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4.

5 m
1.5 m
18 KN / m
24
0.5
200.0 KN / m
M 15
Fe 415
25 KN / m
( 4.5 + 1.5 ) = 6.0 m
= 0.422
136.73 KN
60.75 KN
1.950 m
54.00 KN
( 3.6 / 2 ) = 1.80 m
= 247.90 KN
= 1.90 m
( 136.73 x 2 ) = 273.5 KN-m
0
328.2 KN-m
M
r
= 618.0 KN-m
136.73 KN
163.19 KN
Restoring moment ( M
r
) = 0.9 x ( W
1
X
1
+ W
2
X
2
+ W
3
X
3
)
( 1 - Sin 24 ) / ( 1 + Sin 24 )
0.48
F
r
= x 0.9 x ( W
1
+ W
2
+ W
3
)
= 0.5 x 0.9 x ( 60.75 + 54 + 247.9 ) =
Sandy clay loam (clay +30% sand),
moist clay
od
) =
Overturning Moment due to live Load effect ( M
os
) =
( 1.2 M
od
+ 1.4 M
os
) = ( 1.2 x 273.46 + 1.4 x 0 ) =
It is seen that M
r
Hence the Structure is safe against in Overturning.
0.9 x ( 60.75 x 1.95 + 54 x 1.8 + 247.9 x 1.9 ) =
> ( Greater than ) ( 1.2 M
od
+ 1.4 M
os
)
Coefficient of Active Earth Pressure is
Stability Considerations :
Weight of the earth over the heel slab is ( W
3
) = 0.5 x ( 2.4 + 2.7 ) x 5.4 x 18
Distance of its Line of action from Point O ( X 3 ) = 3.6 - (2/3) x ( 3.6 - 1.5 - 0.5 x ( 0.6 + 0.3 ) )
Weight of the base Slab ( W
2
) = ( 3.6 x 0.6 x 25 ) =
Distance of its Line of action from Point O ( X
2
) =
Height of Retaining Earth =
Unit Weight of Soil ( ) =
Sliding Force ( F
S
) = Active earth Pressure ( P
a
) =
Resisting force available from friction between The Base and Soil :
Depth of Foundation below Ground Level =
Coefficient of friction between Earth & Concrete =
Allowable Bearing Pressure on Soil =
Angle of internal Friction in Degree (
0
) =
Unit Weight of Concrete =
Distance of its Line of action from Point O ( X
1
) = 0.6 + ( 0.3 + 0.6 ) / 2 =
0.5 x ( 0.3 + 0.6 ) x 5.4 x 25 = Weight of Wall ( W
1
) =
This force acts horizontally at a point 2 above the foundation Level.
Total force due to Earth pressure on the Wall :
( 0.5 x 0.422 x 18 x 6 x 6 ) =
Consider 1 m Length of Wall.
Hence Total Height of Retaining Wall ( H ) =
Therefore Retaining Wall Designed as a Counterfort Type.
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
Sin
Sin
K
a
1
1
= =
2
2
1
H K P
a a

= |
.
|

\
|
d
X
u
1.19 , Which
2.37
0.900 m
A
1.550 m
= 51.25 KN
17.28 KN
B
( 51.25 - 17.28 ) = 33.97 KN
197.16 KN
1.442

= 362.70 KN
= 1.14 m Take x = 1.15 m
( 1.8 - 1.15 )
= 182.61 KN / m
= 18.89 KN / m
KN / m
2
1.5
( 1.5 x q
1
) = ( 1.5 x 182.61 ) = 273.92 KN / m
( 1.5 x q
2
) = ( 1.5 x 18.89 ) = 28.34 KN / m
Available Passive Earth Pressure Force on A =
( 100.75 + 81.86 ) =
Below the Heel ( q
2
) = ( 362.7 / 3.6 ) - ( 362.7 x 0.65 x 4.5 / ( 3.6 x 3.6 ) )
( 100.75 - 81.86 ) =
= 0.65 m towards point O
Hence, pressure on the soil below the base is as follows :-
Below the Toe ( q
1
) = ( 362.7 / 3.6 ) + ( 362.7 x 0.65 x 4.5 / ( 3.6 x 3.6 ) )
( 163.19 / 136.73 ) = is always less than 1.4.
= 0.5 x 2.37 x 18 x 0.9 x 0.9 =
Net available Passive Earth Pressure =
Available Passive Earth Pressure Force on B =
( 1 + Sin 24 ) / ( 1 - Sin 24 ) =
0.5 x 2.37 x 18 x 1.55 x 1.55
Hence, the structure is unsafe in Sliding.
A key may be provided below the base to obtain additional resisting force due to Passive earth pressure in
front. The soil above the toe will be neglected from consideration as it is likely to be excavated. Remaining
depth of soil up to the bottom of the key will be considered to be provide passive resistance.
Since ( q
1
) is ( < ) less than the allowable bearing pressure on the Soil i.e.
The Structure is safe against subsidence.
Try a key projecting 0.05 m below the base, Which will reach up to 1.55 m below the G.L.
Distance of its line of action from the Point O is :
( 60.75 x 1.95 + 54 x 1.8 + 247.9 x 1.9 - 136.73 x 6 / 3 )/ 362.7
( 197.16 / 136.73 ) = Which is greater than 1.4.
Total vertical Force on Soil ( R ) = ( W
1
+ W
2
+ W
3
)
Hence, the structure has now become safe against Sliding.
Hence, total resisting force against Sliding is now ( F
r
) =
= ( 163.19 + 33.97 ) =
= ( 60.75 + 54 + 247.9 )
Eccentricity of R from the centre of the base is ( e ) =
Net upward or downward pressure on the base :
The Retaining wall will be designed by the limit state method for which factored loads should be
considered. Hence all the loads should be multiplied by factor
The pressure below the base will be as follows :
At the Toe =
At the Heel =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
S
r
F
F
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
Sin
Sin
K
p
1
1
2
2
1
H K P
p p
=
=
S
r
F
F
=
+ +
=

R
H
P X W X W X W
x
a
3
3 3 2 2 1 1
0.6 m 2.400 m
A B C D
0.600 m 0.600 m
28.34 KN-m
273.915 232.99 192.06
KN / m
2
67.32 KN-m
9
KN / m
2
39.00 KN-m
-124.7 KN / m
2
264.915 223.99 KN / m
2
KN / m
2
9.00 KN-m
9.00 KN-m
67.32 KN-m
67.32 KN-m
( 0.4 x H ) = ( 0.4 x 6 ) = 2.4 m C / C
0.30 m
( 2.4 - 0.3 ) = 2.10 m
( 1/12 ) 175.00 mm
14.3 KN-m
( d
2
) = 14.3 x 1000000
d = 83.13 mm , Say 90 mm
Effective depth for balanced condition is found as :
0.36 x 15 x 0.48 x ( 1 - 0.42 x 0.48 ) x 1000 x
At Point B =
At Point C =
At Point D =
( 0.6 x 0.6 x 25 ) =
( 0.6 x 0.6 x 25 ) =
0.6 x ( 0.6 x 25 + 5.4 x 18 ) =
0.6 x ( 0.6 x 25 + 5.4 x 18 ) =
Factored load intensity on the base due to self weight of base and the earth above is as follows :
At Point A =
Pressure Distribution below the Base
( 0.083 ) x 2.1 x 1000 =
It is seen that the supports are wider than ( 1 / 12 ) of clear span.
Design of Heel Slab :
Let the spacing of the Counterforts be kept =
Let the thickness of the Counterforts be kept =
Resultant Load Intensity on Base Slab
The Heel Slab is a continuous slab spanning horizontally over the counterforts & bearing a net
vertical load intensity. Consider a 1.0 m ( 1000 mm ) wide strip of slab.
Hence, effective span = ( Clear Span ) = 2.1 m
Bending moment in the strip of slab, near counterforts is
( 39 x 2.1 x 2.1 ) / 12 =
Clear Span =
of Clear Span =
=

=
12
2
l w
M
u
A
st
=
= 551.2 mm
2
/ m
V
u
= 41.0 KN

V
= 0.46 N / mm
0.612
0.61 ,
C
= 0.496 N / mm
Since
V

C
, hence
90 mm

V
= 0.456 N / mm
Now
V

C
, hence
A
st
= 551.20 mm
2
/ m
Provide 12 mm dia. Bars - @ 45 mm C / C,
200 mm C / C
( 90 + 35 ) = 125.00 mm
35 mm )
150 mm 2 / m
Provide 12 mm dia. Bars - @ 200 mm C / C,
10.7 KN-m
0.87 x 415 x A
st
x ( A
st
) = 10.7 x 1000000
90 x 0.028 = 29635.78
a = 0.028 b = -90.000 c = 29635.78
2841.84
372.44
372.44 mm
2
/ m
Provide 12 mm dia. Bars - @ 200 mm C / C,
( 6 - 0.6 ) = 5.400 m
Tension Reinforcement near top surface -
14.3 x 1000000 / ( 0.87 x 415 x (1-0.42 x 0.48) x 90 )
Critical section for shear occurs at the face where the slab joints with the counterforts.
Shear force ( V
u
) : 0.5 x ( 2.4 - 0.3 ) x 39 =
41 x 1000 / ( 1000 x 90 ) =
( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) = 100 x 551.2 / ( 1000 x 90 ) =
Temperature & Shrinkage Reinforcement = ( 0.12 / 100 ) x 125 x 1000 =
at right angles to the main reinforcement.
Bending moment at the mid-span :
( 39 x 2.1 x 2.1 ) / 16 =
Tension Reinforcement near bottom surface -
From Design Shear Strength of Concrete Table :-
For ( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) =
< less than the slab is safe in Shear.
Hence, it is proposed to increase the effective depth of the slab while keeping the percentage ( % ) of
tension reinforcement is same as before.
Try an effective depth ( d ) =
41 x 1000 / ( 1000 x 90 ) =
< ( less than ) the slab is safe in Shear.
Tension Reinforcement :-
( 90 / 90 ) x 551.2 =
near the top surface. The spacing may be
increased towards the stem to
Keep overall thickness =
Clear height of vertical slab over the heel =
Considering 1 m high strip of slab spanning horizontally & continuous over the counterforts.
Effecyive Span = 2.100 m as for the heel slab.
90 - 415 / ( 15 x 1000 ) x
A
st
- ( A
st
)
2
x
mm
2
/ m ( When taking + sign)
mm
2
/ m ( When taking - sign)
A
st
=
Taking ( - ) sign, hence A
st
=
( Keeping End Cover or end spacing =
near the bottom surface.
Design of Vertical Slab :
=

=
16
2
l w
M
u
{
= 55.8 KN / m
20.50 KN-m/m
( d
2
) = 20.5 x 1000000
d = 99.5 mm
A
st
=
= 714.73 mm
2
/ m
0.718
0.718 ,
C
= 0.53 N / mm
= 55 mm. 0.53 N / mm 2
A
st
= 395.08 mm
2
/ m
Provide 12 mm dia. Bars - @ 95 mm C / C,
300 mm C / C,
V
u
= 58.6 KN
1.065 N / mm
Now
V

C
, hence
15.39 KN-m/m
0.87 x 415 x A
st
x ( A
st
) =
55 x 0.028 = 42625.68
a = 0.028 b = -55.000 c = 42625.68
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM! mm
2
/ m
Provide 12 mm dia. Bars - @ 200 mm C / C,
300 mm C / C,
108 mm 2 / m
Provide 10 mm dia. Bars - @ 300 mm C / C,
M
u
= 45.20 KN-m/m
( d
2
) =
d = 147.8 mm , Say 150 mm
58.6 x 1000 / ( 1000 x 55 ) =
Therefore,
V
=
Bending moment ( M
u
) :
( 2 x 264.915 + 223.985 ) x 0.6 x 0.6 / 6 =
Effective depth for balanced condition is found as :
0.36 x 15 x 0.48 x ( 1 - 0.42 x 0.48 ) x 1000 x 45.2 x 1000000
the spacing may be increased to towards the top.
Temperature & Shrinkage Reinforcement = ( 0.12 / 100 ) x 90 x 1000 =
may be provided in vertical direction.
Design of Toe : The toe bends upward as a cantilever due to upward soil reaction.
( 55.83 x 2.1 x 2.1 ) / 16 =
Tension Reinforcement -
55 - 415 / ( 15 x 1000 ) x
A
st
- ( A
st
)
2
x
A
st
=
mm
2
/ m ( When taking + sign)
mm
2
/ m ( When taking - sign)
Taking ( - ) sign, hence A
st
=
on the front face.
15.39 x 1000000
Average intensity of earth pressure on the strip = ( K
a
x x h )
( 90 - 35 ) If the % of reinforcement is kept unchange, than
C
=
as before. Hence tension reinforcement :
( 55 / 99.5 ) x 714.73 =
Tension Reinforcement near top surface -
20.5 x 1000000 / ( 0.87 x 415 x (1-0.42 x 0.48) x 99.5 )
( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) = 100 x 714.73 / ( 1000 x 99.5 ) =
From Design Shear Strength of Concrete Table :-
For ( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) =
= 1.5 x 0.422 x 18 x ( 5.4 + 4.4 ) / 2
Bending moment in the strip of slab, near counterforts is
( 55.83 x 2.1 x 2.1 ) / 12 =
Effective depth for balanced condition is found as :
0.36 x 15 x 0.48 x ( 1 - 0.42 x 0.48 ) x 1000 x
Since thickness of slab will be kept at least 90 mm, the effective depth will be
near the back face.
the spacing may be increased to towards the top.
Critical section for shear occurs at the face where the slab joins with counterforts.
Shear force ( V
u
) : 0.5 x ( 2.4 - 0.3 ) x 55.83 =
> ( greater than ) the vertical slab is unsafe in Shear.
Bending moment at the mid-span :
=

=
12
2
l w
M
u
=

=
16
2
l w
M
u
{
A
st
=
= 1045.34 mm
2
/ m
Provide 16 mm dia. Bars - @ 85 mm C / C.
0.697
0.697 ,
C
= 0.52 N / mm
( 150 + 35 ) = 185 mm
0.150 m away from the front
V
u
= 762.46 KN/m
5.080 N / mm
As
V

C
, hence
Now V
uc
= 79.35 KN/m
Provide 10 mm dia. Bars - @ inclined at 45 425 mm C / C.
V
u
= 99.39 KN/m
which is 762.46 KN/m
222 mm 2 / m
Provide 10 mm dia. Bars - @ 180 mm C / C,
0.05 m 1.55 m
1.5 x 2.37 x 18 x ( h
2
- 1.5 h ) dh
= 0.12 KN-m/m
100 mm and having vertical
10 mm dia. bars - @ 200
= 21.45 3 m width of
( 6 - 0.6 ) = 5.4 m .
3
= 63.99 x
the vertical slab. Maximum bending moment occurs where the counterforts meets the base.
At this point depth of earth =
Factored bending moment ( M
u
) : -
= 1.5 x ( 1 / 6 ) x ( 0.422 ) x 18 x 3 x ( 5.4 )
= 897.07 KN-m/m
< (less than the .
This is a small bending moment. A shear key of thickness
Hence, strength of toe slab in shear is V
u
= ( V
uc
+ V
us
)
reinforcement of mm C / C will be sufficient.
Design of Counterforts :
For taking up tension, steel reinforcement should be provided alon the sloping edge and the
vertical is . One counterfort supports earth pressure from
( 79.35 + 20.04 ) =
Factored bending moment on the key is ( M
u
) :
The toe slab is therefore safe in shear.
Temperature & Shrinkage Reinforcement = ( 0.12 / 100 ) x 185 x 1000 =
at right angles to main reinforcement bars.
Design of Shear Key :
The key projects below the base, and its lowest point is
below the G.L. in the front.
From Design Shear Strength of Concrete Table :-
For ( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) =
Overall depth of toe slab =
Critical section for shear occurs at an effective depth i.e.
of the vertical wall.
0.529 x 1000 x 150 / 1000 =
to the horizontal at a spacing of
Shear Strength of inclined bars is :
Shear force ( V
u
) :
> ( greater than ) , the toe slab is unsafe in Shear.
( 0.87 x 415 x 78.5 x Sin 45 / 1000 ) = 20.04 KN/m
45.2 x 1000000 / ( 0.87 x 415 x (1-0.42 x 0.48) x 150 )
Tension Reinforcement :
( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) = 100 x 1045.34 / ( 1000 x 150 ) =
Therefore,
V
= 762.463 x 1000 / ( 1000 x 150 ) =
0.5 x ( 264.915 - 151.96 ) x 1.35 x 10 =
= = ) 45 ( 87 . 0
0
Sin A f V
sv y us
( ) = =
}
dh h h K M
p u
76 . 1
5 . 1
5 . 1 5 . 1
}
76 . 1
5 . 1
76 . 1
5 . 1
2 3
2
5 . 1
3
(

h h
=
3
6
1
5 . 1 h K M
a u

300 mm,
( d
2
) =
d = 1202.1 mm , Say 1100 mm
3000.0 mm,
( 3000 - 100 ) = 2900.0 mm,
0.87 x 415 x A
st
x ( A
st
) =
2900 x 0.092 = 2484614.32
a = 0.092 b = -2900.0 c = 2484614.32
30640.33
881.41
881.41 mm
2
/ m
Provide 16 mm dia. Bars - 10 Nos. in two layers of
= 1.5 x K
a
x x h x ( 3 - 0.3 ) =
417.50 mm / m
Provide 10 mm
300 mm
3 =
= 498.37 KN

v
= = 0.433 N / mm
= Cos ( 21.45 )
= 0.22
0.215 ,
C
= 0.335 N / mm
V
uc
= = 291.45 KN
V
us
=
= 548.23 KN
839.68 KN
5 bars out of 10 bars
h = ( 5.4 / 2 ) = 2.700 m
5 bars 12 times the bar dia.
0.87 x 415 x 2 x ( 3.141 / 4 ) x 10 x 10 x 2900 / ( 300 x 1000 )
beyond this point and then curtail them. Hence, actual point of cut-off from top -
= ( 2.7 - 12 x 0.016 ) = 2.508 m from top.
C / C. This spacing may be maintained up to the top.
Critical section for shear occurs where counterfort joins with the base slab.
1.5 x ( 1/2 ) x 0.422 x 18 x 3 x ( 6 - 0.6 )
498.37 - ( 897.07 / 2.9 ) x tan ( 21.45 ) = 376.9 KN
376.9 x 1000 / ( 300 x 2900 )
= 150.74 KN/m
Area of two legged ties ( 150.74 x 1000 ) / ( 0.87 x 415 ) =
dia. Two legged ties in horizontal direction, with a vertical spacing of
A
st
=
mm
2
/ m ( When taking + sign)
mm
2
/ m ( When taking - sign)
Hence, the dimensions of counterfort are alright.
Tension reinforcement required in the counterfort is -
2900 - 415 / ( 15 x 300 ) x 897.07 x 1000000
A
st
- ( A
st
)
2
x
Even for a rectangular beam of width = the required effective depth for
0.36 x 15 x 0.48 x ( 1 - 0.42 x 0.48 ) x 300 x
From Design Shear Strength of Concrete Table :-
( ( 100 x 10 x 200.96 ) / ( 300 x 2900 ) ) x
For ( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) =
( 0.335 x 300 x 2900 / 1000)
For the Ties already provided :-
897.07 x 1000000
Overall depth of counterfort available at the base = and effective depth available
there will be at least =
balanced condition, is given by -
( V
uc
+ V
us
) = ( 291.45 + 548.23 ) =
It is seen that a ( V
uc
+ V
us
) > (greater than )
Hence, the counterfort section is safe against shear.
Bending moment in the counterfort decrease towards the top. Tension reinforcement can, therefore, be
curtailed accordingly.
Hence, depth from top where are no longer required.
It is proposed to extend of the inner layer by
Taking ( - ) sign, hence A
st
=
5 bars in each row.
The force which tries to separate the strip from the counterfort is
( 1.5 x 0.422 x 18 x 4.9 x 2.7 )
which is more than required.
{
=
2
2
1
5 . 1 h K V
a u

= ) tan(o
d
M
V
u
u
|
.
|

\
|

d b
A
st
100
)
`

) tan(o
d
M
V
u
u
3 = = 107.50 KN
1.185 m
A
st
= 1006.4 mm
0.305
0.305 ,
C
= 0.350 N / mm
V
uc
= = 115.50 KN
For the 10 mm 300 mm C / C
V
us
=
= 207.95 KN
323.45 KN
( 0.667 x 323.45 ) = 215.74 KN
V
u
< (less than )
5 bars
2.70 m .
105.3 KN / m
291.65 mm / m
10 mm
538.60 mm C / C
150.00 mm
-336.8 KN / m
-932.83 mm / m
300.0 mm
0.30 %
2.50 m. These bars
270.0 mm / m
Provide 12 mm dia. Bars - @ 180 mm C / C,
should be embedded into the heel slab also.
Area of reinforcement = 0.3 % of ( 1000 x 90 ) =
as joint reinforcement.
Adopt a spacing of C / C at this point.
Joint Reinforcement :-
At the junction of the vertical wall with the base slab, a rigid connection can be ensured by providing
additional joint reinforcement. of concrete area may be provided as
reinforcement in the vertical slab, extending for a height of
Provide a spacing of C / C at this point.
Towards the point C , the vertical load intensity is only -124.74 KN/m
2
. Total downward force
at the point C is - = ( -124.74 x 2.7 ) =
Sectional area of two legged vertical ties required here is -
= ( -336.798 x 1000 ) / ( 0.87 x 415 ) =
= ( 39 x 2.7 ) =
Sectional area of two legged vertical ties required here is -
= ( 105.3 x 1000 ) / ( 0.87 x 415 ) =
Spacing of dia. Two legged vertical ties is -
= ( 2 x 78.5375 / 291.65 ) x 1000 =
It is seen that ( V
uc
+ V
us
)
Hence, the can be safely curtailed at this point.
Vertical ties are needed to connect the heel slab to the counterfort. Consider a strip of unit width of slab, in
horizontal direction and supported over the counterforts. Clear width of slab between two
Counterforts = ( 3 - 0.3 ) =
Total downward force trying to separate the strip from the counterforts at the point D is -
At this point, Shear Force is -
( 1 / 2 ) x 1.5 x 0.422 x 18 x 2.508 x 2.508 x 3
Effective depth at this point =
Available tension reinforcement after cut-off is -
( 5 x 201.056 ) =
( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) =
( 0.3 + 2.508 x Tan 21.45 - 0.1 ) =
100 x 1006.4 / ( 1100 x 300 ) =
dia. Two legged ties spaced at
0.87 x 415 x 2 x ( 3.141 / 4 ) x 10 x 10 x 1100 / ( 300 x 1000 )
( V
uc
+ V
us
) = ( 115.5 + 207.95 ) =
( V
uc
+ V
us
) =
From Design Shear Strength of Concrete Table :-
For ( 100 x A
st
) / ( b x d ) =
( 0.35 x 300 x 1100 / 1000)
=
2
2
1
5 . 1 h K V
a u

|
.
|

\
|
3
2
|
.
|

\
|
3
2
0.3 m
4.5 m
W
1
= 60.75 KN 6.0 m
X
1
= 1.05 m
W
3
= 247.90 KN
X
3
= 1.90 m P
a
= 136.73 KN
0.600 m
1.5 m W
2
= 54.00 KN 2.00 m
1.55 m
O
0.6 m 0.05 m
3.6 m
X
2
= 1.80 m
0.600 m
6.0 m
0.19 m
0.05 m
0.1 m
2.4 m
1.25 m
End View
Side View
0.3 m
3.6 m
12 mm - 200 mm C/C
10 mm - 2 Legged ties -
@ 300 mm C/C
16 mm - 10 Nos.
0.600 m
0.6 m
12 mm dia. Bars @ 95
mm C/C
12 mm - 200 mm C/C
10 mm - 2 Legged Ties,
300 mm C/C
10 mm - 425 mm C/C
Cut off point
12 mm - 45 mm C/C, increased to
200 mm C/C towards wall
10 mm - 180 mm C/C
10 mm - 2 Legged Ties,
150 mm C/C
12 mm dia. Bars @ 300
mm C/C
16 mm bars @ 85 mm C/C 12 mm @ 45 mm C/C
16 mm - 5 Nos.
2.508 m
10 mm - 200 mm C/C
0.30 m
Counterforts
12 mm - @ 200 mm C/C
0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
1.25 m
2.4 m
1.25 m
2.5 m
1.25 m
Joint Reinforcement
Sectional Plan
12 mm dia. Bars @ 180 mm C/C
12 mm dia. - 200 mm
C/C, increased to 300
mm C/C at Top
10 mm dia. - 300 mm C/C
0.30 m
12 mm dia. - 95 mm
C/C, Increased to 300
mm C/C towards Top
0.3 m
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Number friction (F)
1 9342' E 2640' N 22 0.5 N/cm2
2 9343' E 2639' N 17 6
3 9344' E 2637' N 33 3.03
4 9346' E 2638' N 28 1.6
5 9347' E 2637' N 27 2.6
6 9350' E 2634' N 30 1.05
7 9353' E 2634' N 36 0.42
8 9355' E 2631' N 17 1.32
9 9357' E 2630' N 36 2.2
10 9357' E 2628' N 28 2
11 9357' E 2626' N 18 1.32
12 9355' E 2624' N 20 0.64
13 9354' E 2622' N 18 0.34
14 9353' E 2619' N 17 0.63
15 9352' E 2616' N 16 0.51 The geotechnical properties of the bank sediments and
16 9350' E 2613' N 23 1.03 bank stability analysis along the Dhansiri River channel have
17 9350' E 2608' N 15 0.8 provided valuable information in land resource evaluation.
18 9347' E 2603' N 18 0.67 Texturally dominant Sandy-Clay-Loam (76%) with
19 9348' E 2602' N 26 0.45 subordinate Clay-Loam (24%), ranging permeability from
20 9348' E 2558' N 18 0.31 5x10-4 to 1x10-6 cm/sec has characterized the bank sediments
23.15 1.371 with poor stability susceptible to liquefaction
Barguriagaon 1.79 41.25 2.6 27 173 18.76 31.74
Butalikhowa 1.87 31.63 2.2 36 147 25.84 290.91
Golaghat 1.54 41.25 1.05 30 70 21.05 18.19
Dachmuagaon 1.53 41.87 2 28 133 19.52 29.12
Parameters in relation to bank stability at two different conditions for the Dhansiri River channel sediments
b Saturated Unsaturated
F' Sn c' gsat Hc Fm Sn cm g Hc
(N/cm2) (N/CC) (cm) (N/cm2) (N/CC) (cm)
25 0 18.04 0.91 0.019 864.16 21.29 751.60 1.31 0.0172 57244.25
30 0 14.93 0.91 0.019 714.98 21.29 161.59 1.31 0.0172 12306.94
35 0 12.69 0.91 0.019 607.61 21.29 075.03 1.31 0.0172 5714.38
40 0 10.99 0.91 0.019 526.36 21.29 045.33 1.31 0.0172 3452.73
45 0 09.66 0.91 0.019 462.51 21.29 031.22 1.31 0.0172 2377.98
50 0 08.58 0.91 0.019 410.85 21.29 023.22 1.31 0.0172 1768.79
55 0 07.68 0.91 0.019 368.03 21.29 018.16 1.31 0.0172 1382.90
60 0 06.93 0.91 0.019 331.84 21.29 014.69 1.31 0.0172 1119.04
65 0 06.28 0.91 0.019 300.72 21.29 012.19 1.31 0.0172 0928.50
H
c
Soil Bearing Capacities
Sample Location
Different geotechnical parameters and critical height for a few locations along the bank of the Dhansiri River
c
u

u
c' = 2/3 c
u
' = tan-1
Dry compact clay (thick layer)
Loose sand
Compact sand
Red earth
Murram
Rock
Sample Location Angle of internal Cohesion (c)
Compact gravel
Soil Type
Soft, wet, pasty or muddy soil
Alluvial soil, loam, sandy loam (clay +40 to
Sandy clay loam (clay +30% sand), moist
Compact clay, nearly dry
Solid clay with very fine sand
70 0 05.71 0.91 0.019 273.61 21.29 010.30 1.31 0.0172 0784.24
75 0 05.21 0.91 0.019 249.67 21.29 008.82 1.31 0.0172 0671.81
80 0 04.77 0.91 0.019 228.32 21.29 007.64 1.31 0.0172 0581.63
85 0 04.37 0.91 0.019 209.07 21.29 006.67 1.31 0.0172 507.60
90 0 04.00 0.91 0.019 191.58 21.29 005.85 1.31 0.0172 445.55
kN/m
27 - 35
80 - 160
215 - 270
215 - 270
-430
320 - 540
160 - 270
215 - 320
-320
-430
750 - 970
-1700
The geotechnical properties of the bank sediments and
bank stability analysis along the Dhansiri River channel have
provided valuable information in land resource evaluation.
Texturally dominant Sandy-Clay-Loam (76%) with
subordinate Clay-Loam (24%), ranging permeability from
5x10-4 to 1x10-6 cm/sec has characterized the bank sediments
with poor stability susceptible to liquefaction
Risk
Unstable
Risk
Risk
Parameters in relation to bank stability at two different conditions for the Dhansiri River channel sediments
25 0 18.04 0.91 0.019 864.16 21.29 751.60 1.31 0.0172 57244.25
30 0 14.93 0.91 0.019 714.98 21.29 161.59 1.31 0.0172 12306.94
35 0 12.69 0.91 0.019 607.61 21.29 075.03 1.31 0.0172 5714.38
40 0 10.99 0.91 0.019 526.36 21.29 045.33 1.31 0.0172 3452.73
45 0 09.66 0.91 0.019 462.51 21.29 031.22 1.31 0.0172 2377.98
50 0 08.58 0.91 0.019 410.85 21.29 023.22 1.31 0.0172 1768.79
55 0 07.68 0.91 0.019 368.03 21.29 018.16 1.31 0.0172 1382.90
60 0 06.93 0.91 0.019 331.84 21.29 014.69 1.31 0.0172 1119.04
65 0 06.28 0.91 0.019 300.72 21.29 012.19 1.31 0.0172 0928.50
Zone
Soil Bearing Capacities
Different geotechnical parameters and critical height for a few locations along the bank of the Dhansiri River
Dry compact clay (thick layer)
Loose sand
Compact sand
Red earth
Murram
Rock
Compact gravel
Soil Type
Soft, wet, pasty or muddy soil
Alluvial soil, loam, sandy loam (clay +40 to
Sandy clay loam (clay +30% sand), moist
Compact clay, nearly dry
Solid clay with very fine sand
70 0 05.71 0.91 0.019 273.61 21.29 010.30 1.31 0.0172 0784.24
75 0 05.21 0.91 0.019 249.67 21.29 008.82 1.31 0.0172 0671.81
80 0 04.77 0.91 0.019 228.32 21.29 007.64 1.31 0.0172 0581.63
85 0 04.37 0.91 0.019 209.07 21.29 006.67 1.31 0.0172 507.60
90 0 04.00 0.91 0.019 191.58 21.29 005.85 1.31 0.0172 445.55