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Summer Training Project



JAMSHEDPUR. Under the guidance of: Mr. P.K SINHA (Divisional Manager, HR & PSDHVAL)
(HVAXLES Ltd., TATA MOTORS, Jamshedpur.)

Presented By: ~

BHARATI RANJAN M.B.A. 2nd Year Gaya College, Gaya (BIHAR)



This is to certify that the work presented in this dissertation and titled ON SUMMER PROJECT: AT TATA MOTORS,

BHARATI RANJAN Under my guidance is being submitted to GAYA COLLEGE, GAYA, BIHAR and this dissertation has not been submitted by her to any other university for attainment of any degree/diploma/PG or certificate course.

Signature of the Project Guide

It is really a matter of great pleasure to acknowledge the invaluable guidance, enormous assistance and excellent co-operation extended to me from HUMAN RESOURCE department, HV Axles Ltd., Tata Motors, Jamshedpur, in completion of my project. I express my sincere gratitude to Mr.P.K.Sinha (Divisional Manager, HR & PSD), Mrs .Deepti Maheshwari (Manager, HR) and Mr. Tanmoy Kundu(Training Incharge), HV Axles Ltd. who gave me the project and were a source of constant inspiration and help throughout the project work. Last but not least I would like to thank my parents and my friends for their constant support and encouragement to do the best. I HAVE BEEN IMMENSELY BENEFITTED BY THIS





Acknowledgement Contents Recommendation of the Organization

Introduction Objectives Methodology

Tata Group Profile Milestones The code of conduct of Tata Motors

Tata group Legends roots of the Tata group The Tata group profile Milestones

The public relations of Tata group The Tata motors Company policies Tata motors: At a glance Areas of business Awards won by Tata motors Locations of Tata motors Subsidiary companies of Tata motors Flash figures of Tata motors Range of products Management of Tata motors HR in Tata motors Automobile division Production score board 2006 2007

About HVAL Vision and Mission Milestones Human Resource Administrative Structure Departments Products Machines

Training and development in Tata motors Training set up at HV Axles Ltd. Training need identification Different levels at which it is to be conducted Sources for identifying training needs Benefits of needs assessment.

List of employees who were trained for the maximum duration and least duration.


Conclusion Recommendation Bibliography


The topic for my Summer Project is Individual Officers Training Data Analysis and Training Needs Identification. The topic was given to me by the Human Resource Department HV Axles Ltd., Tata Motors, and Jamshedpur. I am very grateful to the entire Organization for giving me an opportunity to work with them in their esteemed organization with their full support and cooperation.

Human resource Development is a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands. Management has two important components: theory and practice. During the two years management course, we have to understand, feel and experience both the components. As a part of practical exposure, we got the golden opportunity to undergo the summer training in Tata Motors, JSR a leading name in the area of automobiles

We would like to highlight that it was a wonderful learning experience and we came to know many things about the HR activities of Tata Motors, Jamshedpur. Tata Motors is very much responsive to meet the requirements of the employees & to cater to the needs of employees of Tata Motors, Jamshedpur.


To identify training needs and to evaluate effectiveness of training with the help of prioritization of skills based on individual officers training data analysis. To identify the trainees under skill prioritization based upon the training needs identification. Assigning the experts on the basis of the skills or programs based on the current report. Identification of the other in-house trainers for training.

To fix and design the training the training program for operatives and supervisor grades of HVAL Ltd. To identify the subjects on which the training will be imparted. To identify the faculty who could impart the training on the identified subjects skill. Training Need identification

Research Methodology
It is composed of primary and secondary data assembled by conducting interviews of the experts/trainers and interaction with other staff of HVAL and secondary data is collected with the help of brochures, annual reports, project reports etc.

a). Primary Data: The Primary is collected by the interviews both structured and unstructured. b).Secondary Data: Statical tools like Tables, Charts, and Diagrams etc.


The seven business sectors that make up the house of TATA (By revenue)
7% 9% 5% 27%

9% 19% 24%

Communication & infotech. (VSNL, TCS) Engineering (Cars, Constructions) Materials (Iron, Steel, Tin) Services (Hotels,Housing, Insurance) Consumer products (Tea, Coffe, Ceramics) Energy Chemicals

Tata steel, Tata motors & TCS are the 3 most important companies in the group. Together they generate more than half of the total revenues. Tata steel and TCS account for almost 75% of the profit. Tata Motors has more than 70% of the market for trucks and buses.


VISION: - To enhance and maintain human capital, which will make the organization, a worldclass player and further and interest of all shareholders. MISSION: .Source, develop and maintain human capital, which will derive the culture of customer focus high performance and seamless Create, learn and implement best in class HR practices and processes in pursuit of excellence. Retain and attract the talent by improving the brand through employee delight and loyalty. Improve community friendliness.

CORE CONCEPTS 1. Integrity 2. Customer focus 3. Corporate citizenship 4. Passion of engineering


TATA Group reputation and respectability have been built over the past 120 yrs on the basis of the consistent upholding of the high standards of corporate and personal behavior. TATA Code of Conduct articulates the values and principles, which govern the manner in which the TATA Group of companies and their employees conduct them. A TATA company and its employees shall neither receive nor offer or make directly or indirectly, any illegal payments, remuneration, gift, donations or comparable benefits which are intended to or perceived to obtain business or uncompetitive favors for the conduct of its business. For more details refer TATA Code of Conduct handbook


Founded in 1887 by Mr. Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata Highly diversified group with 93 operating companies serving India for last 128 years Presence in different areas such as Automobiles, Steel, Computers, Finance, Chemicals, Software, Consulting, Power, Communications, Materials, Hotels, Consumer products etc. Operates in 40 countries across six continents and exports products and services to 140 nations. Turnover of Rs.79000 Cores (approximately US $17.8 Bn) in FY05. (2.8% of Indias GDP). (Approx 14.67 Billion EUROS) . Trusted by 2 millions of shareholders Pioneered Indias Steel Industry. Introduced labor welfare benefits and brought Insurance to India. Pioneered Civil Aviation . Started Indias first chain of luxury hotels. Asias largest software exporter. Led Commercial Vehicle production. Launched Indias first Indigenous Passenger Car and also launched Indias first quartz watches.


LEGEND ROOTS OF THE COMPANY There is a difference between making money Oneself and creating wealth for others.

This house that created wealth for nation. Jamshedji TATA was more than merely an entrepreneur who helped India takes her place in the league of industrialized nations. He was a patriot and a humanist whose ideals and vision shaped an exceptional business conglomerate. A businessman who made the nations progress his business. Jamsetji Tata dreamt of a modern, industrialized India. To that purpose he devoted his remaining years and bulk of his fortune to the task of creating a great scientific and Technical institute at Bangalore, a modern integrated Steel work in Bihar and a Hydro electric power plant in Western India. Jamsetji Tata was a man of destiny, was clear. It would seem, indeed, that his life and works and the services he rendered to his country and to its people were predestined as part of the greater destiny of India. The industrialist in Jamsetji was a pioneer and a visionary, possessed of a spirit of entrepreneurial adventure and acumen never seen before or since in a native of colonial India. The nationalist in him believed unwaveringly that the fruits of his business success would enrich a country he cared deeply about. These attributes, by themselves, would have been enough to mark him as an

extraordinary figure. But what made Jamsetji truly unique, the quality that places him in the pantheon of modern Indias greatest sons, was his humaneness.

Through his endeavors in setting up TATA Steel and TATA Power, this elder son of Jamsetji TATA was instrumental in transforming his father's grand vision into reality. It was also under his leadership that the Sir Dorabji TATA Trust, the premier charitable endowment of the TATAS, was created, propelling the TATA tradition of philanthropist. SIR RATAN TATA:

Jamsetji Tatas younger son a personality that reflected his sensitivity to the struggles of ordinary people and his desire to utilize his considerable wealth to enhance the quality of public life. A philanthropist all his life, he created a trust fund for the advancement of learning and for the relief of human suffering and other works had of public utility. The SIR RATAN TATA Trust is today the second largest of the Tata trust.

He was the founder of Tata Motors (1938-1993). He was a man who has grown into a legend touched the lives of countless people, rich and poor, manager and worker, as he became the embodiment of the principles and philosophy of the House of Tatas. He led

the Tata Group for 55 years and his principles and vision laid the foundation for Tata Motors growth. His style of management was to pick up the best person for the job at hand and let him have the latitude to carry out the job. He was never for micro management. It was he who zeroed in on Sumant Moolgaokar, the engineering genius who successfully steered our Company for many years. He was a visionary whose thinking was far ahead of his time, which helped Tata Group launching the airlines now know as Air India on the sub continent in 1932. That was the first of many paths breaking achievements that JRD, who guided the destiny of the Group for more than half a century. NAVAL TATA

Naval Tatas myriad contributions in the fields of business, sports administrations and labor relations symbolized all that is best in the Tata spirit of giving back to society and the communities in which its enterprises grow. SUMANT MOOLGAOKAR

He was the chairman of Tata Motors from 1972-1988. Sumant Moolgaokar is often referred to as the architect of Tata Motors. Leading the company for nearly four decades, he was responsible for building Tata Motors into an organization capable of competing with the worlds best in terms of people, processes and technology. A man with a vision, he had the ability to see what Tata Motors would be. He believed that in order to build an industry; you not only had to build a factory, but also the men and the technology. His vision was not limited to the Company but encompassed even the nation and he was often seen as not just building a factory, but building a nation.


He joined Tata group in 1962 and is the chairman of Tata Group Company and Tata Sons Ltd the holding company for majority of Tata Company since 1991. It was this very conviction of Ratan Tata that led to the birth of Indica the car that put India on the automobile world map. Developing an indigenous Indian car was a daunting task. One that Tata Motors took head on, encouraged by the faith and confidence Chairman Tata. He joined Tata Group in 1962 and is the Chairman of Tata Group companies and Tata Sons Ltd, the holding companies for majority of Tata Companies. He is responsible for transferring the company into a group strategy and a prompter of new ventures in high technology business. In January 2000 he was awarded by Padma Bhusan by Government o f India and awarded Hon. Doctorate Degree in Business Administration by the Ohio State University. He has been on Companys Board since August 1981and has spent many years in an executive capacity. One of his achievements includes designing and developing India first indigenous Car the Indica.


The Tata Group comprises 93 operating companies in seven business sectors: information systems and communications; engineering; materials; services; energy; consumer products; and chemicals. The Group was founded by Jamsetji Tata in the mid 19th century, a period when India had just set out on the road to gaining independence from British rule. Consequently, Jamsetji Tata and those who followed him aligned business opportunities with the objective of nation building. This approach remains enshrined in the Group's ethos to this day. The Tata Group is one of India's largest and most respected business conglomerates, with revenues in 2004-05 of $17.8 billion (Rs 799,118 million), the equivalent of about 2.8 per cent of the country's GDP. Tata companies together employ some 215,000 people. The Group's 32 publicly listed enterprises among them standout names such as Tata Steel, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Motors and Tata Tea have a combined market capitalization that is the highest among Indian business houses in the private sector, and a shareholder base of over 2 million. The Tata Group has operations in more than 40 countries across six continents, and its companies export products and services to 140 nations. The Tata family of companies shares a set of five core values: integrity, understanding, excellence, unity and responsibility. These values, which have been part of the Group's beliefs and convictions from its earliest days, continue to guide and drive the business decisions of Tata companies. The Group and its enterprises have been steadfast and distinctive in their adherence to business ethics and their commitment to corporate social responsibility. This is a legacy that has earned the Group the trust of many millions of stakeholders in a measure few business houses anywhere in the world can match.


1868: Jamsetji Nusserwanji TATA starts a private trading firm, laying the foundation of the TATA Group. 1874: The Central India Spinning, Weaving and Manufacturing Company is set up, marking the Group's entry into Textiles.

1902: The Indian Hotels Company is incorporated to set up the Taj Mahal Palace and Tower, India's first luxury hotel, which opened in 190B. For the year3.

1907: The TATA Iron and Steel Company (now TATA Steel) is established to set up Indias first iron and steel plant in Jamshedpur. The plant started production in 1912.


The first of the three TATA Electric Companies, the Power Supply Company, (Now TATA Power TATA Hydro-Electric) is set up.

1911: The Indian Institute of Science is established in Bangalore to serve as a centre for advanced learning. 1917: The Tatas entered the consumer goods industry, with the TATA Oil Mills Company being established to make soaps, detergents and cooking oils.

1932: TATA Airlines, a division of TATA Sons, is established, opening up the aviation sector in India.

1939: TATA Chemicals, now the largest producer of soda ash in the country, is established.

1945: TATA Engineering and Locomotive Company (renamed TATA MOTORS in 2003) established to manufacture locomotive and engineering COMPANY. products. NOW WORLDS 5TH AUTOMOBILE

1954: India's major marketing, engineering and manufacturing organization, Voltas established.

1962: TATA Finlay (now TATA Tea), one of the largest tea producers, is established TATA Exports is established. Today the company, renamed TATA International, is one of the leading export houses in India.

1968: TATA Consultancy Services (TCS), India's first software services company established as a division of TATA Sons.

1970: TATA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company is created to publish educational and technical books. TATA Economic Consultancy Services is set up to provide services in the field of industrial, marketing, statistical and techno-economic research. 1984:

Titan Industries a joint venture between the TATA Group and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) is set up to manufacture watches.

1996: TATA Tele Services (TTSL) is established to spearhead the Group's foray into the Telecom sector.

1998: TATA Indica India's first indigenously designed and manufactured car is launched by TATA. 2000: TATA Tea acquires the Tetley Group, UK. This is the first major acquisition of an international brand by an Indian business group.

2001: TATA-AIG a joint venture between the TATA Group and American International Group Inc (AIG) marks the TATA reentry into insurance. (The Group's insurance company, New India Assurance was nationalized in 1956). The TATA Group Executive Office (GEO) is set up to design and implement change in the TATA Group and to provide Long-term direction.

2002: The TATA Group acquires a controlling stake in VSNL, Indias leading International telecommunications service provider. TATA Consultancy Services (TCS) becomes the first Indian software company to cross one billion dollars in revenues. Idea Cellular, the cellular service born of a tie-up involving the TATA Group, the Birla Group and AT&T, is launched. TATA Indicom, the umbrella brand for telecom services from the TATA Tele Services stable, starts operations.

2003: TATA MOTORS launches City Rover Indicas fashioned for the European market. The first batch of City Rovers rolled out from the TATA MOTORS stable in Pune on September 16, 2003.

2004: TATA MOTORS acquires the heavy vehicles unit of Daewoo MOTORS, South Korea. TCS goes public in July 2004 in the largest private sector initial public offering (IPO) in the Indian market, raising nearly $1.2 billions.

2005: TATA Steel acquires Singapore-based steel company Nat Steel by subscribing to100 percent equity of its subsidiary, Nat Steel Asia. VSNL acquired Tyco Global Network, making it one of the world's largest providers of submarine cable bandwidth. 2006: 1. Tata motors unveils new long wheel base premium Indigo and X-over concept at auto expo 2006 2. Indica V2 Xeta launched 3. Passenger vehicle sales in India cross one million mark 4. Tata motors and Marco polo, brazil announce joint venture to manufacture fully built buses and coaches for India and markets abroad


The Tata Group's relationship with its employees has changed from the patriarchal to the practical, but this is a bond that continues to be nourished with compassion and care "What exercise is to the body, employment is to the mind and morals," said American writer and thinker Henry David Thoreau. With some 220,000 members in its diverse and widespread family, the Tata Group touches and moulds the everyday lives of more people than any private-sector employer in the country. The richness of this relationship, fashioned by a tradition of benevolence and empathy, represents a workplace culture that goes way beyond work. As any 'Tata person' will tell you, there's something positively distinctive, something less than completely explainable, about working for the group the experience is cast in a hue quite different from the ordinary. This view continues to hold despite the changes that have altered the way the Tatas interact with their people, moving from the paternalistic philosophy of yore to bring the group in line with ever-evolving human-resource methodologies. The transition from then to now has not eroded what remains a central theme with the group: providing its employees more than mere jobs. Workers and their welfare were of utmost importance to group founder Jamsedji Tata, who, writing to his son Dorab Tata in 1902, five years before a site for his proposed steel enterprise had been decided, stated: "Be sure to lay wide streets planted with shady trees, every other of a quick-growing

variety. Be sure that there is plenty of space for lawns and gardens. Reserve large areas for football, hockey and parks. Earmark areas for Hindu temples, Mohammedan mosques and Christian churches." It was but natural that the city built on this munificence came to be called Jamshedpur. To understand the dynamics of the present, it is necessary to peep into the past. The Tatas pioneered a slew of employee benefits that would later be mandated through legislation in India and elsewhere in the world. The eight-hour working day, free medical aid, welfare departments, grievance cells, leave with pay, provident fund, accident compensation, training institutes, maternity benefits, bonus and gratuity all of these and more were introduced by the group before any legal rules were framed on them. To give but one example of how far ahead of the times the Tatas were, while its first provident fund scheme was started in 1920, the government regulation on this issue came into force in 1952. These workplace measures were complemented by what Tata companies created to enable their employees to live fuller lives away from their offices and factories, and to realize their vocational potential. The Tata townships in Jamshedpur, Mithapur, Babarala, Hosur and elsewhere are epitomes of communal existence. The management training programs conducted by dedicated group institutions are devised to help employees give expression to their talent. The volunteering and community work that have now become a ritual in Tata companies fulfils another employee objective, while delivering succor to the poor and needy. Driving every one of the group's initiatives in the wide sphere of employee relations is a value system that, slowly but surely, percolates to each person looking to craft a career in the Tatas. R. Gopalakrishnan, a member of the Tata Group Corporate Centre (GCC), divides the imbibing process into implicit and explicit ways. "Our induction and training programs give new employees an opportunity to understand the history and background of the Group," he explains. "A second forum comprises the physical structures we have, such as the Tata archives in Jamshedpur and Pune. The third is the books, magazines and other publications that detail the Tata heritage. This is how we convert the implicit into the explicit."

Satish Pradhan, executive vice-president (group human resources), stresses the here-andnow of how the group has built on its legacy in employee relations. "Independent yardsticks bear out the truth that Tata companies are, by and large, engaging employees and creating a wholesome environment for them," he says. "This is permeating value right across the group in a variety of ways in terms of accountability and responsibility, not only to ourselves but also to our businesses, our communities and our stakeholders." The specifics of the Tata engagement with its employees differ from factory floor to management enclave. But there are some commonalities, nowhere more so then on the vexed subject of voluntary retirement schemes (VRS). The realities of modern business have forced the group, like many others, to float and implement what would have been unthinkable for it in days gone by. The prime consideration for the Tatas on this issue has been to minimize the inevitable suffering it brings to people who have served a group company for long. Mr. Gopalakrishnan emphasiss the learning on VRS that Tata companies share, be it with setting up entrepreneurship cells, training in alternate skills, involving banks and counselors, or providing indirect employment opportunities. "This way we increase the possibility of good ideas, humane ideas that have come up in one Tata company being transferred to another," he says. "We don't want to make it sound like a victory or a virtue, but the Tatas have reduced about 100,000 people in 10 years in a manner whereby the pain people undergo and there would certainly have been varying degrees of that has been made minimal." The thought and care that accompanies all Tata VRS initiatives finds an echo in the many volunteering programmes that group employees undertake. These range from helping underprivileged folks in big cities to uplifting rural communities in the Indian outback. "Tata Chemicals, Tata Steel, Voltas, Tata Consultancy Services, Rallis, Indian Hotels all of them are deeply involved in volunteering work," says Mr. Gopalakrishnan. "The numbers are staggering, in terms of time invested, the range of activities, and the spread of geographies." Adds Mr. Pradhan: "We see volunteerism as shaping the minds of our employees as well as giving back to the communities in which we operate."

Change management is another area where the Tata Group has invested plenty of effort. The smooth transition that companies such as VSNL and CMC have made, from being public-sector entities to becoming members of the Tata family, bears testimony to the patience and skills the group has brought to the challenging task of reforming the mindsets and attitudes of employees coming into its fold from a different work environment. The Tatas have progressed with the times and have endeavourer to offer more to their employees today, including the opportunity to progress within and across group companies. Programs such as the Tata Administrative Service and institutions like the Tata Management Training Centre have been revamped and reengineered to reflect the requirements of the present. These and other measures enable achievers in the group to progress further and faster than was the case in years gone by. "We have group mobility processes that facilitate movement across functions and domains of knowledge," says Mr. Pradhan. "We have over the last three years consistently moved an average of 50 people a year, at the managerial level and above, across companies."


1) TATA Motors India's largest commercial vehicle manufacturer with 61.3% market share and 2nd largest passenger cars manufacturer with 16.5% market share 2) 5th largest Commercial Vehicle Manufacturer in the world 3) Over 150 models of Vehicles & Automotive Products which include a. b. c. d. Cars & Multi utility vehicles Buses from 12 seats to 60 + seats Trucks, Tippers, Tractor Trailers Defense Vehicles

4) Over 3.5 million vehicles driven in 70 countries across the world 5) Gross Revenues Rs. 27,266 crores (US $ 6 Bn) in FY 2005-2006 6) Export of vehicles to several countries in Europe, Africa, South America, Middle East, Asia and Australia 7) Assembly operations in Malaysia, Bangladesh, Kenya, South Africa, Ukraine & Russia.

Tata Motors..a wide range of products

Indica V2 Diesel Indica V2 Petrol Indica CNG Indigo Petrol Indigo Diesel Indigo Marina

Safari Sierra Sumo Ace

Light CVs Medium CVs Heavy CVs

Defence Vehicles Buses

TATA MOTORS, Jamshedpur


Policy on Human Rights: TATA Motors believes in and respects Human Rights as enunciated by the International Labor Organization. TATA Motors is committed to protect the Human Rights of its Employees while dealing with them in all the activities failing under the relationship of Employer and Employee. Decision to seek employment rests with the individual only, and it is completely voluntary. TATA Motors does not and will not allow or encourage Compulsory or Forced Labor in any of its processes and practices. TATA Motors respects the definition of Child Labor as mentioned in the guidelines of International Labor Organization. TATA Motors will not engage any person under the age

of 18 years (legal age of employment) for any operations or services ( as presented in law) unless it is part of government approved job training or apprenticeship programmed. TATA Motors honors the right of its employees to choose and decide the extent of their involvement in Political Activities in their Personal time for such activities. TATA Motors expects its Channel Partners and Contractors to adhere to business principles consistent with its own. Policy on Bribery and Corruption: TATA Motors is committed to its core value of integrity. Towards this commitment, TATA Motors will ensure that neither the organization nor its employees receive or offer any direct or indirect illegal payments, remuneration, benefits or favor to obtain business or for the conduct of business. Any violation will be treated as a punishable offence.

Policy on Sexual Harassment: TATA Motors will ensure that its employees do not face any Sexual Harassment. Any unwelcome behavior, such as physical advances, demands and requests with sexual connotations, verbal comments and / or non verbal conduct of sexual nature interfering with the discipline at work place will be regarded as Sexual Harassment and will be treated as punishable offence. This conduct includes: o Unwanted physical contact or conduct of any kind, including physical contact, advances or prepositions; o Verbal Harassment of a sexual nature, such as lewd comments, jokes or references and offensive personal references;

o Demeaning, insulting, intimidating or suggestive comments (oral or written) about an individuals personal appearance or electronically transmitted messages; o The display in workplace of demeaning, insulting, intimidating or suggestive objects, pictures or photographs. Policy on Consumer Privacy: TATA Motors values long term relationship with its customers based on the foundation of trust, integrity and confidence. While delivering excellent quality Products and Services, TATA Motors is committed to protect Consumer Privacy in managing information and data furnished by its customers for official or personal purposes. Such data will not be divulged to or shared with other individuals or institutions without the prior written permission from customers. TATA Motor is committed to designing process and practices that ensure continued trust of its customers.


Tata Motors Limited is India's largest automobile company, with revenues of Rs.20, 483 crores (USD 4.7 billion) in 2004-05. It is the leader by far in commercial vehicles in each segment, and the second largest in the passenger vehicles market with winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments. The company is the world's fifth largest medium and heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer.

The company's 22,000 employees are guided by the vision to be best in the manner in which we operate best in the products we deliver and best in our value system and ethics. Established in 1945, Tata Motors' presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Over 3 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954. The company's manufacturing base is spread across Jamshedpur, Pune, Dharwar and Lucknow, supported by a nation-wide dealership, sales, services and spare parts network comprising about 1,200 touch points. Tata Motors, the first company from India's engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock Exchange (September 2004), has also emerged as a global automotive company. In 2004, it acquired the DAEWOO COMMERCIAL VEHICLES COMPANY, Korea's second largest truck maker. The rechristened Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company has already begun to launch new products. In 2005, Tata Motors acquired a 21% stake in Hispano Carrocera, a reputed Spanish bus and coach manufacturer, with an option to acquire the remaining stake as well. Hispano's presence is being expanded in other markets. These acquisitions will further extend Tata Motors' global footprint, established through exports since 1961. The company's commercial and passenger vehicles are already being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Australia, South East Asia and South Asia. It has assembly operations in Malaysia, Kenya, Bangladesh, Spain, Ukraine, Russia and Senegal. The foundation of the company's growth over the last 50 years is a deep understanding of economic stimuli and customer needs, and the ability to translate them into customerdesired offerings through leading edge R&D. With 1,400 engineers and scientists, the company's Engineering Research Centre, established in 1966, has enabled pioneering technologies and products. It was Tata Motors, which developed the first indigenously developed Light Commercial Vehicle, India's first Sports Utility Vehicle and, in 1998, the Tata Indica, India's first fully indigenous passenger car. Within two years of launch, Tata Indica became India's largest selling car in its segment.

The pace of new product development has quickened. In 2005, Tata Motors created a new segment by launching THE TATA ACE, INDIA'S FIRST INDIGENOUSLY DEVELOPED MINI-TRUCK. The years to come will see the introduction of several other innovative vehicles, all rooted in emerging customer needs. Besides product development, R&D is also focusing on environment-friendly technologies in emissions and alternative fuels. Through its subsidiaries, the company is engaged in engineering and automotive solutions, construction equipment manufacturing, automotive vehicle components manufacturing and supply chain activities, machine tools and factory automation solutions, high-precision tooling and plastic and electronic components for automotive and computer applications, and automotive retailing and service operations. True to the tradition of the Tata Group, Tata Motors is committed in letter and spirit to Corporate Social Responsibility. It is a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact, and is engaged in community and social initiatives on human rights, labour and environment standards in compliance with the principles of the Global Compact. Simultaneously, it also plays an active role in community development, serving rural communities adjacent to its manufacturing locations. With the foundation of its rich heritage, Tata Motors today is etching a refulgent future.

Areas of business
Tata Motors' product range covers passenger cars, multi-utility vehicles as well as light, medium and heavy commercial vehicles for goods and passenger transport. Seven out of 10 medium and heavy commercial vehicles in India bear the trusted Tata mark. Commercial vehicle business unit The company has over 130 models of light, medium and heavy commercial vehicles ranging from two tones to 40 tones, buses ranging from 12-seaters to 60-seaters, tippers, special purpose vehicles, off-road vehicles and defense vehicles.

Passenger car business unit The company's passenger car range comprises the hatchback Indica, the Indigo sedan and the Marina, its station wagon variant, in petrol and diesel versions. The Tata Sumo, its rural variant, the Spacio and the Tata Safari (the country's first sports utility vehicle) are the company's multi-utility offerings. The Tata Indica, India's first indigenously designed and manufactured car, was launched by Tata Motors in 1999 as part of its ongoing effort towards giving India transport solutions that were designed for Indian conditions. Currently, the company's passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles have a 16-per cent market share. In addition to the growth opportunities in the buoyant domestic market, the company is pursuing growth through acquisitions (it acquired Daewoo Commercial Vehicles, Korea, in 2004) and alliances (it has entered into a tie-up with MG Rover, UK, to supply 1, 00,000 Indica to be badges as City Rover) in other geographies. Research and development Tata Motors invests up to 1.3 per cent of its annual turnover on research and development, with an emphasis on new product / aggregates development and technology up gradation. Its Engineering Research Centre in Pune employs over 900 scientists and engineers and has India's only certified crash-test facility and hemi-anechoic chamber for testing of noise and vibration. The company also draws on the resources of leading international design and styling houses like the Institute of Development in Automotive Engineering, SPA, Italy and Stile Bertoni, Italy. The company has also been implementing several environmentally sensitive technologies in manufacturing processes and uses some of the world's most advanced equipment for emission checking and control. Environmental responsibility Tata Motors has led the Indian automobile industry's anti-pollution efforts through a series of initiatives in effluent and emission control. The company introduced emission control

engines in its vehicles in India before the norm was made statutory. All its products meet required emission standards in the relevant geographies. Modern effluent treatment facilities, soil and water conservation programs and tree plantation drives on a large scale at its plant locations contribute to the protection of the environment and the creation of green belts. Exports Tata Motors' vehicles are exported to over 70 countries in Europe, Africa, South America, Middle East, Asia and Australia. The company also has assembly operations in Malaysia, Bangladesh, Kenya, South Africa and Egypt.

Associates Tata Motors has made substantial investments in building associate and subsidiary companies that complement and support its business activities. These include: Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company manufactures heavy trucks ranging from 15T GVW to 45T GVW. Tata Motors acquired this company in March, 2004 Tata Cummins, a joint venture with Cummins, USA, manufactures Cummins engines for Tata Motors. Telco Construction Equipment Company, a joint venture with Hitachi Machinery Company, Japan, is engaged in the manufacture and sale of earthmoving machinery and construction equipment such as hydraulic excavators, cranes and wheel-loaders. Tata Technologies provides IT support in the areas of engineering design, development and validation, business information systems and ERP systems. HV Axles manufactures axles for Tata Motors' medium and heavy commercial vehicles. HV Transmissions, supplies gearboxes for the company's medium and heavy commercial vehicles. Tata Holset, a joint venture between Holset Engineering Company, UK, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cummins Engine Company, USA and the Tatas (Tata Motors, Tata International and Tata Industries are shareholders). Incorporated in 1994, this company

manufactures turbochargers for engines made by Tata Cummins Ltd as well as other auto manufacturers. TAL Manufacturing Solutions manufactures painting systems, welding lines, material handling systems and robotics. It also develops factory automation solutions and provides consultancy services in the field of manufacturing processes and factory layouts. Concorde Motors (India): Retails Tata Motors' range of passenger vehicles. Tata Precision Industries, Singapore and Tata Engineering Services, Singapore, are engaged in the manufacture of high precision tooling and spare parts, and warehousing, respectively. Nita Company, Bangladesh, is engaged in the assembly of Tata vehicles for the Bangladesh market.


1. Tata Motors was awarded the 'Golden Peacock Environment Management Award 2003' in the category of 'large manufacturing' by the World Environment Foundation, New Delhi 2. Tata Motors won the Jamnalal Baja Uchit Vyavahar Puraskar 2003 for fair business practices in the 'manufacturer - large' category, conferred by the Council for Fair Business Practices. 3. The commercial vehicle business unit of Tata Motors was presented a commendation certificate for 'Strong commitment to TQM' for the year 2003. 4. The ICICI Bank and Overdrive Awards, 2003, voted Tata Indigo as the most exciting new car of the year. 5. The Tata Indigo was adjudged the 'best value for money car' at the prestigious CNBC Auto Car Auto Awards 2003. 6. The Indian Merchants Chamber Diamond Jubilee Endowment Trust Award, 2002, presented Tata Motors with the 'industry and technology award'. 7. Tata Indica won the voice of the customer award for best diesel small car at NFO Automotive India, 2002. 8. Tata Motors, Jamshedpur, won the prestigious 'Prof. Vasant Rao rolling trophy', instituted by the Indian Value Engineering Society, for 2002 in the area of value engineering. 9. The Technology Development Board of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, recognized the indigenous development and successful commercialization of the Indica by awarding Tata Motors the national award for successful commercialization of indigenous technology by an industrial concern for 2000.


Tata Motors has manufacturing plants at JAMSHEDPUR, PUNE, LUCKNOW AND DHARWAD as well as a well-integrated national sales, service and spare parts network that are focused on providing users with easy access service solutions.


1) Telco Construction Equipment Company Ltd.(TELCON) 2) Tata Technologies Ltd. (TTL) 3) HV Axles Ltd. (HVAL) 4) HV Transmission Ltd (HVTL) 5) Telco Automation Ltd .(TAL) 6) Tata Technologies, USA 7) Telco Dadajee Dhackjee Ltd.(TTDL)


PRODUCTION Category M & HCV LCV UTILITY CARS TOTAL Apr'06 12635 9793 2889 11311 36628 Apr'05 6626 5113 2418 13682 27839 Apr'04 9011 4434 2373 10623 26441 2006-07 12635 9793 2889 11311 36628 2005-06 6626 5113 2418 13682 27839 2004-05 9011 4434 2373 10623 26441

A. For the month Domestic M & HCV 11625 LCV UTILITY CARS TOTAL 7557 2248 11080 32510 5248 3120 2036 10700 21104 7975 4066 2002 9970 24013 Exports 559 1639 232 1142 3572 432 1359 17 977 2785 317 391 50 190 948 Total 12184 9196 2480 12222 36082 5680 4479 2053 11677 23889 8292 4457 2052 10160 24961

Category Apr'06 Apr'05 Apr'04 Apr'06 Apr'05 Apr'04 Apr'06 Apr'05 Apr'04

B. For The Year

Domestic Category 2006- 2005- 200407 7557 2248 06 5248 3120 2036 05 7975 4066 2002

Exports 07 559 1639 232 06 432 1359 17 05 317 391 50

Total 07 12184 9196 2480 06 5680 4479 2053 05 8292 4457 2052

2006- 2005- 2004- 2006- 2005- 2004-



11080 32510

10700 21104

9970 24013

1142 3572

977 2785

190 948

12222 36082

11677 23889

10160 24961

RANGE OF PRODUCTS: (Jamshedpur Plant)

We at TATA MOTORS LTD. constantly look for ways to offer the best value for money, which covers all the facts of customer satisfaction i.e. product, safety, reliability, utility or aesthetics.

Tata A 1615 TC 4X2 LOC Carrier

Tata 407 hard top Troop Carrier

Tata LPT A 1621 TC (6X6) High mobility (Logistics)

Tata LPT 709 E Hard Troop Carrier

Investment in Hispano, Spain to facilitate new technology for Tata Motors bus range

Globus and Starbus Range of Fully Built Buses launched recently


Board of Directors: Mr. Ratan N Tata (Chairman)
Mr. N A Soonawala Dr. J J Irani Mr. J K Setna Mr. V R Mehta Mr. R Gopalakrishnan Mr. Nusli N Wadia Mr. Helmut Petri Mr. S A Naik Mr. Ravi Kant Mr. P P Kadle Mr. P K M Fietzek Mr. S M Palia

Senior Management
Mr. Ravi Kant Managing Director Mr. P P Kadle Executive Director (Finance and Corporate Affairs) Mr. A P Arya President (Heavy and Medium Commercial Vehicles) Mr. P M Telang President (Light and Small Commercial Vehicles) Mr. Rajiv Dube Sr. Vice President (Manufacturing and Commercial - Passenger Cars) Mr. C Ramakrishna Vice-President (Chairman's Office) Mr. Shyam Mani Vice-President (Sales & Marketing - Commercial Vehicle Business) Mr. K C Girotra Vice President (Lucknow Works & FBV) Mr. R S Thakur Vice President (Finance) Mr. R R Akarte Vice President (ERC)

Mr. M V Rajarao Vice President (Manufacturing) Mr. H K Sethna Company Secretary Corporate Communications Mr. Debasis Ray

HRD Mechanism
The goal of HRD system is to develop The capabilities of each employee as an individual. The capabilities of each employee in relation to his or her present role. The capabilities of each employee in relation to his or her expected future role. The dyerclic relation ship between each employee and his or her supervisor.

- Collaboration among different units of organization.

Automobile division Foundry division Forge division Quality division R & D wing Training & HRD Support division

Consists of 3 parts i.e. Truck Factory, Cab Cowl Factory and the Engine Factory .

Truck Factory ( Plant I): Here 5000 OT Press long members are cut to length, spring fitting cleaning and rectification of vehicle has been done. Engine Division (Plant II ) :

Here the engine manufacturing unit exists where important components of the engines are manufactured and finally assembled and the output of this unit is the input to the plant I. Cab & Cowl Division (Plant III ): Here Laden Passenger LP/ LPO are painted, and fitment and fabrication are being done


Various engine components such as connecting rods, various vehicle parts e.g. transmission shafts, leaf springs and many more are forged here. Foundry:

Steel foundry set up in 1956 57, to meet the casting requirement of the locomotive project. It also supplies high-grade SG Iron castings for automobile components.

(NOVUS) LPK2530:

In this area the amsitious truck Novus is assembled. Novus is the new model launched by TATA Motors after acquiring the Daewoo Plant in 2003. The Novus was launched into the Indian market only a few months back.

Quality Assurance Department:

It helps in improving the quality and reliability of ancillary supplies at their own factory. The main function of this department is to prevent defects at the generating point.

ERC (Engineering Research Centre):

Regularly upgrades components and responsible for the design of various new model which to be introduced, and exhaustive testing of modification has been done before they become regular fitments.

R & D Wing:

The main engineering Research center is located at the Tata Engineerings plant. The Jamshedpur unit has its own research Wing, which regularly upgrades components and aggregates. A torture track enables rigorous and exhaustive testing of modification before they become regular fitments.

Production score board 2009 - 2010

Daily Division Auto jsr Target 200 Actually 199 Target 5000 Monthly Cumulative 2456 66838 (Nos) kw Total 63 263 128 327 1577 6577 1153 30017 3609 96913 3817 ------1921 ------3237 11152 Target Yearly Cumulative 7915

Foundry(mt ) Forge (mt)


106 53


1314 569

Production score board 2006 - 2007

Daily Division Auto jsr Target 325 Actually 286 Target 8475 Monthly Cumulative 4651 85392 (Nos) kw Total 51 376 54 340 1350 9825 777 26924 5428 112316 5435 40342 Forge (mt) ------154 ------2494 4740 5755 2342 13934 Target Yearly Cumulative 11592

Foundry(mt )





Total area = 72600sq.m Covered area = 47000sq.m


set of axle per annum.

Machines =400

Man power:
During formation = 1340 persons Operative = 503 Supervisors = 142

Managerial = 121 Executives = 14

Different types of axles manufactured at HV axle are

1. 2.

Front Axle (Dead) Live Front Axle

FRONT AXLE (DEAD) It is located at the front of the vehicle. Its main function is to support the load of the vehicle, facilitate wheel rotation & to provide for the steering of vehicle through the use of Stub axle, kingpin, tie rod; steering liver etc. It cannot drive the vehicle.

STUB AXLE In army uses, road conditions make the use of live front axle necessary. In surplus to the above function of front axle, it contains a drive to pull the vehicle when the rear wheels are stuck & the necessary friction is not being provided at the rear wheel.


In long trailers, the load is increased which needs to be supported properly to avoid failure. This type of axle provide this support

REAR AXLE It is the axle responsible for pushing the vehicle forward. It is the assembly of various parts (Banjo Beam & Axle shaft, Crown wheel & Pinion, Differential, Rear hub, Brake shoe & drum)


PRODUCT Front axle Live front axle

MODEL 1516 FA 104




assembly Live front axle Rear axle assembly FA 106 RA 109RR (Diff lock) Rear axle RA 109RR LPS3516, LPT 2515, LPT2516. Rear axle Rear axle HR 210SINGLE HR 210TANDM 4021/4421 NOVUS 645 LPTA 1615 TC LPTA 1615TC 750 654

750 925(front). 805(rear)


Dedicate SPMS. CNC cutter grinding machines. CNC turning machines CNC grinding machines. Robotic welding machines. Introduction hardening machines. Gleason / oerlikon gear cutting machines. CNC gun drilling machines. CNC hard turning machines. CNC vertical machining centers. CNC horizontal machining centers. Axle testing machines


The following chart shows the Organizational Structure of the company: -







HR & Administration



Materials FLG











HVAL Environment Policy

Jamshedpur is committed

to minimize the adverse impact of its products,

operations and services on the environment. Towards this end .it shall strive to; 1. Establish sound environmental objectives and targets and process of reviewing them. 2. Comply with all applicable legal /regulatory and other environment requirements. 3. Use of environmentally sustainable technologies and practices prevention of pollution And the continual improve mental performance 4. Conserve natural resources and energy by minimizing their consumption and wastage. 5. Minimizing waste generation, maximizing resource efficiency recycling of material and preventing pollution. 6. Building awareness across all section of the workforce on environmental issues. This policy shall be communicated to all persons working for or on behalf of the organization and shall be made available to public/stake holder on request. for

HR introduction

Good human relations not only bring great personal rewards but are essential to the success of any enterprise.



Sr. Manager

Sr. Engineer Safety & Env

Deputy Manager (P & EW)

SR. Officer (Contracts, Security & Administration)

Sr. Officer (HR)

Assistant Manager (Plant Services)

Officer (Security & Admin.)

Training and Development in TATA Motors

Continuous education is necessary for all of to excel in our jobs and in our careers. Developing new skill not only increases competency and efficiency, it also makes our job more interesting. The training schemes offered by our organization help our employees with the rapid development in their field.

APPLIES TO: All employees.

How it works: Training requirement are identified for a period of 12 months i.e. from april to march of a financial year. This is done in the last quarter of the preceding year through the appraisal form/individual or divisional training needs surveys undertaken by HR/Training Division. Training needs are identified on the basis of individual development needs, job improvement plans, and future requirement and management priorities. After the identification of training needs, HR/Training Division prepares a consolidated list of the program requested for, and forwards the same to the Divisional heads. On the basis of the training programs on offer, and the specific requirements of the employees and the division, the division head intimates the HR/Training Division about the people they are recommending for training.

Divisional Head is consonance with the HR department is responsible for identifying training needs and the HR department is responsible for organizing training for all employees.

External training programs are usually utilized if TATA MOTORS is unable to provide the required training at Management Development Centre. Nomination of external training are made by the departmental head and sent to the HR Division for further processing. Hr division recommends a training program and obtains the approval of the appropriate sanctioning authority prior to processing the nomination.

Assignments. Attending executive development programs. Getting trained by TATA MOTORS collaborators/foreign business associates. Attending trade fairs, exhibitions, motor shows, conferences etc.


At cross over position such as SE/LO/S to TMI grade, TM3 to TM4 & TM5 to EG grade transition training is imparted to employees.

TATA MOTORS have a training almanac which is a guide to some of the best training programmes being held worldwide. It has the description of each programmes and trainer profile along with the schedule for the current year.


Though HVAL Ltd. Is an independent company training purpose is like another division of TATA MOTORS. The organization was established in 1971 as a part of TATA MOTORS, Jamshedpur, to assist the TATA MOTORS managers and executives to develop competences which enable then to cope with the ever changing demands of the competitive times of today.

House training programmes/work shops in managerial /behavioral technical areas. Internal consultancy on quality systems like ISO, TS 16949.Supplier quality improvement training.

State-of-the-art infrastructure Spacious air-conditioned room A well equipped auditorium A library with wide range of books, journals and case studies Fully air-conditioned P.C labs Machine tools for on the job training

Training Need Identification

Training need identification is a tool utilized to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity. Here the focus should be placed on needs as opposed to desires of the employees for a constructive outcome. In order to emphasize the importance of training need identification we can focus on the following areas:

To pinpoint if training will make a difference in productivity and the bottom line. To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve his or her job performance. To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues and bring about a match between individual aspirations and organizational goals.

Identification of training needs is important from both the organizational point of view as well as from an individual's point of view. From an organizations point of view it is important because an organization has objectives that it wants to achieve for the benefit of all stakeholders or members, including owners, employees, customers, suppliers, and neighbours. These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities of its people, releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. Therefore people must know what they need to learn in order to achieve organizational goals. Similarly if seen from an individual's point of view, people have aspirations, they want to develop and in order to learn and use new abilities, people need appropriate opportunities, resources, and conditions. Therefore, to meet people's aspirations, the organization must provide effective and attractive learning resources and conditions. And it is also important to see that there is a suitable match between achieving organizational goals and providing attractive learning opportunities.

Different Levels at which it is to be Conducted Organizational Needs These concern the performance of the organization as a whole. Here identification of training needs is done to find out whether the organization is meeting its current performance standards and objectives and if not, exploring ways in which training or learning might help it to do so. Group Needs Since working in groups and teams have become very much prevalent in today's corporate world that is why nowadays there is increased emphasis given on team effectiveness and team performance. So training needs are nowadays even identified at the group level

Individual Needs These concern the performance of one or more individuals (as individuals, rather than as members of a group). Here identification of training needs is about finding out to what extent individuals need to learn or be trained in order to bring their current performance up to the required level as a result of changes in methods and processes that call for new competencies and skills. Sources for Identifying Training Needs Job Profile It is a comprehensive description of all the functions and the responsibilities that a person has to carry out in due course of his job. We can also include Job analysis in order to have a realistic and systematic appraisal of training needs. In order to do this first we need to break up the functions and responsibilities into categories. Experiences of the training agency It is very common for organizations nowadays to hire professional training agencies in order to look into the training matters. The training agency and the trainers thus should also draw from their own experiences of organizing programs for comparable groups or in similar areas. Pre-training survey of the participant's needs This is suggested as the best way to conduct a training need identification .A pre-training survey is nothing but a survey of the needs and expectations of the participants well in advance of the programme. And in this exercise it is better to include the superiors also as they are in a good position to provide necessary data on the training needs of their associates, especially in context of their performance.

Step 1: First of all, my project guide provided me the raw data of all TM Grade officers consisting of detailed description of training about each employee, all mentioned in a single excel sheet. Step 2: from here onwards my job started. I dedicated single excel sheets for each officers and made entry of only the following selected data:a) Name

b) Ticket no. c) Department d) Grade e) Age f) Qualification g) Date of joining h) Details of training imparted i) Training need identified with the priorities and % age need covered clearly mentioned. Step 3: After that, I made an analysis on the sheets of individuals and filtered the names of 20 officers each who have received the maximum and the least duration of training respectively. Step 4: then, I went to the departmental heads and collected the training needs of the employees for the FY 2009 10. Step 5: lastly, I recovered and filed the entire data so that it can be used for future reference while scheduling the training programs.

Benefits of Needs Assessment

As pointed above needs assessment helps diagnose the causes of performance deficiency in employees that require remedial actions. This being a generalised statement there are certain specific benefits of needs assessment. They are as follows:

The organisation is informed about the broader needs of the participants. Through this process it may be possible that certain new training programmes, which were, previously not in their list may come to the forefront.

The organisation is able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his/her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programme.

The organisation is also able to pitch its course input closer to the specific needs of the participants.

It also saves a lot of money for the organisation as otherwise money is just unnecessarily wasted on those training programmes, which are either not needed by the employees or they have no interest in undertaking them.

Lastly, time, which is the most important resource today, is also saved, as the training programmes conducted are the ones, which are actually needed by the participant.


This is a wonderful opportunity for me to finding out the Individual Officers Training Data Analysis and Training Needs Identification of TM-grade officers of HVAL at TATA MOTORS Ltd (Jamshedpur). During this training period I gained lots of experience & sweet memories while working with the employees of Tata Motors Ltd. Before doing this project we dont had any idea about the training program as well as how it would be conducted & how it would be measured. After completing the project it has fruit full to me. The project clearly demonstrates the strength & weakness of the employees. This has strengthened our communication skills as well as understanding of the internal environment of the Tata Motors Ltd. According to the survey findings one interesting conclusion came at HV Axles Ltd. that 22 TM grade officers out of 114 has got 20 or less than 20 hours training. It means that approximately 19.29% TM grade officers got least duration (20hours) of training. And 20 TM grade officers out of 114 has got 251 to 468 hours maximum duration of training it means that approximately 17.54% TM grade officers got maximum duration(251 to 468 hours) of training. At the end of the project I Would like to conclude our part with a good experience with the employees of Tata Motors and the major departments where we went for survey. The overall project was very useful to us and we have learned a lot. Our experience of working here has come with some good suggestions and recommendations. My project guide has helped me very much and they had also motivated me to work.

After completion of my project in individual officers training data analysis and training needs identification, a few personal recommendations I feel I should put forward are: 1. Non critical factors are also important in the context of ever changing market conditions. Hence, for a comprehensive picture of the individual officers training data analysis and training needs identification, the study shows that there is much imbalances in the training procedure that is no effective for this type of big and responsible organisation. 2. Every time before and after completion of the Training Program skill level gap analysis has to be done to identify effectiveness of training Programme. 3. The results of individual officers training data analysis and training needs identification, over a certain period of time have to be compared for each operative to ascertain their acceptability to improve. 4. There should be suitable system for rewarding the highly skilled performer and on the other for continuous nonperformers supportive motivation needs to be provided. 5. The role of training department has to be scrutinized for the failure to improve the skill even after subsequent training.




Kotler, Philip-

Marketing Management

Ramaswami, V.S and Namakumari, S. Marketing management