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The Green Book

Syllabus 2010 / 2011



Honour School of Archaeology and Anthropology

Honour Moderations Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4 Practical Classes Introduction to World Archaeology Introduction to Anthropological Theory Perspectives on Human Evolution The Nature of Archaeological Enquiry 4 13 19 26 36

Final Honour School Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4 Social Analysis and Interpretations Cultural Representations, Beliefs and Practices Landscape and Ecology Urbanisation and Change in Complex Societies 38 48 58 68

Optional Papers in Anthropology Optional Papers in Archaeology

75 86



The Oxford course is unique in Britain in offering an integrated undergraduate degree in archaeology and anthropology (social, cultural and biological), sustained over the entire three years, taking advantage of the lively centres of teaching and research which Oxford maintains in each of these complementary areas. Its temporal scope extends from human origins in the Palaeolithic period down to the medieval beginnings of modern western society, and its geographical scope includes communities across the entire globe. Within this broad span, it offers two complementary perspectives on human diversity. One is the biological study of the human species and the scientific analysis of human analysis of human artefacts; the other is the cultural interpretation of social and material life in its historical and comparative aspects. Whilst no single academic institution can offer an encyclopaedic study of all human cultures, the detailed understanding of a diverse range of ancient societies and more recent overseas communities offers a unique intellectual experience which is of direct relevance to understanding important aspects of the contemporary world. Oxford offers two principal areas of expertise. One, centred around the Ashmolean Museum and the emerging Humanities Complex, is concerned with the cultural development of the Old World, from the beginnings of complex societies in Mesopotamia and China, through the classical civilisations and their prehistoric neighbours, down to the Islamic and early medieval period, the other, located in the science area (including the Pitt Rivers Museum and Banbury Road), covers the diversity of peoples and cultures in Africa, the New World and the Pacific region, as well as the small-scale societies of Eurasia which have survived in the interstices of larger states. Their study involves a wide variety of complementary disciplines. From genetics and radiometric dating to the study of social structures and the interpretation of many forms of artistic creativity the comparative approach adopted in this course emphasises the common principles underlying these regional and temporal manifestations. Although some of these topics can be studied as part of other subjects (such as human sciences or classics), together they provide a coherent perspective on human existence which complements that of more traditional courses centred on particular cultures or periods. Their integration within a single course provides a valuable educational experience. It is evident, then, that this course places a premium on the ability to integrate different forms of evidence in terms of a set of biological, cultural and social principles. This combines a local understanding of the complexities of individual human groups with a comprehension of their wider setting in time and space. The course has been designed to maintain a balance between these two objectives: a broad interpretative perspective and a detailed command of how particular societies work and how they use their material environment.


While some relevant aspects of the Honour School may have been covered in subjects studied at school, most parts of it will be largely unfamiliar. The Honour Moderations course (Mods), taken in the first year, thus offers a broad introduction which assumes no prior knowledge of the constituent disciplines. Paper 1 (Introduction to World Archaeology) offers a synoptic view of human development from its beginnings down to historical times. Particular points of emphasis are the emergence of modern humans, the beginnings of farming in several parts of the world, and the origins and spread of urban societies. Paper 2 (Introduction to Anthropological Theory) looks at the principal approaches to understanding human societies and the role of anthropology in relation to them, and especially at ways of understanding other cultures and their symbolic structures Paper 3 (Perspectives on Human Evolution) examines the biological basis of human existence, including human evolution, demography, nutrition and health, and the variety of human subsistence systems in a diversity of environments. Paper 4 (The Nature of Archaeological Enquiry) complements Paper 1 with an account of the growth of knowledge of past cultures and a consideration of the basic principles involved in reconstructing their ways of life using material evidence. These subjects are examined in the Trinity Term of the first year by four three-hour papers of three questions each.


The second and third years are occupied in preparation for the four core papers and three optional papers of the Final Honour School, and the writing of a 15,000-word thesis on a subject approved by the Standing Committee. The first long vacation includes a period of fieldwork. The FHS continues the principle of balancing detailed knowledge of particular periods and areas (or scientific topics), which are explored as optional subjects, with broadly comparative courses which strive to integrate the insights of the different disciplines. Where possible, these include both an archaeological and an anthropological dimension, and candidates are encouraged to mobilize their knowledge of each of these disciplines in understanding the others. Material from optional subjects and from the dissertation should also inform wider questions. Paper 1 (Social Analysis and Interpretation) examines forms of social and political structure and economic transactions, within a framework which includes historical analysis and a consideration of gender-related aspects. Paper 2 (Cultural Representations, Beliefs and Practices) considers symbolic systems, including moral and religious aspects as well as performative and aesthetic ones, and a consideration of the nature of ritual action. Paper 3 (Landscape and Ecology) examines human cultural and biological adaptations within the related context of ecology and landscape and against a background of climatic and environmental change. Paper 4 (Urbanization and Change in Complex Societies: Comparative Approaches) involves a historical and comparative study of the characteristics of urban networks and their economic interactions, principally in the Old World from 3500 BC to AD 1000, in the light of anthropology and historical sociology. Optional Papers. Three optional subjects, either anthropological or archaeological, are chosen from a schedule of specified topics which give the opportunity to develop expertise in a particular area and period. It is intended that candidates should gain a broad knowledge of the organization and dynamics of human societies, their biological and subsistence bases, and the way in which symbolic systems are expressed both in ideas and in material culture. Although such topics are exemplified in the course principally in the study of ancient and small-scale societies, they can be very widely applied, and theses offer the opportunity to investigate them in sometimes unexpected contexts and combinations. The course demands sustained effort across a wide diversity of fields, but provides rewarding insights into fundamental aspects of human existence.


PAPER 1: INTRODUCTION TO WORLD ARCHAEOLOGY Course Co-ordinator: Prof. Peter Mitchell, St Hughs College Tel: (2)74951 E-mail: peter.mitchell@st-hughs.ox.ac.uk

SYLLABUS This paper sets out to provide a basic introduction to the major cultural developments of the Holocene, roughly the last 10,000 years. It thus continues on chronologically from Paper 3. The emphasis of Paper 1 is partly chronological, ranging from the effects on human societies of post-glacial climatic amelioration to the consequences of European colonial expansion in and after the fifteenth century AD, and partly thematic, treating issues such as the relationship between environmental and cultural change and the role of trade in the emergence of social complexity. In Michaelmas Term the focus lies on the variety of food-production systems developed during the Holocene and the ways in which they evolved and spread. Then, in Hilary Term, the course examines the emergence of urban societies and the growth and collapse of early states and empires. Throughout the paper, examples are drawn from many different parts of the world in order to encourage cross-cultural comparisons. At the same time the lectures aim to provide a sense of the continuity of historical developments in key regions of both the Old and New Worlds. Some of the analytical techniques or theoretical approaches applied to these questions are examined in greater depth in Paper 4. Students are also encouraged to develop some familiarity through tutorials and reading with the archaeology of those parts of the world not covered in lectures.

LECTURES [32] Michaelmas Term [16 lectures] Lecturers: Dr A. Bogaard, Dr N. L. Boivin, Prof. P. Mitchell and Dr R. Schulting 1. Coping with the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PM) 2. Alternatives to farming: intensification in northwestern North America (RS) 3. Farming and its alternatives: Holocene Sahul (PM) 4. Understanding agricultural origins (PM) 5. The origins of farming in Western Asia (AB) 6. atalhyk: a Neolithic village of Western Asia (AB) 7. Established farming communities of Western Asia (AB) 8. The spread of farming in Europe (AB) 4

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Established farming communities in Europe (AB) The transition to agriculture in South Asia (NLB) Agriculture and domestication in Southeast Asia and Oceania (NLB) Early food-production in Africa (PM) Early farming communities in southern Africa (PM) Early farming communities in Mesoamerica (PM) Pathways to food-production in South America (PM) Pathways to food-production in North America (PM)

Hilary Term [16 lectures] Lecturers: Prof. J. Baines, Dr L. Bendall, Dr N. L. Boivin, Dr J. Dahl, Prof. C. Gosden, Prof. H. Hamerow, Dr Z. Kamash & Prof. P. Mitchell 17. Understanding state formation and urban origins (NLB) 18. The emergence of complex societies in Mesopotamia (JD) 19. The emergence of complex societies in Egypt (JB) 20 The emergence of complex societies in the Indus Valley (NLB) 21 The emergence of complex societies in the Aegean (LB) 22. Bronze to Iron in the Mediterranean and continental Europe 1100-500 BC (CG) 23. Core, periphery and the coming of Rome 500 BC - AD 100 (CG) 24. Rome and the archaeology of Empire (ZK) 25. Themes in Roman archaeology (ZK) 26. Towns and trade in Early Medieval Europe (HH) 27. Sub-Saharan Africa's first states: Kerma, Nubia and Mero (PM) 28. Heterarchy, trade and world religions: Africa's Sahel (PM) 29. Cores and peripheries: the case of Great Zimbabwe (PM) 30. Complex societies in the Americas: the rise and fall of the Classic Maya (PM) 31. Complex societies in the Americas: the Inka and the archaeology of empire (PM) 32. Europe and the world: an archaeological perspective (PM) Note - Lectures are an integral part of the examined syllabus and your attendance is expected at all of them.

RECOMMENDED READING: General Texts Cunliffe, B., 2008, Europe between the Oceans, New Haven: Yale University Press. Cunliffe, B., Gosden, C. & Joyce, R. (eds.), 2009, The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology, Oxford: OUP. Fagan, B., 2006, People of the Earth (twelfth edition), London: Collins. Scarre. C. (ed.), 2005, The Human Past, Thames & Hudson Journals You are encouraged to keep abreast of some of the major journals of relevance to the course, particularly Antiquity and World Archaeology, copies of which can be found online and in both the Balfour and the Sackler Libraries. You should also make sure to visit the Ashmolean Museum, especially in relation to Lectures 17-27.

Lectures 1-16 Origins of Food-Production: general texts Barker, G., 2006, The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory, Oxford: OUP. Bellwood, P., 2005, First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Denham, P., Iriarte, J. & Vrydaghs, L. (eds.), 2007, Rethinking Agriculture: Archaeological and Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives, Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press (NB especially good for Southeast Asia and Africa) Gebauer, A. & Price, T.D. (eds.), 1992, Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory (Monographs in World Archaeology 4), Madison: Prehistory Press. Kenneu, D.J. & Winterhalder, B. (eds.), 2006, Behavioural Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture, Berkeley: University of California Press. Mithen, S., 2003, After the Ice: A Global Human History 20,0005000 BC, London: Thames & Hudson. Sherratt, A., 1997, Climatic cycles and behavioural revolutions: the emergence of modern humans and the beginning of farming, Antiquity 71: 271-287. Smith, B.D., 1998, The Emergence of Agriculture (second edition), New York: Scientific American. Lecture 1 Allen, J. & O'Connell, J.F. (eds.), 1995, Transitions: Pleistocene to Holocene in Australia and Papua New Guinea, Antiquity 69: 649-862. Strauss, L.G., Eriksen, B.V., Erlandson, J.M. & Yesner, D.R. (eds.), 1996, Humans at the End of the Ice Age: The Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition, New York: Plenum Press. Lecture 2 Ames, K.M., 2001, Slaves, chiefs and labour on the Northern Northwest Coast, World Archaeology 33: 1-17. Ames, K.M. & Maschner, H.D.G., 1999, Peoples of the Northwest Coast, London: Thames & Hudson. Fagan, B., 2005, Ancient North America (fourth edition), London: Thames & Hudson. Jonaitis, A. (ed.), 1992, Chiefly Feasts: The Enduring Kwakiutl Potlach, Seattle: University of Washington Press. http://www.anchoragemuseum.org/galleries/alaska_gallery/NW_indian.aspx Lecture 3 Hiscock, P., 2007, Archaeology of Ancient Australia, Cambridge: CUP. Lourandos, H., 1996. Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory, Cambridge: CUP. Mulvaney, J. & Kamminga, J. 1999, Prehistory of Australia, Sydney: Allen & Unwin. http://arts.anu.edu.au/arcworld/resources/regions.htm Lecture 5 Bogucki, P., 1999, The Origins of Human Society, Oxford: Blackwells, (chapters 4-5) Kujit, I. & Goring-Morris, N., 2002, Foraging, farming and social complexity in the prehistory of the southern Levant, Journal of World Prehistory 16: 361-440. Simmons, A.H., 2007, The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, (chapters 4-6). 6

Wright, K., 2000, The social origins of cooking and dining in early villages of western Asia, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 66: 89-121. Lecture 6 Hodder, I., 2006, The Leopard's Tale: Revealing the Mysteries of atal Hyk, London: Thames & Hudson. http://www.catalhoyuk.com/ Lecture 7 Akkermans, P.M.M.G. & Schwartz, G.M., 2003, The Archaeology of Syria, Cambridge: CUP, (chapter 4). Banning, E.B., 1998, The Neolithic period: triumphs of architecture, agriculture and art, Near Eastern Archaeology 61: 188-237. Flannery, K.V., 2002, The origins of the village revisited: from nuclear to extended households, American Antiquity 67: 417-433. Simmons, A.H., 2007, The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, (chapters 7, 8 & 10). Lecture 8 Ammerman, A.J. & Biagi, P. (eds.), 2003, The Neolithic Transition in Europe: Looking Back, Looking Forward, Boston: Archaeological Institute of America. Hodder, I., 1991, The Domestication of Europe: Structure and Contingency in Neolithic Societies, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, (chapter 2) Price, T.D. (ed.), 2000, Europes First Farmers, Cambridge: CUP, (chapters 3, 6, 8) Whittle, A., 1996, Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds, Cambridge: CUP, (chapters 2, 3, 6) Lecture 9 Bogucki, P., 1999, The Origins of Human Society, Oxford: Blackwells, (chapter 6). Bradley, R., 1998, The Significance of Monuments, London: Routledge. Parker-Pearson, M., 2005, Bronze Age Britain, English Heritage, (chapters 2-4) Whittle, A., 1996, Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds, Cambridge: CUP, (chapters 5 & 7) Lecture 10 Allchin, B. & Allchin, F.R., 1982, The Rise of Civilisation in India and Pakistan, Cambridge: CUP. Allchin, F.R., 1963, Neolithic Cattle-Keepers of South India: A Study of the Deccan Ashmounds, Cambridge: CUP. Fuller, D.Q., 2006, Agricultural origins and frontiers in South Asia: a working synthesis, Journal of World Prehistory 20: 1-86. Settar, S. & Korisettar, R. (eds.), 2002, Indian Archaeology in Retrospect, Volume I: Prehistory, New Delhi: Indian Council for Historical Research. Lecture 11 Glover, I. & Bellwood, P. (eds.), 2004, Southeast Asia from Prehistory to History, London: Routledge. Higham, C.F.W., 2001, Archaeology of Mainland Southeast Asia, Cambridge: CUP. Papers in Antiquity, 36(4), 2004.

http://www.seaarchaeology.com Lecture 12 Mitchell, P.J., 2005, African Connections: Archaeological Perspectives on Africa and the Wider World, Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, (chapter 2) Phillipson, D.W., 2005, African Archaeology, Cambridge: CUP, (chapters 6-7) Stahl, A.B. (ed.), 2005, African Archaeology: A Critical Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, (chapters 7-10, 12) Lecture 13 Mitchell, P.J., 2002, The Archaeology of Southern Africa, Cambridge: CUP, (chapter 10) Mitchell, P.J. & Whitelaw, G., 2005, The archaeology of southernmost Africa c. 2000 BP to the early 1800s: a review of recent research, Journal of African History 46: 209241 Lecture 14 Coe, M. & Koontz, R., 2008, Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (sixth edition), London: Thames & Hudson. Evans, S.T., 2004, Ancient Mexico and Central America: Archaeology and Culture History, London: Thames & Hudson. www.famsi.org Lecture 15 Bruhns, O.K., 1994, Ancient South America, Cambridge: CUP, (chapters 5-8). McEwan, C., Barretto, C. & Neves, E.G. (eds.), 2001, Unknown Amazon: Culture in Nature in Ancient Brazil, London: British Museum Press. Moseley, M.E., 2001, The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru (second edition), London: Thames & Hudson. Lecture 16 Fagan, B., 2005, Ancient North America: The archaeology of a continent (fourth edition), London: Thames & Hudson. Milner, G.R. 2004, The Moundbuilders: Ancient people of eastern North America, London: Thames & Hudson. Plog, S., 1997, Ancient Peoples of the American Southwest, London: Thames & Hudson. http://www.cahokiamounds.com Lectures 17-32 Urbanism, States and Empires: general texts Alcock, S.E., DAltroy, T.N., Morrison, K.D. & Sinopoli, C.M. (eds.), 2001, Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History, Cambridge: CUP. Connah, G., 2001, African Civilization: Precolonial Cities and States in Tropical Africa. An Archaeological Perspective (second edition), Cambridge: CUP. Diamond, J., 2005, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive, Harmondsworth: Penguin. Feinman, G.M. & Marcus, J. (eds.), 1998, Archaic States, Santa Fe: School of American Research. McAnany, P.A. & Yoffee, N. (eds.), 2009, Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge: CUP.

Trigger, B.G., 1993, Early Civilizations: Ancient Egypt in Context, Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. Trigger, B.G., 2003, Understanding Early Civilizations, Cambridge: CUP. Yoffee, N., 2005, Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States, and Civilizations, Cambridge: CUP. Yoffee, N., et al., 2005, Review feature: Myths of the archaic state, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15, 251-68. Lecture 18 Adams, R.M., 1966, The Evolution of Urban Society, Chicago: Aldine. Pollock, S., 1999, Ancient Mesopotamia, Cambridge: CUP. Postgate, N., 1992, Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History, London: Routledge Kegan Paul. http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk Lecture 19 Bard, K., 2008, Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Kemp, B., 2006, Ancient Egypt: The Anatomy of a Civilization (second edition), London: Routledge. Wengrow, D., 2006, The Archaeology of Early Egypt, Cambridge: CUP. http://www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/er Lecture 20 Allchin, B. & Allchin, F.R., 1982, The Rise of Civilisation in India and Pakistan, Cambridge: CUP. Kenoyer, J.M., 1998, Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Karachi: OUP. Possehl, G.L., 2002, The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press. Settar, S. & Korisettar, R. (eds.), 2002, Indian Archaeology in Retrospect, Volume II: Archaeology of the Harappan Civilisation, New Delhi: Indian Council for Historical Research. http://www.harappa.com/ Lecture 21 Barrett, J.C. & Halstead, P. (eds.), 2004, The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited, Oxford, Oxbow Press. Betencourt, P. 2007. Introduction to Aegean Art. Philadelphia: INSTAP Cullen, T. (ed.), 2001, Aegean Prehistory: A Review, Boston: Archaeological Institute of America. Deger-Jalkotzy, S. & Lemos, I.S. (eds.), 2006, Ancient Greece: From the Mycenaean Palaces to the Age of Homer, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Schofield, L., 2007, The Mycenaeans, London: British Museum Press. Shelmerdine, C.W. (ed.) 2008. The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge: CUP. http://projectsx.dartmouth.edu/history/bronze_age/ http://crete.classics.ox.ac.uk/ 9

http://ina.tamu.edu/ub_main.htm (Uluburun shipwreck) Lectures 22 Collis, J., 1984, The European Iron Age, London: Batsford, (chapters 2 and 3) Dickinson, O., 2006, The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age, London: Routledge. Kristiansen, K., 1998, Europe before History, London: Routledge, (chapter 8) Osborne. R., 1996, Greece in the Making 1200-479 BC, London: Routledge, (chapter 4) Lecture 23 Cunliffe, B., 2001, Facing the Ocean: The Atlantic and its Peoples, Oxford: OUP, (chapters 8, 9) Arafat, K., & C. Morgan, 1994, Athens, Etruria and the Heuneburg, in Morris, I. (ed.), Classical Greece: Ancient Histories and Modern Archaeologies,. Cambridge: CUP. pp. 108-134 Dietler, M., 1997, The Iron Age in Mediterranean France: colonial encounters entanglements and transformations, Journal of World Prehistory 11: 269-358. Frankenstein, S. & Rowlands, M., 1978, The internal structure and regional context of Early Iron Age society in south-western Germany, Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology, University of London 15: 73-112. Roymans, N., 1990, Tribal Societies in Northern Gaul. An Anthropological Perspective, Amsterdam: Albert Egges van Giffen Instituut voor Prae- en Protohistorie. Lectures 24 and 25. Beard, M., North, J. & Price, S., 1998, The Religions of Rome, Cambridge: CUP. De la Bdoyre, G., 2007, Gods with Thunderbolts: Religion in Roman Britain, Stroud: Tempus. Huskinson, J. (ed.), 2000, Experiencing Rome: Culture, Identity and Power in the Roman Empire, London: Routledge. Mattingly, D.J. (ed.), 1997, Dialogues in Roman Imperialism. Power, Discourse and Discrepant Experience in the Roman Empire, Portsmouth: JRA. Mattingly, D.J., 2006, An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire 54 BC AD 409, London: Allen Lane. Woolf, G. (ed.), 2004, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Roman World, Cambridge: CUP. http://earth.google.com/rome/ Lecture 26 Hodges, R., 1989, Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade, AD 600-1000 (second edition), London: Duckworth. Hodges, R. & Hobley, B. (eds.), 1988, The Rebirth of Towns in the West AD 700-1050, London: CBA Research Report 68. McCormick, M., 2002, Origins of the European Economy, Cambridge: CUP, (pp.1-20 and Part V) Randsborg, K., 1991, The First Millennium AD in Europe and the Mediterranean: An Archaeological Essay, Cambridge: CUP. Lecture 27 Edwards, D.N., 2004, The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan, London: Routledge. Welsby, D., 1996, The Kingdom of Kush, London: British Museum Press. 10

http://www.sudarchrs.org.uk/ Lecture 28 Haour, A., 2008, Rulers, Warriors, Traders, Clerics: The Central Sahel and the North Sea 800-1500, Oxford: OUP. Insoll, T., 2003, The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa, Cambridge: CUP. McIntosh, R.J., 1998, The Peoples of the Middle Niger, Oxford: Blackwells. Mitchell, P.J., 2005, African Connections: Archaeological Perspectives on Africa and the Wider World, Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, (chapter 5) Lecture 29 Garlake, P., 1973, Great Zimbabwe, London: Thames & Hudson. Hall, M., 1987, The Changing Past, Farmers, Kings and Traders in Southern Africa, 2001860, Cape Town: David Philip, (chapters 7-9) Mitchell, P.J., 2002, The Archaeology of Southern Africa, Cambridge: CUP, (chapter 11) Pikirayi, I., 2001, The Zimbabwe Culture: Origins and decline of southern Zambezian states, Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press. Lecture 30 Coe, M.D., 2005, The Maya (seventh edition), London: Thames & Hudson. Demarest, A., 2003, Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization, Cambridge: CUP. Hendon, J.A. & Joyce, R.A. (eds.), 2004, Mesoamerican Archaeology, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Webster, D., 2002, The Fall of the Ancient Maya: Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse, London: Thames & Hudson. http://www.maya-archaeology.org http://www.mesoweb.com Lecture 31 Bruhns, O.K., 1994, Ancient South America, Cambridge: CUP, (chapters 9, 12-17). Conrad, G. & Demarest, A., 1984, Religion and Empire: The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism, Cambridge: CUP. DAltroy, T.N., 2003, The Incas, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Moseley, M.E., 2001, The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru (second edition), London: Thames & Hudson. http://www.stanford.edu/~johnrick/Inca/WW/index.html Lecture 32 Gosden, C., 2004, The Archaeology of Colonialism, Cambridge: CUP. Noel Hume, I., 1991, Martin's Hundred, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Orser, C., 1996, A Historical Archaeology of the Modern World, New York: Plenum Press. Trigger, B.G., 1985, Natives and Newcomers: Canada's Heroic Age Reconsidered, Toronto: McGill-Queen's University Press.


SUGGESTED TUTORIAL TOPICS Tutorials for Paper 1 should focus on the key questions tackled by the various case studies presented in the lectures. A primary aim should be developing an understanding of general processes of sociocultural development and it may be helpful for at least some tutorials to be framed in comparative terms (e.g. between Old World and New World or temperate and tropical examples, or between other selected case studies). Key themes that may be suitable for discussion include: o o o o o o o Coping with the environmental opportunities of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. The development and expansion of systems of food production. Competing explanations for agricultural and non-agricultural pathways to intensification during the Holocene. The emergence of social stratification in early farming communities. The archaeological identification of civilization, urbanism and the state and the processes leading to the development of urban and state-level societies. The usefulness and limitations of core-periphery models. The roles of monumental architecture, iconography, writing, prestige goods and other forms of material culture in the establishment and maintenance of elite power. Civilisational collapse and strategies for the growth and survival of imperial systems. The role of archaeology in understanding European colonial expansion. The development and expansion of systems of food production.

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PAPER 2 : INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY Course Co-ordinator: Prof. Marcus Banks, ISCA 51 Banbury Road Tel: (2) 74675 E-mail: marcus.banks@anthro.ox.ac.uk

SYLLABUS This paper sets out to provide a basic introduction to the field of social and cultural anthropology, covering both the organization of society, and the relationship between society, culture and environment. The emphasis is primarily on theory and method: thus the course focuses on the sorts of questions anthropologists ask, and how they go about answering them. Such issues can only be tackled by reference to ethnography the detailed description of actual social relationships in the world, from urban Indians, to East African pastoralists, to North American gatherer-hunters. However, the main aim is to help students towards an ability to think anthropologically; since styles of anthropological thought have varied over the last century and a half, some awareness is required of the history of the discipline. The course is taught through a series of 16 lectures and 8 tutorials; students should also make use in their own time of the ethnographic films in the ISCA Video Library (housed at the Pitt Rivers Museum). Catalogues are available in the Tylor and Balfour Libraries. The Video Library also contains copies of the Central Television Series, Strangers Abroad, detailing the life and work of Baldwin Spencer, Rivers, Boas, Mead, Malinowski, and Evans-Pritchard, which may prove useful. Learning outcomes By the end of the paper students will: have a basic understanding of the development of anthropological theory; be familiar with the ethnography of a broad range of contemporary human societies, with reference both to human social relationships and human environmental relationships; have acquired a conception of society as a unit of analysis. Transferable skills Students should have learned to guard against making ethnocentric assumptions in assessing the life courses of non-Euro-American peoples.


LECTURES [16] Michaelmas Term [8 lectures] Lecturers: Prof. M. Banks, Dr J. Lanman 1. Introduction: what can ethnography tell us? (MB) 2. Being related: kinship, ethnicity and other ties (MB) 3. Making order: the anthropology of politics (MB) 4. Finding meaning: the anthropology of religion (MB) 5. Gender equality among hunter gatherers (JL) 6. Leadership and political evolution in the Pacific (JL) 7. Witchcraft and politics in politics in African societies (JL) 8. The development of the Incest Taboo (JL) Hilary Term [8 lectures] Lecturers: Dr C. Harris, Prof. C. Gosden, Prof. P. Mitchell, Dr L. Peers 9. Understanding production (CG) 10. Understanding exchange (CG) 11. The ecology of hunter-gatherers (PM) 12. Questioning assumptions: the Kalahari debate (PM) 13. Of people and things: an introduction to material culture (LP) 14. Anthropology and museums, anthropology of museums (LP) 15. The anthropology of art (CH) 16. The anthropology of landscape (CH) Note - Lectures are an integral part of the examined syllabus and attendance at all of them is strongly recommended. READING: RECOMMENDED General Texts Barfield, T.J., 1997, The dictionary of anthropology, Oxford: Blackwell. Barnard, A. & Spencer, J., 1998, Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology, London: Routledge. Cheater, A.P., 1989, Social anthropology, London: Routledge. Eriksen, T.H., 2001, Small places, large issues: an introduction to social and cultural anthropology, London: Pluto. Hendry, J., 1999, An anthropologist in Japan: glimpses of life in the field, London: Routledge. Ingold, T., 1994, Companion encyclopedia of anthropology, London: Routledge.. Keesing, R.M. & Strathern, A., 1998, Cultural anthropology: a contemporary perspective, Fort Worth: London: Harcourt Brace College. Kuper, A., 1973, Anthropology and Anthropologists: The Modern British School 19221972, London: Allen Lane. Layton, R., 1997, An introduction to theory in anthropology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 14

MacClancy, J. (ed.), 2002, Exotic no more: anthropology on the front lines, Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press. Moore, H.L. (ed.), 1999, Anthropological theory today, Malden, MA: Polity Press. Journals Students will enjoy reading the RAI's bimonthly journal Anthropology Today, as well as browsing through professional journals such as JRAI, American Anthropologist and American Ethnologist; copies are available in the Tylor Library. Lecture 1: Introduction: what can ethnography tell us? Leach, E., 1966, 'Virgin Birth', Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1966: 39-49. Riviere, P.G., 1974, 'The Couvade: A Problem Reborn', Man, 9(3): 423-435. Lecture 2: Being related: kinship, ethnicity, and other ties Eriksen, T.H., 2002, Ethnicity and nationalism, London: Pluto Press. Parkin, R., 1997, Kinship: an introduction to basic concepts, Oxford: Blackwell. Weiner, A.B., 1979, 'Trobriand Kinship from Another View: The Reproductive Power of Women and Men', Man 14(2): 328-348. Lecture 3: Making order: the anthropology of politics Gledhill, J., 1994, Power and its Disguises: Anthropological perspectives on politics, London: Pluto. Gluckman, M., 1967, The judicial process among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia, Manchester: Manchester University Press. Vincent, J. (ed.), 2002, The anthropology of politics: a reader in ethnography, theory, and critique, Malden: Blackwell Publishers. Lecture 4: Finding meaning: the anthropology of religion Banks, M., 1992, Organizing Jainism in India and England: Oxford University Press, (Chpt.3) van Gennep, A., 1977, The rites of passage, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Lambek, M., 2002, A reader in the anthropology of religion, Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers. Lecture 5: Gender equality among hunter gatherers Baron-Cohen, S., 2003, The essential difference: men, women and the extreme male brain, London: Allen Lane. Bodenhorn, B., 1990, I'm Not the Great Hunter, My Wife Is, Etudes Inuit Studies, 14: 55-74. Leacock, E., 1978, "Women's Status in Egalitarian Society: implications for social evolution" in Current Anthropology, 19: 247-274. Rosaldo, M.Z. & Lamphere, L. (eds.), 1976, Woman, culture, and society, Stanford: Stanford University Press. Lecture 6: Leadership and political evolution in the Pacific Allen, M.,1984, Elders, chiefs and Big Men American Ethnologist 11: 20-41. Douglas, B., 1979, "Rank, Power, and Authority" Journal of Pacific History 14: 2-27. Feinberg, R. & Watson-Gegeo K.A. (eds.), 1996, Leadership and change in the Western Pacific, London: Athlone.


Sahlins, M.D., 1963, 'Poor Man, Rich Man, Big-Man, Chief: Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia', Comparative Studies in Society and History 5(3): 285303. Whitehouse, H., 1992, "Leaders and Logics, Persons & Politics" History and Anthropology, 6:103-124. Lecture 7: Witchcraft and politics in African societies Boyer, P., 2001, Religion explained: the evolutionary origins of religious thought. New York: Basic Books. Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J., 1992, "Cognitive adaptations for social exchange" in Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (eds.), The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, New York: Oxford University Press, Evans-Pritchard, E.E., 1976, Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the Azande, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Mair, L., 1969, Witchcraft, London: World University Library. Middleton, J. and Winter, E. (eds.), 1963, Witchcraft and Sorcery in East Africa, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Whitehouse, H., 2004, Modes of religiosity: a cognitive theory of religious transmission.. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. Lecture 8: The development of the incest taboo Fessler, D., Navarrete, C.D. 2004. Third-party attitudes towards sibling incest: Evidence for Westermarcks hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behaviour 25, p. 277-294 Fox, R. 1967 (1983). Kinship and Marriage: An Anthropological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Herman, J. & Hirschman, L. 1977. Father-Daughter Incest. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 2: 735-756 Roscoe, P. 1994. Amity and Aggression: A Symbolic Theory of Incest. Man 29. p.4976 Shepher, J. 1983. Incest: A Biosocial View. New York: Academic Press. Lecture 9: Understanding production Dobres, M.-A., 2000, Technology and social agency: outlining a practice framework for archaeology, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Ellen, R., 1994, Modes of subsistence, in Ingold, T. (ed.) Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology, London: Routledge. Lecture 10: Understanding exchange Davis, J., 1992, Exchange, Buckingham: Open University Press. Mauss, M., 1990, The Gift: The form and reason for exchange in archaic societies, London: Routledge.. Parry, J.P. & M. Bloch (eds.), 1989, Money and the morality of exchange, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. Lecture 11: The ecology of hunter-gatherers Barnard, A., 1992, Hunters and Herders of Southern Africa: a Comparative Ethnography of the Khoisan Peoples, Cambridge: CUP. Lee, R. B., 1979, The !Kung San: Men, Women and Work in a Foraging Society, Cambridge: CUP.


Lee, R. B. & DeVore, I. (eds.), 1976, Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Marshall, L. B., 1976, The !Kung of Nyae-Nyae, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Mitchell, P.J., 2002, The Archaeology of Southern Africa, Cambridge: CUP [archaeological background]. Silberbauer, G., 1981, Hunter and Habitat in the Central Kalahari, Cambridge: CUP. Lecture 12: Questioning assumptions: the Kalahari debate Schrire, C. (ed.), 1984, Past and Present in Hunter-Gatherer Studies, Orlando: Academic Press. Especially papers by: Denbow, J. R., 1984, Prehistoric herders and foragers of the Kalahari: the evidence for 1500 years of interaction, pp. 175-193. Gordon, R., 1984, The !Kung in the Kalahari exchange: an ethnohistorical perspective, pp. 194-224. Parkington, J. E., 1984, Soaqua and Bushmen: Hunters and Robbers, pp. 151-174. Headland, T. N. & Reid, L. A., 1989, Hunter-gatherers and their neighbours from prehistory to the present, Current Anthropology 30: 43-66. Solway, & Lee, R. B., 1990, Foragers, Genuine or Spurious ? Situating the Kalahari San in History, Current Anthropology 31: 109-146. Wilmsen, E. N., 1989, Land Filled with Flies: a Political Economy of the Kalahari, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Woodburn, J., 1991, African Hunter-gatherer Social Organization - is it Best Understood as a Product of Encapsulation?, in: Ingold, T., Riches, D. & Woodburn, J. (eds.), Hunters and Gatherers: History, Evolution and Social Change, London: Berg: pp. 31-64. Lecture 13: Of people and things: an introduction to material culture Miller, D., 1994, Artefacts and the meaning of things, in Ingold, T. (ed.) Companion encyclopedia of anthropology, London: Routledge. Morphy, H., 1989, Material culture, in Kuper, A. & Kuper J. (eds.) The social science encyclopedia, London: Routledge. Lecture 14: Anthropology and museums, anthropology of museums Clifford, J., 1988, On collecting art and culture, in Clifford, J. (ed.) The Predicament of culture: Twentieth-century Ethnography, Literature and Art, Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press. Fienup-Riordan, A., 1998, Yup'ik elders in museums: fieldwork turned on its head, Arctic Anthropology 35 (2), 49-58. Jones, A., 1993, Exploding canons: the anthropology of museums, Annual Review of Anthropology, 22: 201-220. Stocking, G.W., 1985, Objects and others: essays on museums and material culture, Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press..(Introduction and other essays). Lecture 15: The anthropology of art Layton, R., 1991, The anthropology of art, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Price, S., 2001, Primitive art in civilized places, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Lecture 16: The anthropology of landscape Bender, B. (ed.), 1993, Landscape : politics and perspectives, Providence, R.I. ; Oxford: Berg. Hirsch, E. & M. O'Hanlon (eds.), 1995, Anthropology of landscape: perspectives on place and space: Oxford University Press.. (especially introduction and essays by Morphy and Bender). Morphy, H., 1991, Ancestral connections: art and an aboriginal system of knowledge, Chicago: London : University of Chicago Press. Tilley, C.Y., 1994, A phenomenology of landscape: places, paths, and monuments, Oxford: Berg. N.B. Further reading may be provided at each lecture.

SUGGESTED TUTORIAL TOPICS o o o o o o o o o o o In what sense can it be said that people in different cultures think differently? How is the notion of transition useful in analysing ritual? The symbolic aspects of pastoralists relationships with their animals. Do older theoretical paradigms such as evolutionism or functionalism still have value today? How has colonialism affected peoples relationship with the landscape? The contrast between conflict models of society and consensus models. Classification and difference. Are landscapes fixed? The differences between giving/receiving gifts and buying/selling commodities. Biology versus sociology in the study of gender or of handedness. Why is the topic of kinship so important for anthropology?



PAPER 3 : PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN EVOLUTION Course Co-ordinator: Prof. Nick Barton Institute of Archaeology, 36 Beaumont St Tel : (2)78253 E-mail : nick.barton@arch.ox.ac.uk

SYLLABUS This is an interdisciplinary course that offers archaeological, biological and palaeological perspectives on the evolution of the human species. Beginning in Africa the lectures will consider biological and cultural variation in early African hominins leading to the emergence of our own genus Homo. Themes to be considered include notions of culture and tool use, as well as ideas concerning brain size expansion over the last 2.0 million years and the great regional diversity in early hominin behaviour. Topics relating to the successive human dispersals from Africa into Asia and Europe will also be explored as well as the origins of language and the appearance of symbolic and artistic expression in Homo sapiens. Emphasis will likewise be placed on examining the variability of humans across the globe and how some forms such as the Neanderthals became extinct. The adaptation of humans to new environments at the end of the last ice age will form the final part of this lecture series. Students are encouraged to visit the University Museum, which displays material relating to human evolution. Learning outcomes The aim of this paper is to provide an understanding of the broad outlines of hominin evolution using the combined perspectives of fossil and archaeological data, as well as the genetics and ecology of modern human populations. At the end of the course you should have acquired a knowledge of the major contemporary debates in these fields, have an appreciation of the potential of archaeology and biological anthropology for answering the questions raised and have developed an awareness of the ways in which these different, but related, disciplines complement each other. Transferable skills Critical assessment and evaluation of the potential and limitations of archaeological and anthropological evidence.


LECTURES (16) Michaelmas Term (8 lectures) Lecturers: Dr N. L. Boivin and Dr M. D. Petraglia 1. Hominoids and Miocene hominin origins (MDP) 2. Culture across species (NLB) 3. Pliocene hominin diversity (MDP) 4. Australopithecines and early Homo (MDP) 5. Hominin lifeways and site formation (MDP) 6. Interpreting Oldowan tool users (MDP) 7. Homo moves out of Africa: early dispersals towards Eastern Asia (MDP) 8. Origin and dispersal of Anatomically Modern Humans (MDP) Hilary Term (8 lectures) Lecturers: Prof. N. Barton, Dr N. L. Boivin, Dr R. Schulting 9. Populating Europe: early Homo in middle and northern latitudes (NB) 10. The emergence of Neanderthals and adaptations (NB) 11. Homo and concepts of behavioural modernity (NB) 12. The demise of the Neanderthals (NB) 13. Cultural transitions and climatic change in the last glaciation (NB) 14. Art and ideology in modern humans (NB) 15. Human adaptations into the Holocene of Europe (RS) 16. Evolution and the Holocene (NLB) Note - Lectures are an integral part of the examined syllabus and attendance at all of them is essential

READING: RECOMMENDED General Texts Binford, L.R., 1983, In Pursuit of the Past: Decoding the Archaeological Record, London: Thames & Hudson. Dennell, R., 2009, The Palaeolithic Settlement of Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Dunbar, R., 2005, The Human Story: a new history of mankinds evolution, Faber and Faber. Fleagle, J., 1999, Primate Adaptations and Evolution, London & New York: Academic Press. Gamble, C. 2007, Origins and Revolutions: Human Identity in Earliest Prehistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Gamble, C., 1993, Timewalkers: the Prehistory of Global Civilisation, Harvard University Press Johanson, D. & Edgar, B., 1997, From Lucy to Language, London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. Klein, R.G., 1999, The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins,( 2nd edition), Chicago University Press. 20

Lewin, R., and Foley, R., 2004, Principles of Human Evolution. Blackwell Publishing. Oppenheimer, S, 2004, Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World. Robinson Publishing Stringer, C., 2006, Homo Britannicus. The incredible story of human life in Britain. London: Allen Lane. Stringer, C. and Andrews, P., 2005, The complete world of human evolution, London, Thames & Hudson. Tattersall, I., 1995, The Fossil Trail: How we know what we think we know about human evolution, Oxford: OUP Journals Please note that a significant proportion of the reading is in major international journals e.g. Nature, Science, Behavioural and Brain Sciences. These can be found online and also on open shelf in the Oxford libraries. To search these sources you will need to consult OU E-journals and SOLO (Search Oxford Libraries Online). Lecture 1: Hominoids and Miocene hominin origins Begun, D., 2003, Planet of the apes. Scientific American, August, pp. 74-83. Fleagle, J., 1999, Primate Adaptations and Evolution. London & New York: Academic Press. Lewin, R. & Foley, R. 2004, Principles of Human Evolution. Blackwell Publishing (Chapter 9). Stewart, C.B. and Disotell, T.R., 1998, Primate evolution in and out of Africa. Current Biology 8:R582-R588. Wood B., 2002, Hominid revelations from Chad, Nature, 418:133-5. Lecture 2: Culture across species Ingold, T. 1988, What is an Animal? London: Routledge. Laland, K.N. & Hoppitt, W. 2003, Do animals have culture? Evolutionary Anthropology 12: 150-159. Rendell, L. & Whitehead, H. 2001, Culture in whales and dolphins. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 24: 309-382. [The open peer commentary gives a flavour of the debates surrounding this topic] Tomasello, M. 1999, The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Harvard: Harvard University Press. (Chapter 2) Whiten A. et al. 1999, Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399: 682-685 Lecture 3: Pliocene hominin diversity Crompton, R.H., Vereecke, E.E., Thorpe, S.K., 2008, Locomotion and posture from the common hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special reference to the last common panin/hominin ancestor. Journal of Anatomy 212(4): 501-543. Lewin, R. & R. Foley, 2004, Principles of Human Evolution. Blackwell Publishing (Chapter 10). Haile-Selassie, Y., et al., 2004, Late Miocene Teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and Early Hominid Dental Evolution. Science 303: 1503-1505. Leakey et al., 2001, New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages, Nature 410: 433-40. Lieberman D.E., 2001, Another face in our family tree. Nature, 410:419-20. Partridge et al., 2003, Lower Pliocene hominid remains from Sterkfontein. Science 300:607-12.


Thorpe, S.K.S., Holder, R.L., Crompton, R.H. 2007, Origin of human bipedalism as an adaptation for locomotion on flexible branches. Science 316(5829): 1328-1331. Lecture 4: Australopithecines and early Homo Aiello, L.C. and Wheeler, P., 1995, The expensive-tissue hypothesis: the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology 36 (2), 199-221. Blumenschine et al., 2003, Late Pliocene Homo and hominid land use from western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Science, 299:1217-21. Lewin, R. & R. Foley, 2004, Principles of Human Evolution. Blackwell Publishing (Chapter 11). Roche, H., Delagnes, A., Brugal, J.-P., et al., 1999. Early Hominid Stone Tool Production and Technical Skill 2.34 Myr Ago in West Turkana, Kenya. Nature 399:57-60. Wood, B. and Collard, M., 1999, The changing face of the genus Homo. Evolutionary Anthropology 8:195-213. Lecture 5: Hominin lifeways and site formation Domnguez-Rodrigo, M., 2002, Hunting and Scavenging by Early Humans: The State of the Debate. Journal of World Prehistory 16: 1-54. Plummer, T., 2004, Flaked stones and old bones: biological and cultural evolution at the dawn of technology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 47:118-164. Potts, R., 1988, Early Hominid Activities at Olduvai. Aldine, New York. Lecture 6: Interpreting Oldowan tool users Ambrose, S., 2001, Paleolithic technology and human evolution. Science 291: 17481753. Davidson, I. and W.C. McGrew, 2005, Stone tools and the uniqueness of human culture. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.) 11:793-817. Panger, M. et al., 2002, Older than the Oldowan? Rethinking the emergence of hominin tool use. Evolutionary Anthropology 11:235-245. Toth, N., and K. Schick, 2009, The Oldowan: The Tool Making of Early Hominins and Chimps Compared. Annual Review of Anthropology 38, on-line. Wynn, T., 2002, Archaeology and cognitive evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25(3):389-438. Lecture 7: Homo moves out of Africa: early dispersals towards Eastern Asia Anton, S.C. and Swisher, C.C. 2004, Early dispersals of Homo from Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33:271-296. Bar-Yosef, O., and Belfer-Cohen, A. 2001, From Africa to Eurasia - early dispersals. Quaternary International, 75:19-28. Dennell, R., 2003, Dispersal and colonisation, long and short chronologies: how continuous is the Early Pleistocene record for hominids outside East Africa? Journal of Human Evolution, 45: 421-440. Dennell, R., 2009, The Palaeolithic Settlement of Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (Chapters 4-6). Dennell, R., and Roebroeks, W., 2005, An Asian perspective on early human dispersal from Africa. Nature, 438: 1099-1104. Mithen, S., and M. Reed, 2002, Stepping out: a computer simulation of hominid dispersal from Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 43:433-462.


Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Rightmire, GP., Agusti, J., Ferring, R., Maisuradze, G., et al, 2002, A new skull of early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia, Science, 297: 85-9 Lecture 8: Origin and dispersal of Anatomically Modern Humans Bulbeck, D., 2007, Where river meets sea, Current Anthropology, 48: 315-321. James, H.V.A., Petraglia, M., 2005, Modern human origins and the evolution of behavior in the later Pleistocene record of South Asia. Current Anthropology, 46: S3-S27. Lahr, M.M., and Foley, R., 1998, Towards a theory of modern human origins: Geography, demography, and diversity in recent human evolution. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 41: 137-176. Mellars, P., 2006, Going East: new genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia, Science, 313: 796-800. O'Connell, J.F., and Allen, J., 2004, Dating the colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea): a review of recent research, Journal of Archaeological Science, 31: 835-853. Oppenheimer, S., 2003, Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World, Robinson Publishing Lecture 9: Populating Europe, early Homo in middle and northern latitudes Dennell, R.W., 2003, Dispersal and colonisation, long and short chronologies: how continuous is the Early Pleistocene record for hominids outside East Africa? Journal of Human Evolution 45, 421-440 Stringer, C., 2006, Homo Britannicus. The incredible story of human life in Britain. London: Allen Lane. (Chapter 1). Stringer, C.B. & McKie, R., 1996, African Exodus, London: Jonathan Cape Lecture 10: The emergence of Neanderthals and adaptations Mellars, P.A., 1996, The Neanderthal Legacy: An archaeological perspective from Western Europe, Princeton: Princeton University Press Mithen, S., 2006, The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music, Language, Mind, and Body. Harvard University Press. Mithen, S., 1998, The Prehistory of the Mind: The cognitive origins of art, religion and science, London: Phoenix. Stringer, C., 2006, Homo Britannicus: The incredible story of human life in Britain. London: Allen Lane. (Chapter 4). Stringer, C.B. & Gamble, C., 1993, In search of the Neanderthals: Solving the puzzle of human origins, London: Thames & Hudson. Lecture 11: Modern Homo and the concept of behavioural modernity Bar-Yosef, O. 2002, The Upper Palaeolithic revolution. Annual Review of Anthropology 31, 363-93. Klein, R.G. 2000, Archaeology and the evolution of human behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology 17-35. McBrearty, S. and Brooks, A. S. 2000, The revolution that wasnt: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 39: 453-563. Lecture 12: The demise of the Neanderthals Arsuaga, J.L., 2003, The Neanderthals Necklace In search of the first thinkers, John Wiley & sons. Mellars, P.A., 1996, The Neanderthal Legacy: An archaeological perspective from Western Europe, Princeton: Princeton University Press


Mithen, S., 1998, The Prehistory of the Mind: The cognitive origins of art, religion and science, London: Phoenix. Stringer, C., 2006, Homo Britannicus: The incredible story of human life in Britain. London: Allen Lane. (Chapter 5). Stringer, C.B. & Gamble, C., 1993, In search of the Neanderthals: Solving the puzzle of human origins, London: Thames & Hudson. Lecture 13: Cultural transitions and climatic change in the last glaciation Gamble, C.S., 1999, The Palaeolithic societies of Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Pettitt, P. 2008, The British Upper Palaeolithic, in Pollard, J. (ed.), Prehistoric Britain. Malden MA & Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 18-57. Stiner, M.C., Munro, N.D. and Surovell, T.A., 2000, The tortoise and the hare: small game use, the broad-spectrum revolution and Paleolithic demography, Current Anthropology 41 (1): 39-73 Stringer, C., 2006, Homo Britannicus: The incredible story of human life in Britain. London: Allen Lane. (Chapter 6). Lecture 14: Art and ideology in modern humans Clottes, J., Bahn, P.G. and Arnold, M. 2003. Chauvet Cave: The Art of Earliest Times. University of Utah Press Bahn, P. & Vertut, J., 1998, Journey through the Ice Age, London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson Dale Guthrie, R., 2006, The Nature of Palaeolithic Art. University of Chicago Press. Lewis-Williams, D., 2004, Mind in the Cave. Consciousness and the origin of art, London: Thames & Hudson. Lecture 15: Human adaptations into the Holocene of Europe Saville, A. (ed.) 2004, Mesolithic Scotland and its Neighbours. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. [Pay particular attention to the papers by Tipping, Edwards, Saville,Barton & Roberts, Larsson and Anderson.] Lecture 16: Evolution and the Holocene Cohen, M.N. 1989, Health and the Rise of Civilization. London: Yale University Press. Diamond, J. & Bellwood, P. 2003, Farmers and their languages: The first expansions. Science 300: 597-603. Leach, H.M. 2003, Human domestication reconsidered. Current Anthropology 44, 349368. Durham, W. 1991, Coevolution: Genes, Culture and Human Diversity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.


SUGGESTED TUTORIAL TOPICS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o What can animal culture tell us about the human past? Archaeology is not the only tool for understanding human evolution. Discuss. Who were the earliest hominins? What are the dietary niches of early hominins? Were Oldowan hominins like chimpanzees? When did hominins first colonise Asia? When did hominins first colonise Europe? Did early hominins hunt? What can stone tools tell us about past hominin societies? How do we best explain Upper Palaeolithic art? How did humans cope with the changing environments of northern Europe at the end of the Last Ice Age? What is the place of Neanderthals in human evolution? Regional continuity or replacement which model best explains modern human origins? How do we explain the origins of language? What is the most convincing evidence for the movement of modern humans along the Indian Ocean rim?



PAPER 4 : THE NATURE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL ENQUIRY Course Co-ordinator: Dr Amy Bogaard, Institute of Archaeology 36 Beaumont Street Tel: (2)78281 E-mail: amy.bogaard@arch.ox.ac.uk

SYLLABUS The aim of the paper is to introduce students to the nature of archaeological enquiry in both its methodological and theoretical aspects. The course takes a historical perspective and seeks to show how archaeological questions and methodologies have built up and changed over the last 200 years. The historical and present links between archaeology and cognate disciplines, such as geology, history and, of course, anthropology, are explored. The aim of the course is to provide an understanding of the practice and possibilities of archaeology, past and present; the main methodologies archaeologists use; the strengths and weaknesses of various sets of empirical evidence and an overview of some of the main questions addressed by archaeologists today. The course is linked with a series of practicals running in Hilary and Trinity terms (see Practical classes for Honours Moderations) that build on topics and methodologies introduced in the Michaelmas term lectures. The course also complements Introduction to World Archaeology, which covers the results of archaeology and the pictures we can build of world prehistory. Learning Outcomes It is hoped that students will gain a good understanding of the major issues confronting contemporary archaeology and how these questions have partly arisen from the history of the discipline; they should also gain an appreciation of the methods available to the archaeologist and their genesis, including both field methods and those of analysis and dating. Transferable Skills It is hoped that students will develop their powers of critical thought when evaluating the competing approaches to archaeological method and theory; they should also start to develop some practical appreciation of the discipline and its methodology.


LECTURES [24] Michaelmas Term [16 lectures] Lecturers: Dr A. Bogaard, Dr N. L. Boivin, Dr L. Hulin and Dr M. Petraglia 1. The emergence of archaeology and nature of the evidence (AB) 2. Introduction to archaeological method and theory (AB) 3. Relative chronological frameworks (AB) 4. Absolute dating (NLB) 5. The production and exchange of objects (AB) 6. Pottery analysis in archaeology (LH) 7. Lithic analysis in archaeology (MP) 8. The scientific analysis of materials (NLB) 9. Geoarchaeology (AB) 10. Human remains in archaeology (AB) 11. Animal remains in archaeology (AB) 12. Plant remains in archaeology (AB) 13. Human diet and movement from isotope studies (NLB) 14. The archaeology of consumption: food and material culture (AB) 15. Archaeology, genetics and language (AB) 16. DNA in archaeology (AB) Hilary Term [8 lectures] Lecturer: Dr D. Hicks 17. Processual archaeology and postprocessual archaeology 18. Archaeological methods and human practices 19. Materials and materiality in archaeology 20. Landscape archaeology 21. The archaeology of human thought and intelligence 22. Gender, ethnicity and personhood in archaeology 23. Archaeology, history and time 24. The politics of archaeology and heritage Note - Lectures are an integral part of the examined syllabus and attendance at all of them is strongly recommended.

READING: RECOMMENDED Basic Reading The following books are all available in the Balfour, the Sackler and in the archaeology section in the Bodleian. The best introductory text for this paper is: Renfrew, C., & Bahn, P. 2008, Archaeology: theories, methods and practice (fifth edition). London: Thames and Hudson


The best texts on the history of archaeology and archaeological theory are: Trigger, B.G., 2006, A History of Archaeological Thought (second edition). Cambridge: CUP Johnson, M.H., 2010, Archaeological Theory: an introduction (second edition). Oxford: Blackwell For related developments in the history of anthropology: Stocking, G.W., 1987, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press For links between archaeology and anthropology: Gosden, C., 1999, Archaeology and Anthropology: A Changing Relationship, Routledge Hicks, D. and M.C. Beaudry (eds.) 2010, The Oxford Handbook of Material Culture Studies. Oxford: OUP For an overview of archaeological methodologies and approaches: Brothwell, D.R. & Pollard, A.M. (eds.), 2001, Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, Wiley Cunliffe, B., Gosden, C. & Joyce, R.A. (eds.) 2009, The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology. Oxford: OUP (Sections 1, 2 and 7) Greene, K., 2002, Archaeology: an introduction (fourth edition). Routledge and University of Pennsylvania Press (see also http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/kevin.greene/wintro/) Hodges, H., 1995, Artifacts: an introduction to early materials and technology (second edition). London: Duckworth Lecture 1 Greene, K., 2002, Archaeology: an introduction. Fourth edition, fully revised. Routledge and University of Pennsylvania Press, (chapters 1-3) Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P., 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice, Thames and Hudson, (chapters 1-2) Trigger, B.G., 2006, A History of Archaeological Thought (second edition). Cambridge: CUP, (chapters 2-3) Lecture 2 Barker, P., 1982, Techniques of Archaeological Excavation, Batsford. See especially (chapters 1-3) Hawkes, C. 1954, Archaeological theory and method: some suggestions from the Old World. American Antiquity 56: 155-168 Johnson, M.H., 2010, Archaeological Theory: an introduction (second edition). Oxford: Blackwell, (chapter 1) Museum of London Archaeology Service, 1994, Archaeological Site Manual. London: MoLAS Lecture 3 Deetz, J., 1996, In Small Things Forgotten: An archaeology of early American Life (expanded and revised edition). London: Doubleday, (chapters 1-4) Graslund, B., 1987, The Birth of Prehistoric Chronology. Cambridge: CUP. See especially sections on Thomsens Three-Age system and on Montelius Renfrew, C., 1973, Before Civilization: The Radiocarbon Revolution and Prehistoric Europe. London: Jonathan Cape, (chapters 2-5) 28

Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P., 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice, Thames & Hudson, (chapter 4) Trigger, B.G., 2006, A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambrdge: CUP, (chapters 46) Lecture 4 Aitken, M.J., Stringer, C.B. & Mellars, P.A. 1993, The Origin of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating. Princeton University Press Brothwell, D.R. & Pollard, A.M. (eds.), 2001, Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, Wiley, (chapters 1-4) Greene, K., 2002, Archaeology: An Introduction. London: Routledge, (chapter 4) Taylor, R.E. & Aitken, M.J. (eds.) 1997, Chronometric Dating in Archaeology. New York: Plenum Press Turney, C., 2006, Bones, Rocks and Stars: The Science of When Things Happened. London: Palgrave Macmillan Walker, M., 2005, Quaternary Dating Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons Useful website: http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/kevin.greene/wintro/chap4.htm#4 Lecture 5 Peacock, D.P.S., 1982, Pottery in the Roman World. Longman, (chapters 1-3, plus skim through later chapters dealing with different modes of production) Polanyi, K., 1957, The economy as instituted process. In Polanyi, K., Arensberg, C.M. and Pearson, H.W. (eds.) Trade and Market in the Early Empires: Economies in History and Theory. New York: Free Press: pp. 243-270 Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P., 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice, Thames & Hudson, (chapter 9) Sahlins, M., 1972, Stone Age Economics. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, (chapters 2-3) Torrence, R., 1986, Production and Exchange of Stone Tools. Cambridge: CUP, (chapters 3 & 7) Lecture 6 Amiran, R.,1970, Ancient Pottery of the Holy Land: From its beginnings in the Neolithic Period to the end of the Iron Age. Rutgers University Press Balme, J. and Paterson, A., 2006, Archaeology in Practice. A Student Guide to Archaeological Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, (chapter 8) Brown, D.H., 2002, Pottery in Medieval Southampton c 1066-1510 (CBA Research Report 133). York: Council for British Archaeology Bourriau, J., 2007, The Vienna System in Retrospect: How Useful Is It?, in Hawass, Z.A., & Richards, J., (eds.), The Archaeology and Art of Ancient Egypt. Essays in Honor of David B. OConnor I (ASAE 36) Conseil Suprme des Antiquits de l'gypte: 137-44 Given, M. & Knapp, A.B., 2003, The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project. Social Approaches to Regional Archaeological Survey (Monumenta Archaeologia 21) Los Angeles: The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. (Parts of chapters 2 and 3) Rice, P.M., 1987, Pottery analysis: A sourcebook. Chicago: Chicago University Press Lecture 7 Ambrose, S., 2001, Paleolithic technology and human evolution, Science 291: 1748-1753


Andrefsky, W., 2005, Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. (second edition) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Odell, G.H., 2004, Lithic Analysis. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, Roux, V, and B. Bril (eds.) 2005, Stone Knapping: The Necessary Conditions for a Uniquely Hominin Behaviour, Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs. Lecture 8 Bradley, R. & Edmonds, M., 1993, Interpreting the Axe Trade: Production and Exchange in Neolithic Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Brothwell, D.R., & Pollard, A.M. (eds.), 2001, Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, Wiley Henderson, J., 2000, The Science and Archaeology of Materials. London: Routledge Hodges, H., 1995, Artifacts: An Introduction to Early Materials and Technology. Gerald Duckworth Pollard, A.M. & Heron, C., 2008, Archaeological Chemistry, second revised edition. Royal Society of Chemistry Lecture 9 Bell, M., and Walker, M.J.C. 2005, Late Quaternary Environmental Change. Harlow: Pearson Education, (chapter 1) French, C.A.I. 2003, Geoarchaeology in action: studies in soil micromorphology and landscape evolution. London: Routledge, (chapters 1-5) Rapp, G.R. and Hill, C.L. 1998, Geoarchaeology: The earth-science approach to archaeological interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press, (chapters 1-3) Renfrew, A.C. and P. Bahn 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice. London: Thames and Hudson, (Studying the Landscape: Geoarchaeology: pp. 238-244) Waters, M.R., 1992, Principles of Geoarchaeology: A North American Perspective. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press Lecture 10 Brothwell, D.R., 1981, Digging Up Bones (third edition). London: British Museum (Natural History) Glob, P.V., 1969, The Bog People. Iron Age Man Preserved. London: Faber and Faber. Parker-Pearson, M., 1999, The Archaeology of Death and Burial. Stroud: Sutton, (chapter 1) Renfrew, A.C. and Bahn, P., 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice. London: Thames and Hudson, (chapter 11) Roberts, C., 2009, Human remains in archaeology: a handbook. York: Council for British Archaeology, (chapters 3-5) Waldron, T., 2001, Shadows in the Soil: Human Bones and Archaeology. Stroud: Tempus Lecture 11 Binford, L.R., 1978, Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology. New York: Academic Press, (chapter 2) Brain, C.K., 1981, The Hunters or the Hunted? Chicago: Chicago University Press, (chapter 2) Davis, S.J.M., 1987, The Archaeology of Animals. London: Batsford, (chapters 1-2) Reitz, E. and Wing, E.S., 1999, Zooarchaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (chapters 1-4) Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P. 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice, Thames & Hudson, (Reconstructing the Animal Environment: pp 253-261) 30

Lecture 12 Lowe, J.J. and Walker, M.J.C., 1997, Reconstructing Quaternary Environments. (second edition), London: Longman pp. 163-175 Moore, P.D., Webb, J.A. and Collinson, M.E., 1991, Pollen Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell, (chapters 1-3) Pearsall, D., 2000. Palaeoethnobotany: A handbook of procedures. New York: Academic Press: pp. 11-26, 66-76 Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P., 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice, Thames & Hudson: (Reconstructing the Plant Environment: pp. 245-253) Zohary, D. and Hopf, M., 2000, Domestication of Plants in the Old World: . Oxford: Clarendon Press: (Archaeological evidence: pp. 1-7) Lecture 13 Brothwell, D.R. & Pollard, A.M. (eds.), 2001, Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, Wiley, section 5 (and references therein) and chapter 23 Ambrose, S.H., Katzenberg, M.A. (eds.). 2000. Biogeochemical Approaches to Paleodietary Analysis. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press See also: Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Special issue on Bone Chemistry and Bioarchaeology, edited by J. Krigbaum & S.H. Ambrose. Volume 22, Issue 3, pp. 191-304 Archaeometry Virtual issue on Diagenetic and isotopic studies of bones and teeth with editorial by M. Pollard [a collection of papers from the journal]. Lecture 14 Dietler, M. and B. Hayden (eds.) 2001, Feasts: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics, and Power. Washington, D.C. (chapter 1 plus browse) Gosden, C. and Hather, J. eds 1999. The Prehistory of Food. London: Routledge, (read introduction, and browse for case studies) Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P. 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice, Thames & Hudson (chapter 7) Twiss, K. (ed.), 2007, We Are What We Eat: Archaelogy, Food and Identity. Carbondale Centre for Archaeological Investigations Occasional Publication No 31, (chapter 1 plus browse) Woolgar, C., Serjeantson, D. & Waldron, T. (eds.), 2006, Food in Medieval England: History and Archaeology. Oxford: OUP, (browse for case studies) Lecture 15 Bellwood P. and Renfrew, C. (eds.), 2003, Examining the Language/Farming Dispersal Hypothesis. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, (chapters 1-2 and browse for specific case studies) Cavalli-Sforza, L., 2000, Genes, Peoples, and Languages, translated by Mark Seielstad. London: Allen Lane (especially chapter 5) Renfrew, C., 1987, Archaeology and Language, Jonathan Cape (chapters 1, 4, 7, 11) Renfrew, C. & Boyle, K. (eds.), 2000, Archaeogenetics: DNA and the Population History of Europe. McDonald Institute Monographs (see especially papers by Renfrew & Sykes, Sykes, Zvelebil)


Also see: Antiquity volume 62 (1988) papers by Sherratt & Sherratt, Zvelebil & Zvelebil, Ehret Antiquity volume 79 (2005) papers by Kristiansen and Renfrew. Lecture 16 Balaresque, P. et al., 2010, A predominantly Neolithic origin for European paternal lineages. PLOS Biology 8(1) Bentley, R. A., T. D. Price and L. Chikhi, 2003, The Neolithic transition in Europe: comparing broad scale genetic and local scale isotopic evidence for the spread of agriculture into Europe. Antiquity 77: 63-66 Brothwell, D.R. & Pollard, A.M. (eds.), 2001, Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, Wiley, (chapter 25) Burger, J. et al., 2007, Absence of lactase-persistence-associated allele in early Neolithic Europeans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 3736-3741 Edwards, C.J. et al., 2007, Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 1377-1385 Haak, W. et al., 2005, Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites. Science 310, 1016-1018 (plus see comment and response by Ammerman et al. 2006 and Burger et al. 2006, respectively) Larson, G. et al. 2007, Ancient DNA, pig domestication and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(39): 1527615281 Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P. 2008, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice, Thames & Hudson (chapter 7). Richards, M., 2003, The Neolithic invasion of Europe. Annual Review of Anthropology 32: 135-62 Sykes, B. 2001. The Seven Daughters of Eve. London: Bantam (chapters 1, 10, 11, 22). Lecture 17 Binford, L.R., 1962, Archaeology as anthropology, American Antiquity 28 (2): 217-225 Clarke, D., 1973, Archaeology: The loss of innocence, Antiquity 47: 6-18 Johnson, M.H., 2010, Archaeological Theory: an introduction (second edition). Oxford: Blackwell Shanks, M. & Tilley, C., 1987, Re-constructing Archaeology: Theory and Practice, London: Routledge Trigger, B., 2006, A History of Archaeological Thought (second edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Wylie, A., 2002, Thinking from things: essays in the philosophy of archaeology, Berkeley: University of California Press Yoffee, N. & Sherratt, A., (eds.), 1993, Archaeological Theory: Who sets the agenda? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Lecture 18 Barker, P., 1993, Techniques of Archaeological Excavation (third edition), London: Routledge Barrett, J., 1988, Fields of Discourse: Reconstituting a Social Archaeology. Critique of Anthropology 8 (3): 5-16 [reprinted in J. Thomas (ed.) 2000, Interpretative Archaeology: A reader, London: Leicester University Press] Barrett, J., 1994, Fragments from Antiquity: An Archaeology of Social Life in Britain, 2900-1200 BC, Oxford: Blackwell 32

Hodder, I., 1999, The Archaeological Process, Oxford: Blackwell Lucas, G., 2003. Critical Approaches to Fieldwork. London: Routledge Lecture 19 Hicks, D., & Beaudry, M.C. (eds.) 2010, The Oxford Handbook of Material Culture Studies. Oxford: OUP. Hodder, I., 1986, Reading the Past, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (revised edition published with Scott Hudson, 2003) Ingold, T., 2007, Materials against Materiality. Archaeological Dialogues 14: 1-16 Jones, A., 2004, Archaeometry and Materiality: Material-based analysis in theory and practice. Archaeometry 46 (3): 327338 [with comments on the paper in Archaeometry 47 (1): 175-207 Miller, D., 1987, Material Culture and Mass Consumption, Oxford: Blackwells Miller, D. 2009. Stuff. Cambridge: Polity. Pollard, J., 2001, The Aesthetics of Depositional Practice, World Archaeology, 33 (2): 315-333 Lecture 20 Aston, M., 1985, Interpreting the Landscape. London: Batsford. Hicks, D., L. McAtackney and G. Fairclough (eds.), 2007, Envisioning Landscape: standpoints and situations in archaeology and heritage. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press (One World Archaeology 52). Ingold, T., 1993, The Temporality of the Landscape, World Archaeology 25 (2): 152-74 [Also reproduced in his 2000 book The Perception of the Environment: Essays in Environment, Dwelling and Skill, London: Routledge] Tilley, C., 1993, A Phenomenology of Landscape. Oxford: Berg. Lecture 21 Clark, A., 1998, Being There: Putting Brain, Body and World Together Again, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Mithen, S., 1998, The Prehistory of the Mind, London: Phoenix Renfrew, C. (ed.), 1994, The Ancient Mind: Elements of a Cognitive Archaeology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Renfrew, C. and I. Morley (eds.) 2009. Becoming Human: innovation in prehistoric material and spiritual culture. Cambridge: CUP. Lecture 22 Fowler, C., 2004, Archaeology and Personhood: An Anthropological Approach, London: Routledge Gilchrist, R., 1999, Gender and Archaeology, London: Routledge Gilchrist, R., 2006. Archaeology and the Life Course: A Time and Age for Gender. In L. Meskell & R. Preucel (eds.) A Companion to Social Archaeology, Oxford: Blackwell: pp. 142-160 Jones, S., 1997 The Archaeology of Ethnicity, London: Routledge Wilkie, L.A., 2003, The Archaeology of Mothering: an African American midwifes tale, London: Routledge Wilkie, L.A., 2010. The Lost Boys of Zeta Psi: a historical archaeology of masculinity at a university fraternity. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Lecture 23 Hall, M., 2000, Archaeology and the Modern World, London: Routledge Hall, M., and Silliman, S. (eds.) 2006, Historical Archaeology, Oxford: Blackwell Hicks, D., & Beaudry, M.C. (eds.), 2006, The Cambridge Companion to Historical Archaeology, Cambridge: CUP Lucas, G., 2005, Archaeology and Time, London: Routledge Lecture 24 Clifford, J., 1997, Museums as Contact Zones, In J. Clifford Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late 20th Century Cambridge, MA; Harvard University Press Schrire, C., 1995, Digging through Darkness: Chronicles of an Archaeologist, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia Shanks, M., 2004, Archaeology and Politics. In J. Blintliff (ed.) A Companion to Archaeology, Oxford: Blackwell: pp. 490-508 Tilley, C., Keane, W., Kchler, S., Rowlands, M, and Spyer, P., (eds.), 2006, Handbook of Material Culture, London: Sage (Part V: Presentation and Politics) Trouillot, M-R, 1995, Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History, Boston: Beacon Press


SUGGESTED TUTORIAL TOPICS o o o o Using case studies, consider how preservation conditions and site formation processes both constrain and inform interpre8tation of archaeological evidence. Compare and contrast the historical relationship between geology and archaeology, on the one hand, and anthropology and archaeology, on the other. Problematise the definition and conceptualisation of archaeological cultures. What are the different ways in which we might conceptualise landscape archaeology? How do these approaches problematise the idea of archaeological sites? Assess the potential and limitations of different methodologies for reconstructing production techniques and movement of objects. What is cognitive archaeology? What are its strengths and weaknesses for understanding relationships between human thought and archaeological material culture? Assess the potential and limitations of different methodologies for reconstructing agricultural practices. Using case studies, describe how new dating techniques and applications have led to re-interpretation in archaeology. Why is food important in archaeological accounts of the past, and how can we infer the nature of diet and food-related practices? To what extent was the Neolithic package concerned with a change of diet? How far is it possible to bring together the evidence of genetics, language and archaeology to form a coherent and rounded picture of the human past? In what ways did post-processual or interpretive archaeology seek to break from processual or New archaeology? Using archaeological examples assess how significant this new body of thought was for the discipline. What conceptual and methodological differences might be distinguished between historical archaeology and prehistoric archaeology? Discuss with a particular reference to the relationships between archaeology and social anthropology. How far is it possible to investigate either gender or ethnicity through the analysis of archaeological material culture? What techniques can archaeologists use to study archaeological material culture? What is it not possible to learn about the past on the basis of material culture? James Clifford has argued that ethnographic museums can be seen as contact zones. What might the implications of this suggestion be for the management and presentation of archaeological collections? Does the treatment of the dead provide a useful reflection of the lives of the living?

o o

o o o o o o

o o o



PRACTICAL CLASSES Course Co-ordinator: Prof. Mark Robinson, University Museum Parks Road Tel: (2) 72983 E-mail: mark.robinson@oum.ox.ac.uk

Students are reminded that they are required to attend all practical classes, including laboratory work. CLASSES [6 classes] Hilary Terms (4 classes) Lecturers: Prof. R Hedges, Dr T Higham, Prof. M. Pollard, Prof. C Ramsey, Prof. M Robinson The classes are to provide a practical aspect to some of the teaching for Paper 4. Chronometric Dating The class will be based mainly around radiocarbon and Luminescence dating. Students will be shown the main laboratories and instruments used in these two techniques. Diet and Bioarchaeology Students will cover the basic practical aspects of studying past diets through isotopic measurements. Students will be able to analyse their own diet by examining strands of their hair. Environmental Archaeology An introduction is given to environmental archaeology including soils and sediments, preservation of biological remains and interpretation of the evidence. Students will have the opportunity to handle specimens and sort samples for biological remains. Materials and Technology Students will be introduced to the main approaches to analysing archaeological materials. The students will be given a short, hands-on, introduction to the classification of specific materials using microscopic and chemical techniques.


Trinity Term (2 classes) Lecturers: Dr N. Freud, Ms R. Hesse Animal Bones This practical introduces students to the types of archaeological information that can be gleaned through the study of animal bones and to the basic principles of animal bone identification. Handling of animal bones is an important component of the course. The aim of the class is to help students make connections between the animal bones and other aspects of their archaeological course, and to provide an introduction to the field of zooarchaeology, its relevance and potential, should they wish to pursue it further. Human Bones for Archaeologists This class provides the opportunity to explore and consider the great plasticity found within and between modern human population groups. The two hour class allows a fully ecological approach to an understanding the variation and similarities found between different hominins as well as members of the same species. Learning Outcomes To obtain direct experience of the skills involved in the acquisition and interpretation of scientific data relating to archaeology. To extend understanding gained from lectures on archaeological science. Transferable skills The ability to interpret and support an argument with a range of experimental scientific data.

READING : RECOMMENDED Aitken, M., 1990, Science-based dating in archaeology, London: Longman. Brothwell, D.R. & Pollard, A.M. (eds.), 2001, Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Davis, S.J.M., 1987, The Archaeology of animals, London: B.T. Batsford Ltd. Dimbleby, G.W., 1977, Ecology and archaeology, London: Arnold. Henderson, J., (ed.), 1989, Scientific analysis in archaeology, Oxford: Committee for Archaeology. O'Connor,T.P., 2000, The archaeology of animal bones. Stroud: Sutton.Hodges, H., 1989, Artefacts, London: Duckworth. Pollard, A.M. and Heron, C., 2008, Archaeological Chemistry (2nd edn), Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge. Wilkinson, K. and Stevens, C., 2003, Environmental archaeology: Approaches, techniques and applications, Stroud: Tempus.



PAPER 1 : SOCIAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Course Co-ordinator: Prof. Robert H. Barnes, ISCA 51 Banbury Road Tel:(2) 74676 E-mail: robert.barnes@anthro.ox.ac.uk

SYLLABUS This paper is intended to introduce students to principal issues in social organization and social relations. It aims to review major archaeological and anthropological approaches to these issues and to show the links between them. The main topics covered include domestic structures and their reproduction, kinship, sex and gender, economic systems, exchange, social and political systems, forms of community and identity, law and warfare, ethics, heritage and the relevance of the past in the present. The bulk of the teaching for this course should take place in the student's second year. Some lectures, such as those on the common history of archaeology and anthropology, will be offered every year, but should be attended during the first Final Honour year. Others will be given in alternate years, which means that students will have to attend some lectures for this course in their third year, the last Final Honour year. The most suitable time for tutorials of this paper is during the student's second year. The lectures will refer to the readings in the accompanying list. Tutorial readings should be selected from this list. The accompanying list of tutorial topics should indicate appropriate topics, although tutors and students will need to make their own selections and modifications. Students should prepare up to eight tutorials for this course. Learning outcomes To acquire a sociological appreciation of the forms and meanings of social organization and domestic arrangements as they relate to personal and collective identity and to understandings of biology and the environment. To gain an appreciation of different perspectives on the past and the relevance of heritage in the contemporary world. Transferable skills Social and cultural anthropological knowledge of social variation.


LECTURES [37] Michaelmas Term [20 lectures] Lecturer: Dr R. Parkin Basic Themes in Social Anthropology 1. Introduction: The genesis and development of social anthropology as a discipline 2. Individual, society and personhood 3. Exchange and economic anthropology 4. Political anthropology: From acephelous societies to the state Lecturer: Prof. D. Gellner and Dr D. Pratten Theories and Approaches in Social Anthropology 5. Evolutionism (DG) 6. Functionalism (DG) 7. Structuralism (DG) 8. Post-structuralism (DG) 9. History (DP) 10. Practice (DP) 11. Power (DP) 12. Theory (DP) Lecturer: Dr N. L. Boivin, Prof. C. Gosden, Dr D. Hicks & Dr L. Peers Ethics and the relevance of the past in the present 13. Ethics and the relevance of heritage in the contemporary world (NLB) 14. Repatriation and the treatment of the dead (CG) 15. Illicit antiquities and the commoditization of the past (CG) 16. Indigenous peoples and th e ethics of research (LP) 17. Ethics and the heritage of the recent past (DH) 18. Nationalism and colonialism in archaeology (NLB) 19. Heritage, globalisation and cosmopolitanism (NLB) 20. The production and representation of knowledge (NLB) Hilary Term [8 lectures] Lecturer: Prof. R. H. Barnes and Dr E. Ewart Kinship and Social Reproduction 21. Social and biological kinship (RHB) 22. Descent (RHB) 23. Alliance (RHB) 24. Terminologies (RHB) 25. Kinship and gender (EE) 26. Bodies, persons and selves (EE) 27. New reproductive technologies (EE) 28. Rethinking kinship? (EE)


Trinity Term [9 lectures] Lecturers: Prof. C. Gosden and Dr D. Hicks Perspectives on the Past [This course, which is relevant to all the subjects covered in the FHS, is examined by the inclusion of questions in Papers 1 and 2] 29. Understanding human relations in archaeology and anthropology (CG) 30. Human relations with the material world (CG) 31. Perspectivism and situated knowledge (DH) 32. Social relations and actor-networks (DH) Lecturer: Prof. D. Gellner Ethnicity and Nationalism 33. Introduction to theories of ethnicity 34. Nationalism I 35. Nationalism II 36. Race and racism 37. Some examples: Ukania, Nepal Note - Lectures are an integral part of the examined syllabus and attendance at all of them is strongly recommended.

READING : RECOMMENDED N.B. Updated reading suggestions/additional references will be provided by lecturers Basic Themes in Social Anthropology Lecture 1. Introduction: the genesis and development of social anthropology as a discipline Eriksen, T.H., 2001, Small places, large issues: An Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology, Pluto Press Eriksen, T.H.and F.S. Nielsen, 2001, A history of anthropology, Pluto Press James, W., 2004, The ceremonial animal, OUP: Oxford Lecture 2. Individual, society and personhood Busby, C., 1997, Permeable and partible persons, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 3 (2), 261-278 Mauss, M., 1985, A category of the human mind: the notion of person, the notion of self, in M. Carrithers et al. (eds.), The category of the person, CUP Mines, M., 1998, Conceptualizing the person: Hierachical Society and Individual Autonomy in India, American Anthropologist, 90 (3), 568-579 Lecture 3. Exchange and economic anthropology Dilley, R., 1986, Tukulor weavers and the organisation of their craft, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 56 (2), 123-147 Foster, G., 1965, Peasant society and the image of limited good, American Anthropologist 67 (2), 293-315 Hart, K., 1985, The informal economy, Cambridge Anthropologist, 54Verderyk, K., 1991, Theorizing socialism: A prologue to the transition, American 40

Mauss, M., 2000, The Gift: The form and reason for exchange in archaic societies, W.W. Norton & Co. Ethnologist, 18 (3), 419-439 Lecture 4. Political anthropology: from acephelous societies to the state Evans-Pritchard, E.E. and M. Fortes (eds.), 1994, African political systems, London: Routledge Loizos, P., 1977, Politics and patronage in a Cypriot village, in Gellner, E. and J. Waterbury (eds.), Patrons and clients in Mediterranean Societies, London: Duckland: pp 115-135 Shah, A., 2006, Markets of protection: The Terrorist Maoist Movement and the state in Jharkhand, India, Critique of Anthropology, 26 (3), 297 Scott, J.C., 1987, Resistance without protest and without organisation: Peasant Opposition to the Islamic Zakat and the Christian Tithe, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 29 (3), 417 Theories and Approaches in Social Anthropology General Moore, H.L. & T. Sanders (eds.), 2006, Anthropology in theory: Issues in epistemology, Oxford: Blackwell Moore, H.L. (ed.), 1999, Anthropological theory today, Polity Press/ Blackwell Ortner, S.B., 1984, 'Theory in Anthropology since the Sixties', Comparative Studies in Society and Histor,y 26(1), 126-66. Lecture 5: Evolutionism Durkheim, E., 2008, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Dover Publications Macfarlane, A., 1978, The Origins of English Individualism: The Family, Property and Social Transition, Blackwell Marx, K., The Communist Manifesto Lecture 6: Functionalism Kuper A, (ed.), 1977, The Social Anthropology of Radcliffe-Brown, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Malinowski, B., 1922, Argonauts of the Western Pacific Malinowski, B., 1942, A Scientific Theory of Culture, University of North Carolina Press Merton, R., 1957, Manifest and Latent Functions in his Social Theory and Social Structure, The Free Press pp. 19-84. Radcliffe-Brown, A.R., 1940, Structure and Function in Primitive Society: essays and principles, The Free Press Lecture 7: Structuralism Douglas, M., 1966, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. Routledge Leach, E., 1976, Culture and Communication: The Logic by which symbols are connected, CUP Lvi-Strauss, C., 1964 [1947], Structural Analysis in Linguistics and Anthropology Structural Anthropology. Needham, R. (ed.), 1973, Right and Left: Essays on Dual Symbolic Classification, University of Chicago Press


Lecture 8: Post-structuralism Bloch, M., 1983, Marxism and Anthropology: The History of a Relationship. Routledge Gluckman, M. 1963, Custom and Conflict in Africa, Blackwell Geertz, C. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures: selected essays, New York: Basic Books (esp. Intro, Person, Time, and Conduct in Bali, The Balinese Cockfight, Religion as a Cultural System) Ortner, S.B., 1984. Theory in Anthropology since the Sixties Comparative Studies in Society and History 26(1): 126-66. Rosaldo, M.Z. & Lamphere, L. (eds.), 1974, Women, Culture, and Society. Stanford University Press Turner, V. 1967, The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Cornell University Press Lecture 9: History Borofsky, R., 1997, 'CA star forum on theory in anthropology - Cook, Lono, Obeyesekere, and Sahlins', Current Anthropology 38(2), pp. 255-82. Comaroff, J.L. & Comaroffm, J., 1992, Ethnography and the historical imagination, Boulder. Sahlins, M.D., 1983, 'Other Times, Other Customs - the Anthropology of History', American Anthropologist 85(3), pp. 517-44. Sahlins, M.D., 1985, Islands of history, University of Chicago Press Wolf, E.R., 1982, Europe and the people without history, University of California Press Lecture 10: Practice Bourdieu, P., 1971, 'The Berber House', In Douglas, M., (ed.) Rules and Meanings: The anthropology of everyday knowledge, London: Routledge: pp. 98110. Bourdieu, P., 1977. Outline of a theory of practice, Cambridge ; New York, (Chapter 2) Free, A., 1996, 'The Anthropology of Pierre Bourdieu: A reconsideration', Critique of Anthropology 16(4), pp. 395-416. Jenkins, R., 1984, Pierre Bourdieu and the reproduction of determinism Sociology 16: 270 - 281 de Certeau, M., Giard, L., Mayol, P., 1984, The Practice of Everyday Life: Living and Cooking, University of Minnesota Press Lecture 11: Power Wolf, E.R., 1990, 'Facing Power: Old Insights, New Questions', American Anthropologist 92 (3), 586-96. Lukes, S. (ed.), 1986, Power: A Radical View, New York. Macmillan Crehan, K.A.F., 2002, Gramsci, culture, and anthropology, Berkeley: University of California Press Cheater, A.P., 1999, The anthropology of power: empowerment and disempowerment in changing structures, London / New York: Routledge. Gledhill, J. ,1994, Power and its Disguises, London: Pluto. Foucault, M., 1980, Power/Knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 19721977, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.


Lecture 12: Theory Poole, D., 2005, 'An excess of description: Ethnography, race, and visual technologies', Annual Review of Anthropology 34, pp. 159-79. Sahlins, M., 1999, 'What is anthropological enlightenment? Some lessons of the twentieth century', Annual Review of Anthropology 28, pp. I-Xxiii. D'Andrade, R., 1995, 'Moral Models in Anthropology', Current Anthropology 36(3), pp. 399-408. Sutton, R.I. & B.M. Staw, 1995, 'What Theory is Not', Administrative Science Quarterly 40(3), pp. 371-84. Reyna, S.P., 1994, 'Literary Anthropology and the Case Against Science', Man 29(3), pp. 555-81. Moore, H.L., and T. Sanders, 2006,"Anthropology and Epistemology" In Moore, H. and Todd Sanders (eds.), Anthropology in theory: a reader, Oxford: Blackwell. pp 1-21 Lectures 13-20: Ethics and the relevance of the past in the present Brown, A., Peers, L., and members of the Kainai Nation, 2006, 'Pictures Bring Us Messages/Sinaakssiiksi Aohtsimaahpihkookiyaawa: Photographs and Histories from the Kainai Nation. University of Toronto Press. Brodie, N., Doole, J. & Renfrew, C., 2001, Trade in Illicit Antiquities: The Destruction of the Worlds Archaeological Heritage. Cambridge: McDonald Institute. Gathercole, P. & Lowenthal, D. (eds.) 1994. The Politics of the Past. One World Archaeology,. London: Unwin Hayman. Goldstein, L. & Kintigh, K, 1990, Ethics and the reburial controversy, American Antiquity 55, 585-591. Hamilakis, Y. & Duke, P. (eds.), 2007, Archaeology and Capitalism: From Ethics to Politics. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Peers, L. & Brown, A.K. (eds.), 2003, Museums and Sources Communities: A Routledge Reader. London: Routledge. Preucel, R. and S. Mrozowski (eds.), 2010, Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: the new pragmatism (second edition). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Meskell, L. (ed.), 1998, Archaeology Under Fire: Nationalism, Politics and Heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. London: Routledge. Meskell, L. (ed.), 2009, Cosmopolitan Archaeologies. Duke University Press. Meskell, L. & Pels, P., 2005, Embedding Ethics: Shifting Boundaries of the Anthropological Profession. London: Berg. Scarre, C. & Scarre, G., 2006, The Ethics of Archaeology: Philosophical Perspectives on Archaeological Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vitelli, K.D. & Colwell-Chanthaphonh, C. (eds.), 2006, Archaeological Ethics, second edition. Altamira. Websites Codes of ethics, case studies: http://www.web-miner.com/anthroethics.htm A great bibliography of books and sites: http://www.indiana.edu/~origins/teach/p200/ETHICS_bib.pdf


Kinship and Social Reproduction General Barnard, A. & Good, A., 1984, Research Practices in the Study of Kinship, London: Academic Press. Leach, E.R., 1951, Rethinking Anthropology, London: Athlone Press. Needham, R. (ed.), 1971, Rethinking Kinship and Marriage, London: Tavistock. Lecture 13: Social and Biological Kinship Sahlins, M. 1977. The use and abuse of biology: An anthropological critique of sociobiology, University of Michigan Press Needham, R., 1960, Descent systems and ideal language, Philosophy of Science 27: 96101. Gellner, E., 1960, The concept of kinship: with special reference to Mr. Needhams Descent Systems and Ideal Language, Philosophy of Science, 27 (2): 187-204. Needham, R., 1971, Remarks on the analysis of kinship and marriage, in Needham, R. (ed.), Rethinking Kinship and Marriage (ASA monograph 1), London: Tavistock. Shimizu, A., 1991, On the Notion of Kinship, Man, 26: 3: 377-404. Nuttall, M. 2000. Choosing kin in a Greenlandic community in Schweitzer, P. (ed.) Dividends of kinship, London: Routledge. Lecture 14: Descent Bouquet, M., 1996, Family trees and their affinities: the visual imperative of the genealogical diagram Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute Vol. 2(1): 4366 Maybury-Lewis, D., 1960, Parallel descent and the Apinay anomaly, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 16: 191-216. McDowell, N., 1991. Mundugumor: From the Field Notes of Margaret Mead and Reo Fortune. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Radcliffe-Brown, A.R., 1952, Structure and Function in Primitive Societies, London: Cohen and West, chapter 2. Lecture 15: Alliance Dumont, L., 1968. Marriage Alliance. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 10: 19-23. Lvi-Strauss, C. 1969. The Elementary Structures of Kinship, London: Eyre and Spottiswoode. Mauss, M. 1954. The Gift: London: Cohen and West. Lecture 16: Terminologies: Hocart, A. M. 1952. Kinship Systems. The Life-Giving Myth, London: Cohen and West. Lecture 19: New Reproductive Technologies Edwards, J., Franklin, S., Hirsch, E., Price, F., and Strathern, M., 1993, Technologies of Procreation: Kinship in the Age of Assisted Conception. Manchester: Manchester University Press Riviere, P., 1985, Unscrambling parenthood: the Warnock Report, in Anthropology Today Vol.1, No. 4: 2-6 Strathern, M., 1992, After Nature: English Kinship in the Late Twentieth Century. Cambridge: CUP


Lecture 20: Rethinking Kinship? Carsten, J. (ed.), Cultures of Relatedness: new approaches to the study of kinship. Cambridge: CUP Needham, R. (ed.), 1971, Rethinking Kinship and Marriage. London: Tavistock Overing, J., 1985, Today I shall call him Mummy: multiple worlds and classificatory confusion, in Overing J. (ed.) Reason and Morality. London: Tavistock Schweitzer, P. (ed.) 2000. Dividends of Kinship London: Routledge [Introduction] Perspectives on the Past Aron, R., 1967, Main Currents in Sociological Thought, Penguin, selections. Burrow, J.W., 1966, Evolution and Society: a Study in Victorian Social Theory, Cambridge: CUP. Chapman, R., 2003, Archaeologies of Complexity, Routledge. Daniel, G., 1962, The Idea of Prehistory, Watts. [Later edition revised by C. Renfrew]. Dennett, D., 1996, Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life, Penguin. Ingold, T., 1986, Evolution and Social Life, Cambridge: CUP, selections. Lewin, R., 1995, Complexity: Life on the Edge of Chaos, Phoenix. Maisels, C.K., 1993, The Emergence of Civilization, Routledge. Sherratt, A., 1997, Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe, EUP, introduction and chapter 1. Toulmin, S. & Goodfield, J., 1967, The Discovery of Time, Penguin. Ethnicity Lecture 23: Introduction to theories of ethnicity Banks, M., 1996, Ethnicity: Anthropological Constructions, London: Routledge. Barth, F. (ed.), 1969, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, Oslo: Universitetsvorlaget. Baumann, G., 1996, Contesting Culture: Discourses of Identity in Multi-Ethnic London CUP Eriksen, T.H., 1993, Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives, London: Pluto. Fardon, R., 1987, African Ethnogenesis: Limits to the Comparability of Ethnic Phenomena in Holy, L. (ed.) Comparative Anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell. Just, R., 1989, Triumph of the Ethnos in Tonkin, E., McDonald, M. & M. Chapman (eds.) History and Ethnicity. London: Routledge. Southall, A., 1970, The Illusion of Tribe, Journal of Asian and African Studies 5: 28-50 (available on TDNet) Lectures 24-25: Nationalism I & II Anderson, B., 1991 (1983), Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, 2nd ed. London: Verso. Gellner, E., 1983, Nations and Nationalism, Blackwell. Hastings, A., 1997, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism. CUP. Hobsbawm, E.J., 1990, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. CUP. Macdonald, M., 1989, We are not French! Language, Culture and Identity in Brittany., Routledge.


Modood, T. & Werbner, P. (eds.), 1997, The Politics of Multiculturalism in the New Europe: Racism, Identity, and Community. London: Zed Books. Smith, A.G., 1995, Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era, Cambridge: Polity. Van der Veer, P., 1994, Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India. Berkeley: University of California Press. Lecture 26: Race and racism Alexander, C., 1996, The Art of Being Black: the Creation of Black British Youth Identities. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Banton, M., 1987, Racial Theories, Cambridge: CUP. Dumont, L., 1980, Caste, Racism and Stratification: Reflections of a Social Anthropologist, appendix A in Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications (complete revd ed.), pp. 247-66. Chicago Univ. Press. Frankenberg, R., 1993, White Women, Race Matters: the Social Construction of Whiteness. London: Routledge. Merton, R.K., 1968, The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in his Social Theory and Social Structure, NY: The Free Press. Rex, J. & Mason, D., (eds.) 1986, Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Cambridge: CUP. Sanjek, R., 1971, Brazilian Racial Terms: Some Aspects of Meaning and Learning, American Anthropologist 73: 1126-44. Stocking, G.W., 1968, Race, Culture and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology. New York: Free Press. Trautmann, T.R., 1997, Aryans and British India, Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Wade, P., 1997, Race and Ethnicity in Latin America, London: Pluto. Westwood, S. & Bhachu, P,. (eds.) 1988, Enterprising Women: Ethnicity, Economy, and Gender Relations. London: Routledge. Lecture 27: Some examples: Ukania, Nepal Benson, S., 1981, Ambiguous Ethnicity: Interracial Families in London. Cambridge: CUP. Colley, L., 1992, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707-1837. Yale Univ. Press. Davies, N., 2000, The Isles: A History (2nd ed.), London: Papermac. Gellner, D.N., Pfaff-Czarnecka, J. and Whelpton, J., (eds.), 1997, Nationalism and Ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom: The Politics of Culture in Contemporary Nepal. Amsterdam: Harwood. Gillespie, M., 1995, Television, Ethnicity and Cultural Change, Routledge. Krauskopff, G., 2003, An Indigenous Minority in a Border Area: Tharu Ethnic Associations, NGOs, and the Nepali State in Gellner, D.N. (ed.) Resistance and the State: Nepalese Experiences, Delhi: Social Science Press. pp. 199-243. Lecomte-Tilouine, M., 2004, Ethnic Demands within Maoism: Questions of Magar Territorial Autonomy, Nationality and Class in Hutt, M. (ed.) Himalayan Peoples War: Nepals Maoist Rebellion. London: Hurst: pp. 112-135 Nairn, T., 1977, The Break-up of Britain: Crisis and Neo-nationalism. London: New Left Books.


SUGGESTED TUTORIAL TOPICS o o o o o o o How does anthropology distinguish the biological and social in kinship? What is the relative importance of rules of descent in the worlds societies? What are the forms of marriage alliance and how are they best understood? How do relationship terminologies relate to social structure? What can anthropology contribute to understanding new reproductive technologies? Is a consideration of gender relations important to the analysis of kinship? In some societies each individual belongs to their fathers natal group, which is not their mothers, while in others it is vice versa. What significance do you attach to the difference? Consider with the aid of examples what difference the increase in gender awareness over recent decades has made to archaeology and/or anthropology. Economics is sometimes called 'the dismal science'. Using empirical data argue the case that economic anthropology is an exciting and attractive field. How helpful is it to think of human behaviour in terms of individual maximisation? Identities come in many forms, ranging from member of the human race down to spouse (or the like). Choose some intermediate level of identity and consider how it can best be conceptualised. 'The nation state is an idea that transcends politics.' Discuss. What differences would you expect to find between the views of the past held by lay members of a society and those held by an archaeologist/anthropologist studying the same society? What attitude should we nowadays adopt towards 'evolutionism'? How would you set about constructing a typology of modes of social organisation? Can people ever hope to escape the power structures that govern society? Select one theory or theoretical approach that relates to the analysis of society and that you either particularly favour, or particularly dislike, and justify your attitude. Discuss some ways in which male and female patterns of discourse may vary. To what extent is sexuality, like gender, a social construct? How may the moral implications of exchange vary from society to society? What links may there be between ideas of parenthood and social structure? Discuss some common metaphors of community other than that of the house Discuss the relevance of boundaries for maintaining ethnic identity. What utility is the notion of ethnicity? Who owns the past? What challenges does globalisation introduce to archaeology? What role did archaeology play in Nazi Germany?

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PAPER 2 : CULTURAL REPRESENTATIONS, BELIEFS AND PRACTICES Course Co-ordinator: Prof. Marcus Banks, ISCA 51 Banbury Road Tel: (2) 74675 E-mail: marcus.banks@anthro.ox.ac.uk

SYLLABUS The aim of the course is to give students a qualitative understanding of how social and cultural anthropologists have approached the study of knowledge, values and beliefs, as well as artistic and religious practice, both in the field and in analysis. Thus it explores topics such as the following: basic categories like space, time and person; conceptions of the past; ritual practice and religious experience; the relevance of literacy; moral ideas and values, aesthetics and symbolism; field techniques and writing accounts of 'a culture'; translation problems, truth claims and relativism. The course combines ethnography and theory, building on exemplary first-hand studies from different parts of the world. It also presents archaeological approaches to religion and art, suggesting how the disciplines can interact in this area. The course is followed over the student's second and third year. Some of the recommended lectures are given each year, but others are only available within a two-year cycle; so the student should anticipate attending lectures in both years. Some of the lectures, and much of the reading, will also be found relevant to FHS Paper 1. Ideally the student should have eight tutorials with a social/cultural anthropologist in the course of the third year. Again, ideally, these are given by one person throughout so as to ensure coherence and continuity. Learning outcomes To gain a critical appreciation of the variations in human culture as expressed in forms of knowledge, values and beliefs, as well as artistic and religious practice. Transferable skills Awareness of the possibilities and limitations of social and cultural anthropological explanation of these topics.


LECTURES [36] Michaelmas Term [12 lectures] Lecturers: Dr I. Daniels, Dr D. Hicks, Dr M. OHanlon and Dr L. Peers Cultural Representations 1. Introduction: Culture and its Material Representations (LP) 2. Museum Anthropology (LP) 3. Landscape (LP) 4. Material Culture and Consumption (ID) 5. Material Culture and the Anthropology of Gifting (ID) 6. The Built Environment (DH) 7. Anthropology of Art (DH) 8. Body Arts (MOH) Lecturer: Dr R. Parkin Basic Themes in Social Anthropology 9. Classification through symbols and language 10. Ritual as meaning and performance 11. Myth and cosmology 12. Witches and spirits: affliction and possession Hilary Term [20 lectures] Lecturers: Prof. D. Gellner and Dr J. Lanman The Anthropology of Religion 13. Creating communities (DG) 14. The idea of soteriology (DG) 15. Religion, sex and gender (DG) 16. Syncretism and fundamentalism (DG) 17. Belief (JL) 18. Ritual (JL) 19. Explaining religion (JL) 20. Atheism (JL) Lecturers: Dr C. Harris, Dr I. Daniels, Dr D. Hicks, Dr C. Morton, Prof. M. Banks, and Dr L. Peers Cultural Representations 21. Authenticity and Material Culture (ID) 22. The Anthropology of Technology (DH) 23. The spiritual and the material (ID) 24. Anthropology and Photography (CM) 25. Anthropology and Film (MB) 26. Museums and Source Possibilities (LP) 27. Repatriation Debates (LP) 28. Museums Now: Global, Virtual and Actual (CH) Lecturer: Mr N. Purcell 29-32. Religions of the Roman World


Trinity Term [4 lectures] Lecturers: Prof. C. Gosden and Dr D. Hicks Perspectives on the Past [This course, which is relevant to all the subjects covered in the FHS, is examined by the inclusion of questions in Papers 1 and 2] 33. The early tangled history of archaeology and anthropology 34. Understanding time in archaeology and anthropology 35. Understanding human relations in archaeology and anthropology 36. Human relations with the material world Note - Lectures are an integral part of the examined syllabus and attendance at all of them is strongly recommended.

READING : RECOMMENDED N.B. Updated reading suggestions/additional references will be provided by lecturers General Asad, T., 1983, Anthropological Conceptions of Religion: Reflections on Geertz, Man 18: 237-259 Bowie, F., 1999, The anthropology of religion: An introduction, Oxford: Blackwell Durkheim, E., trans. 1912 , Elementary Forms of Religious Life. (The best-known passages are excerpted in Pickering, W. (ed.), 1975, Durkheim on Religion.) Eliade, M., 1987, Encyclopedia of Religion (in Radcliffe Camera). Evans-Pritchard, E.E., 1965, Theories of Primitive Religion, OUP Goody, J., 1987, The Interface Between the Written and the Oral, CUP Horton, R. & Finnegan, R., 1973, Modes of Thought: Essays in thinking in Western and Non-Western societies, London: Faber and Faber Morris, B., 1987, Anthropological Studies of Religion: An introductory text, CUP Overing, J. (ed.), 1985, Reason and Morality. Tavistock Turner, B.S., 1991, Religion and Social Theory [2nd ed.], London: Sage Weber, M., trans. 1993, Sociology of Religion (fourth edition). Beacon Press Material Culture and Aesthetic Anthropology Clifford, J., 1997, Routes: Travel and Translation in the Later Twentieth Century, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Coote, J. & Shelton, A. (eds.), 1992, Anthropology, Art and Aesthetics, Oxford: OUP. Gell, A., 1998, Art and Agency, Oxford: Clarendon Press. MacDonald, S. and Fyfe, G. (eds.), 1996, Theorizing Museums, Oxford: Blackwell. O' Hanlon, M., 1993, Paradise: Portraying the New Guinea Highlands, London: British Museum Press. Schildkrout, E. & Keim, C. (eds.), 1998, The Scramble for Art in Central Africa, Cambridge: CUP. Stocking, G. (ed.), 1985, Objects and Others, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.


Ritual and Symbolism Bloch, M. & Parry, J., 1982, Death and the Regeneration of Life. CUP Bloch, M., 1992, From Prey into Hunter: The politics of religious experience. CUP Bloch, M., 1986, From Blessing to Violence: History and ideology in the circumcision of the Merina of Madagascar. CUP Bourdillon, M. & Fortes, M., 1980, Sacrifice, esp. chapters 1-3. Meyer Fortes Metcalf, P. & Huntington, R., 1992, Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual (second edition). CUP Price, S., 1984, Rituals and Power: the Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor. CUP Sperber, D., 1975, Rethinking Symbolism. CUP Turner, V., 1967, Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu ritual, Cornell University Press Turner, V., 1968, Drums of Affliction: A Study of religious processes among the Ndembu of Zambia. International African Institute Turner, V., 1974, Dramas, Fields and Metaphors: Symbolic action in human society, Cornell University Press Mythology Dumzil, G., 1966 ( trans. 1970), Archaic Roman Religion, preliminary remarks & part I. Dundes, A., 1988, The Flood Myth. University of California Press Leach, E., 1969, Genesis as Myth and Other Essays. Jonathan Cape Lvi-Strauss, C., 1955 (trans. 1963), The Structural Study of Myth, in Structural Anthropology. ----- 1958 (trans. 1976), The Story of Asdiwal, in Structural Anthropology Two, (critique by Thomas & al. in Am. Ethnol. 1976). Littleton, C. S., 1983, The New Comparative Mythology: An Anthropological assessment of the theories of Georges Dumzil. University of California Press Classification Berlin, B. & Kay, P., 1969, Basic Colour Terms: Their universality and evolution, University of California Press Carrithers, M. & al. (eds.), 1985, The Category of the Person: Anthropology, Philosophy, HistoryCUP Durkheim, E. & Mauss, M., 1903 (trans. 1962), Primitive Classification, (analysis by N. Allen in Pickering, W. & Martins, H., 1994, Debating Durkheim). Harrison, S., 1985, Concepts of the Person in Avatip Religious Thought, Man, 20: 115130 ----- 1990, Stealing People's Names: History and Politics in Sepik River Cosmology, CUP Leach, E. (ed.), 1967, Structural Study of Myth and Totemism. London: Routledge Lvi-Strauss, C., 1966, The Savage Mind, esp. chapters 1-4., University of Chicago Press Rosaldo, M.Z., 1980, Knowledge and Passion: Ilongot Notions of Self and Social Life. CUP Turton, D., 1980, There's No Such Beast: Cattle and Colour Naming among the Mursi, Man 15 (2): 320-338 Gender Ardener, S. (ed.), 1993, Women and Space: Ground rules and social maps (second edition). Berg Godelier, M., 1986, The Making of Great Men: Male domination and power among the New Guinea Baruya. CUP MacCormack, C. & Strathern, M., 1980, Nature, Culture and Gender. CUP 51

Moore, H., 1986, Space, Time and Gender: An archaeology in human relations in postcontact aboriginal Northern Australia. University of California Press Belief and Values Beidelman, T. (ed.), 1971, The Translation of Culture. Tavistock Campbell, J., 1964, Honour, Family and Patronage: A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Blackwell Colson, E., 1971, Heroism, Martyrdom and Courage: an Essay on Tonga Ethics, in Beidelman, T. (ed.), 1971, The Translation of Culture. Tavistock Dumont, L., 1986, Essays on Individualism: Modern ideology in Anthropological Perspective, University of Chicago Press Ruel, M., 1982, Christians as Believers, in Davis, J. (ed.), Religious Organisation and Religious Experience Vol. 21, New York: Academic Press Weber, M., 2003 [orig. 1904], The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Dover Publications Religious Movements and Proselytization. Burridge, K., 1960, Mambu: a Melanesian Millennium. Camelot Press Comaroff, J., 1985, Body of Power, Spirit of Resistance. University of Chicago Press Cumont, F., 2008, (ori. 1903), The Mysteries of Mithra. BiblioBazaar Geertz. C., 1968, Islam Observed: Religious Developments in Morocco and Indonesia, University of Chicago Press James, W. & Johnson, D., 1988, Vernacular Christianity: Essays on the social anthropology of religion given to Godfrey Lienhardt. Lillian Barber Press Lienhardt, R.G., 1982, The Dinkas and Catholicism, in Davis, J. (ed.), Religious Organisation and Religious Experience Vol. 21, New York: Academic Press Werbner, R. (ed.), 1977, Regional Cults. New York: Academic Press Theoretical Approaches Ardener, E., 1982, Social Anthropology, Language and Reality, in Parkin, D. (ed.), Semantic Anthropology. New York: Academic Press Bourdieu, P., 1980, (trans. 1990), The Logic of Practice. Stanford University Press Boyer, P., 1990, Tradition as Truth and Communication: A cognitive description of traditional discourse. CUP. Clifford, J. & Marcus, G., 1986, Writing Culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. University of California Press Crick, M., 1976, Explorations in Language and Meaning: Towards a semantic anthropology. Wiley Douglas, M., 1966, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. London: Routledge Fardon, R. (ed.), 1990, Localizing Strategies: Regional traditions of ethnographic writing. Scottish Academic Press Leach, E., 1961, Two Essays on Time, in Leach E. (ed.) Rethinking Anthropology. Berg Needham, R. (ed.), 1973, Right and Left. Overlook Press Okely, J. & Callaway, H., 1992, Anthropology and Autobiography. London: Routledge Strathern, M., 1988, The Gender of the Gift. University of California Press


Conceptions of the Past Borofsky, 1987, The Making of History: Pukapukan and anthropological constructions of knowledge. CUP Collingwood, R.G., 1946, The Idea of History. London: Chatto & Windus Connerton, P., 1989, How Societies Remember. CUP Feeney, D., 1997, Literature and Religion at Rome: Cultures, Contexts and Beliefs, CUP Hobsbawm, E. & Ranger, T. (eds.), 1983, The Invention of Tradition. CUP Henig, M., 1984, Religion in Roman Britain. BT Batsford Henige, D., 1982, Oral Historiography. Longman Hodder, I., 1982, Symbols in Action: Ethnoarchaeological studies of material culture. CUP Stark, S., 1996, The Rise of Christianity: A sociologists reconsiders history, Princeton University Press Vansina, J., 1985, Oral Tradition as History. University of Wisconsin Press Arts and Performance Collingwood, R.G., 1938, The Principles of Art: and other writings in philosophy of history, OUP Coote, J. & Shelton, A., 1992, Anthropology, Art & Aesthetics. OUP Finnegan, R., (orig.1977) 1992, Oral Poetry: Its nature, significance and social context. CUP Finnegan, R., 1988, Literacy and Orality: Studies in the technology of communication, Blackwell. Finnegan, R., 1989, The Hidden Musicians: Music-making in an English town. Wesleyan University Press Morphy, H., 1984, Journey to the Crocodile's Nest. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Spencer, P. (ed.), 1985, Society and the Dance. CUP Stokes, M., 1992, The Arabesk Debate: Music and musicians .in Modern Turkey. Clarendon Press Colonial Photography Boyer, D., 2006, Turners anthropology of media as its legacies in Critique of Anthropology, vol. 26 (1): 47-60 Faris, J.C., 1992, Anthropological transparency: film, representation and politics, in Crawford, P.I. and Turton, D. (eds.), Film as Ethnography, Manchester: Manchester University Press Faris, J.C., 1993. A response to Terence Turner, Anthropology Today, 9/1: 12-13 Ruby, J., 000, Picturing Culture, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Chapters 8 & 9) (a version of ch. 8 also exists as an article in Visual Anthropology Review 1991, Vol. 7, no.2) Turner, T., 1991, The social dynamics of visual media in an indigenous society: The cultural meaning and the personal politics of video-making in Kayapo communities, Visual Anthropology Review, 7/2: 68-76 Turner, T., 1992, Defiant images: The Kayapo appropriation of vide, Anthropology Today 8/6: 5-16 Worth, S., & Adair, J., 1972 Through Navajo eyes. An exploration in film communication and anthropology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press


Possession and Related Topics Boddy, J., 1989, Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, men and the Zr cult in Northern Sudan. University of Wisconsin Press Lewis, I., (orig. 1971) 1989, Ecstatic Religion: A study of shamanism and spirit possession (second edition). Routledge Lewis, G., 1980, The Day of Shining Red. CUP Selected Descriptive Studies Aberle, D., Moore, H.C., Johnston, D.F., 1991, The Peyote religion among the Navaho, University of Oklahoma Press Banks, M., 1992, Organising Jainism in India and England, Oxford: Clarendon Bastien, J.W., 1978, Mountain of the Condor: Metaphor and ritual in an Andean Ayllu. Waveland Press Bax, M., 1995, Medjugorje: Religion, politics and violence in rural Bosnia, Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij Beard, M., North, J. and Price S., 1998, Religions of Rome: A History. CUP Beatty, A., 1999, Varieties of Javanese Religion: An anthropological approach. CUP Bennett, L., 1989, Dangerous wives and sacred sisters: Social and symbolic roles of high-caste women in Nepal. Columbia University Press Brightman, R., 1993, Grateful prey: Rock Cree human-animal relationships, University of California Press Brown, M., 1986, Tsewa gift. Magic and meaning in a Amazonian society. Smithsonian Institution Press Charlesworth, M. & al., 1984, Religion in Aboriginal Australia: An Anthology. University of Queensland Press Crocker, J.C., 1985, Vital Souls: Bororo cosmology, natural symbolism and shamanism. University of Arizona Press Endicott, K., 1979, Batek negrito religion: The worldview and rituals of a hunting and gathering people of Peninsular Malaysia. Clarendon Press Evans-Pritchard, E., 1956, Nuer Religion. Clarendon Press Fardon, R., 1990, Between God, the Dead and the Wild. Edinburgh University Press Fernandez, J., 1982, Bwiti. An ethnography of the religious imagination in Africa. Books on Demand Fuller, C., 1984, Servants of the Goddess: The Priests of a South Indian Temple. CUP Geertz, C. 1976 [1960], The religion of Java, University of Chicago Press Geertz, C., Geertz, H and Rosen, L., 1979, Meaning and order in Moroccan society: Three Essays in Cultural Analysis, Cambridge University Press Gell, A., 1975, Metamorphosis of the Cassowaries: Umeda society, language and ritual, London: Athlone Gibson, T., 1986, Sacrifice and sharing in the Philippine Highlands: Religion and society among the Buid of Mindoro. London: Athlone Gilsenan, M., 1984, Recognizing Islam: Religion and society in the modern Middle East. Crron Helm Goldman, I., 1975, The mouth of heaven An introduction to Kwakiutl religious thought, R. E. Krieger Pub. Co Graham, L., 1995, Performing dreams: Discourses of immortality among the Xavante of Central Brazil. Fenestra Books Gray, A., 1996, Mythology, spirituality and history. Berghahn Books Gray, A., 1997, The last shaman: Change in an Amazonian community. Berghahn Books


Hamayon, R., 1990, La chasse lme: Esquisse dune thorie du chamanisme sibrien. Socit dethologie. Howell, S., 1984, Society and cosmos: Chewong of Peninsular Malaysia. OUP Hugh-Jones, S., 1979, The Palm and the Pleiades: Initiation and cosmology in Northwest Amazonia. CUP James, W., 1988, The Listening Ebony: Moral knowledge, Religion and power among the Uduk of Sudan. OUP Karim, W., 1981, MaBetisek concepts of living things, London: Athlone Laidlaw, J., 1995, Riches and Renunciation: Religion, Economy and Society among the Jains, Oxford: Clarendon Lan, D., 1985, Guns and Rain: Guerillas and spirit mediums in Zimbabwe, Univ. of California Press/ London: James Currey Langdon. E.J.M. and Baer, G., 1992, Portals of power. Shamanism in South America London: Athlone Liebeschuetz, J., 1979, Continuity and Change in Roman Religion. Clarendon Press Lienhardt, R.G., 1961, Divinity and Experience: The religion of the Dinka. Clarendon Press Middleton, J., 1960, Lugbara religion. Ritual and authority among an East African people. OUP Morphy, H., 1991, Ancestral Connections: Art and an aboriginal system of knowledge. University of Chicago Press Moffatt, M., 1979, An Untouchable Community in South India, structure and consensus. Princeton University Press Morinis, E.A., 1984, Pilgrimage in the Hindu Tradition: A case study of West Bengal. New York Stanner, W., 1989 (orig. Oceania 1959-63), On Aboriginal Religion. University of Sydney Stanner, W., 1948, Divine Kingship of the Shilluk, in his Essays in Social Anthropology. Myerhoff, B.G., 1974, Peyote hunt: The sacred journey of the Huichol Indians, Cornell Myers, F., 1991, Pintupi country, Pintupi self. Sentiment, place and politics among western desert Aborigines. University of California PRess Nelson, R., 1983, Make Prayers to the Raven. A Koyukon view of the Northern Forest. University of Chicago Press Ortner, S.B., 1978, Sherpas through their rituals, CUP Pocock, D., 1973, Mind, Body and Wealth: A Study of belief and practice in an Indian Village. Rowman and Littlefield Reichel-Dolmatoff, G., 1971, Amazonian cosmos: The sexual and religious symbolism of the Tukano Indians, University of Chicago Press Reichel-Dolmatoff, G., 1975, The shaman and the jaguar: The Study of Narcotic Drugs among the Indians of Colombia, Temple University Press Reichel-Dolmatoff, G., 1996, The forest within. The world-view of Tukano Amazonian Indians. Themis Reichel-Dolmatoff, G., 1997, Rainforest Shamans: Essays on the Turkano Indians of the Northwest Amazons. Themis Riddington, R., 1988, Trail to heaven: knowledge and narrative in a northern native community. University of Iowa Press Scharer, H., 1963, Ngaju religion: The conception of God among a South Borneo people. M. Nijhoff Shirokogoroff, S.M., 1935, The psychomental complex of the Tungus. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co.


Speck, F.G., 1935, Naskapi: The savage hunters of the Labrador peninsula. University of Oklahoma Press Whitehouse, H., 1995, Inside the cult: Religious innovation and transmission in Papua New Guinea, OUP Williamson, R.A. and Farrer, C.A. (eds.), 1992, Earth and Sky Visions of the cosmos in Native American folklore. University of New Mexico Press Perspectives on the Past Aron, R., 1967, Main Currents in Sociological Thought, Penguin, selections. Burrow, J.W., 1966, Evolution and Society: a Study in Victorian Social Theory, Cambridge: CUP. Chapman, R., 2003, Archaeologies of Complexity, Routledge. Daniel, G., 1962, The Idea of Prehistory, Watts. [Later edition revised by C. Renfrew]. Dennett, D., 1996, Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life, Penguin. Ingold, T., 1986, Evolution and Social Life, Cambridge: CUP, selections. Lewin, R., 1995, Complexity: Life on the Edge of Chaos, Phoenix. Maisels, C.K., 1993, The Emergence of Civilization, Routledge. Sherratt, A., 1997, Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe, EUP, introduction and chapter 1. Toulmin, S. & Goodfield, J., 1967, The Discovery of Time, Penguin.


SUGGESTED TUTORIAL TOPICS o o o o Using examples, write an essay on classification with special reference to one of the following: space, time, colour, animal species. What are the essential differences between oral and written discourse? In your reading on the ethnography of religion, why is it important to pay attention to problems of translation? Compare two representations of the spirit world noting in each case how it impinges on human affairs. How have anthropologists interpreted such phenomena? Write an assessment of theoretical approaches to one of the following: myth, genealogies, oral history. Examine the connection between religious/medical ideas and therapeutic practice in one or two societies of your choice. Write a comparative essay on the authority of prophets or diviners or kings. Discuss problems that may arise in comparing two or more societies, explain how it is that prophets, diviners and/or kings gain, maintain and lose their authority. How do notions of the human person vary? Refer to at least one world religion and one non literate religion. What advantage does one enjoy when studying the arts of a living culture as distinct from those of a past civilization? Is aesthetics a cross-cultural category? Compare and contrast Bird Davids and Descolas theories of animism What has Eduardo Viveiros de Castros theory of perspectivism to do with animism? Why are shamans also healers and sorcerers? In what ways has the colonial encounter transformed shamanic practises? What is unique and distinctive in African sacrificial rites? What do sacred landscapes reveal about human/nature interactions? Does it matter how social-scientific researchers define religion at the outset of their enquiry? How far do religions offer alternatives for women and how far do they constrain or oppress them?

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o



PAPER 3 : LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGY Course Co-ordinator: Dr Rick Schulting, Institute of Archaeology 36 Beaumont Street Tel: (2)78309 Email: rick.schulting@arch.ox.ac.uk

SYLLABUS The aim of this paper is to examine human cultural adaptations within the related contexts of ecology and landscape and against a background of climatic and environmental change. Themes running through the course consider theoretical and practical aspects of how we consider people, landscapes, and the environment in archaeology. You will be able to explore the methods of collecting field data and how this information is integrated and used, for example, to construct models of social and cognitive landscapes, as tools for understanding life in prehistoric and early historic societies. The colonisation of new landscapes, and its effects on people, as well as flora and fauna, provides a series of case studies. Finally, the last part of the course considers funerary archaeology, with an emphasis on the placing of the dead in the landscape.
Learning outcomes

Primary learning outcomes are: to understand the principles and procedures of landscape studies and environmental archaeology; and thus, to gain an appreciation of the potential and limitations of these methods Secondary learning outcomes are to be able: to apply the results of landscape and environmental studies to real world archaeological projects; and to assess realistically the usefulness of their contributions
Transferable skills

To be able to assimilate diverse information sources, to write about complex issues associated with them and to discuss them. To be able to use and assess quantitative data.


LECTURES [32] Michaelmas Term [16 lectures] Lecturers: Prof. C. Gosden, Prof. G. Lock, Prof. M. Robinson & Dr R. Schulting Section 1. Landscape, Material Culture and Society The section is designed to demonstrate how archaeological data is generated and how it is used to build up a picture of the systems at work in society. Stress will be placed on structured data gathering within carefully formulated research designs and upon the importance of understanding (and accepting) the limitations of archaeological evidence. Examples will be chosen largely, but not exclusively, from prehistoric Europe. The course is complementary to Archaeology, Society and Culture I and is intended to be of relevance to Papers 1, 2 and 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5-6. Approaches to landscapes and landscape archaeology (RS) Sites, non-sites and sampling (RS) Landscape archaeology: the Hillforts of the Ridgeway (GL). Full day field trip to the Ridgeway (GL, MR, RS). [Date to be arranged] Material culture studies and spatial distributions. These lectures outline different approaches to material culture studies, including spatial patterning, the use and abuse of distribution maps, and the nature of trade and means of its detection in the archaeological record. (CG) Landscape and GIS. Spatial technologies and building a spatial database, types of data. History of GIS in archaeology. Theoretical approaches, representing space and time, social and economic models, landscape perception, case studies. (GL)


Lecturer: Prof. M. Robinson Section 2. Environmental archaeology of sites and landscapes The section is designed to follow on from the Mods Practical Class in environmental archaeology and will cover a series of landscape and settlement types, concentrating on particular lines of environmental evidence that are significant to their study. The majority of examples used will be from the British Isles, but sites from Northern Europe, the Mediterranean and North America will also be considered. 9. Introduction to Environmental Archaeology Physical evidence for the environment - morphology, sediments, soils. Biological evidence - species concept, plant and animal remains, preservation and sampling. Palaeoenvironmental and palaeoeconomic interpretation. Well-drained Calcareous and Circumneutral Landscapes (I) Origin of calcareous soils and sediments. Soil features - tree throw holes, ploughing. Land snails. Erosion - slope processes, karst, colluvium in dry valleys. Well-drained Calcareous and Circumneutral Landscapes (II) Settlement-derived evidence. Charcoal. Charred cereals and weeds. Macroscopic silica remains. Bones -analysis, MNI, tooth wear and mortality curves, butchery.





Acidic Landscapes and Peat Soil acidification. Soil pollen - heathland origins, plaggen soils. Blanket peat moorland origin. Hydrosere and raised bog. Pollen from peat - pollen zonation, temporary clearances. Phytoliths. River Valleys (I) Channels and terraces, overbank alluvium, causes of hydrological change, floodplain environments. Waterlogged macroscopic plant remains - from a floodplain. Rivers Valleys (II) Waterlogged macroscopic plant remains - from a settlement. Landscape and settlement evidence from insects. Insects and climatic change. Coastal Environments Sea level changes, regressions, transgressions and coastal sediments. Salinity, diatoms and Foraminifera. Barrier beaches. Raised beaches. Coastal dunes. Shell middens. Coastal settlements. Urban Environments Towns as habitats - microclimates, special habitats, stored products, refuse, sewage, buildings. Imported biological material -exotics. Industrial activity - dyeplants, flax, brewing. Food remains - cess pits, calcium phosphate mineralization, fish bones. Human and animal parasites.





Hilary Term [8 lectures] Dr N. L. Boivin & Prof. P. Mitchell Section 3. Colonisation of new landscapes 17. Landscapes in historical ecology (NLB) 18. Colonising Australasia (PM) 19. Colonising the New World (PM) 20. Human colonization and species extinctions (NLB) 21. Farmers and the colonization of hunter-gatherer landscapes (NLB) 22. Maritime landscapes and the colonisation of islands (NLB) 23. The colonisation of old landscapes (NLB) 24. Uncolonising landscapes: the example of the Norse (PM) Trinity Term [8 lectures] Prof. N. Barton, Dr N. L. Boivin, Prof. H. Hamerow & Dr R. Schulting Section 4. Placing the dead in the landscape: funerary archaeology 25. An introduction to funerary archaeology (RS) 26. The dead do tell tales (RS) 27. Gathering the dead: the origins of cemeteries (NB) 28. Monumentalising the landscape: the British Neolithic funerary record (RS) 29. Referencing the landscape (RS) 30. From many to one: the shift to individual burial (RS) 31. Contested landscapes: battlefield archaeology (RS) 32. Mortuary landscapes in Anglo-Saxon England (HH)


READING : RECOMMENDED Section 1. Landscape, Material Culture and Society Approaches to landscapes and landscape archaeology Bender, B. 1992. Theorising Landscapes, and the Prehistoric Landscape of Stonehenge. Man 27: 735-756. Bender, B, S. Hamilton and C. Tilley. 1997. Lesernick: stone worlds; alternative narratives; nested landscapes. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 63: 147-78. Chapman, H., and B. Geary. 2000. Palaeoecology and the perception of prehistoric landscapes: some comments on visual approaches to phenomenology. Antiquity 74: 316-319. Fleming, A. 1999. Phenomenology and the megaliths of Wales: a dreaming too far? Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18(2): 119-126. Fleming, A. 2005. Megaliths and post-modernism: the case of Wales. Antiquity 79: 921-932. Fleming, A. 2006. Post-processual landscape archaeology: a critique. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 16(3): 267-80. Jarman, M.R., Bailey, G.N. & Jarman, H.N. 1982. Early European Agriculture: Its Foundation and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tilley, C. 1994. A Phenomenology of Landscape. Oxford: Berg. Vita-Finzi, C. & Higgs, E.S. 1970. Prehistoric Economy in the Mount Carmel Area of Palestine: Site Catchment Analysis. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 36, 1-37. Sites, non-sites and sampling Binford, L.R. 1982. The Archaeology of Place. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1: 131. Hodder, I., and Hassall, M. 1971. The non-random spacing of Romano-British walled towns. Man n.s. 6: 391-407. Flannery, K.V. 1976. The Early Mesoamerican Village. New York: Academic Press. Foley, R.A. 1981b. A model of regional archaeological structure. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 47: 1-17. Landscape archaeology: the Hillforts of the Ridgeway Miles, D., Palmer, S., Lock. G, Cramarty A.M. and Gosden, C. 2003. Uffington White Horse and its Landscape: Investigations at White Horse Hill Uffington, 1989-95, and Tower Hill, Ashbury, 1993-4. Thames Valley Landscape Monograph 18. Lock, G., Gosden, C. and Daly, P. 2005. Segsbury Camp: excavations in 1996 and 1997 at an Iron Age hillfort on the Oxfordshire Ridgeway. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology, Monograph Number 61. Gosden, C. and Lock, G. 2007. The aesthetics of landscape on the Berkshire Downs, in C. Haselgrove and R. Pope (eds.), The earlier Iron Age in Britain and the near continent. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 279-92. Full day field trip to the Ridgeway Readings as for lecture 3, with the addition of: Atkinson, R.J.C. 1965. Wayland's Smithy. Antiquity 39: 126-133. Whittle, A. 1991. Wayland's Smithy, Oxfordshire: excavations at the Neolithic tomb in 1962-63 by R.J.C. Atkinson and S. Piggott. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 57(2): 61-101. Whittle, A., Bayliss, A., and Wysocki, M. 2007. Once in a lifetime: the date of the Wayland's Smithy


long barrow. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17: 103-121. Material culture studies and spatial distributions & Landscape and GIS. Allen, K.M.S., Green, S.W. & Zubrow, E.B.W. (eds.), 1990, Interpreting Space: GIS and Archaeology. London: Taylor & Francis. Binford, L.R., 1983, In Pursuit of the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. Butzer, K.W., 1982, Archaeology as Human Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univeresity Press. Friedman, J. & Rowlands, M. J., 1978, The Evolution of Social Systems. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Gaffney, V. & Stancic, Z., 1991, GIS Approaches to Regional Analysis: a Case Study of the Island of Hvar. Ljubljana: Znanstveni institut Filozofske fakultete. Hirsch, E. & O'Hanlon, M., (eds.), 1995, Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on place and space,. Clarendon Press Hodder, I. (ed.), 1978, The Spacial Organisation of Culture. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Lock, G., 2003, Using Computers in Archaeology: Towards Virtual Pasts. London: Routledge. Lock, G. & Stancic, Z., (eds.), 1995, Archaeology and Geographic Information Systems: a European Perspective. London: Taylor & Francis. Renfrew, C. & Cherry, J.F., (eds.), 1986, Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-political Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wagstaff, J.M. (ed.), 1987, Landscape and Culture: Geographical and archaeological perspectives. London: Blackwell. Section 2. Environmental archaeology of sites and landscapes Bell, M.G. & Walker, M.J.C., 2005, Late Quaternary Environmental Change: Physical and Human Perspectives. Harlow: Pearson. Cunliffe, B., 1984, Danebury, an Iron Age Hillfort in Hampshire 2, the Excavations 1969-78: the Finds. London: Council for British Archaeology. Dimbleby, G.W., 1977, Ecology and Archaeology. London: Edward Arnold. Evans, J.G., 1972, Land Snails in Archaeology. London: Seminar Press. Evans, J.G., 1978, An Introduction to Environmental Archaeology. London: Elek. Evans, J.G., and O'Connor, T., 1999, Environmental Archaeology - Principles and Methods. Stroud: Sutton. Hall, A.R. & Kenward, H.K., 1982, Environmental Archaeology in the Urban Context. London: Council for British Archaeology. Needham, S., 1991, Excavation and Salvage at Runnymede Bridge, 1978. London: British Museum Press and English Heritage. Needham, S. & Macklin, M.G. (eds.), 1992, Alluvial Archaeology in Britain. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Simmons, I. & Tooley, M., (eds.), 1981, The Environment in British Prehistory. London: Duckworth. Wilkinson, K. & Stevens, C., 2003, Environmental Archaeology. Approaches, Techniques and Applications Stroud: Tempus.


Section 3. Colonisation of new landscapes Landscapes in historical ecology Bale, W. (ed.), 1998, Advances in Historical Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press. Bale, W., 2006, The research program of historical ecology, Annual Review of Anthropology, 35: 75-98. Crumley, C.L. (ed.), 1994, Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press. Goodman, S.M. & Patterson, B.D. (eds.), 1997, Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar, Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Redman, C.L., 1999, Human Impacts on Ancient Environments. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press. Roberts, N., 1998, The Holocene: An Environmental History. London: Blackwell. Colonising Australasia Gamble, C., 1993, Timewalkers: the Prehistory of Global Colonization, Stroud: Alan Sutton. Hiscock, P., 2007, Archaeology of Ancient Australia, Cambridge: CUP. Kirch, P.V., 2000,. On the Road of the Winds: An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands before European Contact, Berkeley: University of California Press. Colonising the New World Dillehay, T.D., 2000, The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory, New York: Basic Books. Jablonski, B. (ed.), 2002, The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, San Francisco: Californian Academy of Sciences. Human colonization and species extinctions Barnosky, A., Koch, P.L., Feranec, R.S., Wing, S.L. & Shabel, A.B., 2004, Assessing the causes of Late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents, Science 306: 70-75. Burney, D.A., 1997, Tropical islands as paleoecological laboratories: Gauging the consequences of human arrival. Human Ecology 25: 437-457. Grayson, D.K., 2001, The archaeological record of human impacts on animal populations. Journal of World Prehistory 15(1): 1-68. Kelly R, Prasciunas M., 2007, Did the ancestors of Native Americans cause animal extinctions in Late-Pleistocene North America? And does it matter if they did?. In Harkin, M., and Lewis, D., (eds.) Native Americans and the Environment: Perspectives on the Ecological Indian, Lincoln: University of Nebraska. Press: pp. 95122. MacPhee, R.D.E. (ed.) 1999,. Extinctions in Near Time, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Martin, P.S. & Klein, R.G., 1988, Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. Tuscon, AZ: University of Arizona Press. Steadman, D.W., 1995. Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific island birds: biodiversity meets zooarchaeology, Science, 267, 11231131.


Farmers and the colonization of hunter-gatherer landscapes Bellwood, P., 2005, First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Redman, C.L., 1999, Human Impacts on Ancient Environments, Tuscon: University of Arizona Press. Maritime landscapes and the colonisation of islands Burney, D.A., 1997, Tropical islands as paleoecological laboratories: Gauging the consequences of human arrival. Human Ecology 25: 437-457. Goodman, S.M. & Patterson, B.D. (eds.), 1997, Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Kirch, P.V., 1997, Microcosmic histories: Island perspectives on global change. American Anthropologist 99: 30-42. Kirch, P.V. & Hunt, T.L. (eds.), 1997, Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands: Prehistoric Environmental and Landscape Change. New Haven: Yale University Press. Van Tilburg, J.A., 1994, Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology and Culture, London: British Museum Press. The colonisation of old landscapes Bale, W. & Erickson, C. (eds.), 2006, Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands. New York: Columbia University Press. Denevan, W.M., 1992, The pristine myth: The landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82: 369-85. Fairhead, J. & Leach, M., 1996, Misreading the African Landscape: Society and Ecology in a Forest-Savanna Mosaic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hayashida, F.M., 2005, Archaeology, ecological history, and conservation, Annual Review of Anthropology, 34: 43-65. Redman, C.L., 1999, Human Impacts on Ancient Environments, Tuscon: University of Arizona Press. Uncolonising landscapes: the example of the Norse Diamond, J., 2005, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive, London: Allen Lane, (chapters 6-8.) Dugmore, A.J., Keller, C. & McGovern, T., 2007, Norse Greenland settlement: reflections on climate change, trade, and the contrasting fates of human settlements in the North Atlantic islands, Arctic Anthropology, 44: 12-36. Fitzhugh, W. & Ward, E. (eds.), 2000, Vikings: the North Atlantic Saga, Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Other useful resources: Rainbird, P., 2007, The Archaeology of Islands, Cambridge: CUP. Roberts, N., 1998, The Holocene: An Environmental History, London: Blackwell. Rockman, M. & Steele, J. (eds.), 2003, Colonization of Unfamiliar Landscapes, London: Routledge. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/exploration/stories/monteverde.html (Monte Verde) http://www.anthro.utah.edu/PDFs/modeling_sahul_colonization.pdf (Sahul) http://arts.anu.edu.au/arcworld/resources/regions.htm (Sahul) http://www.natmus.dk/sw18625.asp (Greenland)


Section 4. Placing the dead in the landscape: funerary archaeology An introduction to funerary archaeology Binford, L.R. 1971. Mortuary Practices: Their Study and Their Potential. In: Brown, J. A. (ed.), Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices: New York: Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, no. 25: pp. 6-29. Parker Pearson, M. 1999. The Archaeology of Death and Burial. Stroud: Sutton. Parker Pearson, M. 1982. Mortuary Practices, Society and Ideology: An Ethnoarchaeological Study. In: Hodder, I. (ed.), Symbolic and Structural Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: pp. 99-113 The dead do tell tales Budd, P., Chenery, C., Montgomery, J., and Evans, J., 2003, You are where you ate: isotopic analysis in the reconstruction of prehistoric residency. In Parker Pearson M. (ed.), Food, Culture and Identity in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, Oxford: BAR International Series 1117: pp. 69-78.. Larsen, C.S., 2002, Bioarchaeology: The Lives and Lifestyles of Past People, Journal of Archaeological Research 10: 119-166. Schulting, R.J., and Richards, M.P., 2002, The wet, the wild and the domesticated: the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition on the west coast of Scotland. European Journal of Archaeology 5: 147-189. Schulting, R.J., and Wysocki, M., 2005, "In this chambered tumulus were found cleft skulls...": an assessment of the evidence for cranial trauma in the British Neolithic. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71: 107-138. Wysocki, M., and Whittle, A., 2000, Diversity, lifestyles and rites: new biological and archaeological evidence from British earlier Neolithic mortuary assemblages. Antiquity 74: 591-601. Gathering the dead: the origins of cemeteries Barker, G., 2006, The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory. OUP. Bouzouggar, A., Barton, R.N.E. et al, 2008, Re-evaluating the age of the Iberomaurusian in Morocco, African Archaeological Review, 25, 3-19. Boyd, B., 2006, On 'sedentism' in the later Epipalaeolithic (Natufian) Levant. World Archaeology. 38, 164-178. Zvelibil, M. and Rowley Conwy, P., 1986, Foragers and farmers in Atlantic Europe. In Zvelebil, M. (ed.) Hunters in transition: Mesolithic societies of temperate Eurasia and their transition to farming, Cambridge: CUP: pp. 67-93. Monumentalising the landscape: the British Neolithic funerary record Chapman, R., 1995, Ten years after-Megaliths, mortuary practices, and the territorial model. In Beck, L.A. (ed.), Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis, New York: Plenum Press: pp. 29-51. Parker Pearson, M., 2005, Bronze Age Britain. London: B.T. Batsford and English Heritage. Parker Pearson, M., and Ramilisonina, 1998, Stonehenge for the ancestors: the stones pass on the message, Antiquity 72: 308-326. Shanks, M., and Tilley, C., 1982, Ideology, symbolic power and ritual communication: a reinterpretation of Neolithic mortuary practices. In Hodder, I. (ed.), Symbolic and Structural Archaeology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: pp. 129-154.


Referencing the landscape Cooney, G., 2000, Landscapes of Neolithic Ireland. London: Routledge. Richards, C., 1998, Henges and water: towards an elemental understanding of monumentality and landscape in Late Neolithic Britain. Journal of Material Culture 1: 313-336. Ruggles, C., and Hoskin, M., 1999, Astronomy before history. In: Michael Hoskin (ed.), The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy: pp. 1-17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scarre, C. (ed.), 2002, Monuments and Landscape in Atlantic Europe. London: Routledge. From many to one: the shift to individual burial Brck, J., 2004, Material metaphors: the relational construction of identity in Early Bronze Age burials in Ireland and Britain. Journal of Social Archaeology 4: 307-333. Barrett, J., 1990, The monumentality of death: the character of Early Bronze Age mortuary mounds in Southern Britain. World Archaeology 22: 179-189. Cannon, A., 1995, Two faces of power: communal and individual modes of mortuary expression. ARX 1: 3-8. Parker Pearson, M., 2005, Bronze Age Britain. London: B.T. Batsford and English Heritage. Contested landscapes: battlefield archaeology Mercer, R.J., 1999, The origins of warfare in the British Isles, In: J. Carman and A. Harding (eds.), Ancient Warfare, Stroud: Sutton: pp. 143-156. Roscoe, P., 1996, War and Society in Sepik New Guinea, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 2: 645-666. Scott, D.D., Fox, R.A.J., Conner, M.A., and Harmon, D., 2000, Archaeological Perspectives on the Battle of the Little Bighorn, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Snead, J.E., 2008, War and Place: Landscapes of Conflict and Destruction in Prehistory. Journal of Conflict Archaeology, 4: 137-157. Landscape and ideology in Anglo-Saxon England Bradley, R., 1987, 'Time Regained: the Creation of Continuity', Journal of the British Archaeological Association 140: 1-17. Semple, S., 1998, A fear of the past: The place of the prehistoric burial mound in the ideology of middle and late Anglo-Saxon England, World Archaeology 30(1): 109-26. Reynolds, A., 2009, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, OUP (Chapter 5: The geography of deviant burial) Williams, H., 1997, Ancient landscapes and the dead: The reuse of prehistoric and Roman monuments as early Anglo-Saxon burial sites. Medieval Arch. XLI, 1-32. Williams, H., 1998, Monuments and the past in early Anglo-Saxon England, World Archaeology,30(1), 90-108.


SUGGESTED TUTORIAL TOPICS o o o o What is an archaeological site? Discuss how best to approach and study a virgin archaeological landscape. Are distribution maps of artefacts of any value? Discuss with fully presented examples. Compare GIS models of site location with recent phenomenological approaches to landscape. Contrast the different types of environmental information that can be obtained from, for example, well-drained calcareous, well-drained acidic and waterlogged sites. Compare the environmental archaeology of rural settlements and towns. What happens when humans first arrive in a new landscape? In what ways did the Greenland Norse adapt to their environment, and how can their eventual failure be explained? What caused Late Pleistocene mammalian extinctions? Traditional peoples live in harmony with nature. Discuss. How can studies of landscape history become politicised? How can the origins of cemeteries be explained? What does the change from communal burial in the British Neolithic to individual burial in the Early Bronze Age signify? How do earlier prehistoric or early historic cemeteries and funerary monuments reference the landscape, and how does this change over time?

o o o o o o o o o



PAPER 4 : URBANIZATION AND CHANGE IN COMPLEX SOCIETIES Course Co-ordinator: Dr Lisa Bendall, Institute of Archaeology 36 Beaumont Street Tel: (2)78244 E-mail: lisa.bendall@arch.ox.ac.uk

SYLLABUS This paper offers the opportunity to make a comparative study of complex (i.e., urban or state-organized) pre-industrial societies, using archaeological evidence for their origins and patterns of development, and anthropological insights into their character. It offers both a narrative overview of the growth of urban systems in the Old World (from their genesis in fourth millennium Mesopotamia through their Mediterranean successors in the second and first millennia BC, down to their spread to Atlantic Europe in the first and second millennia AD), and some insights into the reasons for their spread. Its emphasis throughout is on the common characteristics of towns and cities, such as their role in local and long-distance trading networks and as centres of cultural life. Particular emphasis is paid to certain episodes, such as the origins of urbanization, the growth of urbanism in Mediterranean Europe and in the North Sea basin. Comparative themes include urban functions and morphology, world-systems interpretations, transport technologies, 'colonial' (intercultural) urbanism, and urban anthropology. Learning outcomes To acquire a broad overview of complex societies in the Old World and of the social, economic and political systems which underlay them; to understand the processes leading to the emergence and spread of urban centres and networks; to develop a sufficient knowledge of urban morphology to allow comparative studies to be undertaken diachronically and cross-culturally; to follow debates on the usefulness of concepts such as core and periphery in economic/change and culture. Transferable skills The ability to critically assess complex data derived from a range of disciplines; the relationship between emic and etic definitions (e.g. the concept of city) and their appropriate uses in complementary approaches to the same material.


LECTURES [24] Michaelmas Term [8 lectures] Lecturer: Dr L. Bendall Urban Systems and Trade: Models and Historical Overview 1. Conceptualising socio-cultural complexity 2. Models for ancient urbanisation Lecturers: Dr L. Hulin, Dr L. Bendall Complex Societies and the State in the Near East 3. The birth of cities and trade in Mesopotamia (LH) 4. The Uruk expansion (LH) 5. Pre-dynastic Egypt: Civilization without cities? (LH) 6. Trade and urbanism in the Bronze Age world. (LH) 7. Complex society in the Aegean I: Crete (LB) 8. Complex society in the Aegean II: Mainland Greece and beyond (LB) Hilary Term [8 lectures] Lecturers: Dr P. Haarer, Prof. C. Gosden, Prof. P. Mitchell, Dr Z. Kamash The Development of Complex Societies in the Mediterranean and Beyond 9. The elusive Greek polis and its consequences (PH) 10. Greeks and the Mediterranean World (PH) 11. From Bronze to Iron in Europe and the Near East (CG) 12. Rome, Italy and the development of Empire (ZK) 13. The city in the Roman world (ZK) 14. The decline of Roman urbanism (ZK) 15. Africa and the emerging world system (PM) 16. State formation processes in sub-Saharan Africa (PM) Trinity Term [8 lectures] Lecturers: Dr N. L. Boivin, Prof. H. Hamerow, Dr. E. Standley 17. Urbanism and trade in historical India (NLB) 18. The Silk Road (NLB) 19. The Spice Routes (NLB) 20. The archaeology of the Swahili (NLB) The Rise of the European Medieval Town 21. The fate of towns in Post-Roman Europe (HH) 22. The rise and fall of the Emporia (HH) 23. Towns of the Viking Age (ES) 24. Defence, mercantile growth and the origins of the medieval town (ES)


READING : RECOMMENDED Urban Systems and Trade: Models and Historical Overview Abu-Lughod, J., 1989, Before European Hegemony: the World System AD 1250-1350, Oxford: OUP. Aubet, M.E., 1995, The Phoenicians and the West, Cambridge: CUP. Braudel, F., 1972, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip I, 2 vols, (French original 1966). Crone, P., 1989, Pre-industrial Societies. Blackwell Curtin, P.A., 1984, Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. CUP De Vries, J., 1984, European Urbanisation 1500-1900. Methuen. Franck, I.M. and Brownstone, E.M., 1986, The Silk Road: a History, Facts on File. Frank, A.G. & Gills, B. (eds.), 1993, The World System: Five Hundred Years or Five Thousand, Routledge Frank, A.G., 1998, ReORIENT: Global Economy in the Asian Age, California UP. Hart, K., 1982, On commoditisation, in Goody, E. (ed.), From Craft to Industry: the Ethnography of Proto-industrial Cloth Production, Cambridge: CUP. Jacobs, J., 1967, The Economy of Cities, Penguin. McEvedy, C., 1967, (revised edition in preparation), The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History and, 1992, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (revised edition) maps of "Towns and trade routes" at selected periods. Schneider, J., 1991, Was there a pre-capitalist world-system?, in Chase-Dunn, C. & Hall, T.D. (eds.), Core/Periphery Relations in Precapitalist Worlds [and other essays in this collection], Westview. Sjoberg, G., 1960, The Pre-industrial City, past and present. Free Press Skinner, G.W. (ed.), 1977, The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford University PRess Wallerstein, I., 1975, 1980, The Modern World Systems, Vols 1 and 2. Wolf, E.A., 1982, Europe and the People without History. Complex Societies and the State in the Near East Algaze, G., 1993, The Uruk World System: Dynamics of Expansion of Early Mesopotamian. University Chicago Press Connah, G. 2001, African Civilisations, CUP Edwards, D., 1995 The archaeology of the Meroitic state, BAR Hoffman, M.A., 1991, Egypt before the Pharaohs: The prehistoric foundatiosn of Egyptian civilisation. University of Texas Press Kemp, B.J., 1989, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. Routledge Mitchell, P., 2005, African Connections: an archaeological perspective on Africas relations with the rest of the world, Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press Nissen, H.J., 1988, The Early History of the Ancient Near East 9000-2000 B.C. University of Chicago Press Pollock, S., 1999, Ancient Mesopotamia : the Eden that Never Was. CUP Postgate, J.N., 1992, Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge Redman, C.L., 1978, The Rise of Civilisation: From early farmers to urban society in the ancient Near East. W.H. Freeman Roaf, M., 1990, Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. Facts on File Rothman, M. (ed.), 2001, Uruk Mesopotamia and its Neighbours: Cross-cultural Interactions in the Era of State Formation. School of American Research Press, 70

Welsby, D., 1996, The Kingdom of Kush, British Museum Press Aegean Bronze Age Societies Bennet, J. & Galaty, M., 1997, Ancient Greece: Recent developments in Aegean archaeology and regional studies, Journal of Archaeological Research, 5: 75-120. Dickinson, O.., 1994, The Aegean Bronze Age. CUP Hgg, R. & Marinatos, N. (eds.), 1987, The Function of the Minoan Palaces. Svenska institutet i Athen Laffineur, R. & Niemeier, W.D. (eds.), 1995, Politeia: Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age. University of Texas Cullen, T. (ed.), 2001, Aegean Prehistory: A Review [review of recent research throughout the Aegean from Palaeolithic to the end of the Bronze Age]. Greco-Roman Urban Systems Barker, C. & Lloyd, J.A. (eds.), 1991, Roman Landscapes: Archaeological survey in the Mediterranean Region. British School at Rome Damgaard Andersen, H. et al. (eds.), 1997, Urbanization in the Mediterranean in the Ninth to Sixth Centuries B.C., Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. Feinman, G.M. & Marcus, J. (eds.), 1998, Archaic States. School of American Research Press Fisher, N. & van Wees, H., 1998, Archaic Greece: new approaches and new evidence, London: Duckworth Garnsey, P. & Saller, R., 1987, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture. University of California Press Garnsey, P. & Whittaker, C.R. (eds.), 1983, Trade and Famine in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge Philological Society Greene, K., 1986, Archaeology of the Roman Economy. University of California Press Hopkins, K. 1978, Economic Growth and Towns in Classical Antiquity, in Abrams, P. & Wrigley, E.A. (eds.), Towns in Societies: Essays in economic history and historical sociology. CUP. Mitchell, L. & Rhodes, P.J. (eds.), 1997, The Development of the Polis in Archaic Greece, London. Routledge Molho, A., Raaflaub, K. & Emlen, J. (eds.), 1991, City States in Classical Antiquity and Medieval Italy, Ann Arbor. Murray, O. & Price, S. (eds.), 1990, The Greek City from Homer to Alexander. Clarendon Press Nichols, D.L. & Charlton, T.H. (eds.), 1997, The Archaeology of City-States, Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Osborne, R., 1987, Classical Landscape with Figure: The Ancient Greek City and its Countryside. ACLS History E-Book Project, Osborne, R., 1996, Greece in the Making 1200-479 BC. London: Routledge Rich., J. & Wallace-Hadrill, A. (eds.), 1990, City and Country in the Ancient World. London: Routledge Snodgrass, A.M., 1979, Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment. University of California Press Southall, A., 1998, The City in Time and Space. CUP Spivey, N. & Stoddart, S., 1990, Etruscan Italy: Etruscan Influences on the Civilisations of Italy from Antiquity to the Modern Era. Brigham Young University Stambaugh, J.E., 1988, The Ancient Roman City. John Hopkins University Press Ward-Perkins, J.B., 1974, Cities of Ancient Greece and Italy: Planning in classical antiquity. George Braziller 71

Ward-Perkins, J.B., 1981, Roman Imperial Architecture. Yale University Press Woolf, G. 1998, Becoming Roman: The origins of provincial civilisation in Gaul. CUP Core-Periphery Relationships in the Greco-Roman World Aubet, M.E., 1993, The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. CUP Champion, T.C. (ed.), 1989, Centre and Periphery: Comparative Studies in Archaeology. London: Routledge Collis, J.R., 1984, Oppida: Earliest Towns North of the Alps. University of Sheffield, Cunliffe, B.W., 1988, Greeks, Romans and Barbarians: Spheres of Interaction. Batsford Rowlands, M., Larsen, M. & Kristiansen, K. (eds.), 1987, Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World. CUP Wells, P.S., 1980, Culture Contact and Culture Change: Early Iron Age Europe and the Mediterranean World. CUP The Transformation of the Late Antique City Barnish, S.J.B. 1989, The Transformation of Classical Cities and the Pirenne Debate, JRA 2: 385-400. Fentress, E., 1994, Cosa in the Empire: the Unmaking of a Roman Town, JRA 7: 208-22. Frend, W.H.C.,1985, The End of Byzantine North Africa: Some Evidence of Transitions, Bulletin archologique du Comit des travaux historiques et scientifiques, n.s. 19: 387-97. Foss, C., 1977, Archaeology and the "Twenty Cities" of Byzantine Asia, AJA 81: 469-86. Kennedy, H., 1985, From Polis to Madina. Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria, Past & Present 106: 3-27. Liebeschuetz, J.H., 2001, The Uses and Abuses of the Concept of Decline in Later Roman History: or, Was Gibbon Politically Incorrect?, in L.Lavan (ed.) Recent Research in Late-Antique Urbanism, and responses by others: 233-45. Pirenne, H.,1952, Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade. Doubleday Potter, T. W. 1995, Towns in Late Antiquity: Iol Caesarea and its Context. University of Sheffield Rich, J. (ed.), 1992, The City in Late Antiquity. London: Routledge Wacher, J.S., 1995, The Towns of Roman Britain, London: Routledge (2nd ed.), chapter 9: 408-21. Ward-Perkins, B., 1984, From Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages: Urban Public Building in Northern and Central Europe AD 33-850, Oxford: OUP Ward-Perkins, B., 1997, Continuitists, Catastrophists, and the Towns of Post-Roman Northern Italy," PBSR 65: 157-76. Urbanism and trade in historical India Allchin, F.R. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Begley, V. & De Puma, R.D. (eds.) 1991. Rome and India: The Ancient Sea Trade. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Alcock, S.E., DAltroy, T.N., Morrison, K.D. & Sinopoli, C.M. 2009. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (chapters 6 and 10) Ray, H.P. 2003. The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Parker, G. & Sinopoli, C. (eds.) 2008. Ancient India in its Wider World. University of Michigan Center for South Asian Studies.


Smith, M.L. 2006. The Archaeology of South Asian Cities. Journal of Archaeological Research 14: 97-142. The Silk and Spice Routes Abu-Lughod, J. 1989. Before European Hegemony: The World System AD 1250-1350, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Beckwith, C.I. 2009. Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chaudhuri, K.N. 1990. Asia Before Europe: Economy and Civilization of the Indian Ocean from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hourani, G.F. 1995. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Medieval Times. [2nd revised and expanded edition, by J. Carswell]. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Miller, J.I. 1969. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The archaeology of the Swahili Horton, M. 1996. Shanga. The Archaeology of a Muslim Trading Community on the Coast of East Africa. (Memoirs of the British Institute of East Africa, 14). London: The British Institute in Eastern Africa Horton, M. & Middleton, J. 2000. The Swahili. Oxford: Blackwell. Insoll, T. 2003. The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (chapter 4) Kusimba, C. 1999. Rise and Fall of the Swahili States. Walnut Creek and London. Middleton, J. 2003. Merchants: An essay in historical ethnography. Royal Anthropological Institute 9: 509-526. Spear, T. 2000. Early Swahili History Reconsidered. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 33:2: 257-290. The Rise of the European Medieval Town Barley, M.W. (ed.), 1977, European Towns: Their Archaeology and Early History, London. Biddle, M., 1976, Towns, in Wilson, D.M. (ed.), The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England, London (paperback edition, Cambridge, 1985), 99-150. Clarke, H. & Ambrosiani, B., 1991, Towns in the Viking Age, Leicester. Duby, G. (ed.), 1980, Histoire de la France Urbaine, i La ville Antique, ii La ville Medieval, Paris: Editions du Sueil. Ennen, E., 1979, The Medieval Town. Europe in the Middle Ages: Selected Studies 15. Hodges, R., 1982, Dark Age Economics. The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000, London. Hodges, R. & Hobley, B. (eds.), 1988, The Rebirth of Towns in the West AD 700-1050, London: CBA Res. Rep. 68. Ward-Perkins, B., 1984, From Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Urban Public Building in Northern and Central Europe AD 33-850, Oxford.


SUGGESTED TUTORIAL TOPICS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o How should we account for the social transformations that took place in southern Mesopotamia over the fourth millennium BC? How were trade and ritual interwoven in the emergence of the Egyptian state? What sort of significance should we attach to a long-distance exchange in the bronze age of the Near East? How did Greek and Phoenician colonies differ from the societies from which their founders originated? To what extent did Phoenician and Greek trading contact have on the societies of South Eastern Iberia? Compare and contrast the development and nature of city-states in the Aegean and in central Italy between the C8th and C5th B.C. Assess the impact of contact with the Mediterranean world on the societies of Late Hallstatt and Early La Tene Europe. How much did Roman towns in temperate Europe owe to pre-Roman traditions of settlement? What kinds of economic activity were associated with the Roman urban system? What do changes in urban form and function between 200 and 700 AD contribute to understanding the transformation of ancient society? Assess the importance of religion in influencing the forms, functions and development of towns in at least two different societies. Critically assess the definition of Urban. What is the relationship between state formation and urbanisation? What role did small-scale, non-urbanised societies play in the emergence of extensive long-distance trading networks along the Silk and Spice routes? How did patterns of long-distance trade shape ancient cities?




Three subjects chosen from the following list of options are studied.

Culture and Society of West Africa (Dr D. Pratten) Lectures/tutorials in Hilary Term This course provides an empirical foundation and conceptual framework for the academic study of West Africa and its peoples. The course also aims to introduce students to a critical understanding of ethnographic writing on West Africa. The course is organized around a series of lectures and readings which introduce theoretical issues that have developed in the anthropology of West Africa. These will be presented in weekly classes held in conjunction with a film series that introduces a range of ethnographic and wider issues in West African culture and society. Content and Structure The writing of ethnography is necessarily grounded in local concerns and debates and the course will examine how the ethnography of West Africa has contributed to the development of the wider anthropological discipline. The course will introduce the challenges of representing selves and others by examining ethnographys engagement with key issues in anthropology and by exploring ethnographys relationship with its own past. Four grand themes have animated social anthropology explorations of modes of organization, modes of thought, modes of production, and modes of transformation. The course will examine ethnographic approaches to each of these themes in the context of West African ethnography. We will refer to two recent ethnographies in most sessions: Ferme, M.C., 2001, The underneath of things: violence, history, and the everyday in Sierra Leone, Berkeley: University of California Press. Piot, C., 1999, Remotely Global: Village Modernity in West Africa, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. An excellent account of doing ethnographic research in West Africa: Gottlieb, A. & Graham, P., 1993, Parallel worlds: an anthropologist and a writer encounter Africa, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. And, a collection of key articles covering the major issues in the anthropology of Africa: Grinker, R.R. & Steiner, C.B. (eds.), 1997, Perspectives on Africa: a reader in culture, history and representation, Oxford: Blackwell.


Course Objectives By the end of the course students will: gain a more informed and critical understanding of African countries; acquire knowledge of contemporary West African societies and of the contribution of this regional ethnography to anthropological theory and other social sciences. be able to locate such themes in a wider debate of anthropological theory further the ability to analyse and critically evaluate ethnographic texts improve skills in writing and in the presentation of information and argument

South Asia (Prof. D. Gellner & Dr R. Parkin) Lectures/seminars/tutorials in Hilary and Trinity Terms South Asia conventionally covers India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Bhutan, though most of the available literature is on the first four, especially India. The option will cover the following topics: caste, family and kinship, gender and personhood, Hinduism and other religions in south Asia, the village, nationalism and colonialism, identities, and migration and diasporas. The teaching will cover Hilary Term and the first half of Trinity Term, and will consist of a combination of lectures and/or seminars and/or tutorials, the exact combination depending on final student numbers. The eight tutorials may be taken in either Hilary or Trinity term. Learning outcomes The course is designed to give students an understanding of the fundamentals of society, culture, religion and politics in the South Asian region. Since many of the topics covered have proved illustrative of social anthropological methods and theories in general, the course should also expand the students understanding of the discipline more widely. Basic reading Bennett, L., 1989, Dangerous Wives and Sacred Sisters: The Social and Symbolic Roles of High-caste Women in Nepal. Columbia University Press Dumont, L., 1980, Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications. University of Chicago Press Kapadia, K., 1998, Siva and Her Sisters: Gender, Caste and Class in rural South India. Westview Press Kolenda, P., 1978, Caste in Contemporary India: Beyond organic solidarity. Benjamin Cummings. Mandelbaum, D., 1970, Society in India (2 vols). University of California Press Pocock, D., 1978, Mind, Body and Wealth: A Study of Belief and Practice in an Indian Village. Rowman and Littlefield Sharma, U. 1999, Caste, OUP Tyler, S., 1973, India: An Anthropological Perspective. Goodyear Wadley, S.S., 1999, Struggling with Destiny in Karimpur, 1925-1984. University of California Press


Lowland South America (Dr E. Ewart) Lectures / classes / tutorials in Michaelmas, Hilary and Trinity Terms The course introduces students to one of the most exciting and recently studied ethnographic regions of the world, lowland South America. Defined broadly, this cultural area comprises the lowland tropical and subtropical regions east of the Andes, the coastal and foothill regions on either side of the Andes, and other lowland geographic regions, including urban and peri-urban frontier regions. Learning Outcomes By the end of the course, students will have gained a general understanding of (1) Amerindian ways of life, and value and thought systems; (2) the ecological, historical and political conditions of contemporary Amazonian countries; and (3) the theoretical debates raised by the ethnological analysis. A primary goal of the course is to show students how the ethnology of lowland South America, through its diversity and debates, is renewing anthropological thinking on a number of key models; how best to integrate data from archaeology, ethnography, linguistics and ethnobiology; and, last but not least, research ethics. Transferable Skills In addition to learning how to identify and systematise bibliographical sou rces, read critically, develop oral and written skills, and evaluate alternative theoretical approaches to the analysis of society in a particular world, students will also gain an ability to appreciate and comprehend the diversity of thinking in and about the world. Finally, they will be encouraged to think about Amazonianist anthropology in relation to other cultural areas. Recommended Reading Conklin, B., 2001, Consuming grief. Compassionate cannibalism in an Amazonian society. University of Texas Press Descola, P., 1996, The spears of twilight. Life and death in the Amazon jungle. Harper Collins. Lvis Straus, C., 1992, The raw and the cooked, Penguin Oakdale, S., 2005, I foresee my life: The ritual performance of autobiography in an Amazonian community. University of Nebraska Press Rival, L., 2002, Trekking through history: The Huaorani of American Ecuador. Columbia University Press Lecture Topics: Michaelmas Term Introduction to the region: Week 7 Introduction to the region and its peoples: Multiplicity, commonalities and transformations Week 8 Lowland South American societies through time: Views from archaeology, history and ethnography. Hilary Term Week 1 Residential groups and growing persons Week 2 Rainforest economies Week 3 Selective affinities


The cosmos order: structures, fields and forces: Week 4 Shamans as space-time travellers and practitioners in the invisible Week 5 The human and other-than-human condition Week 6 Cosmic asymmetries: Between myth and history Historical encounters: Week 7 Invisible natives: Caboclos and mixed-blood peoples Week 8 White-Indian conflations: Christianisation, trade, schooling and health care

Trinity Term Week 1 Amazonian futures: economic development, the environment and indigenous rights. Week 2 Debating the legacy of Claude Lvi Strauss

Maritime South East Asia (Prof. R. H. Barnes) 8 lectures/classes in Hilary Term and Trinity Term [8 tutorials] This course offers a general introduction to the anthropology of Maritime South East Asia, with a strong bias towards Indonesia. It attempts to relate the current cultures of the area to the prehistory and cultural history of Austronesian (and non-Austronesian) peoples and to the history of Indian, Arab, Chinese and European political, economic and cultural influence. Attention is given to the local effects of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. Prominently features are issues in the comparative study of cultures within the region, with attention given to differing forms of cognatic kinship, "house" societies, unilineal descent, and marriage alliance. Also covered are "agricultural involution", "dual economy", money and barter, and contemporary development policies and programmes. Further potential topics include male and female relationships, traditional forms of governance, symbolic patterns, language levels, and a variety of traditional, but sophisticated, art forms. Learning outcomes Knowledge of the linguistic and cultural history and anthropological variety of Maritime Southeast Asia.

Gender Theories and Realities: Cross Cultural Perspectives (Dr P. Heinonen & Dr J. Waldren) Lectures in Michaelmas Term (weeks 1-4); classes in Michaelmas Term (Weeks 5-8) This course will familiarise students with theories of gender and feminist critique and how to apply these insights to the analysis of anthropological and archaeological research past and present. We will explore the various social meanings given to males and females in a wide range of ethnographic settings and the effect of these gender constructs on a persons identity, access to knowledge and power, role in social relationships, claim to resources and the symbolic representation of gender within each society. By examining recent field research on women and men and the meaning of social representations of gender roles in local contexts, we will present varied approaches to the study of gender and society. There will be eight meetings consisting of four lectures and four classes. Students will be encouraged to contribute to seminars and discussions. Eight tutorials will be arranged for 78

A&A students to provide opportunities to develop diverse themes within a cross-cultural perspective. The aim is to explore sex, gender, masculinities and sexual difference and the interrelationships between gender and other categories of socio-cultural differentiations (e.g. class, race, kinship, ethnicity, identity, religion and sexual orientation). There will be additional instructions on gender and development in order to cover topical issues such as gender and globalization, agriculture, water, environment, and technology. Themes to be discussed in lectures, classes and essays: Learning gender: Theories of gender, sexuality, masculinity; race & gender; gender & identity; gender & ethnicity Gender sensitive research methodology. Anthropology of development; the anthropologists contribution to development. Changing perspectives on: women in development (WID), women and development (WAD), and gender and development (GAD) Gender and the semantics of the body; symbolism, tradition, mythology; religious imagery and artefacts: rituals, ideals and practice; ethnographic representation of gender ideology and gender relations.

Gender & Development:

Gender & Representation:

Learning outcomes Students will learn to analyse and interpret concepts of gender in different societies and gain insights into the manner in which male and female identities are learned and practiced in diverse situations. Transferable skills With a broader understanding of masculinity and femininity and male/female as well as female/female and male on male power relations in varying contexts, students will be able to tackle gender issues in their own lives, in the world they live in and in the professions they choose to follow. Lectures (weeks 1-4) Lecturers: Dr P. Heinonen & Dr J. Waldren Gender: Theories 1. Feminisms and anthropology/womens studies (JW/PH) 2. Perspectives on the study of women, gender and masculinity (PH) 3. Gender and research methodology/reflexivity (PH) 4. Field research and gender analysis (JW) Classes: (weeks 5-8) Gender: Realities 5. Gender and Archaeology (Dr Lucia Nixon, St Hildas) 6. Bodies and Power in Gender and Archaeology (JW) 7. Gender and Development (PH) 8. Gender, Religion and Development (Dr Josephine Reynell, Hertford)


Recommended reading Lecture 1 Gleadle, K., 1995, The Early Feminists: Radical Unitarians and the Emergence of the Womens Rights Movement, 1831-52, Palgrave Macmillan Moore, H., 1986, Feminism and Anthropology. University of Minnisota Press Visweswaran, K., 1997, Histories of Feminist Ethnography in Annual Review of Anthropology 26: 591-621 Heywood, L.L. (ed.), 2006, The Womens Movement Today: An Encyclopedia of Third Wave Feminism. Greenwood Press Lecture 2 Buttler, J. ,1999, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge Cornwall, A. & Lindisfarne, N. (eds.), 1994, Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. London: Routledge Sanday, P. & Goodenough, R. (eds.), 1990, Beyond the second sex: New Directions in the Anthropology of Gender. University of Pennsylvania Press Shail A. 2004, Youre Not one of Those Boring Masculinists, Are You? The Question of Male-Embodied Feminism in Gillis S., Howie G. & Munford R. (eds.). Third Wave Feminism: A critical exploration, Palgrave, pp. 86 Lancaster R. & di Leonardo M., 1997, The Gender Sexuality Reader, Routledge Lecture 3 Dresch, P., James, W. & Parkin, D. (eds.), 2002, Anthropology in a Wider World: Essays on Field Research, Methodology & History in Anthropology, Vol.7, Berghahn Ramazanolu, C. & Holland J. 2002, Feminist Methodology: Challenges and Choices, Sage Hammersley, M. & Atkinson, P. ,1995, Ethnography: Principles in practice, Tavistock Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y (eds.) 1994, A Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Lecture 4 Kleinman S. 2007. Feminist Fieldwork Analysis. Sage Campbell, G., Lemire, B. and Pearson, R. (eds.), 2001, Women & Credit: Researching the Past, Refiguring the Future, Berg Weiner, A, 1974, Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspective in Trobriand Exchange. University of Texas Press Okely, J. & Callaway, H., 1992, Anthropology & Autobiography. Routledge

Material Culture Studies (Dr D. Hicks) Tutorials and classes in Hilary Term The course will examine the ways in which material things are examined in relation to human life in archaeology, anthropology and related social sciences. Using the archaeological and ethnographic collections of the Pitt Rivers Museum, a series of key themes in studies of materials, material culture and materiality will be explored, including collecting, cultural property, technology, historical process, object biographies, and aesthetics and enchantment. Through hands-on session and seminar discussions, the course will introduce the main contemporary debates in material anthropology and museum ethnography


Learning Outcomes Students will gain a broad understanding of the major approaches to, and contemporary debates about, the role of material things in human life. They will gain familiarity with the range of theoretical approaches to objects in anthropology and archaeology, and with the practice and social and historical contexts of collections-based research Transferable Skills A sound knowledge of thinking about things about things in anthropology, archaeology and related social sciences, and first-hand experience of working with collections in a museums environment Recommended Introductory Reading Gell, A., 1998, Art and Agency, Oxford: Clarendon Gosden, C. and C. Knowles, 2001, Collecting Colonialism, Oxford: Berg Ingold, T., 2007, Materials against Materiality, Archaeological Dialogues 14:1-16 Latour, B., 2005, Reassembling the Social: An introduction to actor-network theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press Miller, D., 1987, Material Culture and Mass Consumption, Oxford: Blackwell Pearce, S., 1995, On Collecting: An investigation into collecting in the European tradition. London: Routledge Swain, H., 2007, An Introduction to Museum Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Tilley, C., Keane, S., Rowlands, M., and Spyer, P. (eds.), 2006, Handbook of Material Culture, London: Sage

Japanese Society (Prof. R. Goodman) Eight lectures in Hilary Terms, Classes in Hilary and Trinity Terms This course has two main aims; (a) to provide an introduction to Japanese society from an anthropological perspective and (b) to show how the study of Japan can contribute to mainstream anthropological theory. Major themes which will be covered include notions of personhood, rituals and symbols, time and space, structure and agency, continuity and change, and the construction of ethnic identity. It will be possible to study a number of contemporary social institutions in depth, including the Japanese education system, medical system, household and kinship systems, new religions and the worlds of traditional arts and popular culture. At the micro level, the details of these operations and the ideologies which support them will be examined, while at the macro level the course will explore their relation to other social institutions and the wider political and economic arena both inside and outside Japan. In Hilary Term, there will be a series of 8 lectures which will introduce students to the anthropological literature on Japan (details below). There will also be a weekly class. Students will be able to choose from a list of around 20 topics for the class which they would like to pursue. Each topic is headed by a key anthropological reading which all those who attend the class must read (copies will be available in the library) and the purpose of the class is to relate the specific readings on Japan (not all of which will be anthropological) to the themes covered in this anthropological text. Each week, two or three students will be assigned to lead the discussion in the class. In Trinity Term, there will be a combination of new topics and revision classes.


Learning outcomes To see how an advanced, industrial urban society like Japan can be studied using mainstream anthropological methods; the implications of studying a society like Japan for anthropological theory.

Lectures [8 lectures]: Please note that the lectures are a central part of the course and all students are very strongly recommended to attend. The Construction of Japanese Ethnicity : An Anthropological Introduction 1. Issues in the study of Japan: Said and Orientalism The Functionalist/Essentialist Model of Japanese Ethnicity 2. Technology and the ageing population 3. Homogeneity, minority groups and migrant workers 4. A crowded society with no natural resources: harmony and investment in an educational meritocracy 5. Groupism and hierarchy : the kinship model, Nakane and Doi Critique of the Model 6. Inherent assumptions of the model and problems with it. 7 - 8. Case study of the functionalist versus the conflict models of the Japanese company. There is a good collection of videos on Japanese society and Japanese films held at Nissan Institute (Bodleian) Library. These are well worth viewing as part of this course. Recommended Introductory Reading Hendry, J., 2003, Understanding Japanese Society (3rd edition), Routledge Kingston, Jeff, 2004, Japans Quiet Transformation: Social Change and Civil Society in the 21st Century, Routledge Lebra, T.S., (ed.), 1992, Japanese Social Organization, University of Hawaii Press Nakane, Chie, 1973, Japanese Society, Penguin Sugimoto, Y., 1997, An Introduction to Japanese Society. CUP

Anthropology of Medicine (Dr E. Hsu) 8 lectures in Hilary Term; 4 tutorials Medical anthropology is a fairly new field, the first journals being published in the late 1970s, and it is one of the most rapidly growing areas within anthropology. If sensibly applied, medical anthropology can contribute towards public health and health policies, and towards a better understanding of traditional, complementary and alternative therapies, apart from being an exciting field of anthropological research. This course discusses ritual healing from the perspective of medical anthropology and the anthropology of sensory experience. It offers a theoretically critical approach that should engender thought and reflexivity over the basic assumptions and concepts that motivate medical and religious forms of healing. Learning outcomes To gain an over view of themes and debates in medical anthropology; 82

to explore medical treatment and ritual healing with particular emphasis on the senses that are involved

Transferable skills To think about complex issues in a critical and comprehensive way; to present these thoughts in a clear form, oral and written. Lectures [8 lectures] Hilary Term Lecturer: Dr E Hsu Sensory experience in therapeutics [8 lectures] 1. Ritual healing and sensory experience 2. Pain infliction, purging, vomiting, and sweating 3. Kinaesthetics, play and performance: dance 4. Sound and rhythm, and shamanic songs 5. Vision in diagnosis and treatment (e.g. biomedicine) 6. Touch in diagnosis and treatment (e.g. Chinese medicine) 7. Taste and distinction in treatment choices 8. Scents and odours in ritual healing Basic reading Background reading Csordas, T.J., 1994, Embodiment and Experience, Cambridge: CUP. Laderman, C. & Roseman, M., 1996, The Performance of Healing, London: Routledge. Hsu E. 2008: The Senses and the Social: An introduction. Ethnos 73 (4), 433-443 Lecture 1 Lewis, G., 1980, Day of Shining Red: an Essay on Understanding Ritual, Cambridge: CUP, chap 2. Csordas, T., 1993: Somatic modes of attraction, Cultural Anthropology 8: 135-156. Desjarlais, R., 1996, Presence, in Laderman, C. & Roseman, M. (eds.), The Performance of Healing, London: Routledge. Lecture 2 Zimmermann F., 1992, Gentle purge: the flower power of Ayurveda, in Leslie, C. & Young, A. (eds.), Paths to Asian Medical Knowledge, Berkeley: UCP. Hsu E., 2005, Acute pain as therapy, Etnofoor, Special Issue 18(1): 78-96. Lecture 3 Friedson, S. M., 1996, Dancing Prophets: Musical Experience in Tumbuka Healing, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Jennings S., 1995, Theatre, Ritual and Transformation. The Senoi Temiars, London: Routledge. Lecture 4 Roseman M., 1991, Healing Sounds from the Malaysian Rainforest: Temiar Music and Medicine, Berkeley: UCP. Aldridge, D. 2005. Music therapy and neurological rehabilitation: performing health. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


Lecture 5 Turner, V., 1966, Colour classification in Ndembu ritual: a problem in primitive classification, in Turner, V., The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu ritual, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Stroecken K. 2008: Sensory Shifts and Synaesthetics in Sukuma Healing. Ethnos 73 (4): 466-484, Lecture 6 Geurts K.L. 2003: Culture and the Senses. Bodily Ways of Knowing in an African Community. Berkeley: UCP (ch 5: Sensory Symbolism in Birth and Infant Care Practices) Kuriyama, S., 1999, The Expressiveness of the Body and the Divergence of Greek and Chinese Medicine, New York: Zone Books, part I. Lecture 7 Seremetakis N. 1994. The Memory of the Senses, in N. Seremetakis (ed.), The Senses Still: Perception and Memory as Material Culture in Modernity. Boulder: Westview. Shepard G.H. 2006: A Sensory Ecology of Medicinal Plant Therapy in Two Amazonian Societies. American Anthropologist 106 (2): 252-66. Lecture 8 Gell, A., 1977, Magic, perfume, dream, in Lewis, I. (ed.), Symbols and Sentiments: Cross-Cultural Studies in Symbolism, London: Academic Press. Parkin, D., 2007, Wafting on the wind: smell and the cycle of spirit and matter. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Special Issue: S39-S53.

Anthropology of Europe (Dr R. Parkin) Lectures/Seminars/Tutorials in Michaelmas, Hilary and Trinity Terms. After a long period in the shadows compared with many other parts of the world, Europe has now won a secure place for itself as a major ethnographic region. This has been helped theoretically by the somewhat belated recognition that anthropology should concern itself with the whole of humanity, rather than be simply a matter of the West studying the rest, and that people anywhere can be studied, as well as study others, anthropologically. This process has been helped in a practical sense by the opening up of eastern Europe as a field for ethnographic enquiry since 1989. Along the way, the anthropology of Europe has developed many distinctive topics of its own. The course will cover all regions of Europe and include topics such as honour and shame, patronage, community studies, nationalism and identities, history and memory, the European Union and European integration, socialism and postsocialist firms and farms. Learning outcomes The course is designed to give students an understanding of the anthropology of Europe as an ethnographic area. Since many of the topics covered have proved illustrative of social anthropological methods and theories in general, the course should also expand the students understanding of the discipline more widely.


Recommended reading Delamont, S, Appetites and identities: an introduction to the social anthropology of western Europe. Cole, J., Anthropology comes part-way home: community studies in Europe, Annual Review of Anthrop. 6 (1977), 349-78. Asad, T. et al., Provocations of European ethnology, American Anthropologist 99 (1997), 713-30. Davis, J., People of the Mediterranean. Cohen, A. (ed.), Belonging: identity and social organization in British rural cultures. Rogers, S.C., Anthropology in France, Annual Review of Anthropology 30 (2001). Halpern, J. and Kideckel, D., Anthropology of eastern Europe, Annual Review of Anthropology 12 (1983), 377-402. Hann, C.M. (ed.), Postsocialism: ideals, ideologies and practices in Eurasia. Bellier, I. and Wilson, T. (eds.), An anthropology of the European Union. Baumann, G., Contesting culture: discourses of identity in multiethnic London. Abram, S. et al. (eds.), Tourists and tourism: identifying with people and places (Introduction, Chs. 1-4, 7 only).


The Later Prehistory of Europe (Dr A. Bogaard, Prof. C. Gosden & Dr R. Schulting) Lectures and tutorials in Hilary Term Prehistoric Europe offers an unparalleled diversity and richness of material evidence for key transitions in human history, encompassing the shift from hunting and gathering to farming, the emergence of funerary monuments, spectacular early metalwork and the rise and fall of chiefly elites. Moreover, the history of thought surrounding this evidence charts fundamental shifts in archaeological method and theory. In this paper we survey the archaeology of later prehistoric Europe with reference to a series of critical transitions and themes, including: the development of hunter-gatherer societies after the Ice Age; the spread and nature of early farming and herding practices; the long-term social consequences of farming/herding; shifting materialities and identities.

Lectures provide an overview of the chronology and material evidence for the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, while tutorials critically review past and present approaches to key transitions in different parts of Europe. Learning Outcomes You should gain a solid grasp of key shifts and themes in European prehistory and their role in the development of archaeological method and theory. You should also develop a good grounding in the chronology and culture-history of later prehistoric Europe. Transferable Skills Critical assessment and evaluation of the potential and limitations of archaeological evidence, including ecofactual/bioarchaeological data An introduction to current theory concerning relations between people and the material world Critical assessment of competing theories and claims Generic skills in developing critical analytical skills in verbal and written form

The Archaeology of Southern African Hunter-gatherers (Prof. P. Mitchell) Eight lectures and eight tutorials in Michaelmas Term Home to some of the oldest known anatomically modern human fossils and now providing compelling new evidence of the antiquity of modern forms of behaviour, southern Africa also has one of the richest and best understood rock art traditions in the world. In addition, anthropological research here has made a significant contribution to both the development and the critique of general models of hunter-gatherer economic and social organisation. This course provides a broad overview of some of the main recent developments in the archaeology of southern Africa's hunter-gatherers. The overall treatment is chronological, from the first anatomically and behaviourally modern humans to the present day situation of Bushman communities in the Kalahari. Within this framework, the emphasis is placed 86

on changing paradigms in the explanation of past hunter-gatherer societies and on the relationship between archaeological and anthropological data in understanding social and economic change. In addition to the lectures listed below, eight tutorials provide an opportunity to explore particular issues in greater depth. The extensive southern African collections of the Pitt Rivers Museum are available for teaching this course. This course can be taken with, or independently of, Farming and early states in SubSaharan Africa All the literature recommended for reading for this option is in English. Lectures 1. Introduction: southern African origins of modern humans? 2. Hunter-gatherers of the late Pleistocene 3. A Holocene overview: history, sequence, diversity 4. Ecological approaches to hunter-gatherer archaeology 5. Social approaches to hunter-gatherer archaeology 6. The social and economic context of Bushman rock art 7. Foragers, pastoralists and revisionists 8. Foragers, farmers and colonists

Farming and Early States in Sub-Saharan Africa (Prof. P. Mitchell) Eight lectures and eight tutorials in Hilary Term Despite the extensive research conducted there over the last three decades, the archaeology of sub-Saharan Africa is still largely unknown to most western audiences. This course focuses on two key processes in world prehistory over the last 10,000 years; the development and spread of systems of food-production and the formation of state societies. These processes are examined using data from several regions of Africa south of the Sahara in order to illustrate the diversity of the African experience. In addition to this comparative focus, particular themes examined will include the relevance of oral tradition and linguistics to reconstructions of prehistory, the symbolic role of metallurgy in many African societies and the extent to which influences from outside Africa were of importance to the continent's development. The course of eight lectures outlined below proves a chronological and thematic framework for the option, with eight tutorials offering an opportunity to explore particular issues in greater depth. All the basic reading for this course is in English, some knowledge of French is necessary for those wishing to investigate original papers on some aspects of West and central African prehistory. This course can be taken with, or independently of, African hunter-gatherers


Lectures 1. Cattle before crops: the early development of food-production in northern and Saharan Africa 2. Food-production south of the Sahara: the Sahel, the forests and East Africa 3. African metalworking: the origins and significance of iron and copper metallurgy 4. A Bantu expansion? The spread of iron-working communities south of the Equator 5. State formation and trade: the West African Sudan 6. State formation and trade: the West African Forest Zone 7. Urbanism and state formation on the East Coast 8. History and archaeology in nineteenth century southern Africa: kingdoms of the Mfecane

Mesopotamia and Egypt from the emergence of complex society to c.2000 BC (Prof J. Baines & Dr J. Dahl) T.b.c. The paper will contain questions on the period in both regions from the mid-fourth millenium to the end of the third millennium, which saw the emergence of the worlds first city-state and territorial-state based civilizations, along with fundamental transformations in social organization. Characteristic manifestations of the civilizations include: development of social hierarchies; early and spectacular monumental architecture; large-scale irrigation; long-distance trade and exchange; warfare and fortification of cities; invention of writing and development of bureaucracy. Comparison and contrast of parallel phenomena in the two regions will be emphasized. The interpretation of archaeological evidence of large structures and of writing will be an object of special study, both for the phenomena in themselves and for how they may provide evidence for control of increasingly numerous and differentiated populations. Learning outcomes To gain a knowledge of the record from the formative period of ancient Near Eastern civilizations; to comprehend issues involved in studying the transition from prehistoric societies to early historic civilizations; to compare and integrate pictorial, written, artefactual, and site-based evidence from two strongly contrasting traditions. Transferable skills To evaluate theoretical and more narrowly evidence-based approaches to intellectual problems; to combine different types of evidence in building up coherent interpretations; to assess the value and limitations of various types of evidence. Method of teaching Lectures on early Mesopotamia and Egypt are available as part of the core course on Civilizations of the Ancient Near East in the Faculty of Oriental Studies. The relevant parts of the course are in Michaelmas term and are typically four mornings per week. There are to be eight essays and tutorials, all within Michaelmas Term or a week or so either side of it.


Mesopotamia and Egypt 1000500 BC (t.b.c.) This paper studies two major states, one of which became an imperial power during the period covered. Mesopotamia saw the zenith and final collapse of the Assyrian Empire and the rise of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. In Egypt the progressively more decentralized Third Intermediate period was followed by Kushite domination, reunification under indigenous rule, and expansion in the Late period. For both regions the subject ends with the Persian Conquest. Historical evidence comes both from material remains and from indigenous and foreign historical writing. The period is notably rich in artistic remains. Learning outcomes To assess elite producst in terms of trade, gift exchange, royal ideology and the development of technology; to follow the development of urbanism and of military skills; to evaluate material evidence in counterpoint with written records; to compare and integrate diverse types of evidence from two strongly contrasting traditions. Transferable skills To combine different types of evidence in building up a coherent archaeological and historical picture; To learn to assess the value and limitations of different types of evidence. Method of teaching Lectures on early Mesopotamia and Egypt are available as part of the core course on Civilizations of the Ancient Near East in the Faculty of Oriental Studies. The relevant near the end of Hilary Term and in the first half of Trinity Term. They are typical two or three four mornings per week. 8 essays with tutorials; the pattern of delivery will be established before at the beginning of the academic year in which the course is taken.

The Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Aegean (Dr L. Bendall) 16 lectures in Michaelmas and Hilary Terms; 8 tutorials (term flexible); students may also wish to attend lectures on Aegean Bronze Age Scripts in Trinity Term This course of lectures serves as an introduction to the major sites of the Aegean and their material culture from c. 1700 to 700 B.C. (the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age), with a focus on ways in which archaeological and textual data (chiefly Linear B, Hittite documents and Homeric epic) can be integrated in reconstructing the past. After an introduction that briefly outlines the development of scholarship in Aegean prehistory and sets the physical scene, the lectures present an overview of the major themes in the material record: the emergence, operation and collapse of complex socio-economic organizations (palaces); the nature and role of representational art; funerary practices and their social significance; monumental architecture, fortifications, and other major engineering works; economic and cultural relationships with the eastern and western Mediterranean and temperate Europe; the transition from a Bronze to an Iron Age and its social and economic implications; the use of the past as reflected both in the material record and in Homeric epic. Knowledge of the Greek language is not required.


Learning outcomes knowledge of the archaeology of the Aegean Bronze and Early Iron Ages understanding of how archaeological evidence is used to reconstruct ancient societies, particularly in combination with textual evidence appreciation of wider themes (e.g. state formation, iconography, religion) in a specific context appreciation of how the history of archaeological discovery influences modern interpretations of the past Transferable skills Critical assessment and evaluation of the potential and limitations of both archaeological and other forms of evidence. Lectures 1. The discovery of the Aegean Bronze Age and the legacy of the Iron Age 2. Chronology, environment and the emergence of complex societies in the Aegean 3. The Minoan palaces 4. Neopalatial Crete: politics and religion 5. Minoanisation: art and iconography under the volcano 6. The early Mycenaean mainland and the Shaft Graves 7. The Mycenaean palaces: iconography, politics and infrastructure 8. Aegean conundrums: the fall of Knossos and life in LM IIIA and B 9. Linear B and the Mycenaean economy 10. Mycenaean religion 11. Mycenaeans in Anatolia and the archaeology of Troy 12. The collapse of Mycenaean palace society 13. Life and death in a not-so-Dark Age: Xeropolis and Lefkandi 14. Old tales and new beginnings: Greeks and Phoenicians abroad 15. State formation once again: moving towards the polis 16. Who owns the past? heritage, archaeology, and Aegean Prehistory Recommended general reading Bronze Age Chadwick, J., 1976, The Mycenaean World. CUP. Chadwick, J., 1967, The Decipherment of Linear B. (2nd edition). Cambridge. Cullen, T. (ed.), 2001, Aegean Prehistory: A Review. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America Fitton, L., 2002, The Minoans. London: British Museum Press, Hamilakis, Y. (ed.), 2002, Labyrinth Revisited: Rethinking Minoan Archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Preziosi, D. & Hitchcock, L.A., 1999, Aegean Art and Architecture. Oxford: OUP Schofield, L., 2007, The Mycenaeans. London: British Museum Press, *Shelmerdine, C.W. (ed.), 2008, The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge: CUP. [This is basically the new textbook.] Warren, P.M., 1989, The Aegean Civilizations. Peter Bedrick Books [An excellent introduction.] Iron Age Coldstream, J.N., 2003, Geometric Greece 900-700BC. (2nd edition). London: Routledge Lemos, I., 2002, The Protogeometric Aegean: The archaeology of the eleventh and tenth centuries BC. Oxford: OUP 90

Snodgrass, A.M., 2000, The Dark Age of Greece: An Archaeological Survey of the Eleventh to the Eighth Centuries B.C. London: Routledge Rich illustrations Betencourt, P., 2007, Introduction to Aegean Art. INSTAP Academic Press Doumas, C., 1992, The Wallpaintings of Thera. Petros M. Nomikos and The Thera Foundation. Karetsou, A. & Andreadaki-Vlazaki, M. (eds.), 2001, Crete-Egypt: Three Thousand Years of Cultural Links. Hellenic Ministry of Culture Myres, J.W., Myres, E.E. & Cadogan, G. (eds.), 1992, The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete. University of California Press On-line resources Price and Nixons Mysteries of Crete: http://crete.classics.ox.ac.uk/ Rutters course: http://projectsx.dartmouth.edu/history/bronze_age/ Minoan Crete: http://www.uk.digiserve.com/mentor/minoan/index.htm British School at Athens: http://www.bsa.gla.ac.uk/archive/index.html Greek Ministry of Culture: http://www.culture.gr/2/21/toc/index.html Metis: http://www.stoa.org/metis/ Uluburun (Bronze Age shipwreck): http://ina.tamu.edu/ub_main.htm

The Greeks and the Mediterranean World c.950-500 BC (Prof. I . Lemos) Lectures in Hilary Term; tutorials arranged as necessary This course has two main broad aims: First the study of a period during which Greek society expanded its horizons both geographically and in terms of the complexity of its organization. Second the in-depth study of culture contact between Greece and the different parts of the Mediterranean world (the Eastern, Central and Western Mediterranean). In the period under study Greek communities turned themselves into prosperous selfgoverning city-states exercising power that was felt over a wide area. This is also the period when contacts with the non-Greek world played a vital role: trading posts were established in the Levant and later in Egypt, settlements were established abroad in Italy, Sicily, the north Aegean, the Black Sea, and North Africa, and Greeks in Asia Minor came increasingly under pressure from powers further east. Moreover as literary evidence comes to be available, there is a challenge to integrate the diverse literary evidence with the rich material record. Those taking this paper are expected to become familiar with t he material evidence and the most important sites (Lefkandi, Zagora, Athens, Al Mina, Naucratis, Cyrene, Syracuse, Pithekoussai, Motya, Carthage, Huelva). Emphasis is placed on the problems of interpreting the detailed evidence in order to construct a broader picture. Ability to read ancient or modern foreign languages is not required. Learning outcomes By the end of the course you should be familiar with the most important Greek artefact types and the main cultures of the areas around the Mediterranean. More generally you should be able to understand basic processes of cultural contact and interaction, and the ways of investigating social development based on the archaeological record.


Transferable skills The analysis of visual and material evidence, and the ability to use them alone or in combination with written evidence to create valid arguments and reconstructions

Greek Archaeology and Art 500-300 BC (Prof. I. Lemos) Lectures in Hilary and Trinity Terms; tutorials arranged as necessary This course offers the opportunity to study the visual and monumental culture of classical Greece in depth. Its subjects is the cities, sanctuaries, temples, statues, and other characteristic figured media of the period, such as grave reliefs and painted vases. These things are studied in their physical and historical contexts as vital constituents of classical Greek culture. The course examines the changing functions, styles, and iconographies of figured objects, and looks at how they can be interpreted in terms of contemporary Greek society and politics. It also analyses the social, symbolic and economic significance of architecture, particularly monumental public architecture, within Greek cities and their sanctuaries. This period witnessed a revolution in seeing and representing that lies at the base of the western art tradition, and its surviving monuments are sufficiently well documented to allow us to study this revolution in its own terms alongside what it came to mean later. It forms an interesting test case for studying what images and monuments can add to our understanding of a period that is also well represented in literary texts. Those who take this paper are expected to become familiar with a wide range of buildings, sculptures and pots and to understand the principles upon which figured artefacts are dated and assessed historically. An ability to read ancient or modern foreign languages is not required. Learning outcomes By the end of the course you should be familiar with the most important styles and monuments within the period and with their historical contexts. More generally you should be able to understand basic concepts of iconography, style and aesthetics, to appreciate the social and symbolic significance of complex images within Greek society, and to understand the way they operate within different visual contexts. Transferable skills The analysis of complex images and the ability to base valid arguments on them

Roman Archaeology: Cities and Settlement under the Empire (Prof. A. Wilson) Lectures in Michaelmas and Hilary Terms In exploring the development of towns and their related territories in the first three centuries AD, this course provides an introduction to Roman urbanism and the lively modern debate over how it worked and whom it served. The study of the physical design of the city, its public and private buildings, and its infrastructure, along with the objects of trade and manufacture, is placed in the broader context of the types and patterns of rural settlement, agricultural production, transport and communications. This allows various themes to be investigated, including what it meant to live in a Roman town, and in its countryside, and what contributed to the remarkable prosperity of urban centres before the widespread retrenchment of the third century.


Those taking the course will become familiar with the physical character of Roman cities based on selected representative sites (primarily Corinth, Carthage, Caesarea Maritima, Palmyra, Lepcis Magna, Verulamium [St Albans] and Silchester) and with major landscape studies in Italy, Greece and North Africa. Particular attention is paid to problems and biases in assessing the character of the physical evidence; and in testing theoretical models against hard data. Evidence from written sources will be incorporated where appropriate, but an ability to read ancient languages is not required. Learning outcomes Primary learning outcomes are: to understand the nature and development of Roman urbanism through the material remains; to understand the methods and techniques used to investigate Roman landscapes and human settlement within them; to understand the debate over the nature of the Roman economy and to be able to assess critically the contribution that archaeology is able to make to this debate. Secondary learning outcomes are: to be able to identify and interpret the physical evidence for Roman urban and rural settlements. Transferable skills The transferable skills taught by the course include the critical distillation of reasoned and well presented arguments from a large body of disparate evidence.

Art under the Roman Empire, AD 14-336 (Dr J. DeLaine) Lectures in Michaelmas, Hilary and Trinity Terms The art and visual culture of the Roman Empire is studied in its physical, social and historical contexts. Candidates will be expected to be familiar with major monuments in Rome and Italy and other leading centres of the empire (such as Aphrodisias, Athens, Ephesis and Lepcis Magna) and with the major strands and contexts of representation in the eastern and western provinces. They will be expected to show knowledge of written evidence where relevant as well as of the main media and categories of surviving images statues, portrait busts, historical reliefs, funerary monuments, cameos, wallpaintings, mosaics, silverware and coins. Learning outcomes To understand the development of Roman art of the imperial period and its relationship to contemporary politics and society. Transferable skills The transferable skills taught by the course include visual analysis, and the critical distillation of reasoned and well presented arguments from a large body of disparate evidence.

The Emergence of Medieval Europe AD 400-900 (Prof. H. Hamerow) Lectures in Michaelmas Term; 8 Tutorials This course considers the cultural development of Europe from the demise of the Western Roman Empire to the Viking Age. It offers an overview of material culture change over a 93

wide geographical region during some 500 years, although the emphasis is on western and northern Europe, including Britain. The more specific objectives of the course are to explore the changing nature of early medieval identity and communities; the various forces behind the economic developments seen in this period; and the relationship between material culture and state formation. What was the influence of the late Roman Empire, the early Church, and the 'barbarian' Iron Age peoples of northern Europe on the culture, especially the material culture, of the early Middle Ages? Themes include: Social Structure in Early Medieval Europe; Graves and Ritual Deposits; High-status Settlements and Burials; Rural Settlement and Economy; Towns and Trade; Technology; The Archaeology of the Conversion. Learning outcomes Primary learning outcomes for this paper are: to understand the key developments in the economy and society of NW Europe from AD 400-900, in particular those relating to the interaction of late Roman and barbarian cultures early state formation; towns and trade the impact of the conversion changes in the relationship between land and power. Secondary learning outcomes are: the development of writing skills source-criticism the ability to evaluate primary archaeological data. Transferable skills Include the ability to evaluate primary sources and to synthesise wide-ranging issues within the framework of a short essay.

Byzantium: the Transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages AD 500-1100 (Dr L. Schachner.) Lectures in Michaelmas Term This course will examine through the evidence available from field archaeology, art history and relevant contemporary documents in translation, the transformation of Byzantium (the Christianised eastern Roman Empire ruled from Constantinople) from an antique to a medieval society, in contrast to both western Europe and the Islamic world which were formed at least in part as a result of a break with Graeco-Roman traditions. Byzantium offers a case study of part of the ancient world which evolved into something new while remaining a Graeco-Roman and multi-ethnic state. The period covered extends from Byzantium's greatest territorial expansion (extending from Spain to Mesopotamia, and from Ravenna to Carthage) under Justinian (AD 527-65), through its eventual contraction during the 'Dark Age' (7th-8th centuries), to its subsequent economic revival (from the 9th century) and political expansion (10th-11th centuries). Bearing in mind the impact on society of the specifically Christian developments of pilgrimage and monasticism, the study of transition will focus on three areas - settlement, production and trade; the first will be site-based, the second material-based (making use of the 94

Ashmolean's Byzantine antiquities) and the third interregional. Comparative settlement study, on the periphery of Byzantium or in its cultural orbit, will focus on a selection of sites which were changed or founded between the 6th and 11th century: Ravenna/Venice, Cherson in the Crimea, and the ancient capitals of the Bulgarians and Russians, namely Preslav and Kiev.

The Formation of the Islamic World (Prof. J. Johns & Dr L. Treadwell) Lectures in Michaelmas Term: 8 tutorials, 8 core lectures; 8 additional classes (Islamic Art) and 8 additional lectures (Islamic Numismatics) This course traces, through the material evidence, the emergence and development of the Islamic world, from its origins in the Near East in late antiquity to the vast Abbasid empire in its heyday (c.550-c.900AD). The early development of Islam is a controversial subject, and scholars, unable to agree upon how to interpret the written tradition, are increasingly turning to material evidence. Islamic archaeology, until recently in its infancy, has now grown to maturity and represents one of the most exciting new developments in Old World archaeology. Those taking this subject will become familiar with the key sites and monuments of early Islam, including its holy places (Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem), its first mosques (including the Aqsa mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem), the Umayyad mosque in Damascus, and the mosques of Samarra), the so-called desert palaces of the Umayyad caliphs (including Khirbat al-Mafjar, Qusayr Amra, and the two Qasr al Hayrs), and the capitals of the Abbasid empire (Baghdad and Samarra). The approach is largely thematic, and the thrust of the course historical. The core lectures, supplemented in most years by additional lectures and seminars, and the tutorials and essays, concentrate on such themes, while a series of less formal review lectures ensures that students acquire a wide knowledge of early Islamic sites, architecture, and artefacts . No knowledge of Arabic is required, but students must familiarise themselves with the geography and history of the Near East in the relevant period, and must be prepared for an initial struggle with unfamiliar personal and place names. Learning outcomes By the end of this course you should possess a good basic knowledge of the formative and classical periods of Islam as seen through material culture. Transferable Skills You will develop skills in selecting and marshalling material and written evidence to construct a cogent argument, and in analysing critically the arguments of others. You will also gain an appreciation of the potential and limitations of material evidence for resolving historical problems arising out of the written tradition. Recommended reading: Crone, P., 1996, The rise of Islam in the world, in Robinson, F. (ed.) The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World, CUP: pp.2-31. Ettinghausen, R. & Grabar, O., 1987, The Art and Architecture of Islam 650-1250 (The Pelican History of Art), Harmondsworth: Penguin Irwin, R., 1997, Islamic Art, London: Laurence King For further information, an introductory reading list, and a detailed programme of lectures for Michaelmas Term, please contact jeremy.johns@orinst.ox.ac.uk in Trinity Term 95

Science-based Methods in Archaeology (Prof. J. Lee Thorp) Lectures in Michaelmas and Hilary Terms This course provides an introduction to archaeological sciences, covering three principle areas. It will be of interest to students wishing to take a scientific direction in their archaeological studies, as well as for those who wish to understand the general foundations of science-based evidence in the discipline and the nature of that evidence. Each section has 6 formal classes in which the essential components are outlines, normally based on a series of case studies, and 2 tutorials during which we further discuss appropriate case studies, problems and essays. Biomolecular approaches to diet. This section deals with the retrieval of chemical evidence from skeletal tissues and other organic residues, for addressing questions about human diet in the past. We concentrate largely on the recovery and interpretation of stable isotope information from bones and teeth, supplemented by trace element studies. Of necessity, this section includes a consideration of the nature of skeletal tissues and associated taphonomic issues. We also consider complementary chemical and isotopic evidence from organic food residues from potsherds and tools. Dating methods. This section deals with a variety of current and developing approaches to establishing absolute chronology. The main emphasis is on radiocarbon dating but we also discuss a suit of other techniques, both established and emerging. Some of these have been developed to address chronology at greater age depths (luminescence, uranium series) or to enhance precision (tephra) where required. Materials analysis of artefacts. Using a series of case studies we discuss the background to application of materials science to archaeological artefacts, with an emphasis on the main methods in current use, such as petrology, microscopy (of various kinds), chemical and isotopic analysis, and chromatography. The studies follow the classification of the materials, e.g. ceramics, metals, glass and organic materials (such as amber). Visits to laboratories will be arranged where appropriate. Learning outcomes On completion students should have gained an understanding of the main principles of these approaches, the nature of accumulating and changing knowledge, and the experimental basis for expanding that enquiry. They should be able to read, and critically assess, research papers contributing to the field. They will develop an understanding that to be effective such approaches must be placed firmly within their archaeological contexts. Transferable skills Critical assessment in evaluating specific research issues Understanding the scientific foundations Evaluation, validation and manipulation of quantitative data Presentation of an argument, supported by evidence


Lectures Lecturers: Dr T. Higham, Prof. J. Lee-Thorp, Prof. M. Pollard, Prof. C. Ramsey, Dr R. Schulting, Dr J-L. Schwenninger Michaelmas term [8 lectures] Biomolecular approaches to diet 1 Introduction - biomolecular approaches, chemistry of calcified tissues, chemical indicators in organic & inorganic components (JLT) 2 The classic maize studies, the classic marine food studies (JLT). 3 Trophic levels from isotopes and trace elements; what about plants? (double lecture) (JLT) 4 Organic residues on/in pots: lipids and other residues and compound-specific isotope analysis. (RS) 5 Issues - weaning and life history transitions, the aquatic food problem, constraints. (JLT) Materials analysis of artefacts 6 Application of materials science to archaeological artefacts, main methods in current use (MP) 7 Microscopy, chemical analysis (MP) 8 Ceramics (MP) Hilary term [8 lectures] Materials analysis (cont.) 1 Metals and glasses (double lecture) (MP) 2 Organic materials; overview (MP) 3 Introduction: dating in archaeology. Relative dating, sequences, introduction to radiocarbon dating (TH) 4 Radiocarbon dating: chemical pre-treatment techniques, measurement methods. (including a visit to Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit) (TH). 5 Radiocarbon dating: calibration and OxCal (CR) 6 Climatic clocks and frameworks (TH) 7 Methods for addressing older chronologies Luminescence and OSL dating (J-LS) 8 Other scientific dating methods (CR) Core texts for the course (a full reading list will be supplied) Pollard, A.M. and Heron, C., 2008, Archaeological Chemistry (2nd edition), The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge. Walker, M.J., 2005, Quaternary Dating Methods: An Introduction. Wiley: Chichester.

Archaeology of Modern Human Origins (Prof. N. Barton & Dr M.D. Petraglia) 8 lectures and 8 tutorial/classes in Hilary Term This course will focus on cultural changes that saw the emergence of our own species: modern Homo sapiens. Traditionally, it has been accepted that major cultural innovations appeared suddenly during the European Upper Palaeolithic and were initiated by the first anatomically modern humans to arrive in this region. However, such a view has increasingly come under challenge in the light of evidence that Neanderthals may already have had the capacity for modern culture before the appearance of the Upper Palaeolithic, and similarly it has been argued that examples of complex behaviour can be recognised in 97

the earlier African archaeological record, implying a more gradual development of modern behaviour. The lectures offered will consider how modern behaviour is defined and by using markers such as language development, emergence of self-awareness and group identity and increased social diversification we will examine when and where these first appeared in the archaeological record, and whether they occurred simultaneously in different geographical areas. Amongst the topics covered will be: Pleistocene human dispersals; the study of Palaeolithic technologies and the use of stone artefacts, human dietary patterns and subsistence, the origins of language and the rise of symbolic expression. In addition to the lectures listed below, there will be opportunities for practical study of artefacts. Eight tutorials/classes will also be offered to provide an opportunity to study each of the topics in greater detail. Learning outcomes Primary learning outcomes are: To understand the comparative biological and cultural stages in human evolution during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene; To appreciate the theoretical issues and debates concerning physical and behavioural developments over this period; To be able to identify the characteristic artefacts of the Palaeolithic archaeological record. Secondary learning outcome is: The development of awareness of how archaeological evidence is used to interpret human behaviour from archaeological evidence. Transferable skills The ability to assess and critically evaluate various lines of evidence from a variety of disciplines. Lectures 1. Biological concepts of Homo sapiens and the archaeological record 2. Early minds and technology 3. Hominin Old World dispersals 4. Origins of language and Neanderthals 5. Homo sapiens and the emergence of modern behaviour 6. Modern Homo sapiens and the extinction of Neanderthals 7. Art and society 8. Later Pleistocene human dispersals and adaptations

Anglo-Saxon Society and Economy in the Early Christian Period (Prof. H. Hamerow) Lectures in Hilary Term; tutorials in Hilary and Trinity Terms In AD 600 the peoples who came to be known collectively as the Anglo-Saxons were ethnically diverse, politically fragmented and essentially pagan. By 750, they had emerged as one of the major cultures of post-Roman Europe, with towns, a complex and monetized economy and a network of richly-endowed churches. The fusion of Germanic, Celtic and Mediterranean traditions produced a material culture of astonishing richness and originality, including the Sutton Hoo grave goods, the Ruthwell and Bewcastle crosses and the Lindisfarne Gospels. In this course, material culture is defined in its 98

widest sense, to include standing buildings, coinage, manuscripts and sculpture, as well as excavated sites and artifacts.. A central theme of the course is the rapid transformation of English society and culture in response to renewed ties with the rest of Europe Learning outcomes The primary learning outcomes for this paper are: to understand the key developments in the economy and society of the period c.600750 (in particular long-distance trade, kingship, towns, the conversion) to explore the relationship between the archaeological and written sources pertaining to these topics. The secondary learning outcomes are: the development of skills of source-criticism, writing, and synthesizing primary archaeological data. Transferable skills These include the ability to evaluate primary sources and to synthesize wide-ranging issues within the framework of a short essay

Landscape Archaeology (Prof. C. Gosden & Dr R. Schulting) 8 seminars/tutorials in Michaelmas Term The course will take a holistic approach to landscape studies and cover theory and practice through a series of case-studies. We will attempt to demonstrate the benefits of emphasising the holistic nature of landscape as the point at which the natural world meets human action. The theoretical approaches to landscapes will be outlined and the mutual shaping of people and landscapes will be emphasized as well as methods and techniques of landscape study. Teaching and learning will be structured around a series of group seminar/tutorials which will include individual student presentations. Guidance will be offered on case-study preparation, but students will be able to choose those of interest to themselves to add flexibility to the course. Course content will be based on: 1. An introduction to landscape archaeology 2. Methods and techniques for landscape archaeology 3. Case-study Cranbourne Chase 4. Case-study ethnographic views 5. Case study Palaeolithic landscapes 6. Case-study Romano-British landscapes 7. Case-study ancestral landscapes Learning outcomes An appreciation of the varying concepts of landscape and the theoretical considerations behind landscape archaeology; an understanding of the main methods and techniques used in landscape archaeology and their application through case-studies; an understanding of the mechanisms and implications of landscape management


Biological Techniques in Environmental Archaeology (Prof. M. Robinson) 10 lectures, 5 followed by practical classes, and 8 tutorials in Michaelmas and Hilary Terms The aim of the course is to investigate the various lines of non-molecular bioarchaeological evidence for the past environment and human interaction with it. Environmental archaeology is taken to include biological palaeoeconomic evidence (e.g., given by bones of domestic animals). The course is based around lectures which consider particular lines of evidence, some of which are then demonstrated in practical classes. Tutorials are used to develop themes which cut across or link the lines of evidence and to provide a theoretical basis for the subject. Learning outcomes Those taking the option will learn: The way in which biological remains are preserved in archaeological deposits, extracted and identified; the interpretation of palaeoecological data. Transferable skills The ability to assess and critically evaluate various lines of evidence, some apparently contradictory; a broader understanding of ecology. Lectures For each category of material, the emphasis will be on the biological background, dispersal and incorporation of deposits, preservation, sampling, extraction and identification, presentation of data and interpretation. 1. Introduction to environmental archaeology the survival of evidence, ecosystems and past environment 2. Pollen 3. Waterlogged macroscopic plant remains 4. Charred plant remains 5. Insects 6. Molluscs 7. Mammal bones 8. Bird and fish bones 9. Minor lines of evidence (including diatoms, Foraminifera, ostracods, Cladocera, phytoliths, mineralized plant remains, etc.) 10. Integrated studies Practical classes The first part of each class will be demonstration of remains from the biological group under consideration, the second part will be a small practical project. 1. Waterlogged macroscopic plant remains 2. Charred plant remains 3. Molluscs 4. Insects 5. Bones


Recommended reading Berglund, B.E. (ed.), 1986, Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester Brothwell, D.R. & Pollard, A.M. (eds.), 2001, Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, Wiley-Blackwell Davis, S.J.M., 1987, Archaeology of Animals. London: Routledge Dimbleby, G.W., 1977, Ecology and Archaeology. London: Edward Arnold Dinacauze, D.F., 2000, Environmental Archaeology: Principles and practice, CUP Evans, J.G., 1978, An Introduction to Environmental Archaeology. Cornell University Press Evans, J.G. & OConnor, T., 1999, Environmental Archaeology Principles and Methods. Sutton Goudie, A., 1993, The Nature of the Environment, Blackwell Lowe, J.J. & Walker, M.J.C., 1997, Reconstructing Quaternary Environments. Addison Wesley Longman, Renfrew, C. & Bahn, P., 1991, Archaeology: The Key Concepts, London: Routledge, chapters 6 & 7. Roberts, N., 1992, The Holocene: An environmental history, Blackwell. Zohary, D. & Hopf, M., 1994, Domestication of Plants in the Old World. OUP

The Archaeology of Neolithic-Bronze Age South-west Asia (Dr A. Bogaard & Dr L. Hulin) 16 lectures, 4 classes and 4 tutorials in Hilary Term This paper surveys the archaeology of south-west Asia from the emergence of sedentary lifeways in the late Pleistocene to the collapse of Bronze Age civilisations at the close of the second millennium cal B.C. For the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age, emphasis is placed on the Levant (including modern Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel), to complement the Mesopotamian component of FHS paper 4. Key issues include the origins and nature of early agriculture, the emergence of social stratification and institutionalised authority and the archaeology of identity in the context of state formation and imperial domination during the Bronze Age. This option incorporates a practical archaeological approach using the collections of the Ashmolean and Pitt Rivers museums. Classes provide an opportunity for object-focussed discussion and complement essay-based tutorials. Learning Outcomes You should gain a solid grasp of the later prehistory/early history of south-west Asia, including its chronological and culture-historical framework, the history of scholarship and its broader significance for world archaeology. Transferable Skills critical assessment and evaluation of the potential and limitations of archaeological evidence; understanding and evaluation of the archaeological process from data collection to publication and subsequent reinterpretation.


Every effort has been made to ensure that information in this booklet is as up to date as possible. Any updates since the time of printing (before the start of the academic year) will appear on the on-line version