Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 100

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p.

1
ELEC9713
I ndustrial and Commercial Power Systems

ELECTRI CAL SUPPLY SYSTEMS


1. Overview

Industrial and commercial power systems represent a
microcosm of almost the full gamut of electrical supply
systems with, in addition, a significant range of other more
specialised applications of electrical, electronic,
communications and electrical energy utilization systems.
The term building will be used in this course to include
any industrial and commercial installations with substantial
internal electrical distribution infrastructure. It will thus
include both commercial high-rise buildings and factory
sites with electrical supply at up to 11 kV and with the
possibility of both 11 kV and extensive 415 volt
distribution systems.

In the current state of the art in the supply of electrical
energy for such building services, there is an increasing
need to make the overall electrical systems in large
commercial buildings and in industrial sites -

more energy efficient, with better energy management
safer in all aspects (including personnel safety, fire and
equipment safety)
of adequate power quality with regard to harmonics
and over-voltages
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 2
able to accommodate modern information technology
systems
be compliant with the new EMC and EMI regulations
for electrical systems
provide monitoring systems to assess the condition of
the electrical installation.

Because of the potential dangers to personnel, safety
precautions are stringently applied and there are a large
number of codes and regulations that have to be complied
with in the electrical system design and operation. Modern
OHS requirements impose a Duty of Care on the
infrastructure operator and make safety of paramount
importance. The aim of these codes is to give safe operation
for both personnel and equipment. A detailed knowledge of
these regulations is necessary for the design and operation
of building electrical systems.

In Australia, the major overall requirement is compliance
with the Australian Standard AS/NZS3000, the Electrical
Wiring Rules: such compliance is a statutory requirement
which is called up in the Regulations of the appropriate
electrical supply system legislation of the various
Electricity Acts in all of the Australian States and
Territories. AS3000 is now based on international standards
for such electrical installations. The new Wiring Rules,
published in 2007, are based, to a considerable extent, on
the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
Standard IEC60364, Electrical Installations, which is the
basic international standard for low voltage electrical
distribution and utilization installations.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 3

In addition, there are many other Australian Codes and
Standards which are required to be complied with in
building electrical systems and in the various items of
electrical equipment used in building services. Many of
these are generally applicable to any electrical system, but
many are quite specific to building services applications.
These documents will be referred to from time to time
during the course.


2. Power requirements

The type of electrical supply system used in a commercial
building or a factory depends primarily on the total power
requirements of the various utilization activities that are
taking place within the building or factory site. These
power demands must be estimated accurately before the
details of the electrical supply configuration can be
determined and designed. They will determine the ultimate
form (and voltage level) of the supply system to and within
the building/site.

The power requirements are obtained by an estimation of
the maximum demand for electrical power. This will
normally have three possible components:

manufacturing equipment requirements
general fixed wiring infrastructure requirements
general free-standing mobile equipment supply (GPOs)

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 4
An estimate will require detailed loading and duty cycle
estimates of each of these. In the first of these, this is easily
done as the manufacturing load is easily calculated. It may
include large motors, arc furnaces, power electronic
equipment, welders, assembly lines, ovens, presses. Some
of these loads may require special supplies, such as
constant voltage, low harmonic, low noise systems.

In the second area, the total of all permanently installed
infrastructure equipment such as heating, lighting, air-
conditioning, lifts and any similar motor drives etc must be
determined. The Wiring Rules has tables which will allow
the determination of typical levels of such loads for
buildings.

In the third component, the estimate takes account of the
number of general purpose power outlets (GPOs) in the
building. In this last component, the method of
determination of maximum demand for domestic and
commercial type loads is specified in the Wiring Rules
(Australian Standard AS3000, or the equivalent in other
countries). The general details of the method of
determination are shown in the attached details. (Tables C1
and C2 from AS3000).

When the exact load details are unknown, an estimate
technique called After Diversity Maximum Demand
(ADMD) is often used. Based on results from similar
installations, typical load density values (VA/m
2
) are
derived for different types of floor area usage. Data for
commercial (e.g. offices, shopping centres, hotels, theatres),
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 5
light industrial premises and other similar buildings can be
obtained from distribution utilities. The following is from
EnergyAustralia NS0112 Design Standards (which is now
also included in AS3000, see Table C3):



In the estimation of the power demand requirements, it is
necessary to make some allowance for future growth in
power requirements, including possible additional
switchboard circuits, in new buildings or in existing
buildings. Typically:

residential premises, 10%
fully air-conditioned offices, 15-20%
commercial premises, 20-25%
shopping centres, light/medium industrial, 25%
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 6
This allowance for expansion of power supply capacity
must also be included in the initial consideration of the
selection of transformer capacity and cable sizes for feeder
circuits and reticulation of power.

Once the power demand estimation is made and the
required incoming supply is specified, the requirements can
then be detailed for the incoming cable rating, the main
transformer capacity, the substation size and capacity and
the switchboard size and capacity. Only when this final
design is completed can fault level calculations be
performed to determine fuse and switchgear ratings and
other protection needs.

There are two requirements that must be considered in
choosing cable sizes. These are: (a) current carrying
capacity, and (b) voltage drop. These are not always
consistent with each others requirements. For example an
adequate current carrying capacity may give too high an
impedance and thus too high a voltage drop.


3. Means and Requirements of Electrical Supply

The requirements of the electrical supply system may
include any or all of the following features:

Specified voltage levels
Limited harmonic content (quality of supply)
Method of supply
Safety of supply
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 7
Reliability of supply
Maintenance
Electrical protection
Back-up supply (UPS)
DC supply

3.1 Voltage Level

The supply voltage levels which are available from the
electricity supply utilities for use in commercial and
industrial locations in urban areas are, typically:

High Voltage:
11 kV, 3-phase supply [by cable or overhead line]

Low Voltage:
(a) 240/415 volts, 3-phase, 4-wire system
(b) Single-phase, 240 volts, 2-wire system
[by underground cable, aerial cable or by overhead
line].

Other supply voltages or configurations may be available in
some specific locations, for example in rural areas and for
some large industrial installations, but these would be
relatively rare exceptions to the above options.

Once the power demand and supply requirements are
determined by the system designer (usually an electrical
consulting engineer), it is necessary to then contact the
electricity distributor. They will have a range of
additional requirements which must be complied with
before they will connect supply from their network to the
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 8
site. Note that the electricity provider may be different
from the actual electricity distributor, in line with the new
regulations which allow contestability among all electrical
utilities (and others) in the supply of electricity to
consumers.

Each electricity distributor is licensed to operate its
distribution system over a designated geographical area. In
all, there are 3 electricity distributors covering the state of
NSW: EnergyAustralia, Integral Energy, and Country
Energy.

Note that each Australian state sets its own requirements on
electricity supply connection. In NSW in particular, these
requirements are laid out in the Code of Practice Service
and installation rules of NSW: the electricity industry
standard of best practice for customer connection
services and installations (2009 edition), published by
the NSW Government, Department of Water and Energy.
Also, each distributor may impose further requirements. For
example, see ES1 Customer Connection I nformation
(2007) by EnergyAustralia.

3.2 Quality of Supply

This is now an important consideration in the operation of
electrical supply systems in buildings, for two main
reasons:

1. The increasing use of power electronics has introduced
a higher harmonic level into the supply voltage and this
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 9
can have deleterious effects such as the increase of
losses in equipment such as transformers and motors
with iron cores.

2. Much of the equipment now in use (particularly IT
items) is now more susceptible to voltage variation,
transient overvoltages and harmonics.

The main features of quality of supply that must be
considered in the design of building and industrial sites
installations are:

Voltage regulation
Frequency of AC supply
Voltage waveform distortion
interference with communications & control equipment
Transient overvoltages

3.3 Method of Supply

Up to a power demand level of about 200 kVA in electrical
demand, the incoming power supply would commonly be
by a low voltage three phase, 415/240V, supply obtained
directly from the supply utilitys low voltage (LV) mains,
by either overhead or underground connection. Note that
LV is any voltage level up to 1000 V ac (or 1500 V dc);
HV (high voltage) is any voltage level above 1000 V ac.

Up to 3000 kVA, the supply method would be by utility-
owned transformer(s) installed in a utility-owned and
maintained substation, typically located on the consumers
premises. The supply to the consumers electrical system
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 10
(at the point of attachment to the consumers terminals)
would be at low voltage (415/240V) from the secondary of
the transformer. The individual transformers used would be
units of 11kV/415V and 750 1000 kVA in power rating.
They would normally be oil-filled transformers if installed
outdoors or possibly dry-type transformers if installed
inside a building. Dry-type units are used to reduce fire
hazards within buildings.

At maximum power demands of greater than 3000 kVA,
the supply to the consumer would be at high voltage, most
likely 11 kV, with the consumer providing and owning the
HV substation and switchgear installation (and handling the
maintenance and switching operations associated with the
substation). In this case the consumer would be required to
employ electrical staff or contractors adequately trained in
the maintenance and operation of high voltage equipment.

In applying for connection to the utility system, the
consumer must notify the supplier of any expected
abnormal operating characteristics of operation. This may
include, for example, current and voltage surges and non-
linear loads which may be significant harmonic generators.
The utility supplier will also require details of protection
device settings in the consumers systems, so that
appropriate discrimination with the utility protection
operation can be achieved and an adequate earthing system
installed.


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 11
3.4 Type of Supply Connection

The supply system configuration and connection to the
consumer may be by means of any of the following
systems:

(a) High or low voltage from the distribution supply, by
either:
Aerial lines (with either bare, covered or
bundled conductors)
Underground cables (either 3 single phase or 1
3-phase cable)

(b) Low voltage supply from a utility on-site substation, by
means of any of:
Low voltage aerial lines (bare, bundled or
covered conductors)
Low voltage underground cables
Low voltage busbar trunking system (greater
than 2000A per phase)

(c) Dedicated high voltage line from a utility HV
substation. This may be by either overhead line or
underground cable, depending on the location and the
requirements.

[For example, UNSW is a high voltage customer and
receives its electrical power at 11kV from two separate
connection points to the EnergyAustralia 11kV
distribution system. It (UNSW) then operates its own
11kV distribution supply system within the campus]
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 12
3.5 Safety

Safety regulations require adherence to all relevant Codes
and Standards for the applications of the installation. In
general, all personnel safety and other general hazards such
as fire precautions are covered by the Wiring Rules and its
associated documents. [Other general safety aspects include
lifts, emergency lighting, fire extinguishing systems etc.]

However there are also likely to be other specific hazards
which can arise depending on the installation and its loads.
These may require isolation of machinery, hazardous areas,
equi-potential areas, anti-static locations etc.

3.6 Reliability of Supply

The level of reliability depends on the application. Process
industry requires high reliability, while commercial
operations are less dependent on supply, although computer
systems need high reliability. Factors to be considered
include:

Supply voltage level (HV supply at 11 kV is more
reliable than LV)
Redundancy in circuits
Proper protection design (discrimination, etc)
Proper maintenance of equipment
Choice of equipment.



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 13
3.7 Maintenance

This is a major issue in current electrical systems. General
requirements may include:

Moisture control
Ventilation and cooling
Corrosion
Regular visual inspections
Regular testing
Regular monitoring and record keeping and analysis

The major issue relates to testing and monitoring and
whether to use:

Regular routine testing
Testing as required
Reliability centered monitoring and testing

Currently the last of these is the favoured method in terms
of the optimal compromise between cost and efficiency.

3.8 Back-up supply

Many applications require some form of back-up electrical
supply, whether it is just for basic systems or for
maintenance of full supply. Un-interruptible supply systems
(UPS) are becoming more common in building services.
They may be via diesel generators or by battery operated
power electronic inverter systems.


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 14
3.9 DC supply

In some situations, mostly in industrial locations, there may
be a need for a DC supply for adjustable speed motors, for
electrolysis or other purposes. Generally the means of
obtaining DC are by modern power electronic converters
although older installations may still use rotating machine
DC generators driven by AC motors or even mercury arc
rectifier systems in very old installations.



4. I n-house Distribution System

Once the maximum demand and the form of supply are
decided on, the internal electrical distribution system must
be designed by (usually) the consulting engineers. The
circuit supply layout design will be determined by the size
of the load, the reliability required, the voltage level and the
diversity of the load.

Some typical internal supply configurations are shown on
later pages. The configurations are generally determined
according to requirements of reliability and demand. For
example a ring main system may be required for allowing
alternative supply to any location, or a primary selective
radial system may be preferred. In simple small system a
basic radial system is used: this can be increased to an
expanded radial system for larger loads and to primary and
secondary selective systems for more complex loads.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 15
4.1 Supply system layout options

(i) Simple radial system
Used for small loads. One primary service and distribution
supply transformer supplies all feeders. Simplest possible
arrangement with no duplication or redundancy. Cheapest
and least reliable option. Reliability is obtained by using
quality components. Loss of a cable or the transformer will
lose supply. Must be shut down for routine servicing

(ii) Expanded radial system
For larger loads than the simple radial system. Same
advantages and disadvantages as that system.


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 16
(iii) Primary selective system

Allows possibility of alternative supply from two sources
on the primary side of transformer(s). Gives improved
reliability. This method has two separate primary feeders
which can be switched as required. When supply is lost to a
load it can be transferred to the other supply source by
automatic or manual switching. The sources can be
paralleled. Maintenance is now possible without loss of
supply. This method has higher cost than the radial systems
due to the necessary duplication of components such as
switchgear and cables.


(iv) Primary loop system

This system gives greater reliability in the case of failure of
the primary cable. Each load can be supplied from either
end of the cable in the event of a fault. Finding the cable
fault may be difficult in some cases however. Requires
several closures to find a fault, so may be dangerous. One
section may be energized from either end. Primary selective
system is a better option.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 17



(v) Secondary selective system
This is achieved when pairs of unit substations are
connected through a normally open secondary tie circuit
breaker. If the primary feeder or transformer fails, the main
secondary feeder CB is opened and the tie CB closes. The
general operation of the secondaries is as radial systems.
Maintenance is possible. Good reliability. Requires
consideration of loading should there be a sustained loss of
one circuit.

It is possible to combine this system with a primary
selective system to increase reliability if required.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 18

(vi) Secondary spot network

In this configuration, large loads are supplied from one
single common secondary busbar which has a number of
parallel primary feeders connected to it. Uses special
protectors in the form of circuit breakers to each secondary
connection. If a primary feeder fails, the protector CB is
designed to prevent reverse fault in-feed by opening in such
an event. This is the most reliable system for large loads.
Expensive.

Used extensively for low voltage, high load density
applications such as large commercial buildings. Rarely
used in industry however.


(vii) Ring bus system

This configuration will automatically isolate a fault. No
interruption of supply for single faults. Note the number of
switches and CBs used: the cost is quite high. Allows safe
maintenance without loss of general supply.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 19



The design layout will then require a number of specific
component parts to make up the system. The components
will not all be required in all cases and will depend on the
supply voltage and whether the customer needs to have
dedicated substations. The following gives the full range of
requirements needed for such an installation:

4.2 Substation

This will include the following items of equipment, within
a general enclosure:

the general enclosure,
the transformer(s),
HV switchgear,
the protection system,
backup battery systems,
monitoring equipment for energy, voltage, current,
power factor etc
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 20

4.3 Switchboards (switchgear assemblies)

The switchboard will comprise primarily the output feeder
cabling to the various loads (or floors of the building for
example) together with their separate switchgear and
protection and the main switchgear unit. The switchboard
will also have an internal busbar system with rectangular
busbars used to interconnect the various feeder circuits. It
may be either high or low voltage and will include the
following:

switchgear,
protection means (relays, fuses, CTs),
protection coordination,
internal arcing detection,
busbar connections to sub-circuits etc.

Switchboards are generally quite specific in design and
need to be designed for each application as required. It is
only in domestic and similar low power level situations
where a standard switchboard design is normally used.

4.4 Cables, Busbars etc

The type of cable or busbar choice is very important: a
number of factors must be considered in choosing the inter-
connecting conductor configurations:

current ratings,
insulation ratings
fire performance,
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 21
segregation of circuits,
bundling of cables (effect on thermal rating),
magnetic fields and any potential interference effects
IP [Ingress Protection] requirements to prevent
contamination ingress.

4.5 Voltage regulation and power factor

Voltage regulation and its associated determinant of voltage
drop are very important factors in building service design
(and in any electrical supply system, for that matter). An
excessive voltage drop (leading to lower than rated voltage
at the equipment) can cause overheating with some
equipment (rotating machines for example) and lamp
dimming and flicker in lighting for example. There are
strict voltage level requirements in AS3000 and voltage
regulation or power factor correction may be necessary to
keep voltage drop within limits at maximum load.

Industrial/commercial loads require significant reactive
power (kVArs), e.g. motors, furnaces, electric discharge
lighting. Customers must maintain p.f. not less than 0.9
lagging. There are no restrictions on where to install p.f.
correction equipment in the circuit. For more details, refer
to Section 6 of NSW SIR (Capacitor installations).

The following diagram show the most general form of one-
line diagram of a building distribution system. The
incoming supply feeds a high voltage distribution
switchboard which may supply a number of circuits in a
ring main, for example. The switchgear will be normally
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 22
contained in withdrawable rackmount units. Each
switchgear will then supply an 11000/415V transformer
which will then provide supply to a main 415 volt
switchboard (or Switchgear and Controlgear Assembly
to give it its correct title) in the substation.

The switchboard comprises a number of Functional
Units which are essentially moulded case circuit breaker
(MCCB) or similar units. Each functional unit will supply a
3-phase cable system to an area switchboard, which will
then supply a number of local switchboards each of which
may be a switchboard on a floor or wing of the building.
This local switchboard will then supply the final sub-
circuits to the various power outlets and to any appliances
permanently wired to the supply system in the area.

From such one-line diagrams, it is necessary to determine a
number of characteristics of the electrical system. These
include, in particular, the distribution line voltage drop
between the point of supply from the utility and the final
sub-circuit where the power is consumed. AS3000 states
that the voltage drop between the consumers terminals and
any point of the installation shall not, at maximum
demand, exceed 5% of the nominal supply voltage at the
consumers terminals.

There is also a requirement that the voltage drop in the
utility service line should not exceed 3% of the nominal
voltage when at maximum demand. This is mainly a
requirement applying to the utility and the requirements for
their service cable impedance.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 23

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 24
5. VOLTAGE DROP

An accurate assessment of voltage drop is required for
building systems in order to comply with the requirements
in AS3000. This requires accurate knowledge of the
conductor or cable or busbar resistance and series
reactance, as well as any transformer impedances. The
power factor of the load and line operation, the load
patterns and maximum demand and any other transient
conditions such as motor starts are also required
information for a full and accurate assessment of voltage
drop.

Phase voltage and current balance or unbalance is also an
important factor to incorporate in the design as even small
unbalances in the phase voltage can have serious effects on
equipment, such as three phase motor operation, for
example.

Some indication of voltage effects and phase in-balance are
shown on the sheet over.

5.1 Voltage Drop Determinations

There are two methods of obtaining voltage drop
determinations:

1 By direct calculation using either manual methods or
by software packages.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 25
2 By use of the approximate figures in Tables included in
AS3000 and its companion Standard, AS3008.1
[Cables for AC voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV].


Manual Voltage Drop Calculations

For the typical length of 50 Hz building system supply
circuits, the shunt capacitive reactance of cables etc. is
negligible and the voltage drop calculations can be done
quite adequately and accurately by use of the short line
approximation represented by the equivalent circuit shown
below.

V
s
is supply voltage, V
r
is load voltage, Z = R +jX is the
series connecting impedance and cos| is the supply
operating power factor.

Note that in the most general case, Z will include any
transformer impedance that may be in the circuit. It may
also be necessary in some cases to use either transformers
or cables in parallel and this can cause some potential
problems in design to achieve balance in loading.

The requirement is to determine the voltage drop V
s
V
r
. In
general only the magnitude is required, but in some cases
the phase may also be needed

The effects of voltage variation and phase voltage
unbalance on the operating characteristics of some items of
electrical equipment are given below:
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 26



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 27
5.2 Voltage Drop determinations for supply

5.2.1 By Calculation

R jX
S V
S
V o = Z
I I | = Z
0
V 0 R
R
V = Z
Z R jX = +


We need to find
S R
V V
or more generally:
S R
V V is also acceptable


S R
V V I Z = +
R
V I R j I X = + +

(i) For a lagging load
( )
lags by
R
I V |
|
I
VR
I R
I X
S V
o
I Z

|
VR
I R
I Z
sin IR |
I X
|
cos IX |
sin IX |
cos IR |


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 28
We have:
S R
V V I R j I X = + +
But: 0 and
o
R R
V V I I | = Z = Z

Thus: cos sin
S R
V V IR IX | | = + +

( )
cos sin j IX IR | | +
and:
( ) ( )
2 2
cos sin cos sin
S R
V V IR IX IX IR | | | | = + + +

or just using the real part:
cos sin
S R
V V IR IX | | + +

and thus the voltage drop (regulation):

cos sin
S R
V V IR IX | | = + .

This formula is quite accurate enough for general use and is
used for voltage drop calculations extensively. Note that we
require the values of R and X which are constant, and I and
| which can vary. Here | denotes absolute magnitude of the
angle (unsigned). The regulation is load dependent.

In many cases, we know V
S
but not V
R
, so then have to use:


R S
V V I Z =

This is not so easy to solve as the equation:


S R
V V I Z = +
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 29
(ii) For a leading load
( )
leads by
R
I V |
|
I R
I X
o
I Z
I I | = Z
S
V
S
V o = Z
0
V 0
R
R
V = Z


Here: cos sin
S R
V V IR IX | | = +

( )
sin cos j IR IX | | + +

Again, if we just take the real part:
cos sin
S R
V V IR IX | | =

[However, it is less accurate now because the imaginary
part is higher.]

However, in general, we can use:
cos sin
S R
V V IR IX | | =

for regulation with +for lagging loads and for leading
loads.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 30
Note that the Z R jX = + can represent a transformer
impedance and so it can be used to find regulation of
transformers.


5.2.2 By Using Tables




ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 31



5.3 Voltage Drop Determinations for Transformers

5.3.1 By calculation:

Transformers can be represented by an impedance
Z R jX = + and so we can use the same formula:

cos sin V IR IX | | A =

where R and X are the total R and total
( )
X L e = referred
to either the primary or secondary side.

The transformer nameplate gives the value of Z expressed
as a %

( )
( )
% 100
R R
Z
Z
E I
O
=

where
R
E and
R
I are rated voltage and current.
( )
Z O is
determined by the short-circuit test.


( )
SC R
V I Z = O
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 32
As a percent, Z% is the same for the primary and secondary
reference:

( ) ( ) ( )
Z R jX O = O + O

% % % Z R jX = +

( )
R O can be measured and
( )
X O can be calculated from:

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
X Z R O = O O


2 2
% % % X Z R =

Typically, when power >200 kVA, X R :
Z is in the range 3-8% ; R is in the range 1-2%

5.3.2 By use of known data for transformers using
impedances

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 33


Figure 13
Approximate voltage drop curves for three-phase transformers, 225-10
000kVA, 5-25kV
5.4 Parallel operation of transformers and feeders

The operation of feeders and transformers in parallel is not
straightforward. Consider two parallel impedances:
1
R
1
jX
1 1 1
Z R jX = +
2
R
2
jX
2 2 2
Z R jX = +
1
I
1
S
2
I
2
S
1 2
S=S S +
V
1 2
I=I I +
I


The load power (complex S) is supplied with S
1
from Z
1
and
S
2
through Z
2
, with corresponding currents I
1
and I
2
.
Obviously:

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 34

1 1 2 2 1 2
and I Z I Z I I I = = +

Hence:
2 1
1 2
1 2 1 2
and
Z Z
I I I I
Z Z Z Z
= =
+ +


The complex powers are:


1 2
S S S = +


* * *
1 2
V I V I V I = + =

Thus:
* *
* *
2 2
1 1
1 2 1 2
Z Z
S V I V I S
Z Z Z Z
( (
= = =
( (
+ +



Similarly:
*
1
2
1 2
Z
S S
Z Z
(
=
(
+



Also:
*
2
1
1 2
%
% %
Z
S S
Z Z
(
=
(
+

; and S
2
similarly

[Note that the % values must be referred to the same base
value.]

Thus, the supplied power divides according to the ratio:


* *
1 2 2
2 1 1
%
%
S Z Z
S Z Z
( (
= =
( (



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 35
Thus, parallel lines or transformers divide loads in inverse
proportion to their impedance.

Thus, it is important for transformers to be matched in
impedance when they are operated in parallel. If not
matched, one may be overloaded when supplying a total
power that is the numerical sum of their ratings.

The transformer ratings must satisfy the requirement as
stated in the equation above and they should operate at the
same overall power factors to get maximum VA ratings.

Ideally, Z
1
and Z
2
should have the same phase angle (so that
2 1
Z Z is a real number).

Also, the voltage ratios must be the same. Otherwise,
circulating currents will occur. Even a very small voltage
difference can cause substantial current that can increase
losses and cause saturation of core material.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 36
6. SUBSTATI ONS

The substation location should be chosen to be at the
electrical load centre if possible, so as to keep voltage drop
to a minimum and to assist in maintaining voltage
regulation as much as possible within the requirements. In
very high rise buildings and in extensive factory or similar
sites with many buildings, a number of substations may be
required to distribute power equitably. Normally these
would be connected in a ring main system at high voltage
(11 kV).

The supply authority will normally determine the type and
size of the substation requirements for a specific situation.

6.1 Types of Substations

Pole-mounted substation
The primary component of the substation is an un-enclosed
11,000/415V oil-insulated transformer, rated up to about
500 kVA for providing supply to the building at 415/240V.
The substation will also be equipped with associated high
voltage fuses of the expulsion or high rupturing capacity
(HRC) type, surge arresters or arcing gaps, low voltage
HRC fuses and an earthing system for connection of the
transformer neutral.

Pad-mounted substation
These are metal enclosed kiosk-type cubicles mounted on
the ground. The main component is again an oil-filled
transformer of similar or possibly higher rating than for the
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 37
pole mount type. The kiosk incorporates similar protection
and control-gear to the pole-mounted substation. Voltages
are also 11,000/415 and the maximum power levels are
typically 1000kVA.

Outdoor (fenced) enclosures
For higher power levels than 1000kVA, an outdoor fenced
enclosure may be used. The transformer may be un-
enclosed, with appropriate switches, protection and control-
gear within the enclosure. The voltages are typically
11,000/415 V and power ratings are 1500 3000 kVA. In
some industrial sites the voltages and the power levels may
be much higher than the above, which are primarily
applicable to building services only.

Outdoor (building) enclosure
This consists of a dedicated small building containing
transformers and the other usual items of equipment listed
above. Voltages are 11,000/415V and power ratings are up
to about 5000 kVA.

Outdoor transformer with indoor control-gear
Consists of an open outdoor transformer with a small
building for other equipment as outlined above. Voltages
are 11000/415 V and power ratings are up to about 5000
kVA.

I ndoor basement or ground-floor substation
As above, but located indoors.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 38




AS/NZS 3000:2007
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 39


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 40

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 41


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 42






ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 1
ELEC9713
I ndustrical and Commercial Power Systems

SWI TCHBOARDS


1. I ntroduction

Depending on the size of the building or factory site and
whether the supply is high voltage or low voltage, there
may be requirements for both a main high voltage
switchboard (SWB) and one or more low voltage SWBs or
just a single low voltage SWB. The preferred name for the
switchboard unit is a Switchgear and Controlgear
Assembly (SCA).

The basic aim of the SWB or SCA is to take the electrical
power from the main supply source and then to feed or
distribute power to the appropriate circuits within the
building. The SWB has to perform this function in such a
way that there is proper control of power flow and proper
electrical protection against the damaging effects of faults.
This protection is necessary to prevent personnel hazards
and also equipment hazards and possible fires. It should be
able to operate to isolate a faulty section in the minimum
possible time consistent with the fault severity. The SWB
should also be designed to present no danger of electric
shock or injury to the operating personnel in the vicinity
during normal or abnormal operation. Explosions in
switchboards are a not infrequent occurrence which can
cause significant injury to personnel. In many cases, work
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 2
is performed on the switchboard components while they are
still live.


2. Component Parts of a Switchboard

The major components of a switchboard are:

1 The I ncoming Cables

These may be either high voltage (HV) or medium or
low voltage (MV or LV). For high voltage, they will
normally be either impregnated paper insulation
(unlikely these days), cross linked polyethylene
(XLPE) or ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulated
cable. The last two types are the preferred types for
new installations, with XLPE being the most common.
EPR cables are more flexible and are preferred for
specialized applications such as trailing leads in mines.
For low voltages the cables may be XLPE or elastomer
(EPR) type cable

2 Outgoing circuit conductors

These may be any of the following types:

Insulated cables,
Insulated busbars,
Busbar trunking systems
Mineral insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) cables
Fire-resistant cables
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 3

Figure 1
Typical arrangement of switchgear in a switchboard
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 4



Figure 2: Switchgear enclosures and housings
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 5




Figure 3
Moulded case LV circuit breakers of varying ratings


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 6
3 I nternal busbars

These may be rigid copper (or aluminium) bars
(insulated or uninsulated) in large SWBs or simply
insulated single phase cables in small SWBs.

Bare LV busbars are close together and are subject to
high forces on short circuit and resonant force effects
must be considered in determining supports.

4 Main isolating switch or section switches

These allow segregation of the switchboard or its
component parts to allow maintenance work on the
SWB.

5 Circuit breakers

These are HV or LV depending on the switchboard
voltage level.

For HV units the circuit breaker types used are oil, SF6
and vacuum units, contained in withdrawable rack-
mounted carriers. Oil CBs are no longer used in new
installations but are still very prominent. (In older
switchboards there may also still be some high voltage
air-break units with insulating splitter plates, but these
are very rarely used now).

For LV and MV (less than 1000 V) units, the circuit
breakers are invariably of the air-break type using the
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 7
de-ion principle, with isolated metal splitter grids.
Large MV CB units may be also rack-mounted but the
modern SWB will have moulded-case circuit breakers
(MCCBs) for the higher current ratings (more than
about 100 Amps) and miniature circuit breakers
(MCBs) for the lower rating levels (less than 100
Amps). MCBs would normally be used in the smaller
sub-main and local SWBs in a building.

6 HRC fuses and CFS units

These are also used in MV and LV switchboards for
high level fault protection and, in many cases, there are
combinations of HRC (high rupturing capacity) fuses
and overload switches with limited interrupting
capacity used (combined fuse-switch or CFS units)
because of their economy.

See Figure 1 for more detail of typical usage of
switchgear and Figure 2 for some examples of
rackmounted switchgear. Figure 3 shows examples of
MCCBs.

7 Protection relays

These are used for the higher voltages, together with
their associated instrument transformers (current
transformers (CTs) and voltage transformers (VTs)).
Overcurrent protection units are used to activate timing
relays so as to provide proper fault protection
operation. At lower voltages, the circuit breakers will
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 8
normally have in-built fault detection sensing and thus
no separate relaying is required.

8 Metering equipment

The metering of a SWB will include: line and phase
voltage, line current in each phase, total power, power
factor metering.

9 Over-voltage surge protection

Modern switchboards will also have some over-voltage
surge protection designed into both the HV and LV
sides to protect equipment against the effects of any
over-voltage transients that may be generated within
the system or conducted in from external sources.


3. Requirements

Switchboards are usually quite specific to their particular
requirements in a building and thus they tend to have a one-
off or unique design, with little scope for standard design of
large switchboards such as will be found in large buildings.
However, in large building systems, the smaller sub-circuit
distribution boards, located on each floor level for example,
may be of a standard design. Similarly, domestic
switchboards are standard designs and are uniform across
Australia.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 9
It is fair to say that SWBs (particularly the smaller low
voltage type) are not often designed by technically expert
persons and, together with their unique one-off design,
there is thus a need to perform detailed testing to prove a
particular design. Even expert designers may have
problems with some operational features (particularly
thermal dissipation and temperature rise) where the overall
operation may not be what would be expected from the
characteristics of the individual components which make up
the switchboard.

For example, the thermal interactions of the component
parts may limit the thermal ratings of components within
the SWB to levels below their normal (isolated) ratings.
De-rating factors may be required to be applied. This is
particularly a problem for cable bundles entering a SWB.
Similarly, the complex magnetic fields in a SWB may
cause some variation in the calculated forces on busbars in
the SWB or may cause some unexpected eddy current
heating of any metal (particularly steel plate) that may be in
the vicinity.

The requirement for such extensive testing of switchboards
means that the customer must be very specific in his
required specifications when giving these to the SWB
designer and constructor. The customer should also specify
clearly what tests should be performed to prove the SWB
operation and this should be agreed with the builder. In
many cases these may be destructive tests and thus it will
be necessary to count on multiple numbers for construction.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 10
Switchgear and busbar requirements

In general, the requirements for switchgear in new
switchboard installations in buildings are:

A life of about 25-30 years at least
A substantial (20-40%) spare capacity on new
installation to allow for expansion.
Good quality and reliable switchgear in the various
outgoing functional units.
Proper protection design, particularly in the area of
time discrimination with flexible variation of I-t
characteristics possible..
Adequate interrupting capacity for future expansion
Residual current (earth leakage) protection
Adequate current carrying capacity
Protection against ingress of contamination (dust,
moisture etc)
Adequate compartmentalization to limit arc faults

The purchaser should specify, at the least, the following
requirements for switchboards and switchgear:

Voltage, power, current ratings.
Specific rating for each circuit breaker and busbar
system
The required fault level and the corresponding
protection operating time.
Internal structure and segregation of compartments (if
required)
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 11
Ingress Protection (IP) numbers for protection against
dust and moisture
Arc containment requirements
Earthing requirements
Electrodynamic forces and insulator mechanical
strength requirements.
Thermal features-maximum temperature rises etc.
Testing requirements (Type tests and Routine tests).


Australian Standards for design of SWBs

The Australian Standard AS3439.1-2002 (Low Voltage
Switchgear and Controlgear Assemblies Part 1: Type-
tested and partially type-tested assemblies) is the document
which gives specific requirements for LV SWBs.

There is a similar, though more diverse document, AS2067-
1984 (Switchgear Assemblies and Ancillary Equipment for
Alternating Voltages above 1kV). AS2067 also covers
outdoor substations and specifies required clearances for
bare HV conductors.

Both documents also provide detailed guidelines for access
prevention by un-authorised persons.

I nternal Segregation of circuits in the SWB

With a number of separate circuits within the switchboard
and with the knowledge that SWBs, with a multiplicity of
internal components, are more susceptible than most items
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 12
to faults, the question of whether to segregate chambers or
parts within the whole structure is an important feature of
design. Segregation of chambers by metal walls will assist
in containing faults and prevent them from spreading to
involve other sections of the board.

The major problem with SWBs particularly at low voltage
is the arcing fault. The fault current in such SWBs can be
very high and the arc that results will be a very high energy
entity that can cause very significant damage by virtue of
its high temperature, thermal radiation field and convective
heat transfer. It can cause very significant damage to the
board and to personnel.

The problem is exacerbated by the fact that the arc
impedance is significant and can reduce the current level in
the fault and this can affect (slow) the response time of the
overcurrent protection. High impedance arc faults are a
major problem to the protection design engineer.

Arc faults can be detected by various means such as optical
sensors, pressure sensors, sensitive earth leakage protection
etc. However in many cases there will be some requirement
by purchasers to limit the effects of arc faults by detailed
design of the SWB, involving segregating the various
internal sections in some way to limit the spread of any
fault arc within the board structure.

The standard AS3439.1 defines four different forms of
switchboard compartment segregation. These are
designated as: Forms 1, 2a & 2b, 3a & 3b, 4a & 4b.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 13

Note that Form 1 has no internal segregation of
compartments within the SWB. The exact details of the
design differences are shown in Figure 4.

Arc Containment

Internal arcing in switchboards is usually caused by some
dielectric insulation failure within the SWB structure,
caused for example by insulation ageing, by moisture, by
solid particle contamination or even dropped tools while
personnel are working live on the switchboard. Segregation
of the internal parts can provide some limitation of the
spread of the damage caused by arcing. Such damage can
be very destructive.

Figure 5 is an extract from AS3439.1 giving some details of
how arc faults may be generated and how they can be
prevented and contained. Residual current or earth leakage
protection may be necessary to detect high impedance
arcing faults.

I ngress Protection (I P numbers)

In common with many forms of electrical equipment,
switchboards have to be protected against ingress of various
contaminants (such as particles, dust and moisture) and
there must also be some means of preventing access of
personnel to live internal parts. The specific options and
requirements are given by the use of IP numbers, such as
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 14
IP23, where the two numerals represent specific design
requirements to prevent ingress.

The first numeral relates to dust and particulate matter (and
also to prevention of direct contact by personnel), while the
second numeral relates to ingress of moisture. Thus IP00
would provide no protection whatsoever (completely open),
while IP68 would be, effectively, a hermetically sealed
enclosure.

Because switchboards are normally located indoors and in
locked and ventilated rooms with restricted access, the IP
numbers are not particularly stringent in commercial
building systems. IP21 may be a typical level of protection
in a building SWB. However, in industrial manufacturing
building SWBs, or for outdoor SWBs, the ingress
protection level may need to be something like IP65.

Figure 6 gives the specific design requirements for
compliance with each IP numeral. More details are given in
AS60529-2004 (Degrees of protection provided by
enclosures)






ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 15
Figure 4
Switchboard compartment forms of segregation



Form 1: no internal separation



Form 2a Form 2b
terminals not separated from busbars terminals separated from busbars

Form 2: separation of busbars from functional units


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 16

Form 3a Form 3b
terminals not separated from busbars terminals separated from busbars

Form 3: separation of busbars from functional units
+separation of functional units from one another
+separation of terminals from functional units



Form 4a Form 4b
terminals in same compartment terminals not in same compartment
as associated functional units as associated functional units

Form 4: separation of busbars from functional units and terminals
+separation of functional units from one another +separation of
terminals associated with a functional unit from those of another
functional unit



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 17
Figure 5
Requirements for arcing fault containment in SWB
enclosures





ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 18
Figure 5 (cont.)





ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 19



Figure 6
I P number classification system
AS 60529-2004


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 20
4. Design features

In the design of switchboards, there are three major areas
which must be addressed;

4.1 The insulation design

This includes the 50Hz power frequency and BIL (Basic
I nsulation Level or lightning impulse voltage withstand
level) insulation levels and also the appropriate creepage
and clearance path design requirements.

Because of the potential for accumulation of contaminants
such as dust and moisture, the creepage distances over
insulation surfaces are very important factors. Surface
tracking (creepage) is a major hazard in SWBs.

Figure 7 gives details of the insulation requirements of low
voltage SWBs, as specified in AS3439.1.

4.2 The thermal design

This is a very important consideration in the design and is
complicated by the difficulties present in the theoretical
calculation of temperature rise in such complex structures.
This arises because of the enclosed nature of the SWB and
the interactive heating effects between the many different
components. Much experience and general rules of
thumb and empirical procedures apply, but the only sure
way of proving a thermal design is by performing
temperature rise tests on prototype SWB designs.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 21

Figure 8 gives typical temperature rise limits in SWB
components.

4.3 The protection against electric shock

This is particularly important in the open-type switchboards
and it is necessary to have some means of protection
against direct contact (with live parts) or indirect contact
(with exposed conductive parts) during maintenance
procedures on SWBs.

Figure 9 details the requirements for attaining adequate
protection against shock.

An essential feature of most methods of protection against
indirect contact is proper earthing of the switchboard. Fig
10 shows the various earthing schemes which have been
designated by the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC). For protection against direct contact,
the IP number system outlined above can give adequate
design requirements.

4.4 Testing of Switchboards

In addition to the above design features, the testing of
SWBs is of paramount importance in proving the design.
Fig. 11 shows the various tests which need to be performed
before a SWB should be accepted. There are both Type
Tests (done only on one unit representative of the design)
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 22
and Routine Tests (done on every manufactured unit)
listed.

The full list of tests can be very expensive to perform as
they can be very lengthy in their set up and instrumentation
and test performance times (e.g. thermal tests may take
many hours to achieve thermal equilibrium) and it may be
necessary to sacrifice a SWB when carrying out short
circuit and arcing tests.

There are few test laboratories available with a full range
of adequate facilities in Australia. The primary one is the
Testing and Certification Australia (TCA) high current
testing station at Lane Cove, Sydney. There is also another
smaller and more limited facility at TestSafe Australia
(associated with WorkCover NSW) at Londonderry,
Sydney.


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 23
Figure 7
Insulation requirements for switchboard components and
structures

Dielectric Test Voltages

(a) for the main circuit

(b) for auxiliary circuits
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 24






ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 25




Minimum creepage distances for different rated insulation
voltages, pollution levels, and material groups are given in Table
16 of AS3439.1:2002.


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 26
Figure 8
Temperature rise limits for switchboards
(AS3439.1-2002)


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 27
Figure 9
Requirements for protection against electric shock from
switchboards

1. Protection against direct contact
By insulation of live parts: which can only be removed
by destruction or by use of a tool. Insulation not
inferior to cable insulation, i.e. 3.5kV withstand, PVC
cable hardness, suitable for maximum temperature of
105
o
C.
By barriers or enclosures: protection against direct
contact of at least IP2X.

2. Protection against indirect contact
By using protective circuits
By other measures: such as electrical separation of
circuits or total insulation

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 28
Figure 10: Earthing systems for switchboards

TN systems: one point directly earthed, exposed conductive
parts connected to that point by protective conductor (PE).
Three types:
TN-S system: separate neutral (N) and PE throughout
TN-C system: N and PE combined into a single
conductor throughout.
TN-C-S system: N and PE combined into a single
conductor in a part of the system.

TN-S

TN-C-S
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 29
TN-C

TT system: one point directly earthed, exposed conductive
parts connected to earth via separate earth electrode.


IT system: no direct connection between live parts and
earth, exposed conductive parts connected to earth.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 30
Figure 11
Details of required tests on switchboards




TTA =type-tested assemblies
PTTA =partially type-tested assemblies
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 1
ELEC9713
I ndustrial and Commercial Power Systems

CABLES AND BUSBAR SYSTEMS


1. I ntroduction

Electrical power distribution in buildings and industrial
sites is achieved primarily by use of cables or busbars.
Cables are used for the full range of current levels at low
(400/230V) and high voltage (3.3, 6.6 and 11kV). Busbars
are mostly used for the very high range of current carrying
capacity, usually at medium/low voltage (400/230V).

In addition to simple electrical energy supply, cables are
also extensively used for control and communications
functions in building and industrial sites. The choice of
cable voltage for purely electrical energy supply depends
on the size of the building or industrial site. Most mains
installations will have cable systems operating at 400/230V
and busbar systems will also operate at 400/230V. For
extensive sites or for large loads the cables may be high
voltage, at 11kV in modern sites or at 6.6 or 3.3kV in older
sites (mainly industrial).

Other types of cable may be used in some more sensitive
areas: for example mineral insulated metal sheathed cable
(MIMS - Pyrotenax) where fire resistance is required, or
simply fire resistant cable which uses mica tape sheaths
over the conductor and under the main insulation.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 2
2. Cable structure

The cables used may be either multicore or single core in
structure (see Figures 1 and 2). At low voltage, single core
cables consist of a single conductor (usually stranded
copper or aluminium) with a main insulation layer of any of
PVC (polyvinyl chloride), XLPE (cross linked
polyethylene) or EPR (ethylene propylene rubber). In
addition, there is usually an outer sheath of PVC or HDPE
(high density polyethylene) or HEPR (hard ethylene
propylene rubber) to provide some mechanical protection.
As mentioned above or sites where a high level of fire
resistance is required, copper clad mineral insulated metal
sheathed (MIMS or Pyrotenax ) cable may be used or other
fire resistant cables of the mica-glass taped type.

At high voltage the cables may be oil or mass impregnated
paper insulated if the installation is relatively old (more
than about 20 years), but will be XLPE or EPR in modem
installations, except in high voltage DC applications where
paper insulation is still best. PVC is not used at voltages
higher than 400V because of its high loss factor (DDF)
which generates too much dielectric heat loss above 400V.

XLPE and EPR, which do not soften as their temperature
increases are examples of thermosetting synthetic insulating
materials. They are vulcanized to improve their temperature
withstand ability. XLPE is a very good high voltage
insulant in that it has very low DDF losses and a high
withstand voltage.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 3
PVC is an example of the thermoplastic class of synthetic
insulation. These materials soften as their temperature
increases but regain their original form when they cool.

Paper insulation is a natural cellulosic fibre which is
operated in cables with the paper impregnated by a
hydrocarbon oil or grease type compound. Although the
paper in oil composite is a very good insulator, it has some
drawbacks in that the cable joints and terminations are
much more difficult to make and they must have a metal
outer sheath to contain the oil.

Multicore cables at low voltage usually have four
conductors with three phases and a neutral. They may be
either stranded copper or aluminium or, more often, solid
section aluminium. The conductors are often sector shaped
to give a better packing density in the overall structure. At
high voltage the cables will be paper insulated if older style
or XLPE or EPR in modern cables.

EPR insulation is much more flexible than XLPE and is
used more often in locations requiring high cable flexibility,
such as for trailing cables in underground mines and similar
applications.

Figures 1 and 2 show some examples of typical cable
designs and configurations.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 4

Fig.1: single-core, multi-core.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 5

Figure 2: Examples of LV and HV cables
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 6
3. Requirements of cable system designs

There are some general installation requirements for power
cable systems, in addition to the primary selection
considerations of rating and voltage. These secondary
installation requirements include:

Separation of power and control/communication cabling
systems to prevent interference
Protection of cables from physical damage
Use of additional cable ducts to allow for future
expansion
Care in the preparation of joints to prevent high contact
resistance or low insulation levels

The major considerations to be applied in the selection of
cables or busbar systems are:

The current carrying capacity [determined by the
maximum permissible steady state temperature rise].
The voltage drop and regulation of the cable/busbar
circuit at full load
The short circuit rating [determined by the maximum
permissible transient temperature rise]
The insulation requirements and associated factors
[jointing and termination].
The required level of fire resistance of the cable and
busbar systems.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 7
3.1 Current carrying capacity

This is an important criterion in selection. The temperature
of the insulation of the cable or busbar system must be kept
below well-defined values to limit the ageing of the cable
insulation. For this reason an accurate determination of the
current capacity is necessary to ensure that the temperature
will remain within allowable limits and thus not cause
accelerated ageing. In general, a 10
o
C increase in the
operating temperature would halve the insulation life.
Figure 3 show the limiting temperatures for various types of
insulated cables.


Fig. 3: Limiting temperatures for insulated cables
(Table 1 AS3008.1.1-1998)

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 8
This rating determination must be done for all cables and
conductors. For some circuits there is no need to perform
detailed calculations as there are specific requirements laid
down by regulations for specified cable sizes in various
situations. For example, the minimum rating for consumers
mains cables is 32A and for sub-mains cables it is 25A.
However, above this minimum level the ratings must be
calculated with reasonable accuracy. The calculation is
complicated by a number of variable parameters which may
have a significant effect on the capacity. These parameters
include the ambient temperature, the enclosure of the cable
(if any), bundling of multiple cables etc.

It is usual, and sufficiently accurate in most cases, to use
the tables which are given in the Australian Standards
AS3000 (The Wiring Rules) and in standard AS3008.1, an
accompanying standard to AS3000, to determine the
current rating capacity. Tables 3-21 of AS3008.1 give
ratings for a variety of cable types and enclosures that cover
most usual applications. Figures 4-9 are some typical
examples.

In the calculations the maximum load demand figures must
be used as the basis for cable size determination and some
allowance should be made for future expansion, de-rating
from mutual heating of bundled cables, any effects of
harmonics and frequency of current. Special attention must
also be given to the current carrying capacity of the neutral
conductor. This is often of smaller cross-section than phase
conductors and this can sometimes lead to problems.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 9

Fig.4: Current-carrying capacity (Table 3 AS3008.1)
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 10

Fig.5: Current-carrying capacity (Table 4 AS3008.1)
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 11

Fig.6: Current-carrying capacity (Table 9 AS3008.1)

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 12

Fig.7: Current-carrying capacity (Table 12 AS3008.1)

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 13

Fig.8: Current-carrying capacity (Table 15 AS3008.1)



Fig.9: Current-carrying capacity (Table 16 AS3008.1)

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 14
3.2 External influences on cable capacity

The current-carrying capacity of a cable can be affected by
external influences such as:
Grouping of cables
Ambient temperature
Depth of laying
Thermal resistivity of soil
Varying load conditions
Effect of thermal insulation
Effect of direct sunlight
Thus capacity values given in Tables 3-21 of AS3008.1
should be corrected by applying an appropriate rating
factor. A common situation is the grouping of cables in
close proximity such that they are not independently cooled
by the ambient air or ground. The appropriate derating
factors are given in Tables 22 to 26 of the Standard.


Fig.10: Cable grouping derating (Table 22 AS3008.1)
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 15

Fig.11: Cable grouping derating (Table 23 AS3008.1)

The current-carrying capacity specified in Tables 3 to 21 of
AS3008.1 is based on the ambient air temperature of 40
o
C
and soil temperature of 25
o
C. If the ambient temperature
varies from this standard, the cable capacity needs to be
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 16
adjusted using the rating factor given in Table 27 of the
Standard.



Fig.12: Rating factors for variation in ambient temperature
(Table 27 AS3008.1.1-1998)

For different operating current or ambient temperature, the
conductor temperature can be calculated using:

2
o o A
R R A
I
I
u u
u u
| |
=
|

\ .


where: I
o
=operating current
I
R
=rated current given in Tables 3-21
u
o
=operating temperature of cable
u
R
=rated operating temperature of cable
u
A
=ambient air or soil temperature


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 17
3.3 Voltage drop and regulation

The Wiring Rules have quite specific requirements for
minimum voltage drop levels in consumers' circuits. They
allow for a maximum of only 5% voltage drop between the
consumers terminals (where supply is taken from the
utility) and the load end of the longest sub-circuit in the
building. Thus, if the supply is at the nominal value of
230V, the minimum permissible voltage anywhere in the
consumer's circuit is 218.5V. This is roughly the general
lower limit at which most 240V equipment will still operate
satisfactorily. There is also a general upper limit of voltage
rise of 5% above the supply level. This may occur if some
highly capacitive loads are in use.

3.3.1 Allocation of voltage drop in consumer's circuits

For a building distribution system, the typical allocation of
voltage drop would be as follows:

Consumers mains wiring connections: 0.5 - 1 %
Consumers sub-mains wiring connections: 0.75 -1.5%
Consumers final sub-circuit connections: 2 - 3 %

The designer must choose and design for allocations from
the bands such as to give a total of no more than 5% voltage
drop at maximum demand loading.

The actual voltage drop (V
d
) can be calculated from:

1000
c
d
L I V
V

= volts
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 18
where: L =cable length (m)
I =current carried by cable (A)
V
c
=unit value of voltage drop (mV/A.m)

For a single-phase, two-wire supply system, if using same
conductor type for active and neutral:

1
2
1000
c
d
L I V
V
|

=

For a balanced three-phase supply system, no current flows
in the neutral. The voltage drop per phase to neutral is
voltage drop in one conductor and the voltage drop between
phases is therefore:

3
3
1000
c
d
L I V
V
|

=
Thus:
1| voltage drop =1.155 x 3| voltage drop
3| voltage drop =0.866 x 1| voltage drop

Tables 40-50 of AS3008.1 provide 3| voltage drop values
for various cable configurations, types, conductor size and
operating temperatures.
If we know cable impedance (Tables 30-39 of AS3008.1)
and the load power factor, the voltage drop can be
estimated accurately from:
Single-phase:
( )
1
2 cos sin
d c c
V IL R X
|
u u =
Three-phase:
( )
3
3 cos sin
d c c
V IL R X
|
u u =

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 19
Note that the voltage drop will depend on the following
factors:
power factor,
current level,
cable or conductor resistance,
inductive reactance,
length.


Fig.13: three-phase voltage drop (Table 41 AS3008.1)

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 20

Fig.14: three-phase voltage drop (Table 42 AS3008.1)

For unbalanced 3| circuits, voltage drop calculations can be
performed on a 1| basis by geometrically summing the
voltage drop in the heaviest loaded phase and the voltage
drop in the neutral conductor.

Another approach would be to assume balanced 3| load
conditions and perform calculations using the current
flowing in the heaviest loaded phase.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 21

Fig.15: three-phase voltage drop (Table 47 AS3008.1)

3.3.2 Power factor correction

In some cases of low factor loads (less than about 0.9) it
may be necessary to install power factor correction
equipment to limit current and hence voltage drop. It will
also decrease the cost of the supply utility charge for power
in most cases.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 22
As most low power factors are lagging (inductive) loads,
power factor correction is achieved by installation of
compensating power capacitors used to generate leading
reactive power. The capacitors may be either series
connected or, most commonly in buildings, shunt
connected.

Installation of power factor correction equipment must be
done carefully to avoid the potential effects of harmonic
currents which may be amplified by the decrease in net
impedance caused by the reactive power reduction in the
circuit. It may be necessary to install filters to avoid such
effects.

3.4 Short Circuit Temperature Rise

Depending on the insulation material in use with the cables
or busbar systems, the permissible temperatures of cables
and busbars are different and thus different cables have
different continuous ratings and also different short circuit
ratings. The maximum allowable short circuit temperatures
of insulation of cables are quite different to those used for
determining steady or cyclic ratings. The permissible
temperatures are higher for short circuits on the basis that
the duration of the short circuit is typically only about 1 - 3
seconds before protection operates. For this period of time
there will be little deterioration of the cable material. The
choice of maximum short circuit temperature is more likely
to be based on softening or mechanical effects rather than
pure insulation damage.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 23
The maximum permissible short-circuit temperatures (for
duration up to 5 seconds) are detailed in Tables 52-54 of
AS3008.1.




Fig.16: Maximum permissible short-circuit temperatures.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 24
The short circuit heating formula is derived from the more
general equation which covers adiabatic heating of the
cable during the short duration of the transient short circuit.
This equation incorporates the temperatures of the ambient
medium and the insulation temperature of the cable at the
instant that the short circuit occurs. It also includes
constants which incorporate properties of the conductor
materials. The equation that is used is given below and
simply provides a maximum
2
I t value relating to the cable
type and temperature conditions and limitations. It includes
the non-linear effect of resistance increase of the conductor
as the temperature rises:

2 2 2
I t K S =
where:
I =short-circuit current (rms over duration), in amps
t =duration of short circuit, in secs
S =cross-section area of conductor, in mm
2



( ) ( ) ( )
20 1 0
1 20 ln 1 1 K c o o o u o u ( ( = + + +



c =specific heat of the conductor material

20
=electrical resistivity of conductor at 20
o
C
o =conductor material density

0
u ,
1
u =initial and final temperatures
o =temperature coefficient of resistance

Values for the constant K can also be readily obtained from
Table 51 of AS3008.1.


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 25

Fig.17: Table 51 AS3008.1.1-1998

The maximum phase conductor temperature on short circuit
is often taken as 120
o
C. However it may also be that other
conductors are also limiting factors. Thus, copper wire or
tape screens have a limiting temperature of 350
o
C, lead
sheath of 200
o
C and aluminium sheath of 200
o
C. And in
some cases these may be the limiting factor if the return
fault current passes through the sheath, say, which may
have a higher resistance that the main conductor and thus
generate more heating.

For some multicore cables, it may be electrodynamic forces
between the phase conductors rather than thermal
constraints that determine the short current rating of such a
cable. In such cases, a current limitation of the fault level
by HRC fuse rather than an I
2
t limitation is required.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 26
3.5 I nsulation Effects

The particular type and thickness of insulation of cables and
conductors will depend on the voltage of operation and also
on the application.

For modern high voltage distribution systems, XLPE is
almost exclusively used.

For low voltage applications, there are many insulation
types in use. These include:
PVC
XLPE
Elastomeric (ethylene propylene rubber [EPR])
Mineral insulated (MIMS)

Other factors that need to be considered in the insulation
choice are flexibility, hardness, resistance to mechanical
effects, effects of moisture and contamination etc. A major
factor in the choice of insulation used is the effects of fire
on the cable insulation.

3.6 Fire behaviour

There are many problems generated by the potential
damage to cables which are involved in fires. The fires may
be either self-generated, by the cable, or externally-
generated but causing significant damage to the cable
insulation. The problems that arise are:

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 27
1. The cables may provide substantial flammable material
in the chemical structure of their insulation
2. They generate significant smoke and soot when they
burn and this can cause considerable damage to
equipment otherwise unaffected by the fire heat.
3. Many of the fire products from insulation combustion
are toxic and thus represent a significant health hazard.
4. Many products of the insulation combustion are
corrosive and can substantially damage electronic
equipment for example.
5. The cables should ideally be able to operate after
significant damage by a fire: however this is not
possible if the polymeric insulation burns away: there
may be total loss of insulation integrity in this case.

The last problem is a particularly important consideration in
buildings where power may be required during and after a
fire to operate emergency equipment.

Thus there is a requirement for fire-resistant cables in
buildings and many circuits within a building, particularly
high rise buildings, will be designated to have such cabling
installed.

Item 4 above is an increasingly important aspect because of
the large penetration of computers and general electronic
and communications equipment in modem commercial
buildings. The major problem in this situation is with PVC
which generates very large amounts of hydrogen chloride
gas when it burns and this can cause havoc with metal in
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 28
electrical and electronic circuits, particularly when moisture
resulting from fire hose and extinguisher use is present. The
HCl is also very injurious to health.

The response to this problem has been the development of a
range of cables able to withstand the effects of fires or able
to maintain insulation integrity after a fire. These will be
outlined in the next section. In some cases, PVC has been
banned for use in buildings and similar areas for general
distribution.


4 Cable Types in Use

The cable types in use in the overall building supply
context are:

4.1 Aerial cables or lines

These are used between buildings in site complexes or as
service lines to buildings. The bare lines with no insulation
covering use aluminium or copper or (less likely for
buildings) ACSR (Aluminium conductor with steel
reinforcement).

The insulated overhead cables (which may be either aerial
bundled cables (ABC) or simply covered conductors) are
installed as either an aerial service line type of application
or in some case are mounted on the side fascia of buildings.
The insulation may be PVC or some other material which
has been treated to be able to withstand the effects of UV
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 29
radiation. UV radiation from sunlight causes degradation of
insulation and is the primary problem with polymeric
insulation when used outdoors.

ABC can be high voltage (up to 11kV) but the simple
covered conductors are always low voltage cables.

4.2 I ndoor distribution cables

For main circuits these may be either single core or 3-core
or 4-core. The insulation may be paper (unlikely in new
installations) or XLPE, PVC, elastomer (EPR) etc. at low
and medium voltage. The multi-core conductor types may
be stranded cores, sector cores, with or without neutral or
armour. Typically they will have PVC or PE outer
sheathing for protection.

4.3 Fire Resistant cables

Fire resistant cables are required in specific situations
where emergency supply needs to be maintained even in the
event of severe fire interaction with the cable. Such cables
need to be able to supply power up to two hours after being
engulfed in conflagrations. Some common types of such
fire resistant cables are described below:

4.3.1 MIMS

Mineral insulated metal sheathed. Single or multi core. The
insulant is magnesium oxide powder. There is an outer
copper sheath. The powder is not as good an electrical
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 30
insulant as the normal cable polymeric materials but is able
to withstand extreme fire temperatures (700 800
o
C)
without any damage. Sealing of the metal sheath must be
done carefully to prevent moisture ingress as this will
destroy the insulation integrity of the powder.

4.3.2 Radox

This has a glass-mica tape layer wound over the insulation.
The insulation is a polyolefin material and is halogen-free
to prevent the production of chemically active and toxic
halogen based by-products from the fire.

4.3.3. Firestop

This has a mica glass tape wound over the conductor. The
insulation is XLPE. Firestop cable also uses halogen-free
insulation.

Fire resistant cables must be tested to resist the effects of
fires. This is particularly the case with the last two types
where there is substantial loss of polymer in the fire,
leaving only the mica glass tape as the insulant. The test
involves exposure to fire at about 1000
o
C for three hours
with the cores live. No short circuits can occur. This is
followed by removal from the oven and subjecting the burnt
cables to a water spray test to simulate the effect of fire
extinguishers. Again, no short circuit can occur if the cable
is to pass the test.

4.4 Other cable types

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 31
There are many other cables in use in buildings, primarily
of the communications type. These will be discussed at a
later lecture. As stated earlier it is necessary to segregate
the communications/control cables from power cables to
prevent EM coupling effects which may lead to incorrect
information transfer.

4.5 Magnetic interference from cables

A recurring and increasing problem with power cables is
the effect of the magnetic field generated by the power
frequency current in such cables. There are two major areas
of concerns in buildings: interference with IT equipment
(e.g. computer terminals) and the less tangible one of the
potential hazard to personnel. The end result is that some
care must be exercised in location and arrangement of
cables to minimise these effects. This aspect will be
covered later in the course.


5 Cable Enclosures and Conduits

These include the following types of enclosure systems:
(they should all be halogen-free, if made of insulating
material, for fire damage minimisation)

Conduits: steel, rigid PVC, corrugated flexible PVC
Tubes and pipes: metal, non-metal plastic, earthenware
etc
Ducts: metal or non-metal
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 32
Cable support systems: cable trays, cable ladders
troughs etc
Trunking systems: mainly for busbars.

In the case of metal enclosures or support systems, the
potential for eddy current heating must be taken into
account. Insulation of sections may be necessary to prevent
this effect. Also the enclosures may need to be earthed to
prevent problems of electric shock by indirect contact if a
fault occurs by insulation failure to the metal enclosure.
The conduits and other enclosures must have appropriate IP
numbers to prevent ingress of moisture and dust to
susceptible areas.

Some care must also be given to a determination of the
impact of the enclosure on the thermal dissipation from the
cables and the effect that this will have on the cable rating.
It will often be necessary to de-rate the cable current
carrying capacity because of thermal limitations caused by
enclosures.


6 Busbars and busbar trunking systems (BTS) etc

6.1 Busbars

For very high current capacity systems it is common to use
rigid busbar systems of either aluminium or copper
rectangular section [See Figure 13]. These are normally
segmented (laminated) for very high ratings. This
'lamination' achieves two purposes: one is to improve heat
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 33
loss by providing greater surface area for thermal
dissipation and the other is to limit increase of resistance
due to skin effect. Both skin effect and proximity effect are
significant problems that must be considered for high
current AC busbar systems. The segmentation or lamination
of the individual phase conductors limits the eddy current
generation level which is the basis of the skin and
proximity effects in AC conductors. DC systems are not
affected in this way and thus only require such
segmentation to assist with improving thermal dissipation.

Note that the orientation of the busbar sections can have a
very significant effect on the thermal dissipation by virtue
of the impact on natural convection flows set up in the
ambient air and this will affect the current carrying capacity
of the bars. Similarly, a matt (non-shiny) surface with a
high radiative emissivity will also enhance the current
rating substantially through increasing the radiative heat
loss.

Busbars are prone to potential resonance effects caused by
the electrodynamic forces between the conductors. Because
of the very small spacing at low voltages and the high
currents, the forces on busbars even at normal operating
conditions can be significant. With the busbar support being
normally at spaced intervals of perhaps a metre or two, the
busbar acts as a fixed beam under the lateral
electrodynamic force and it will thus have a natural
resonant frequency, the value of which will depend on the
spacing of the supports, the size of the conductor and the
elasticity coefficient of the material.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 34

Fig.18: Current-carrying capacity of busbars.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 35

It is a necessary requirement to calculate this natural
frequency of resonance and if it is close to the 100 Hz
frequency of the electrodynamic forces generated, then the
support spacing must be altered to change the resonant
frequency to move it further away from the electrodynamic
force frequency.

The bars may be insulated or uninsulated, although the
modern trend in large buildings is for insulated bus bars,
often in a trunking system (busbar trunking system[BTS]).

6.2 Busbar Trunking systems

The trunking system consists of a tightly packaged
sandwich of the three busbars and the neutral, with an
insulating foil (melinex typically) between layers. It may
require external fins for cooling because of the densely
packed nature of the sandwich. They will also require some
protection against ingress of moisture as this can be taken
by capillary action to the live conductor and create a
creepage path.

Trunking systems are now being used with structures which
are able to be joined with relative ease to connect plug-in
systems. Feeder BTSs can have ratings from a few hundred
amps to 10,000 amps. Plug-in systems can have ratings
from about 100 amps up to 1500 amps.

The outer metal enclosure must be earthed and the same
precautions for eddy currents must be taken as in metal bus
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 36
bar enclosures. They must be type tested and routinely
tested before installation. Tests must look at, in particular,
the following aspects:

Temperature rise at rated load
Short circuit temperature rise
Clearances
Creepage paths
IP ratings
Mechanical strength etc.

6.3 Flexible copper straps

In addition to the rigid trunking systems, flexible insulated
copper straps are now being used. These have the
advantage of being able to be easily shaped on site to match
the installation requirements. They can be used in small
switchboards for example where space is limited.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 37
Example 1:



Assume: 3| voltage drop in consumer mains: V
d
=3V
balanced loads, i.e. disregard current in neutral

Subcircuits wired with multi-core V-75 insulated and
sheathed copper conductors, installed in single circuit
configuration, unenclosed in air, clipped to a wall.

Choose conductor size to satisfy voltage drop requirement.

Three-phase circuit:

30A load. From Table 12 column 4, conductor size of
6mm
2
has current-carrying capacity of 37A.

Total maximum permissible voltage drop:
5% 400 =20V
Hence, voltage drop allowed in 3| final subcircuit:
20 3 17V =
Maximum unit value of voltage drop:

1000 1000 17
6.3mV/A.m
90 30
d
c
V
V
L I

= = =



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 38
Select Table 42 for multicore cables with copper
conductors. Select 75
o
C column for normal operating
temperature of V75 cables. The nearest lower unit value is
3.86mV/A.m. From column 1, this corresponds to cable
size of 10mm
2
.

Single-phase circuit:

30A load. From Table 9 column 4, conductor size of 4mm
2

has current-carrying capacity of 34A.

Total maximum permissible voltage drop:
5% 230 =11.5V
Hence, voltage drop allowed in final subcircuit:

( )
11.5 3 3 9.77V =

Maximum unit value of voltage drop:

1000 1000 9.77
3.62mV/A.m
90 30
d
c
V
V
L I

= = =



Convert to three-phase value:

3 1
0.866 3.62 0.866 3.14mV/A.m
c c
V V
| |
= = =

Select Table 42 for multicore cables with copper
conductors. Select 75
o
C column for normal operating
temperature of V75 cables. The nearest lower unit value is
2.43mV/A.m. From column 1, this corresponds to cable
size of 16mm
2
.

Note: in both final subcircuits, cable size had to be
increased to comply with voltage drop requirements.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 39
Example 2:

Underground 1500A 3| supply is constructed using parallel
circuits of 400mm
2
V-75 single-core insulated and sheathed
Cu cables. Determine the minimum number of active
conductors required.

(a) All cables in one conduit
Capacity of one 400mm
2
cable=510A (Table 6, col. 16)
Refer to Table 22 for derating factor:
510 5 0.6 1530A =


(b) Groups of conduits
Refer to Table 26(2) for derating factor:
510 4 0.79 1612A =


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 40


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 41


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 42

Example 3:

3-| circuit is to supply a load of 125A per phase. Use two
V-75 four-core Cu conductor, insulated and sheathed cables
bunched together on a surface in a confined ceiling space
where ambient temperature is 50
o
C. Determine minimum
conductor size and maximum route length if allowable
voltage drop is 3%.

Derating factor for cable bunching =0.8 (Table 22, col.5)
Derating factor for 50
o
C ambient =0.82 (Table 27.1, col.9)

Required minimum current-carrying capacity:

1 1
125 190.5A
0.8 0.82
= for two parallel cables

or 95.25A per cable. From Table 12, column 4, the
conductor minimum size is 35mm
2
.

3-| permissible voltage drop: 400 0.03 12V
d
V = =

Unit voltage drop (Table 42): 1.11 mV/A.m
c
V =

Maximum route length:

1000 1000 12
173m
62.5 1.11
d
c
V
L
I V

= =



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 43
Example 4:

1-| circuit composed of two 16mm
2
Cu single-core
sheathed cable, V-75 insulation, installed unenclosed on a
wall. Circuit is to supply 55A resistive load. Determine 1-|
voltage drop value when ambient air temperature is 40
o
C
and 25
o
C.

Operating current 55A
o
I =
From Table 1, rated operating temperature
o
75 C
R
u =
From Table 3, current-carrying capacity is 72A
R
I = .

(a) Ambient temperature
o
40 C
A
u =

2
o o A
R R A
I
I
u u
u u
| |
=
|

\ .
operating temperature
o
60.4 C
o
u =
Use
o
60 C
o
u = then from Table 41:
3| voltage drop =2.32 mV/A.m
thus 1| voltage drop 1.155 2.32 2.68 = = mV/A.m

(b) Ambient temperature
o
25 C
A
u =
From Table 27, correction factor =1.21

2
25 55
72 1.21 75 25
o
u
| |
=
|

\ .

o
44.9 C
o
u =
Use
o
45 C
o
u = then from Table 41:
3| voltage drop =2.20 mV/A.m
thus 1| voltage drop 1.155 2.20 2.54 = = mV/A.m


ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 1
ELEC9713
I ndustrial and Commercial Power Systems

DI STRI BUTI ON TRANSFORMERS
for
use in industry and commercial buildings


PART 1: General Overview

The transformers used in industry and in commercial
buildings are generally less than about 1500 kVA in rating,
although some may be up to 2500 kVA. However size and
space limitations keep them to typically the 1000 kVA
level. For interior use in buildings they are all naturally
cooled apart from, in some cases, some rudimentary
additional fan-cooling systems which may be installed
some time after installation as an adjunct, perhaps to try to
increase the maximum shorttime rating of older
transformers. Table 1 gives details of the range of
distribution substation transformer ratings as used by
Energy Australia. Note that the substations listed are not
necessarily restricted to indoor types.

Because of the potential danger from fire in enclosed
spaces, such as substations in buildings, the type of
insulation of transformers in such installations is often
somewhat different to that used in outdoor applications.
Such outdoor transformers use oil-impregnated paper as the
basic dielectric.
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 2
Transformer type Current rating
(A/phase @415V)
Power rating
(3-|) in kVA
Pole mount


Pad mount


Outdoor enclosure
1x1000kVA unit
2x1000kVA units


Building substation
1x1000kVA unit
2x1000kVA units
2x1500kVA unit
3x1500kVA units

140-700A
(5-25 @11kV)

1000A
(40A @11kV)


1500A
2000A
(60-75A@11kV)


1400
2000
3000
5500
(50-200A@11kV)
100-500 kVA


750 kVA



1000 kVA
2000 kVA



1000 kVA
2000 kVA
3000 kVA
4500 kVA
Table 1: Range of standard substation transformers.

In the standard oil-impregnated paper transformer (Figure
1) the primary insulation is Kraft paper wound around the
transformer winding conductors. This paper is then
impregnated with a liquid dielectric to exclude any air
bubbles and to provide good thermal circulation for heat
dissipation. For outdoor applications the main liquid
insulation in transformers is mineral oil, with the windings
being encased in a tank of such oil. The problem is that
such oil is highly flammable and, if used in a building in an
enclosed location, could represent a serious fire hazard. If
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 3
mineral oil insulated transformers are used in buildings then
the room must be fitted with automatic fire extinguishers
and there must be a bund structure at the base of the
transformer to contain all of the oil should it be discharged
from the transformer. Moisture is a major problem with oil
transformers and they need to have precautions against
ingress of moisture, such as silica gel dryers.

Liquid insulated transformers are generally limited to the
Class A materials temperature rise limits of about 60-70
o
C.
Higher temperature rises can cause more rapid deterioration
of the cellulose (paper) insulation on the windings and also
deterioration of the oil itself. The lack of forced cooling and
the relatively low insulation temperature limits put some
constraints on the thermal ratings of such transformers for
use in buildings.

Because of the potential for deterioration of the transformer
insulation it needs to be tested at regular intervals to
determine the insulation efficacy and whether any
deterioration has occurred. This is generally done in
mineral oil transformers by dissolved gas analysis to
monitor both oil and paper insulation and by dielectric
dissipation factor testing. These diagnostics will be covered
in more detail later in the course.

The expense of fire precautions and the potential risk of fire
in buildings has generated a current trend to use what are
effectively non-flammable liquid transformers. There have
been two basic types of non-flammable liquid insulated
transformers developed:
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 4

the liquid insulated type, using synthetic oil and
the dry insulation type using solid resin insulation to
replace the oil.


1 Synthetic liquid insulation materials

1.1 Askarel

The initial move away from mineral oil (in the 1930s) was
to the use of askarel liquid insulation. Askarel, which is
essentially a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), is an artificial
insulating oil which is almost non-flammable. It was used
for many years in a large number of electrical applications,
but it has some toxic effects, particularly if heated or burnt.
I t is now banned from use in most countries. It is quite
likely, however, that there are still some PCB insulated
transformers in service.

1.2 Silicone Oil

Silicone insulating fluid, which is tetrachloro-benzyl
toluene with about 40% trichlorobenzene, is essentially
non-flammable and has no toxicity problems. It is the most
favoured synthetic transformer insulating oil. It has a higher
viscosity than mineral oil and askarel, and so its convective
heat dissipation coefficient is not so good but its other
electrical properties are very similar to those of mineral oil,
although it is quite a bit more expensive.

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 5

Figure 1: Oil insulated distribution transformer
ONAN cooled type (Oil Natural Air Natural)


2 Dry Type insulation

Because of the cost of silicone oil and the need to provide
expensive bund structures to hold the oil in case of a leak,
there has been a very substantial move to dry-type
transformers for use in buildings in recent years. These
have no fluid impregnation, as the name implies. Some also
have a much higher temperature rating, being typically
about class C (150
o
C). Such high temperature rating
transformers may use higher temperature-withstand
synthetic-paper insulation such as Nomex, rather than
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 6
natural cellulose paper, on the winding conductors. This
type of material is self-extinguishing if subjected to a flame
from a fire.

There are two different generic forms of dry-type
transformers:

- the open winding type and
- the epoxy cast-resin type.

2.1 Open Winding type

This type is the true dry-type transformer and uses the
simple structure of the (paper-insulated or nomex-insulated)
winding in open air and in construction simply has many
layers of insulating varnish coating applied to the windings.
(see Fig 2b). There is a potential problem with moisture
absorption and penetration into the varnish and insulation if
these transformers are left un-energized for long periods of
time. The paper on the copper windings will absorb
moisture readily if the varnish layer is not absolutely
impermeable. The moisture ingress will increase dielectric
losses in the insulation (dielectric dissipation factor) and
will also reduce the insulation strength. They are form-
wound windings as can be seen from the structure.

2.2 Cast-resin type

These have the windings in a cast solid epoxy resin
structure as shown in Fig. 2a. They are much less
susceptible to moisture ingress and absorption. The
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 7
application of the casting must be done very carefully
however to ensure that the expansion coefficients of both
the resin and the metal windings and core are the same.
Any differential expansion or contraction will cause
cracking of the casting. The windings are often sheet layers
on the LV side. They are more costly than the open
structure dry-type transformer and are often more expensive
than silicone oil transformers.


(a) (b)
Fig.2: Dry-type transformers (a) cast resin (b) open winding

2.3 Gas insulated transformers

The other form of non-flammable transformers that are
being used increasingly in buildings and in high-density
areas are SF
6
insulated transformers (Figure 3). They are
very expensive but very reliable. SF
6
is a non-toxic gas with
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 8
very good electrical insulation properties and with good
thermal transfer properties. SF
6
transformers typically
operate at about 2 atmospheres of gas pressure where the
dielectric strength is similar to oil. The greenhouse
problems of SF
6
may eventually force the pure SF
6

dielectric currently used to be replaced by an SF
6
-N
2

mixture. The dielectric strength of a mixture of 20%SF
6

with 80%N
2
is about 80% that of pure SF
6
.


Fig.3: SF
6
gas insulated transformer


3 Comparison of characteristics of different
transformer types

3.1 Cost

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 9
Fig 4a shows a cost comparison of the various transformer
types. The SF
6
and the cast resin are the most expensive and
the mineral oil is the least expensive type. The cast resin
type also has higher losses because of its more difficult
thermal dissipation problems with thermal conduction
being the only means possible.

Figure 4a: Comparison of costs of transformer types

In its most general application the cost of the transformer
must include capital cost of installation and the cost of total
losses amortised over the predicted life of the transformer.
This aspect will be discussed later.

3.2 Losses

Fig.4b shows a comparison of total losses (including the
variable copper and the fixed iron losses) in cast-resin and
silicone-insulated transformers at various loadings. At a
high load factor (80%) there is essentially no difference in
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 10
total loss: at 50% loading the silicone oil transformer has
lower losses (because of its inherently lower no-load
losses). [Load factor is the ratio of average load to full
rated load of the transformer]. The generation,
measurement and determination of losses will be covered
later in the course.
Figure 4b: Comparative losses of cast-resin dry type and
silicone-oil transformers

Figure 4c: Comparison of losses of different transformers
types [For 1000kVA, 11kV/415V]
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 11
Fig.4c shows similar comparisons with the other types of
transformers. The liquid insulated units are seen to be
generally better than the dry-type units particularly at high
load factors.

3.3 Reduction of I nsulation Life

During operation, the loading of the transformers is of
particular importance as it determines the total losses and
these, in turn, determine the operating temperature of, and
hence any deterioration of, the transformer insulation. If the
insulation temperature rises to too high a level for its class,
then the transformer lifetime may be reduced. The
increased temperature causes increased chemical reactions
in the insulation and these lead to the deterioration by
changing the insulation composition. As a general rule of
thumb the 10
o
C rule is often used, whereby an increase of
continuous operating temperature by 10
o
C causes a
reduction of insulation life time by about 50%.

The loss of life versus temperature of operation details are
given in typical loading guides for transformers which are
published as Standards in most countries. In Australia they
are in the Australian Standards AS 2374.7-1997 (oil-filled
transformers) and AS 3953-1996 (Dry-type transformers).

See Fig. 5 for some typical data that can be used to
determine insulation deterioration (or lifetime reduction) if
loading details and temperature rises are known.

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 12
Figure 5: Rate of deterioration of transformer insulation
with change in operating temperature.

[The overall average operating temperature can be
determined from a mean load factor K, which is derived
from cyclic loading details of the transformers.]

3.4 Transformer I mpedance & Short Circuits

As the transformer impedance will be a major part of the
impedance of any short circuit path, the effect of the
transformer impedance on prospective fault current in a
power system is very substantial and thus accurate
transformer impedance data is needed to allow such
calculations to be performed to determine protection
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 13
requirements. In some cases where accuracy is not
paramount, general impedance data such as that shown in
Fig 6 can be used for fault current determinations involving
transformers. As can be seen, an average value of 5% or .05
per unit for transformer impedance is a good and often used
approximation. Usually, the leakage inductance component
is the major contribution to the impedance, particularly for
high voltage transformers with their larger winding
spacings.

For precise fault calculations the impedance must be known
accurately from data given on the nameplate and the
resistance and inductance components must be known.


(a) (b)
Figure 6: (a) Typical impedance and corresponding typical
fault levels for various ratings (b) Effect of impedance on
fault levels of 11kV/415V transformers

3.5 Tappings on windings

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 14
Distribution transformers used in buildings do not normally
have on-load tap changing (OLTC) facilities to adjust
voltage level. However they do have permanent taps which
can be altered to allow about a +/-10% variation in voltage
output level, usually in about 1% steps.

The taps must be manually changed while the transformer
is de-energised and isolated. The tapping points are
normally on the high voltage windings only in normal
transformers.

Figure 7 shows a distribution transformer with on-load tap
changing facilities. The tap changer is shown at left of the
three winding structures.


Figure 7: Transformer with on-load tap changing
[rating about 5000kVA]
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 15
3.6 Connections

In general, building distribution transformers are star-
connected on the low voltage side to eliminate circulating
triplen harmonics (3
rd
, 9
th
, 15
th
etc.) in a delta-connected
three-phase winding. The high voltage side is almost
always delta connected.

There are many possible variations of winding connections
of transformers. These variations can affect the magnitude
of the voltages but more particularly they change the phase
shift between the primary and secondary windings. There
are about 20 different connections possible if the use of zig-
zag earths on transformers with delta windings is included,
but the most common winding connections for standard
distribution transformers are:

DY11
DY1
DY5
DY7

DY11 is the most commonly used connection for
distribution transformers: it gives a 30
o
phase shift between
primary and secondary. See Fig. 8 for the corresponding
vector diagrams and an explanation of phase shift symbols
and phase shift values.

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 16

Figure 8: Different connections of windings in transformers
and associated vector diagrams.

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 17
3.7 Cable terminations

Cable terminations in transformers are generally achieved
by means of a cable box on the transformer at the high
voltage and low voltage sides for both types of transformer
with paper insulated cable.

Figure 9 shows examples of medium voltage (11 kV)
terminations. Note the use of skirts in some cases to
increase creepage path lengths.


Figure 9: Examples of medium voltage cable terminations

The LV cable box is usually air insulated, but the high
voltage cable box is compound-filled with petroleum grease
or some similar viscous insulant. Good sealing of the box is
necessary to keep the moisture out. The modern preference
for use of XLPE cable use makes terminations in the cable
box a little simpler in that moulded heat shrink terminations
are able to be used: these can be relatively easily applied for
both high and low voltages. Paper insulated joints and
terminations at high voltage are much more difficult to
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 18
produce and require considerable expertise to achieve good
results (that is a joint without insulation problems).

3.8 Parallel Operation of transformers

When transformers are used in parallel it is necessary to
ensure that they satisfy the following requirements:

Have the same voltage ratios
The same tapping points in use (that is the same voltage)
Have the same vector diagram (same phase shift between
primary and secondary)
The same impedance angle (this is preferable but not
imperative).

If these conditions are not designed for, problems will
occur. For example:

(1) There will be unequal loading of the transformers if the
impedance angles vary. This can lead to overloading of
one transformer and a lighter loading of the other. The
same principles that apply to the sharing of load in
parallel-connected feeders also apply to transformers.

(2) If the voltage ratio or the tapping points are not the
same there will be circulating currents set up in the two
transformers which will lead to possible overheating of
the transformers and possible change in operation
points on the magnetization curves.

(3) If the vector diagrams are different then the line and
phase voltages will be intermixed and insulation stress
will be stressed.
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 19
DI STRI BUTI ON TRANSFORMERS

PART 2
Operational Characteristics and Efficiency


1 Construction

The basic power transformer comprises paper-insulated
copper windings wound around a laminated magnetic steel
core. For 50 60 Hz operation the core is laminated grain-
oriented silicon-steel (or more rarely an amorphous
magnetic metal core to reduce eddy current loss). For high
frequency operation, where eddy current losses in the core
become too high, even if it is laminated or amorphous,
transformers may use a ferrite core which has very high
electrical resistance and will thus significantly reduce eddy
currents. For instrument transformers (current and voltage
transformers [CTs and VTs]) where the core losses
contribute to the measurement uncertainty, high
permeability, low loss, materials such as Mu-metal are used
in the core to give higher accuracy in metering applications.

Usually the two windings (primary and secondary) are
wound on the same limb of the core to reduce leakage flux.
The high voltage winding is normally the outer winding, as
shown in Figure 1, because of the higher electric field
associated with it. Note that there are two standard core
configuration forms in general use. These are:

- The Core Form
- The Shell Form
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 20
Figures 1 and 2 show the two typical core arrangements for
both single and three phase units. Note the different
magnetic circuits which result from the two configurations
of cores. The Core Form is the most prevalent type in use in
Australia and in most other countries. The shell form was
manufactured primarily in the USA


Figure 1: Core and winding structure of a single phase
transformer: (a) Core type, (b) Shell type


Figure 2: Core construction of 3-phase transformer
(a) Core type (b) Shell type or 5 limb core

The windings are normally composed of paper-insulated
copper strip or wire. The insulation on the copper is either
lapped paper (with oil impregnation in oil-filled
transformers) or enamel or possibly Nomex tape in the case
of dry-type transformers.
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 21
The windings of main power transformers are all form-
wound as opposed to being random-wound structures.
There are two general winding configurations in use:

Concentric layer winding: these windings are helical
layers wound axially along the core and the HV and LV
windings are laid concentrically.

Sandwich windings: these windings are of the pancake or
disc type with radial rather than axial extension on the
core. The HV and LV pancake winding discs are then
sandwiched together as shown in Figure 3.


Figure 3: Types of transformer winding
(a) Concentric, (b) Sandwich made up of disc sections.


2 Equivalent Circuits of Transformers

Figure 4a shows an ideal transformer with perfect flux
coupling (no leakage outside the magnetic circuit) between
the primary and secondary windings. The equivalent circuit
for this is shown in Figure 4b. Only the winding resistance
is needed in the equivalent circuit. The transformer (the
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 22
mutual coupling section) is taken as ideal, with no losses
and no saturation effects. Thus there is no magnetisation
current needed and no distortion. With perfect coupling and
no magnetisation current the mutual inductance of the
windings shown will be infinite as the assumptions will, in
effect, make the core material of infinite permeability.


Fig. 4a I deal transformer Fig. 4b
Full coupling of flux u Equivalent Circuit

However, in a practical transformer, the coupling of flux is
not perfect and there will be some flux leakage, as shown in
Figure 5a. There will be leakage at both HV and LV
windings and this leakage flux will appear as a leakage self-
inductance (mostly in air) in each winding. This represents
the main internal impedance in a high voltage transformer.
The equivalent circuit must now include this leakage
inductance, as shown in Figure 5b.

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 23

Figure 5a: Leakage Flux

Primary Flux
1P
= u + u , Secondary Flux
1S
= u + u ,
Common flux = u
u
1P
and u
1S
are leakage fluxes, typically u
1
~ 1-6% of u


Figure 5b: Equivalent circuit with leakage inductance

For high voltage transformers the inductive reactances X
p

and X
s
are generally much higher than the winding
resistances R
p
and R
s
and the leakage reactance thus
represents the main short circuit impedance of the
transformer. The total impedance is generally about Z = 3
8 % (the impedance voltage). Note that the percentage is
based on the rated or base impedance of the transformer,
Z
B
:

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 24

Rated
B
Rated
V
Z
I
=

where V
rated
and I
rated
are the nameplate voltage and current
for the transformer. Note that for 5% Z= ,
0.05 0.05
R
B
R
V
Z Z
I
= =

and for a terminal short circuit 20
0.05
R R
F R
B
V V
I I
Z Z
= = =
or 20 per unit.


3 Excitation Requirements

(a) Magnetising current I
m


Because the core is not infinitely permeable it requires
some finite level of ampere turns (magnetic potential -
N
1
I
m
) in the windings to establish the flux in the core, even
with no load connected. Because the core is not of zero
reluctance, there will be some finite inductance of the core
and the winding used to magnetise the core. This
magnetising inductance (L
m
) will be defined by:


m m
L I u =

where u is the core flux and I
m
is the magnetising current.

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 25
Note that by using the magnetising inductance in the
equivalent circuit we are taking the mutual coupling section
of the transformer to be an ideal transformer, as below.



(b) Core power loss and I
c


Core losses are quite significant in large power
transformers and they must be included in the equivalent
circuit representation. (In instrument transformers these
core losses will be the major source of error in the
measurement of current and voltage). The loss is included
by insertion of a notional core loss resistance R
c
connected
in shunt as shown in Figure 6a.

The value of the notional resistance is determined by use of
the equivalent core loss current I
c
, such that


c p c
I V R =


2 2
c c c p c
P I R V R = =

where V
p
is the primary voltage and P
c
is the core loss.
Ideal
transformer
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 26
Thus:
2
P
c
c
V
R
P
=

(c) Total exciting Current I o

This is I
o
= I
c
+ jI
m


Thus the full equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure 6a.


Figure 6a: Full equivalent circuit

We can exclude the ideal transformer part of the equivalent
circuit by rescaling the voltages and impedances on the
secondary side using the usual turns ratio squared (a
2
)
calculation. Note that a is that ratio of primary turns to
secondary turns.

We then have Figure 6b below where all quantities are
referred to the primary side, or we can have Figure 6c
below where all quantities are referred to the secondary
side.
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 27

Figure 6b: Equivalent circuit referred to the primary


Figure 6c: Equivalent circuit referred to the secondary

Normally the primary and secondary quantities are all
lumped together to give the most general equivalent circuit
as shown in Figure 6d below where:


2
p s
R R a R = + ;
2
p s
X X a X = + and Z R jX = +

c
R
m
jX
c
I
m
I
'
2
V
0
I R
jX
1
I
'
2
I
1
V

Figure 6d: Lumped equivalent circuit

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 28
Note that I
m
will lag V
1
by 90
o
and that I
c
will be in phase
with V
1
(barring small differences caused by R and X). The
magnetic flux u will be in phase with I
m
and will lag V
1
by
90
o
.

Thus, the phasor diagram of the final equivalent circuit is as
shown below (using V
2
as the phase reference).

1
I
'
2
V
1
I R
1
I X
1
V
o
1
I Z
'
2
I
I
C
I
m
0
I
0
I


Note that when the secondary is short-circuited the
impedance Z determines the fault current. This is the
normal method of determination of the transformer
impedance Z (the Short Circuit Test). The secondary is
shorted and the primary volts are raised until rated current
I
2
flows in the secondary circuit. Then:


( )
2 1 test
V Z I =

Because I
2
is the rated current value, [1 per unit or 100% in
percentage terms],


( ) 1 test
% Z V =

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 29

The transformer nameplate will give a percentage value for
Z, which is termed the I mpedance Voltage rather than
the impedance because of the above relationship.

Note that

( )
2 2
Z R X = +

and X is thus able to be determined from:


( )
2 2
X Z R =

R is the total winding resistance and is able to be measured
with a resistance meter. Note however that R will be very
temperature dependent and thus it should be measured at or
near normal operating temperature of the transformer. The
difference between R at ambient temperature and operating
temperature may be as much as 30%.

Problem Example:

Consider a 4000/400V 10kVA transformer which has the
following characteristics:

Primary winding resistance: 13
p
R = O
Secondary winding resistance: 0.15
s
R = O
Total leakage reactance referred to primary: 45
p
X = O
Magnetising reactance referred to primary: 6k
m
X = O
Core loss resistance referred to primary: 12k
c
R = O
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 30
Determine:

(i) total R and Z for transformer, referred to the primary.
(ii) R and Z referred to the secondary and also all
impedances referred to the secondary.
(iii) the input current when:
a) the secondary is open circuit
b)
2
25A I = at 0.8 lagging PF
(iv) I
m
, I
c
, I
o
and the total core loss and the winding (load)
loss in case (b).
(v) the total transformer power loss at full load and the
full load efficiency at unity PF.

Solution:

Ratio
1
2
4000
10
400
N
a
N
= = = =

Thus
2
1eq
13 0.15 10 28 R = + = O


1eq
28 45 Z j = + O


2eq 1eq
2
1 28
0.28
100
R R
a
= = = O


2eq
1
45 0.45
100
X = = O


m2
6000
60
100
X = = O


c2
12000
120
100
R = = O

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 31

4000
0.33A
12000
c
I = = (in phase with V
1
)


4000
0.67A
6000
m
I = = (lag V
1
by 90
o
)

Hence: 0.33 0.67 0.745 63.5 A
o
o
I j = = Z

When
2 2
25A, 25 36.9
o
I I = = Z

Thus, referred to primary:
21
2.5 36.9 2.0 1.5 A
o
I j = Z =

Hence:
1 21 o
I I I = +


( ) ( )
2.0 1.5 0.33 0.67 j j = +

2.33 2.167 3.18 43 A
o
j = = Z

Core loss
2 2
12000 0.33 1333 W
c c
R I = = =

Copper loss
2 2
1eq 1
28 3.18 283 W (at load) R I = = =

Total loss = 1616 W

Efficiency
10000
86.1%
10000 1616
= =
+


4 Transformer losses

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 32
Losses in transformers are composed of two separate
components:

a) Load (copper) loss in the resistance of the windings
b) Core (iron) loss in the core material (Hysteresis and
Eddy current loss)

The copper loss (I
2
R) is load-dependent and scales as the
square of load current I
L
. The loss will also be temperature-
dependent through the resistance variation with temperature
of the winding.

The core loss is constant whenever the transformer is
energised. Core loss is thus independent of the load.

[There is also another loss component, which is caused by
eddy current loss in the steel tank and in any other metal
which is coupled by the AC magnetic field of the
transformer. However this loss component is usually
neglected.]

Total copper loss is thus: (neglecting stray losses)


2 2
Cu 1 1 2 2
P I R I R = +


2
1 1eq
watts I R =

Core loss is:
(i) Hysteresis loss
n
h m
H k f B =

W/m
3


where
f is frequency;
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 33
B
m
is peak flux density;
k
h
is a constant of the material and of the core
configuration;
The exponent n is material dependent and is in the
range 1.5 < n < 2.5 (often use n = 2).

(ii) Eddy current loss
2 2
e m
E k f B = W/m
3


where k
e
is a constant of the material and configuration.
It is also temperature dependent as it includes the
material resistivity.

Total Core Loss:


total
P H E = +


( )
2
h e m
k k f fB = + (for n =2) W/m
3


Note the effect of frequency: there is a significant effect
even between 50 and 60 Hz and this can be an important
difference.

50Hz 60Hz
Hysteresis 1.0 1.2 20% increase
Eddy Current 1.0 1.44 44% increase


5 Transformer Efficiency

5.1 Power efficiency

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 34
When supplying a load, the transformer power efficiency is
given by:
Efficiency q =


Power Out Power Out
Power In Power Out Losses
=
+


= 1 -

Losses
Power Input


For a load with voltage V
2
, current I
2
and power factor cos|,


2 2
2
2 2 2 2eq core
V I cos
V I cos I R P
|
q
|
=
+ +


Transformers are very efficient items of power equipment,
with efficiencies normally in the range of 95 99%, but the
efficiency is obviously dependent on the load and on the
load power factor.

It can be shown easily that maximum power efficiency of
the transformer occurs when the load is such that


2
core 2 2eq
P I R =

That is, when, core loss = load loss

For typical transformers at full load,

load loss 3 4 times the core loss

Thus, the load for maximum power efficiency is about 50
60% of rated load. [the transformer in the previous problem
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 35
example was not a typical transformer as the maximum
efficiency occurred at 2.15 per unit load!]

5.2 Transformer Energy Efficiency

q is the instantaneous power efficiency of the transformer.
However, because the load will vary (usually) in a cyclic
manner, a more useful quantity to give efficiency of
operation is the energy efficiency. This takes into account
the duty cycle of the transformer operation and will take
account of the core loss during no-load and light load
situations.

For example, for a daily load duty cycle of the following:

8 hours at full load, 0.8 lagging
6 hours at 0.6 per unit, 0.8 lagging
6 hours at 0.4 per unit, unity PF
4 hours at no load (but energised)

The energy efficiency is given by the following equation:


24hr energy supply
efficiency=
24hr energy supply + 24hr energy loss

Thus:

2 2
2 2
[8x0.8 6x0.6x0.8 6x0.4x1.0 0]
[8x0.8 6x0.6x0.8 6x0.4] 24 total ]
e
c Cu
V I
V I P E
q
+ + +
=
+ + + +



6 Transformer Tests

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 36
There is a need to monitor transformer load to make the
most effective use of the transformer. It is also necessary to
know the core and load losses. These will normally be
given on the nameplate, but the hysteresis losses and eddy
current losses will not be separated and this may cause
some problems if there are harmonics to contend with. Thus
some tests may need to be done.

6.1 Open Circuit Test [for core loss determination]

This test requires normal operating flux in the core and
hence needs rated voltage to be applied. There is no load
connected so there is no load loss contribution in the
measured power, which is thus only the (constant) core loss
P
o
.

The test requires measurement of supply voltage (rated
value) V
1
, exciting current I
0
and exciting real power P
0
. It
should be noted that I
0
is not sinusoidal because of the non-
linearity of the B-H magnetising curve of the core material.
This needs to be considered in choosing the ammeter and
the wattmeter types.

Open circuit test provides P
0
, I
0
and also R
c
and X
m
for the
equivalent circuit.
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 37


0
0 0
1 0
0 0 0 0
total core loss
:
m c
P
cos P
VI
I I sin I I cos
|
| |
= =
= =



2
1 1 1 1
0 0 0

c m
c m
V V V V
R X
I P I I sin|
= = = =

6.2 Short Circuit test [for load loss determination]

In this case, the I
2
(and I
1
) is the rated current, but the
applied voltage V
1
is the impedance voltage level, only
about 5%. Thus the core flux density |, is only about 5%
and thus core loss is negligible, but full rated currents flow
in the windings so that the measured power P
sc
is the
copper loss in the winding resistances only.

The test requires measurement of P
sc
, V
1
, I
1
and I
2
. The test
results give the copper loss and also Z
eq
and total winding
resistance R
eq
and leakage reactance X
eq
.
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 38


1 1
sc
sc
P
cos
VI
| =


1 1
1
1 1
' '
1 2 1 2
+
=( ) ( )
eq sc sc
V V
Z cos j sin
I I
R R j X X
| | =
+ + +



2 '
1 1 2
( ) total copper loss
sc sc
P I R R P = + =


7 Effects of Harmonics on Transformer Operation

The increasing level of harmonic content in the general
power supply waveform is causing some potential problems
for all electrical equipment items with magnetic core
materials. This includes in particular the transformer. In
addition, there is also an increase in the number of non-
linear loads that are being used, particularly from the
increasing use of power electronic controllers.

Such devices are a problem because the losses which are
generated in the transformer are frequency dependent and,
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 39
on a relative basis, the heating by the harmonic components
scales with frequency.

If there is harmonic content in the supply voltage, the core
losses scale with the square of frequency. If the harmonic
content of the load current is high, such as may occur with
power electronic devices, there is a frequency dependent
increase in the copper loss due to eddy currents (skin effect)
and the transformer may need to be de-rated so that it does
not overheat with a high harmonic load.

In the following, the considerations of increased losses in
transformers due to harmonics are those due only to current
in the load and thus the increase is in the load loss due to
eddy current generation by harmonic currents in the
primary and secondary windings. The harmonic currents
may also cause some harmonic distortion of the exciting
voltage by virtue of the effect of the distorted current on the
voltage drop in the leakage reactance of the equivalent
circuit. This voltage harmonic distortion (from an assumed
pure sinusoid) could then also lead to increased losses in
the core material in addition to the windings. However it is
found that the effect on the core loss of load current
harmonics is not generally significant and thus it is usually
neglected and only the load loss increase is considered
when de-rating calculations are performed. This approach
thus assumes a pure sinusoidal supply voltage.

There are two approaches to estimating the de-rating
required for the transformer:

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 40
the CBEMA (Computer and Business Equipment
Manufacturers Association) Crest Factor Method

the IEEE K-Factor Method

7.1 CBEMA Crest Factor

The Crest Factor is defined as the ratio of the peak value of
the current (amps) of the distorted waveform to the true
RMS value (amps) of the distorted waveform.


Peak current (amps)
Crest Factor = C.F. =
True RMS current (amps)


The de-rating factor is then determined by the ratio of 1.414
( )
2 to the calculated crest factor.

1.414
De-rating Factor =
C.F.


Thus, for a pure sine wave, the C.F. is 1.414 and the de-
rating factor is then unity (1.0). For a crest factor of 2.0, the
de-rating factor will then be 0.707. Thus in the latter case a
100kVA transformer would need to be de-rated to about
70kVA to avoid overheating.

While the above approach is a simple method it has some
faults:

(i) the peak value of current is not necessarily truly
representative of the harmonic content. Two different
waveforms with the same level of total harmonic
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 41
distortion (THD) may have quite different values of
peak current.
(ii) the measurement of the current data needed to
calculate the crest factor requires an oscilloscope and
a true RMS current meter. In particular the need for
an oscilloscope is unwieldy for testing.

For these reasons the CBEMA crest factor method is not
widely used and the more quantitatively accurate K-factor
method is preferred.

7.2 The K-Factor Method

The total harmonic distortion (THD) of a current
waveform is defined as:


2
2
1
( )
THD =
n
n
I
I



where n is the harmonic number and n=1 is the fundamental
(50 Hz) component.

The Kfactor is defined as:


2 2
1
2
1
.
K =
n
n
n
n
I n
I



where I
n
is the nth harmonic current in amps
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 42

7.2.1 Application of the K- Factor

Because
( )
n
n pu
RMS
I
I
I
=

where I
n(pu)
is the per unit value of the nth harmonic current
and I
RMS
is the true RMS current, we can express the K-
factor as:

2 2
( )
1
2
( )
1
.
n pu
n
n pu
n
I n
K
I

=
=



Because the eddy current losses scale as the square of
frequency, the K-factor provides a useful indicator of the
increased heating due to the harmonic content. It further
gives a quantitative means of calculating the de-rating
factor for transformers.

Typically, K may vary up to 20 or more for badly distorted
current waveforms.

7.2.2 Calculation method for transformer de-rating factor

The total losses (P
LL
) are defined as:


2
LL EC
P I R P = +
where:
I
2
R = total winding loss at pure 50Hz operation.
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 43
P
EC
= eddy current loss in the windings

We also define P
EC(R)
to be the eddy current loss at rated
current (I
R
) at 50 Hz.
Thus
2
2
EC EC(R)
1
2
2 EC
EC(pu)
1
EC(R)
2 2
EC(pu) EC(R)pu ( )
1
. watts
.
.
n
n
R
n
n
R
n pu
n
I
P P n
I
P I
P n
P I
P P I n

=
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
= =
|
\ .
=



We also have:
LLpu ECpu
1 P P = +

And for rated load
( ) ( ) LL R pu EC R pu
1 P P = +

Using
2
1
2
( )
1
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
( )
.
n
n
pu n pu
n
LL pu n pu EC R pu n pu
n n
I I
I I
P I P I n

=

= =
=
=
= +




The maximum permissible current is given by:

LL(R)pu EC(R)pu
max( )
EC(R)pu EC(R)pu
1
1 . 1 .
pu
P P
I
K P K P
+
= =
+ +

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 44

Example:

100kW of personal computers are supplied from a
transformer rated at 150kVA. Given the harmonic current
levels caused by the computers are as below, and that
( ) EC R
10% P = , calculate the K-factor and the required de-
rating factor of the transformer.

Harmonic
no.
% of
fundamental
Harmonic
no.
% of
fundamental
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
100
0.2
66
0.4
38
0.4
13
0.3
4.5
0
5.3
0.1
2.5
0.1
1.9

17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
1.8
1.1
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2


[In this case
1
rated current = 1.0 pu I = ]

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 45
We can neglect even harmonics in this case and just use odd
harmonics. In calculating the harmonic contribution to the
K-factor value, we stop when the contribution of a high
harmonic becomes negligible. In this case this occurs after
the 25
th
harmonic.

We construct the table as follows:

n Current
(pu)
Freq.
(Hz)
( )
2
n pu
I
2
n
( )
2 2
n pu
I n
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
1.00
0.66
0.38
0.13
0.045
0.053
0.025
0.019
0.018
0.011
0.006
0.008
0.004
50
150
250
350
450
550
650
750
850
950
1050
1150
1250
1.0000
0.4356
0.1444
0.0169
0.0020
0.0028
0.0006
0.0004
0.0003
0.0001
3.6E-5
6.4E-5
1.6E-5
1
9
25
49
81
121
169
225
289
361
441
529
625
1.0000
3.9204
3.6100
0.8281
0.1640
0.3399
0.1056
0.0081
0.0936
0.0437
0.0159
0.0339
0.0100

Totals: 1.6031 10.1732

2
( )
1
n pu
n
I

=
=


2 2
( )
1
.
n pu
n
I n

=
=


Thus:
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 46

2 2
( )
1
2
( )
1
.
10.1732
= = 6.35
1.6031
n pu
n
n pu
n
I n
K
I

=
=



For the de-rating calculation:


EC(R)pu
max(pu)
EC(R)pu
1
1 .
P
I
K P
+
=
+


The value of
( ) EC R pu
P will normally be available from the
manufacturer. We take a typical value of 0.1 in this
example:

Thus

max( )
1 0.1
1 6.35 x 0.1
pu
I
+
=
+
pu

= 0.82 pu

Thus, the de-rated permissible loading of the 150 kVA
transformer is:

0.82 x 150 = 125 kVA

Note:

Performing the same calculation as above for the same
( ) EC R
0.1 P = , but for different values of K, we find the
following de-rating factors:
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 47

K
( ) max pu
I kVA
2
10
20
30
0.96
0.74
0.61
0.52
144
111
91
78


7.3 Comparison of the Crest factor values and the I EEE
values for the same loads

The table below shows the variance of the two methods for
a wide range of building loads with various harmonic
levels. A negative value means the CBEMA value is lower
and positive that the IEEE value is lower. Reference value
is the IEEE value.
ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 48

CBEMA kVA - IEEE kVA
x 100
IEEE kVA
(
(




ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 49

8 K-Factor Transformers

K-factor transformers are designed to be able to be used for
loads with harmonic distortion without the necessity of de-
rating. If a K-factor transformer is to be used in an
application it is necessary to know the load characteristics
and the harmonic content over the whole load cycle and
then to calculate the K-factor and specify a transformer
with the required K-factor value. For most general
applications a K-factor rating of 15 or less is adequate.

Because they must be designed to reduce the level of eddy
current generation in the windings, or to allow better
dissipation of losses, K-factor transformers are:

more expensive (about two times)
heavier (about 15-20 % more)
larger

when compared to standard power transformer designs of
the same kVA rating.

They may have a shield between the two windings to limit
harmonic induction: the basic conductor section size
making up the transposed windings (particularly the low
voltage) are made smaller to limit eddy currents (skin
effect) while the overall conductors may be made larger to
reduce ohmic heating by the power frequency current.
Neutral conductors may be made larger to limit the heating
effects of triplen harmonics.

ELEC9713: Distribution Transformers p. 50
The core is often made of better quality magnetic steel with
lower hysteresis loss and perhaps thinner laminations to
reduce core eddy current losses. The overall core size may
be made larger to reduce operating flux density and hence
eddy current and hysteresis losses. However the core losses
are only a minor part in this aspect if the supply is free of
harmonics and the only harmonics are in the load current.

Cooling is also enhanced in K-factor transformer design.

Overall the fundamental property of K-factor transformers
is that they have lower losses than standard transformers of
the same rating for the same level of harmonic distortion.

In general, only the transformer winding loss is used in the
K-factor calculation. The core loss is not important in this
determination as at full load the load loss is the much
higher level. However some designs do have lower core
loss as discussed above.

Dry-type transformers are more susceptible to harmonic
effects because of their lower heat dissipation coefficients.
This lower heat dissipation results from the lack of oil. Oil
provides a much more efficient convection loss method
(whether natural or forced) compared to the mainly
conduction loss mechanism which dominates the thermal
dissipation process in dry-type units.

K-factor transformers will have a lower impedance than the
equivalent rating standard transformer design.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 1

ELEC9713
I ndustrial and Commercial Power Systems

Fault Calculation Methods


There are two major problems that can occur in electrical
systems: these are open circuits and short circuits. Of
the two, the latter is the most dangerous because it can
lead to very high fault currents and these currents can
have very substantial effects (thermal heating and
electromechanical forces) on equipment that may require
replacement of equipment and may even cause fires and
other similar ensuing effects in the electrical system.
Building systems are particularly at risk.

To prevent problems from short circuits, it is necessary to
design electrical protection systems that will be able to
detect abnormal fault currents that may occur and then
take remedial action to isolate the faulty section of the
system in as short a time as is consistent with the
magnitude of the short circuit fault current level. This
requires that the fault current be predicted for a fault in
any particular location of the circuit system. We thus need
to establish methods of fault calculation.

Fault calculation is not simple for a number of reasons:

There are many different types of fault in three phase
systems
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 2

The impedance characteristics of all electrical items
in the system must be known
The fault impedance itself may be non-zero and
difficult to estimate
There may be substantial fault current contribution
from rotating machines etc.
The initial cycles of fault current may be asymmetric
with substantial DC offset
The earth impedance in earth faults can be difficult to
estimate accurately
DC system faults also include inductance effects in
fault current growth

For example, the possible fault types that may occur in a
three-phase system are:

Three phase (symmetrical) faults (the most severe in
terms of current)
Phase to phase fault
Single phase to earth fault
Three phase to earth fault
Phase to phase to earth fault

Each of these fault types will have different fault current
when they occur at the same location and the electrical
protection system will need to take this into account when
operating time is determined.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 3

In the very simplified coverage of fault calculations that
follows we will look only at symmetrical three phase
faults. We do not cover any asymmetrical faults (phase to
phase and single phase) except for some general
comments on their behaviour. In general, three phase
symmetrical faults will give the maximum fault current
level at any location and thus such calculations represent
worst case situations in general.

Because they have low impedance systems, low voltage
electrical systems, such as those in buildings, generate
very high levels of fault currents.

The prospective short-circuit current and the fault level
(power) are important parameters that the designer of an
electrical installation needs to know and can be obtained
from the electricity distributor.

The prospective short-circuit current is defined as the
current which would flow as a result of a bolted 3-phase
fault. Typical value at the point of supply for 230/400V
NSW distribution systems:

Suburban residential areas: 10 kA
Commercial and industrial areas: 25 kA

Knowing the fault level, the impedance of the upstream
circuit and devices (e.g. transformers, conductors) can be
derived. The prospective fault current varies at different
points in the supply:

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 4

At the supply transformer terminals, it is limited by
the impedance of the distribution transformer and
conductors.
At the main switchboard, the fault current is further
reduced because of the additional cable impedance of
the consumers mains.
At the distribution board, the fault current is further
decreased by the cable impedance of the submains.

Y
MSB DB
Supply
Transformer
Consumers
mains cables
Submains
cables
Utility
cables / lines
YY
MSB DB
Supply
Transformer
Consumers
mains cables
Submains
cables
Utility
cables / lines


Example:

An 11kV to 400/230V transformer has a prospective fault
current of 32kA at the secondary terminals. The
consumers mains circuit has a route length of 25m, using
single-core 120mm
2
active conductors and 70mm
2
neutral.
The submains circuit has a route length of 35m, using
16mm
2
multi-core cables.

We want to determine the prospective fault current at the
main switchboard and the distribution board (for the
purpose of selecting appropriately rated protection devices
and switchgear).

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 5

Transformer impedance:

230
0.00718
32000
TX
V
Z
I
= = = O
Assume cable temperature is 45
o
C, from Table 34 of
AS3008.1, impedance of consumers mains (1 phase):

0.170
25 0.00425
1000
CM
Z = = O

Prospective fault current at main switchboard:

230
20.2 kA
0.00718 0.00425
SC
I = =
+

Assume cable temperature is 45
o
C, from Table 35 of
AS3008.1, impedance of the submains (1 phase):

1.26
35 0.0441
1000
SM
Z = = O
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 6


Prospective fault current at the distribution board:

230
4.158 kA
0.00718 0.00425 0.0441
SC
I = =
+ +


Note that the above calculations are for a short-circuit
fault across three phases. A short-circuit from a single
phase to neutral will produce a lower fault current. Here,
we need to include the impedance of the neutral cable.

1. The Per Unit System

Fault calculations are simplified very substantially if they
are performed using the per-unit system and normalising
all electrical quantities relating to the fault in per unit
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 7

values for the fault analysis. This allows the removal of
the complexity of transformer ratios in the fault
calculations. The transformer can be included as a simple
impedance.

In the per unit system we express voltage, current, kVA
and impedance as per unit values of selected base values
of those quantities.

Thus

pu
B
V
V
V
= V
B
is the voltage base


pu
B
I
I
I
= I
B
is the current base


pu
B
S
S
S
= S
B
is the kVA base


pu
B
Z
Z
Z
= Z
B
is the impedance base

It is usual to specify the two base values V
B
and S
B
and
then the other two base values I
B
and Z
B
are able to be
determined from the specified V
B
and S
B
values by normal
(Ohms Law) electrical relationships:


B
B
B
S
I
V
=

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 8


2
B B
B
B B
V V
Z
I S
= =

Normally, the voltage base V
B
is taken as the rated system
voltage and S
B
is arbitrarily specified (often 100, 10 or 1
MVA is chosen), although a common method is to use the
rating of a major element in the system such as a
transformer or generator as the base S
B
.

For balanced symmetrical three phase faults the fault
calculation is able to be done on a single phase basis using
the per unit phase impedances in the one-line diagram of
the fault circuit.

Some care must be taken to use the proper phase kVA and
voltage levels in the single-phase circuit to calculate the
appropriate base values of current and impedance.


3
B
B
B
S
I
V
=


2
B
B
B
V
Z
S
=


where V
B
and S
B
are the line voltage and three phase
kVA values.

In the fault calculation the impedances in the fault circuit
must include all significant components and all of these
must have their impedance expressed in per unit terms
using the appropriate base value. This requires changes in
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 9

some per unit values if they are already expressed (for
example on the name plate) using different base values.
This may commonly occur with transformer impedances.

To change per unit impedances from one base value to
another we have to use the following equation as the basis
for change:

ohms
pu ohms
2
B
B B
Z S
Z Z
Z V
= =

Thus:

(i) For change of kVA base (S
B
), the new Z
pu
is given by:

( ) ( )
( )
( )
new
pu new pu old
old
B
B
S
Z Z
S
=

(ii) For change of voltage base (V
B
)

( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
old
pu new pu old 2
new
B
B
V
Z Z
V
=

(iii) For change of both kVA and voltage bases at the same
time:

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
new old
pu new pu old 2
old new
B B
B B
S V
Z Z
S V
=

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 10

In most cases the impedances of items such as
transformers, generators, motors etc, will be given on
name plates in per unit or percentage terms based on the
equipments rated voltage and power levels. These given
values must be adjusted to the base values chosen for fault
calculations if these are different from the nameplate
values.

For cables, overhead lines, busbars, etc, the impedances
will most likely be given or obtained in ohmic values.
These must then be used with the appropriate base values
to get their per unit values referred to the common bases.
Thus the appropriate operating voltage and chosen S
B

must be used to get Z
B
and I
B
.

The base impedances and currents for a 1 MVA (1000
kVA) base and typical common voltage levels are shown
below, using V
B
equal to rated voltage:

[1000 kVA is the 3-phase base value]

Line
Voltage
(V)
Phase
Voltage
(V)
Base
Current
(A)
Base
Impedance
(O)
415
3300
6600
11000
33000
66000
240
1905
3810
6351
19053
38105
1391
175
87.5
52.5
17.5
8.75
0.1722
10.89
43.56
121.0
1089
4356

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 11

Example: A 3-phase radial transmission system is shown
below. Calculate terminal voltage of the generator. Use a
base of 100MVA for all circuits.

50MW
0.8pf
lagging
30kV
132kV 33kV
11kV 132kV
50MVA
X=10%
50MVA
X=12%
j100O
Line
V
S
V
S
50MW
0.8pf
lagging
30kV
132kV 33kV
11kV 132kV
50MVA
X=10%
50MVA
X=12%
j100O
Line
V
S
V
S


Base impedance of the line:

( )
2
3
2
6
132 10
174
100 10
B
B
B
V
Z
S

= = = O



Per-unit reactance of the line:

100
0.575
174
B
Z j
j
Z
= = =
Per-unit reactance of sending-end transformer:

(new)
pu(old)
(old)
100
0.1 0.2
50
B
B
S
Z j j
S
= = =
Per-unit reactance of receiving-end transformer:

(new)
pu(old)
(old)
100
0.12 0.24
50
B
B
S
Z j j
S
= = =
Load current (using formula 3 cos
L L
P V I | = ):

( )
6
3
50 10
1203
3 30 10 0.8

= =

A
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 12

Base current for the 33kV line:

6
3
100 10
1750
3 3 33 10
B
B
S
V

= = =

A

Hence, per-unit load current is:

1203
0.687
1750
B
I
I
= = = pu

Per-unit voltage of load busbar:

30
0.91
33
B
V
V
= = = pu

The equivalent circuit is shown below:

j0.2pu j0.575pu j0.24pu
0.687pu
0.8pf
lagging
E
S
V
S
V
R
=
0.91pu
Load
j0.2pu j0.575pu j0.24pu
0.687pu
0.8pf
lagging
E
S
V
S
V
R
=
0.91pu
Load


Hence,

( )( ) ( )
0.687 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.575 0.24 0.91 0.0
S
V j j j j j = + + + +

1.328 0.558
S
V j = + pu

1.44
S
V = pu or 1.44 11 kV 15.84 kV =

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 13

2. Fault Calculation Effects and Requirements

Fault levels in a power system are required to be
determined at the design stage to allow determination of
the following parameters:

(i) overcurrent protection requirements
(ii) peak electromagnetic forces
(iii) thermal heating effects
(iv) the maximum fault current (and the minimum fault
current)
(v) the (time) discrimination requirements of protection
operation
(vi) the touch voltages on earthed objects (personnel
safety)

2.1 Sources of fault currents

In a complex electrical system, there are a number of
potential sources of fault current when a short circuit
occurs in the system. These are:

(i) the electrical utility supply grid system
(ii) any in-house generation systems operating at the
time of the fault
(iii) any motors operating within the system at the time
of the fault
(iv) any electrical storage elements in the system (e.g
capacitors)

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 14

Static equipment such as power electronic inverters and
converters, transformers, induction heaters are not sources
of fault current. Capacitors in power factor correction
systems and battery operated uninterruptible power
supplies may be fault current sources however, although
generally the contribution of fault current is low and of
very short duration.

The supply utility contribution to the fault provides a
constant fault current, as will the in-house synchronous
generation for a short period, but motors will provide
decaying fault current contributions as their magnetic
excitation fields collapse. Synchronous motors will sustain
their fault current level much longer than induction
motors.

2.2 Fault impedance variation

In calculating fault currents, all components, including the
source impedances, must be represented in the one line
diagram by an effective impedance in per unit value. For
the utility supply this is constant (a stiff source) but for the
motors there is a time-varying impedance depending on
the time after the short circuit. Depending on when the
fault current needs to be calculated, any of three
impedances may need to be used:

(i) sub-transient reactance (X
d
)
(ii) transient reactance (X
d
)
(iii) synchronous reactance (X
s
)

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 15

We must use the sub-transient reactance for the fault
current during the first few cycles, the transient reactance
for the fault current up to a fraction of a second and the
synchronous reactance for very long duration faults
(usually synchronous reactance is not necessary as the
protection should operate before it comes into effect).

For synchronous motors only the sub-transient and
transient reactance are normally used before the exciting
field dies away and the fault current contribution is then
effectively reduced to zero.

For induction motors, only the sub-transient reactance is
used before the fault current contribution dies to zero.

2.3 DC Offset

This must be included in fault calculations, particularly in
low voltage systems as the offset can increase the initial
current levels substantially. The magnitude of the DC
offset level is governed primarily by the X/R ratio of the
faulted circuit. [The offset magnitude is also dependent on
the angle on the voltage waveform at which the fault
occurs. However the worst-case situation is always
assumed in the fault calculation].

2.4 Types of AC faults

The classes of faults that can occur in AC power systems
are:

Three phase fault
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 16

Three phase to earth fault
Phase to phase fault
Phase to phase to earth fault
Single phase to earth fault.

The first of these gives the highest fault current and is the
one which will be used in the following examples.
However the most common fault is the last type, the single
phase to earth fault and at low voltages the fault
impedance becomes an important factor in that type,
particularly at low voltages. The estimation of fault
impedance in such cases is very difficult.

The following diagrams show some of the above effects of
fault currents.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 17


Example of generator S/C current waveform

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 18




Fault type Magnitude
3-phase (most severe)
Line-to-line
Line-to-ground
(usually least severe)
(E/Z) x multiplier
About 0.87 x 3-phase fault
Depends on system grounding
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 19
3. Fault Calculation Methods

For the simple fault calculations that we will cover here, we
assume the following:

(i) The fault is balanced 3-phase symmetrical.

(ii) All significant component impedances are included.
(iii) The fault itself has zero impedance [that is, it is a
bolted short circuit].
(iv) Earth circuit impedance is neglected because of the
balanced 3-phase nature which eliminates the earth
impedance.
(v) The appropriate rated voltage is used as the voltage
base value.
(vi) For LV systems where resistance is important, we
use the impedance determined by
2 2
Z R X = + .

(vii) Record X R for all equipment, if necessary, to
calculate the level of the DC offset multiplier after
the symmetrical fault current has been calculated. It
is necessary to know R and L separately.

The first step in the process is to convert all impedances to
per unit values and to then use these to draw a single line
diagram of the fault circuit, including all possible sources
modelled as an ideal voltage source with their appropriate
source impedance value connected. Then, by a process of
circuit simplification the impedance diagram is reduced to a
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 20
single per unit impedance Z
F
connected to true earth and to
an ideal voltage source.

( ) pu F
Z
pu
1 V =
( ) pu F
Z
pu
1 V =


Then the fault current and fault power in per unit value are:


( )
pu
pu
(pu)
F
F
V
I
Z
= and
( )
2
pu
(pu)
pu
F
F
V
S
Z
=

Thus:
( )
(pu) (pu)
pu
1
F F
F
I S
Z
= = when we define
pu
1 V =

The actual fault current is
( ) pu F B F
I I I = amps and fault
power is
( ) pu
VA
F B F
S S S = .

The advantage of using
pu
1 V = is evident from the above.

4. Faults in DC Systems

DC systems are becoming increasingly common with the
use of power electronics and the calculation of fault
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 21
currents in such systems is also necessary to consider in
modern commercial and industrial systems.

In DC systems the impedance elements which determine
the steady state fault current level are only resistance
elements. However in most cases the system inductance
will also have a significant effect in that it will determine
the rate of increase of the fault current level in DC system
faults. The L/R time constants of such systems are usually
long enough that the steady state fault current will not be
reached before protection operates and the protection will
thus be interrupting current when that current is still rising.
Thus DC fault calculations are not necessarily simple to
perform.

The sources of DC fault currents are, typically, any of the
following:

DC generators
Synchronous converters
DC motors
Rectifier systems
Battery banks
UPS systems

Another factor that must be considered in the design of the
protection system is that DC arc currents are more difficult
to interrupt than AC arc currents. An AC circuit breaker has
100 current zeroes per second to interrupt the fault current,
while a DC breaker has none. Thus the arc interruption is
much more difficult for DC than for AC. In a DC breaker
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 22
the arc voltage developed is an important factor in the
protection design and in determining fault current levels. As
a result of the difference between AC and DC faults, either
specialised DC breakers or fuses must be used or, more
commonly, if AC breakers are used they must be de-rated
for use on a DC system.

The fault calculation procedure must involve the
determination of the time constant and thus the initial
exponential rate of rise of current as it is most likely that
interruption will occur during this period.

A DC fault is modelled by a DC supply in series with a
fixed circuit resistance, a fixed circuit inductance and a
variable resistance in the form of the circuit breaker arc
when its contact open (see figure over page).

The governing equation during the initial transient is:


S R a
dI
V V V L
dt
= + +

or ( )
S R a
dI
L V V V
dt
=

Initially, when V
a
is small or zero,
( )
S R a
V V V > and dI dt
is positive and current increases, but later as the arc
develops and lengthens,
( )
S R a
V V V < and dI dt is
negative and current decreases. The typical behaviour is
shown below.
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 23
+
_
+
_
I
a
V
S
V
L R
C.B.
+ +
R
V
dI
L
dt
DC fault circuit and C.B.
+
_
+
_
I
a
V
S
V
L R
C.B.
+ +
R
V
dI
L
dt
DC fault circuit and C.B.




5. Fault calculation data and calculation example

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 24
The following tables give details relating to various
parameters required for fault calculations and an example
of a typical fault calculation procedure.


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 25



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 26
5.1 Example of a Simple Fault Current Calculation





ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 27
(1)
Utility
supply
(2) Transformers
(3) Generator
(4) Cable
(4)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(6) (5)
Motor Cable
Cable
Cable
Cable
Power transformer
Current transformer
(1)
Utility
supply
(2) Transformers
(3) Generator
(4) Cable
(4)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(6) (5)
Motor Cable
Cable
Cable
Cable
Power transformer
Current transformer

Impedance circuit

We are required to find fault current at location A: voltage
is 480V.

Use base of 20 MVA for p.u calculation, i.e. 20 MVA
B
S =

At 4.8 kV:

pu
1 V =
2
1.152
B
B
B
V
Z
S
= = O
2406 A
3
B
B
B
S
I
V
= =


At 480 V:

pu
1 V = 0.01152
B
Z = O
24056 A
B
I =


ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 28
(1) Source impedance:
500 MVA fault level 25 p.u
pu
1
0.04
25
Z = = p.u
6 X R=
pu
0.0066 0.0395 Z j = +

(2) Transformer:
3000 kVA, 6%
pu
20
0.06 0.4 p.u
3
Z = =
8 X R=
pu
0.05 0.4 Z j +

(3) Generator:
1000 kVA, 15%
pu
20
0.15 3
1
Z = = p.u.
10 X R= (negligible R)
pu
3.0 Z j

(4) Cable (4.8kV):
0.06 0.03 j + O
1.152
B
Z = O

pu
0.06 0.03
0.052 0.026
1.152
j
Z j
+
= = + p.u.

(4) Cable (4.8kV):
0.05 0.02 j + O
1.152
B
Z = O

pu
0.05 0.02
0.043 0.017
1.152
j
Z j
+
= = + p.u.

(5) Motor:
ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 29
200 kVA, 10%
pu
20
0.1 10
0.2
Z = = p.u.
10 X R= (negligible R)
pu
10 Z j

(6) Cable (4.8 kV):
As (4)
pu
0.052 0.026 Z j = + p.u.

(7) Cable (4.8 kV):
0.1 0.04 j + O
1.152
B
Z = O

pu
0.1 0.04
0.087 0.035
1.152
j
Z j
+
= = + p.u

(8) Power transformer:
1000 kVA, 4%
pu
20
0.04 0.8
1
Z = = p.u.
4 X R=
pu
0.194 0.776 Z j = + p.u.

(9) Current transformer (480V):
0.0001 0.0005 Z j = +
0.01152
B
Z = O

pu
0.0001 0.0005
0.0087 0.0043
0.01152
j
Z j
+
= = + p.u.

(10) Cable (480V):
0.002 0.002 j + O
0.01152
B
Z = O
pu
0.174 0.174 Z j = + p.u.

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 30
(1)+(2)
(4)
(7)+(8)+(9)+(10)
(5)+(6)
(3)+(4)
F
(1)+(2)
(4)
(7)+(8)+(9)+(10)
(5)+(6)
(3)+(4)
F


( ) ( )
1 2 0.0566 0.4395 0.443 p.u j + = +

( ) ( )
3 4 0.052 3.03 3.03 p.u j + = +

( ) ( )
5 6 0.052 10.03 10.03 p.u j + = +

( )
4' 0.043 0.017 0.046 p.u j = +

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
7 8 9 10 0.4637 0.9893 1.093 p.u j + + + = +

Approximation :

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4 0.443 3.03 0.384 ( ( + + = =



( )
0.384 4' 0.430 + =

( ) ( )
0.430 5 6 0.43010.03 0.412 ( + = =



( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.412 7 8 9 10 0.412 1.093 1.505 ( + + + + = + =



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 31
Total
pu
1.505 Z = p.u.
Fault
pu
pu
1
0.664 I
Z
= =

At 480V: 0.664 0.664 24056 15970 A
F B
I I = = =

At 4.8 kV: 0.664 0.664 2406 1597 A
F B
I I = = =

Alternatively :

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4 0.0440 0.3843 j ( ( + + = +



( ) ( )
0.0440 0.3843 4' 0.0870 0.4013 j j + + = +

( ) ( ) ( )
0.0870 0.4013 5 6 0.0805 0.3865 j j ( + + = +



( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.0805 0.3865 7 8 9 10 j ( + + + + +


0.5442 3758 j = +

Total
pu
0.5442 1.3758 1.4795 Z j = + = p.u.
Fault
pu
pu
1
0.676 I
Z
= =

At 480V: 0.676 0.676 24056 16262 A
F B
I I = = =

At 4.8 kV: 0.676 0.676 2406 1626 A
F B
I I = = =



ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 32

ELEC9713: Industrial and Commercial Power Systems p. 33