ight with asymmetric power

Lets suppose one of the engines of the aircraft doesnt work anymore. In this case, a yawing moment

will be present. This moment has magnitude

C

ne

= k

T

p

y

e

1

2

V

2

Sb

. (9.3.2)

The variable T

p

consists of two parts. First there is the reduction in thrust. Then there is also the

increase in drag of the malfunctioning engine. y

e

is the Y coordinate of the malfunctioning engine.

Finally, k is an additional parameter, taking into account other eects. Its value is usually between 1.5

and 2.

Now lets try to nd a way in which we can still perform a steady straight ight. (We should thus have

r = 0.) We now have four unknowns and three equations. So we can still set one parameter. Usually,

we would like to have = 0 as well. In this case, a sideslip angle is unavoidable. If the right engine is

inoperable, then a positive rudder deection and sideslip angle will be present.

We could also choose to have = 0. In this case, we will constantly y with a roll angle . The wing

with the inoperable engine then has to be lower than the other wing. So if the right wing malfunctions,

then we have a positive roll angle.

44

10. Aircraft modes of vibration

It is nally time to look at the dynamics of an aircraft. How will an aircraft behave, when given elevator,

rudder and aileron deections? What are its modes of vibration? Thats what we will look at in this

chapter.

10.1 Eigenvalue theory

10.1.1 Solving the system of equations

To examine the dynamic stability of the aircraft, we examine the full longitudinal equations of motion.

The symmetric part of these equations were

_

_

C

Xu

2

c

D

c

C

X

C

Z0

C

Xq

C

Zu

C

Z

+ (C

Z

2

c

)D

c

C

X0

2

c

+C

Zq

0 0 D

c

1

C

mu

C

m

+C

m

D

c

0 C

mq

2

c

K

2

Y

D

c

_

_

_

_

u

q c

V

_

_

=

_

_

0

0

0

0

_

_

. (10.1.1)

In this system of equations, we have assumed stick-xed conditions. All inputs are zero. We could try

to nd solutions for the above system of equations. A common way to do this, is to assume a solution of

the form

x(t) = Ae

csc

. (10.1.2)

In this equation, x(t) is our solution. s

c

=

V

c

t is the dimensionless time. From this form follows that

D

c

x =

c

x. If we insert this into the equations of motion, we nd

_

_

C

Xu

2

c

c

C

X

C

Z0

C

Xq

C

Zu

C

Z

+ (C

Z

2

c

)

c

C

X0

2

c

+C

Zq

0 0

c

1

C

mu

C

m

+C

m

c

0 C

mq

2

c

K

2

Y

c

_

_

_

_

A

u

A

A

q

_

_

e

csc

=

_

_

0

0

0

0

_

_

. (10.1.3)

We can write this matrix equation as [] Ae

csc

= 0. The exponential in this equation cant be zero, so

we can get rid of it. We thus need to solve [] A = 0. One solution of this equation is A = 0. However,

this is a rather trivial solution, in which we are not interested. So we need to nd non-trivial solutions.

This is where our knowledge on linear algebra comes in. There can only be non-trivial solutions, if

det [] = 0. Applying this will give us an equation of the form

A

4

c

+B

3

c

+C

2

c

+D

c

+E = 0. (10.1.4)

This equation is called the characteristic polynomial. Solving it will give four eigenvalues

c1

,

c2

,

c3

and

c4

. Corresponding to these four eigenvalues are four eigenvectors A

1

, A

2

, A

3

and A

4

. The

nal solution of the system of equations now is

x = c

1

A

1

e

c

1

sc

+c

2

A

2

e

c

2

sc

+c

3

A

3

e

c

3

sc

+c

4

A

4

e

c

4

sc

. (10.1.5)

The constants c

1

, c

2

, c

3

and c

4

depend on the four initial conditions.

10.1.2 The eigenvalues

Lets examine the eigenvalues of the system of equations. Each eigenvalue can be either real and complex.

If one of the eigenvalues is complex, then its complex conjugate is also an eigenvalue. Complex eigenvalues

therefore always come in pairs.

45

A mode of vibration is a characteristic way in which an object (our aircraft) can vibrate. The number

of modes depends on the eigenvalues. In fact, it is equal to the number of dierent eigenvalues. (When

performing the counting, a pair of complex conjugate eigenvalues is counted as one.) For example, an

aircraft with two real eigenvalues and two complex eigenvalues has three modes of vibration.

The eigenvalues

c

are very important for the stability of the system. To examine stability, we look at

the limit

lim

sc

c

1

A

1

e

c

1

sc

+c

2

A

2

e

c

2

sc

+c

3

A

3

e

c

3

sc

+c

4

A

4

e

c

4

sc

. (10.1.6)

If only one of the eigenvalues has a positive real part, then this limit will diverge. This means that our

aircraft is unstable. If, however, all eigenvalues have negative real parts, then the system is stable.

10.1.3 Real eigenvalue properties

We can derive some interesting properties from the eigenvalues. First, lets examine a real eigenvalue

c

. This eigenvalue has its own mode of vibration x = Ae

csc

. The half time T1

2

is dened as the

time it takes to reduce the amplitude of the motion to half of its former magnitude. In other words,

x(t +T1

2

) =

1

2

x(t). Solving this equation will give

T1

2

=

ln

1

2

c

c

V

. (10.1.7)

Similarly, we dene the time constant as the time it takes for the amplitude to become 1/e of its former

magnitude. Solving x(t +) =

1

e

x(t) gives

=

1

c

c

V

. (10.1.8)

These two parameters of course only exist if

c

is negative. If it is positive, then the magnitude will only

grow. In this case, the doubling time T

2

is an important parameter. It is given by T

2

= T1

2

.

10.1.4 Complex eigenvalue properties

Now lets examine a complex eigenvalue pair. We can write it as

c1,2

=

c

c

i, where i =

1 is the

complex number. This eigenvalue will cause an oscillation. The period and frequency of the oscillation

only depend on

c

. In fact, the period P, the frequency f and the angular frequency

n

are given

by

P =

2

c

c

V

, f =

1

P

=

c

2

V

c

and

n

=

2

P

=

c

V

c

. (10.1.9)

The damping of this oscillation is caused by the real part

c

. Again, the half time T1

2

is dened as the

time it takes for the amplitude to reduce to half its size. It is still given by

T1

2

=

ln

1

2

c

c

V

. (10.1.10)

Another important parameter is the logarithmic decrement . It is dened as the natural logarithm

of the ratio of the magnitude of two successive peaks. In other words, it is dened as

= ln

_

e

c

V

c

(t+P)

e

c

V

c

t

_

=

c

V

c

P. (10.1.11)

Finally, there are the damping ratio and the undamped angular frequency

0

. They are dened

such that

c1,2

=

_

0

i

0

_

1

2

_

c

V

. (10.1.12)

46

Solving for and

0

will give

=

c

_

2

c

+

2

c

and

0

=

_

2

c

+

2

c

V

c

. (10.1.13)

10.1.5 Getting stable eigenvalues

Lets take a look at the characteristic equation (equation (10.1.4)). We usually set up the equation, such

that A > 0. To obtain four eigenvalues with negative real parts, we must have

B > 0, C > 0, D > 0 and E > 0. (10.1.14)

But these arent the only conditions to ensure that we have stable eigenvalues. We must also have

R = BCD AD

2

B

2

E > 0. (10.1.15)

These criteria are known as the Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criteria. The coecient R is called

Rouths discriminant. These criteria hold for both the symmetric and the asymmetric modes of

vibration.

10.2 The symmetric modes of vibration

10.2.1 Example eigenvalues

Lets suppose we know all the parameters in the matrix equation that was described earlier. In this case,

we can nd the four eigenvalues. An example solution of these eigenvalues is given by

c1,2

= 0.04 0.04i and

c3,4

= 0.0003 0.006i. (10.2.1)

Of course these values will be dierent for dierent aircraft. But most types of aircraft, having the

standard wing-fuselage-tailplane set-up, will have similar eigenvalues.

Lets study these eigenvalues. There are two pairs of complex conjugate eigenvalues. Both pairs of

eigenvalues have negative real parts. This means that the aircraft is stable. Since there are only two

pairs of complex conjugate eigenvalues, there are two modes of vibration. We will now examine these

modes.

10.2.2 The short period oscillation

Lets look at the rst pair of eigenvalues. It has a relatively big real part

c

The damping is therefore

big. The complex part

c

is relatively big as well. So the frequency is high. In other words, we have a

highly damped high-frequency oscillation. This motion is known as the short period oscillation.

Lets take a look at what actually happens in the aircraft. We start the short period oscillation by

applying a step input to the elevator deection. (We deect it, and keep that deection.) We can, for

example, deect it upward. This causes the lift on the horizontal tailplane to decrease. This, in turn,

causes the pitch rate to increase. An increase in pitch rate will, however, increase the eective angle of

attack of the horizontal tailplane. This then reduces the pitch rate. And the whole cycle starts over again.

However, the oscillation is highly damped. After less than one period, the eects are hardly noticable

anymore.

Now lets try to derive some equations for the short period motion. The short period motion is rather

fast. So we assume the aircraft hasnt had time yet to change its velocity in X or Z direction. This

47

means that u = 0 and = 0. Therefore = . This reduces the equations of motion to

_

C

Z

+ (C

Z

2

c

)

c

2

c

+C

Zq

C

m

+C

m

c

C

mq

2

c

K

2

Y

c

__

q c

V

_

=

_

0

0

_

. (10.2.2)

We can now nd the eigenvalues for this matrix. This will still give us a rather complicated equation. If

we neglect C

Z

and C

Zq

, then this complicated equation reduces to

c1,2

=

B i

4AC B

2

2A

. (10.2.3)

In this equation, the coecients A, B and C are given by

A = 4

2

c

K

2

Y

, B = 2

c

(K

2

Y

C

Z

+C

m

+C

mq

) and C = C

Z

C

mq

2

c

C

m

. (10.2.4)

To have stability, we should have

B

2A

negative. We know that A is positive. This means that B has to

be positive as well.

10.2.3 The phugoid

Now we look at the second pair of eigenvalues. It has a small real part

c

, and therefore a small damping.

The complex part

c

is small as well, so the frequency is low. In other words, we have a lightly damped

low-frequency oscillation. This motion is known as the phugoid.

Again, we look at what happens with the aircraft. This time, we apply an impulse deection on the

elevator. (We only deect it briey.) This will cause our pitch angle to increase. (That is, after the short

period motion has more or less damped out.) We will therefore go upward. This causes our velocity to

decrease. Because of this, the lift is reduced. Slowly, the pitch angle will decrease again, and we will go

downward. This causes the velocity to increase. This, in turn, increases the lift. The pitch angle will

again increase, and we will again go upward.

Again, we will try to derive some relations for the phugoid. In the phugoid, the angle of attack is

approximately constant. ( and do vary a lot though.) So we have = 0 and = 0. (Remember that

were discussing deviations from the initial position.) Since the oscillation is very slow, we also assume

that q = 0. If we also neglect the terms C

Zq

and C

X0

, we will nd that we again have

c3,4

=

B i

4AC B

2

2A

. (10.2.5)

However, now the coecients are given by

A = 4

2

c

, B = 2

c

C

Xu

and C = C

Zu

C

Z0

. (10.2.6)

We can apply the approximations C

Xu

= 2C

D

, C

Z0

= C

L

and C

Zu

= 2C

L

. This would then give

us the three parameters

0

=

V

c

C

2

L

2

2

c

=

g

V

2, =

2

2

C

D

C

L

and P =

2

0

_

1

2

0

=

2

V

g

. (10.2.7)

Note that, in the above equation for P, we have used the fact that the damping is small. Although the

above equations are only approximations, they can serve as quite handy tools in verifying your results.

48

10.3 The asymmetric modes of vibration

10.3.1 Example eigenvalues

We have just examined the symmetric equations of motion. Of course, we can do the same for the

asymmetric equations of motion. These equations of motion are

_

_

C

Y

+ (C

Y

2

b

)D

b

C

L

C

Yp

C

Yr

4

b

0

1

2

D

b

1 0

C

l

0 C

lp

4

b

K

2

X

D

b

C

lr

+ 4

b

K

XZ

D

b

C

n

+C

n

D

b

0 C

np

+ 4

b

K

XZ

D

b

C

nr

4

b

K

2

Z

D

b

_

_

_

pb

2V

rb

2V

_

_

=

_

_

0

0

0

0

_

_

. (10.3.1)

Examining them goes in more or less the same way as for the symmetric case. There is, however, one

important dierence. Since we are examining the asymmetric case, we dont use the chord c but we use

the wing span b. The eigenvalues are thus also denoted as

b

. Example eigenvalues for an aircraft are

b1

= 0.4,

b2

= 0.01 and

b3,4

= 0.04 0.4i. (10.3.2)

You might be surprised that these eigenvalues are a lot bigger than the symmetric eigenvalues. This is

not very important. Its only the case, because they are based on b, instead of on c. And naturally, b is

a lot bigger than c.

Lets examine the eigenvalues. There are two real eigenvalues and one pair of complex conjugate eigenval-

ues. The aircraft thus has three modes of vibration. You might also have noticed that there is a positive

eigenvalue. The aircraft is thus unstable. The eigenvalue is, however, very small. This means that the

aircraft state will only diverge very slowly. The pilot will have plenty of time to do something about it.

So you dont have to worry: ying is still safe.

10.3.2 The aperiodic roll

The motion corresponding to

b1

is called the aperiodic roll. The eigenvalue is very negative. This

motion is therefore highly damped.

The aperiodic roll is induced by applying a step input to the aileron. When this happens, the aircraft

will start rolling. Lets suppose it rolls to the right. The right wing then goes down. This means that the

right wing will get a higher eective angle of attack. The lift of this wing thus increases. The opposite

happens for the left wing: its lift decreases. This lift dierence causes a moment opposite to the rolling

motion. In other words, the motion is damped out. The roll rate p will converge rather quickly to a

constant value.

The aperiodic roll is a very fast motion. So there is no time for sideslip or yaw eects to appear. So

we can assume that, during an aperiodic roll motion, we have = r = 0. This reduces the equations of

motion to just one equation, being

_

C

lp

4

b

K

2

X

D

b

_

pb

2V

= 0. (10.3.3)

It directly follows that the corresponding eigenvalue is given by

b1

=

C

lp

4

b

K

2

X

. (10.3.4)

10.3.3 The spiral motion

The motion corresponding to

b2

is called the spiral motion. The eigenvalue is positive. So the motion

is unstable. However, the eigenvalue is very small. This means that divergence will occur only very

49

slowly. We thus say that the motion is marginally unstable. (For some aircraft, this value is slightly

negative. Such aircraft are marginally stable.)

The spiral motion is induced by an initial roll angle. (An angle of 10

vector to be tilted. The horizontal component of the lift will cause the aircraft to make a turn. In the

meanwhile, the vertical component of the lift vector has slightly decreased. This causes the aircraft to

lose altitude. Combining these two facts will mean that the aircraft will perform a spiral motion.

If the eigenvalue

b2

is positive, then the roll angle of the aircraft will slowly increase. The spiral motion

will therefore get worse. After a couple of minutes, the roll angle might have increased to 50

. This

phenomenon is, however, not dangerous. The pilot will have plenty of time to react. It is also very easy

to pull the aircraft out of a spiral motion.

Lets try to derive an equation for

b2

. The spiral motion is a very slow motion. We thus neglect the

derivatives of , p and r. Also, the coecients C

Yr

and C

Yp

are neglected. After working out some

equations, we can eventually nd that

b2

=

2C

L

_

C

l

C

nr

C

n

C

lr

_

C

lp

_

C

Y

C

nr

+ 4

b

C

n

_

C

np

_

C

Y

C

lr

+ 4

b

C

l

_. (10.3.5)

The denominator of this relation is usually negative. We say we have spiral stability if

b2

< 0. This

is thus the case if

C

l

C

nr

C

n

C

lr

> 0. (10.3.6)

You might remember that weve seen this equation before.

10.3.4 The Dutch roll

The pair of eigenvalues

b3,4

has a slightly low damping and a slightly high frequency. In the mode of

vibration corresponding to these eigenvalues, the aircraft alternately performs a yawing and a rolling

motion. The mode of vibration is called the Dutch roll.

Lets take a look at what actually happens with the aircraft. To initiate the Dutch roll, an impulse input

is applied to the rudder. This causes the aircraft to yaw. Lets suppose the aircraft yaws to the right.

The lift on the left wing then increases, while the lift on the right wing decreases. This moment causes

the aircraft to roll to the right.

When the aircraft is rolling to the right, then the lift vector of the right wing is tilted forward. Similarly,

the left wing will have a lift vector that is tilted backward. This causes the aircraft to yaw to the left.

(This eect is still called adverse yaw.) In this way, roll and yaw alternate each other. It is important to

remember that roll and yaw are alternately present. When the roll rate is at a maximum, the yaw rate

is approximately zero, and vice verse.

The Dutch roll is not very comfortable for passenger. To increase passenger comfort, a yaw damper is

used. This is an automatic system, which uses rudder/aileron deections to reduce the eects of the

Dutch roll.

Lets try to nd a relation for

b3,4

. This is rather hard, since both roll and yaw are present. However,

experience has shown that we still get slightly accurate results, if we neglect the rolling part of the motion.

We thus assume that = p = 0. This reduces the system of equations to a 2 2 matrix. From it, we

can again nd that

b3,4

=

B i

4AC B

2

2A

. (10.3.7)

However, this time the coecients A, B and C are given by

A = 8

2

b

K

2

Z

, B = 2

b

_

C

nr

+ 2K

2

Z

C

Y

_

and C = 4

b

C

n

+C

Y

C

nr

. (10.3.8)

And that concludes our discussion on the modes of vibration.

50

10.3.5 Stability criteria

From the characteristic equation (equarion (10.1.4)) we can see which eigenmotions are stable. We have

seen earlier that, if A, B, C, D, E and R are all positive, then all eigenmotions are stable. In other

words, we have spiral stability and a convergent Dutch roll.

However, if some of the coecients become negative, then there will be unstable eigenmotions. If E < 0,

then we have spiral instability. Similarly, if R < 0, then we will have a divergent Dutch roll. So, to ensure

stability, wed best keep the coecient of the characteristic equation positive.

51

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