Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 128
VA TECH ELIN HOLEC HIGH VOLTAGE Operation and Maintenance Standard Manual SF6 Insulated Switchgear Type

VA TECH ELIN HOLEC HIGH VOLTAGE

Operation and Maintenance Standard Manual

SF6 Insulated Switchgear Type L-SEP

Standard

Copyright © 2000 VA TECH Elin Holec High Voltage B.V.

Copyright © 2000 VA TECH Elin Holec High Voltage B.V. All rights reserved. No part of

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

L145 S 010206

L145 S 010206 L-SEP manual contents L-SEP 1 MANUAL INTRO ➜ Manual intro ➜ Safety

L145 S 010206

L-SEP manual contents

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 L-SEP manual contents L-SEP 1 MANUAL INTRO ➜ Manual intro ➜ Safety warnings

1 MANUAL INTRO

Manual intro

Safety warnings

Introduction

1 MANUAL INTRO 3 OPERATION L-SEP manual contents 2 Survey of operating conditions: Reference Safety
1 MANUAL INTRO
3 OPERATION
L-SEP manual contents
2
Survey of operating conditions:
Reference
Safety warnings
3
Definitions
29
Introduction L-SEP manual
4
Remote, local and manual
Purpose of this manual
4
operation29
Structure of this manual
4
Interlockings
31
Safety interlockings
31
Operational interlockings
31
Lockings, blockings and alarms
32
2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Circuit-breaker
32
5 APPENDIX
Technical data
5
Disconnector
22
Disconnectors
33
Tools
127
General arrangement
6
Arrangement
22
Fault-make type earthing
switch
33
Communication with ELIN HOLEC
General arrangement
6
Functioning of the disconnector
Supervising & Commissioning
22
SF6 insulating gas
33
department128
Bay arrangement Line Feeders 7
Disconnector driving mechanism
General Features
11
23
Connections
15
Auxiliary contacts
23
1. Primary connections
15
Busbar system
24
2. Secondary connections
15
Position
24
4 MAINTENANCE
3.
Earthing connections
15
Arrangement
24
Components:
16
Earthing switch
25
Inspection schedule
34
SF6 gas
16
Position
25
Use of the procedures
59
Gas compartments L-SEP
16
Arrangement
25
Safety guidelines for working
with SF6-gas37
Procedures: Contents (detailed)
Physical properties SF6
16
Driving mechanism
25
1.
Oxygen depletion
37
60
Electrical properties SF6
17
Auxiliary contacts
26
2.
Decomposition products:
Use of the procedures
59
effects on human beings:37
SF6 gas quality
17
Transformers
27
Circuit-breaker
61
3.
Safety provisions for
- New SF6 gas
17
Voltage transformers
27
Inspection
61
personnel handling SF637
- Used SF6 gas
17
Current transformers
27
Maintenance
73
Trouble-shooting guide
38
Circuit-breaker
18
Local control panel
28
Disconnector
90
Contents
38
Construction
18
Position
28
Operational
90
Inspection Sequences:
39
Functioning of the interrupter 19
Functioning
28
Inspection
92
Circuit-breaker
39
Driving mechanism
20
Maintenance
95
Disconnector
43
Mechanical part of the drive
21
Earthing switch
97
Fault-make type earthing switch
Auxiliary contacts
23
45
Operational
97
Readings
49
Inspection
100
Signals
51
Maintenance
104
Actions
55
Test probes
107
Multi-pole plugs
110
Disengaging a bay
111
Gassystem
115
L145 S 010206 Safety warnings Operation and maintenance manual Always follow the instructions in this

L145 S 010206

Safety warnings

Operation and maintenance manual

Always follow the instructions in this manual during operation-, inspection- or maintenance servicing.

Failure to comply with the guidelines in the manual can endanger personnel in the switchgear room and can hinder the proper operation of the switchgear assembly.

L-SEP

the proper operation of the switchgear assembly. L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Manual contents ➜

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Manual contents

Safety warnings

Introduction

Switchgear room

In the unlikely event of an internal fault, leave the switchgear room as quickly as possible.

Ensure that conditions in the switchgear room meet specifications.

Keep the switchgear assembly free of dust, damp, fluids, corrosive fluids, powders or gasses.

Do not smoke in the switchgear room.

Maintenance

Be aware that the switchgear compartments are constantly filled with SF6-gas with a pressure higher than the environmental pressure. Accidental opening while the system is pressurized is dangerous.

Do not adjust any bolt, nut or screw and do not connect or disconnect any item on the switchgear assembly without refering to the instructions in this manual.

Do not operate any switch manually unless you are sure that either the bay is disengaged and locked against operating by others or manual switching is a well- considered only possible action. (Manual operation of components always bypasses all electrical (inter)locking).

Do not work on the switchgear assembly unless you are sure that the part you are about to work on is disengaged and locked

against possible operation by others. Always disengage the part you are about to work on as follows:

- open the circuit-breaker;

- lock its disconnectors in the opened positions and its earthing switches in the closed positions;

- switch off the supply voltage;

- disconnect the multi-pole plugs of its components.

Do not open any compartment unless necessary for special servicing or repair or inspection.

Use only proper fitting tools during servicing. Do not hit or touch the switchgear assembly with any hard object. Please note that any operation involving tools may invalidate the warranty on the switchgear assembly.

Do not expose the switchgear assembly to any heat source.

Always replenish a compartment when the density has decreased to the first alarm level. Replenishing can be carried out while the compartment is in service.

L145 S 010206 Introduction L-SEP manual L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Manual contents ➜ Safety

L145 S 010206

Introduction L-SEP manual

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Introduction L-SEP manual L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Manual contents ➜ Safety warnings

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Manual contents

Safety warnings

Introduction L-SEP manual

Purpose of this manual

The L-Sep manual is intended for operation and maintenance staff working on the switchgear assembly.

The purpose of this manual is to guide operation and maintenance personnel who are authorized to operate or carry out maintenance work on the switchgear assembly.

Structure of this manual

Chapter 1 contains general safety warnings, contents and the introduction of this manual.

Chapter 2 contains a general description of the switchgear assembly and covers general information necessary for its operation and maintenance.

Chapter 3 contains the necessary information for operating the switchgear assembly.

Chapter 4 contains the necessary information for maintenance. It contains instructions for routine inspection, maintenance, and limited repair. Chapter 4 also contains a trouble- shooting guide.

Some of the procedures in this chapter may not be applicable for the specific installation. Through a step-by-step diagnostic system the nature of possible failures can be determined and, - where possible - repaired. The trouble-shooting guide does not guarantee the proper determination and solution of a possible failure but is only meant as a guidance. The appendix contains information on auxiliary tools and apparatus, spare parts and communication with Elin Holec Service Department. This manual does not cover overhaul and complex repair procedures.

L145 S 010206 Technical data L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

L145 S 010206

Technical data

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Technical data L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement  

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

 

Type

L-Sep

Three-phase enclosure

Steel

Circuit-breaker

Insulation medium SF 6 total quantity insulating gas per bay SF 6 total quantity extinguishing gas

SF 6

Rated breaking current

kA

kg

appr.145

Breaking current in phase opposition

kA

kg

21.5

Peak making current

kA

Rated gas density

 

Short time current

kA/s

- Insulation gas

kg/m3

 

26.5

Switching cycle

O-0.3 s.-CO-3min.-CO

 
 

(4.2 bar at 20 C)

 

Make time

ms

appr. 65

- Extinghuishing gas

kg/m3

 

58

 

(8.6 bar at 20 C)

Break time (without arcing time)

ms

< 54 (<24)

Rated voltage

kV

145

Rated current capacity

A

Service voltage

kV

Driving mechanism

hydraulic

Rated frequency

Hz

Working pressure hydraulic driving system

 
   

bar

272 - 282

Power frequency withstand voltage 1 min.

 

kV

Voltage pumpmotor

V AC

B.I.L. in accordance with IEC:

 

Operating voltage

V DC

- phase-earth

kV

- phase-phase

kV

Disconnector

Rated current busbarsystem

A

Rated current

A

Short-time current

kA/s

Closing and opening time

s

approx. 4

Peak withstand current

kA

100

Driving mechanism

motor

Ambient temperature

C

-5 to +40 23 to 104

Operating voltage driving mechanism

V DC

F

 

Short-time current of disconnector, contacts to earth (open position)

 

Noise level

dBA

< 120

kA/s

Degree of protection:

 

- local control cubicle

IEC 529

IP2X

Fault- make type earthing switch

- driving mechanism

IEC 529

IP2X

 

Peak making current

kA

Total static load:

 
 

Short time current

kA/s

 

-

normal bay

kN

max.

   
 

Driving mechanism

 

motor/spring

Dynamic load (0.1 - 35 Hz):

 

-

normal bay

kN

6

Operating voltage

V DC

Maximum humidity percentage in switchgear room:

95

%

av. during 24 h

 

90

%

av. during 1 month

Surface of compartments:

epoxy powder coating RAL 7032

L145 S 010206 General arrangement Line feeder A Transformer feeder A Bus-coupler Transformer feeder B

L145 S 010206

General arrangement

Line feeder A

Transformer feeder A

Bus-coupler

Transformer feeder B

Line feeder B

L-SEP

A Bus-coupler Transformer feeder B Line feeder B L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

General arrangement

E12 E13 E11 E10 E9 E8 E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 M Main
E12
E13
E11
E10
E9
E8
E7
E6
E5
E4
E3
E2
E1
M
Main Busbar
W
M
Reserve Busbar
M
W
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
M
M
W
W

Single line

diagram

Top view

Front view

SYMBOL LEGEND circuit-breaker double gap disconnector fault make type earthing switch current transformers voltage
SYMBOL LEGEND
circuit-breaker
double gap
disconnector
fault make type
earthing switch
current
transformers
voltage
transformer
termination
busduct
hydraulic pressure
motor operated
spring operated
manually operated
future extension
L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Line Feeders L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜

L145 S 010206

Bay arrangement Line Feeders

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Line Feeders L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Line Feeders L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

Bay arrangement

data ➜ System arrangement ➜ Bay arrangement Local control panel Busbar compartment Voltage transformer

Local control panel

Busbar compartment

Voltage transformer

Busbar disconnector

Termination disconnector

Voltage transformer isolating device

Termination earthing switch

Termination compartment

Cable bushing

Circuit-breaker compartment

Current transformer

Circuit-breaker Circuit-breaker driving mechanism

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Transformer Feeders L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜

L145 S 010206

Bay arrangement Transformer Feeders

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Transformer Feeders L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Transformer Feeders L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

Bay arrangement

data ➜ System arrangement ➜ Bay arrangement L o c a l c o n t

Local control panel

Busbar compartment

Voltage transformer

Busbar disconnector

Termination disconnector

Voltage transformer isolating device

Termination earthing switch

Termination compartment

Cable bushing

Circuit-breaker compartment

Current transformer

Circuit-breaker Circuit-breaker driving mechanism

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Bus-coupler L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

L145 S 010206

Bay arrangement Bus-coupler

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Bus-coupler L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Bus-coupler L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

Bay arrangement

data ➜ System arrangement ➜ Bay arrangement Local control panel Busbar compartment Voltage transformer

Local control panel

Busbar compartment

Voltage transformer

Busbar disconnector

Termination disconnector

Voltage transformer isolating device

Termination earthing switch

Termination compartment

Cable bushing

Circuit-breaker compartment

Current transformer

Circuit-breaker Circuit-breaker driving mechanism

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Sectionalizer L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

L145 S 010206

Bay arrangement Sectionalizer

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Sectionalizer L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Bay arrangement Sectionalizer L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

Bay arrangement

data ➜ System arrangement ➜ Bay arrangement Local control panel Busbar compartment Voltage transformer

Local control panel

Busbar compartment

Voltage transformer

Busbar disconnector

Termination disconnector

Voltage transformer isolating device

Termination earthing switch

Termination compartment

Cable bushing

Circuit-breaker compartment

Current transformer

Circuit-breaker Circuit-breaker driving mechanism

L145 S 010206 General Features Compartments Disconnectors Circuit-breaker L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical

L145 S 010206

General Features

L145 S 010206 General Features Compartments Disconnectors Circuit-breaker L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical

Compartments

Disconnectors

Circuit-breaker

L-SEP

Features Compartments Disconnectors Circuit-breaker L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

General Features

[5]

[2]

[1]

[4]

[3]

The compartments

The L-SEP switchgear bay consists of four functionally separate compartments each filled with SF 6 insulation gas: the circuit-breaker compartment (1), the busbar compartment (2), the termination compartment (3) and the voltage transformer compartment (4).

All gas compartments are separated by gas tight barriers. These barriers can withstand the full gas pressure at one side and vacuum at the other side. They can also withstand normal mechanical forces (e.g. during maintenance).

The insulating SF 6 gas pressure in each compartment is the same. Each compartment - including the circuit-breaker - has its own gas monitoring system.

A A A B C
A
A
A
B
C

The SF 6 gas in the circuit-breaker is used for extinguishing of the arc during switching. This high pressure extinguishing SF 6 gas is separated from the low pressure insulating SF 6 gas in the circuit-breaker compartment. In this way, decomposition products caused by arcing can not damage parts inside the circuit-breaker compartment.

Disconnectorscan not damage parts inside the circuit-breaker compartment. The compartments ( 1 ) to ( 3

The compartments (1) to (3) inclusive are linked by disconnectors. These disconnectors fulfil a dual function:

1. they form a single gas barrier between the adjacent gas compartments;

2. they achieve electrical connection or isolation of the adjacent compartments by an electrical interruption on both sides of the gas-tight barrier.

Circuit-breaker compartmentinterruption on both sides of the gas-tight barrier. The circuit-breaker compartment ( B ) contains the

The circuit-breaker compartment (B) contains the circuit-breaker, the current transformers (C) and the primary conductors to the busbar and termination disconnectors.

Current transformersconductors to the busbar and termination disconnectors. The current transformers are installed between the

The current transformers are installed between the circuit-breaker and the termination disconnector and shielded against electrostatic field disturbances by the earthed housing.

L145 S 010206 General Features (continued) A A B B A Busbar compartment The busbar

L145 S 010206

General Features

(continued)

L145 S 010206 General Features (continued) A A B B A Busbar compartment The busbar compartments
A A B B A
A
A
B
B
A

Busbar compartment

The busbar compartments are installed on top of the circuit-breaker compartment.

The complete span of one busbar system is installed in one compartment (there is no gas-separation per bay).

Termination compartment

The termination compartment is installed on the circuit-breaker compartment at the rear of the bay. It contains the HV cable connections, the earthing switch and a measurement facility giving acces to the primary conductors.

The phase conductors consist of two aluminium profiles (A) between which the fixed disconnector contacts
The phase conductors consist of two
aluminium profiles (A) between which the fixed
disconnector contacts are installed.
Tridental forked epoxy insulator (B) are used for
busbar support.
L-SEP
2
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
➜ Technical data
➜ System arrangement
➜ General Features
Technical data ➜ System arrangement ➜ General Features Voltage transformer Voltage measurement is done by single-

Voltage transformer

Voltage measurement is done by single- phase transformers. These are installed on the termination compartment. An integrated isolating facility is installed in the termination compartment to connect/disconnect the voltage transformer as necessary.

Local control panel

The local control panel is attached to the circuit-breaker compartment. It contains equipment for electronic control, protection and monitoring.

L145 S 010206 General Features (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

L145 S 010206

General Features

(continued)

L145 S 010206 General Features (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 General Features (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

General Features

closed opened
closed
opened

Relatively large compartments

Because of its three-phase enclosure and the absence of separate disconnector compartments, the L-SEP system consists of only three - functionally different - main compartments filled with insulating gas. These are all relatively large. This means that in the remote possibility of an internal flashover there will be more time before the gas-pressure reaches the setting of the bursting discs, thus minimizing the probability of ejection of polluted gasses.

Double gap disconnectors

In the closed position, the disconnector

functions as a bushing. When opened, electrical isolation is got on both sides of the bushing (double gap) while (at the same time) the middle part is earthed. Thus a fully- earthed metal screen is provided between two compartments. Maximum safety is guaranteed during operations in one part of the assembly, while the adjacent part is energised, for example during:

- inspection of circuit-breaker contacts;

- testing;

- extension of the switchgear.

Fault-make type earthing switches

of the switchgear. Fault-make type earthing switches All earthing switches are of the fault-make type. In

All earthing switches are of the fault-make type. In case of accidental switching on to a life-circuit, the earthing switch can withstand the short circuit current.

L145 S 010206 General Features (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

L145 S 010206

General Features

(continued)

L145 S 010206 General Features (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 General Features (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

General Features

data ➜ System arrangement ➜ General Features Measurement facilities Special fittings at the rear of the

Measurement facilities

Special fittings at the rear of the termination compartment give easy access to the H.V. conductors for HVDC cable testing, cable fault detection, measurement of contact resistances, circuit-breaker timing, etc. Because of these special fittings, it is not necessary to open or evacuate the compartment. By means of an integrated isolating facility, which is inside the temination compartment, the voltage transformer is automatically disconnected from the primary conductors when a test probe is inserted.

Termination compartment
Termination compartment

Removable circuit-breaker

The three interrupting elements, together with the circuit-breaker driving-mechanism, are installed on a base plate, which is also used to close the circuit-breaker compartment. This construction makes it relatively easy to remove a complete circuit- breaker from its housing, giving access to the inner circuit-breaker compartment and the circuit-breaker main contacts.

Connections L145 S 010206 L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement ➜

Connections

L145 S 010206

Connections L145 S 010206 L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement ➜

L-SEP

Connections L145 S 010206 L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement ➜

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

Connections

data ➜ System arrangement ➜ Connections 1. Primary connections The illustration shows the primary

1. Primary connections

The illustration shows the primary connections of the two different types of feeders.

primary connections of the two different types of feeders. 1 special cable clamp 2 seal 3

1 special cable clamp

2 seal

3 anti-twist device

4 hood

5 male contacts

6 male insert

7 female insert

8 female contacts

9 housing

2. Secondary connections

All components on the system are connected to the LCP. For these connections 41 or 42- core shielded cables (1.0 sqmm or 1.5 sqmm) are used. Multi-pole plugs are installed at either end of the cables. These multi-pole plugs offer fixed connections and reliable terminations. During inspection and maintenance plugging and unplugging are easy to do.

Construction of the multi-pole plugs The connector consists of several parts: The figure above shows a connector with female contacts in the housing and male contacts in the hood. The reverse is also possible. The principle is that the connector (the insert) on the voltage supply-side has female contacts. Thus accidental touching of the voltage carrying pins is prevented. Accidental interchanging of multi-pole plugs is prevented by means of a pin-bus coding system.

plugs is prevented by means of a pin-bus coding system. Contact pins When a contact pin

Contact pins When a contact pin is installed in its insert, removal is only possible using a special device.

3. Earthing connections

The design of the L-SEP metal enclosure makes sure there is an electrical continuum on the entire switchgear installation. As a result only one earthing connection per five bays is needed. For safety reasons a minimum of two earthing connections on the complete installation must be installed.

L145 S 010206 Components: SF 6 gas L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ SF6 gas ➜

L145 S 010206

Components:

SF 6 gas

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Components: SF 6 gas L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ SF6 gas ➜ Technical

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ SF6 gas

SF6 gas

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

[5]

[2]

[1]

[4]

[3]

Gas compartments L-SEP

The circuit-breaker compartment (1) , the busbar compartment (2), the termination compartment (3) and the voltage transformer compartment (4) are filled with SF 6 which is used as an insulating gas. The filling density of SF 6 gas in these

compartments is 26.5 kg/m 3 .

The SF 6 gas in the circuit-breaker (5) is separated from the SF 6 gas in the circuit- breaker compartment. In this way, decomposition products caused by arcing can not damage parts inside the circuit- breaker compartment. The main purpose of SF 6 gas inside the circuit-breaker is as an extinguishing medium. For this reason, this manual refers to SF 6 gas in the circuit- breaker as extinguishing gas. The density of the extinguishing gas in the circuit-breaker is 58 kg/m 3 .

Gas density in gascompartments kg/m 3.

1 circuit-breaker compartment

26.5

2 busbar compartment

26.5

3 termination compartment

26.5

4 voltage transformer compartment

26.5

5 circuit-breaker

58.0

Physical properties SF 6

High stability Because of its symmetrical arrangement of six fluorine atoms around a central sulphur atom and the good total electron balance, the structure of the gas molecule is very stable. SF 6 is one of the least reactive gasses known. At room temperature, it does not react to substance with which it comes into contact.

Heavier than air SF 6 is about five times heavier than air. This means that under conditions of sufficient mixing with air, the gas has a tendency to collect at low levels.

Dewpoint temperature The filling density of the insulation gas is 26.5 kg/m 3 . This corresponds to a liquefaction temperature of pure SF 6 gas of -50 C approx. The density of the extinguishing gas is 58 kg/m 3 . This corresponds to a liquefaction temperature of pure SF 6 gas of -20 C approx. In principle the minimum ambient temperature is - 5 C, so the liquefaction temperature of pure SF 6 will not be reached.

Heat transfer properties Mainly because of its lower viscosity and higher density, the heat transfer properties of SF 6 are 2-5 times better than those of air at the same pressure.

L145 S 010206 Components: S F 6 g a s (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

L145 S 010206

Components:

SF6 gas (continued)

L145 S 010206 Components: S F 6 g a s (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜

L-SEP

S 010206 Components: S F 6 g a s (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ SF6

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ SF6 gas (continued)

SF6 gas (continued)

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

Electrical properties SF 6

Insulation characteristics The withstand voltage of SF 6 under uniform field conditions is about 2.5 times the withstand voltage of air at the same pressure. At pressures above about 3 bar SF 6 insulates better than oil.

Arc extinguishing characteristics SF 6 is an excellent arc extinguishing medium because:

- cooling of the arc is intensively because of its thermal conductivity characteristics;

- electric conductivity as a result of ionization starts only at temperatures above 4000 C;

- a rapid recovery of the dielectric strength of the arc zone after extinction of the arc.

Pressure versus density The density level of SF 6 gas inside the compartments is a value for insulation and extinguishing performances of the switchgear. This density can not be measured directly. It can be determined by measuring the pressure. The pressure of SF 6 gas is influenced by temperature. A higher temperature results in a higher pressure at the same density. To determine the density by measuring pressure the pressure/ temperature diagram (P-t diagram) can be used. See maintenance chapter, [Proc. 7.1]].

SF 6 gas quality

Clean SF 6 is colourless, odourless, non-toxic and incombustible.

In

order to function properly the quality of the

SF

6 gas used is important.

Quality is limited by the existence of impurities.

A distinction is made between ´newª SF 6 gas

and ´usedª SF 6 gas. New SF 6 gas is the gas as delivered in the container by the manufacturer. Used SF 6 gas is the SF 6 gas inside the equipment. IEC-Publ. 60480 states that ´newª SF 6 gas changes into ´usedª SF 6 - gas as soon as it is filled into the switchgear.

New SF 6 gas

New SF 6 gas contains only a small amount of impurities. The maximum permissible content

of impurities in new SF 6 gas is stated in the

table (IEC Standard 60376):

Impurity or maximum permitted in ppmw* group of impurities

CF4500

O2 + N2, air500

H2O15

Acids like HF0.3

Hydrolysable fluorides1.0

*parts per million by weight (ppmw) is the weight of the impurity present in the gas per total weight of the SF 6 gas, including the impurity.

Used SF 6 gas

During the operation of the switchgear the quality of the SF 6 gas has to be maintained. SF 6 important quality factors are the presence of moisture and air.

The presence of air decreases the insulating capability. Air content can be measured by measuring the oxygen content, multiplied by five. Permissible air percentage values can be found in the maintenance chapter, [Proc. 7.4] and [Proc. 7.5].

The presence of H2O decreases the voltage withstand capacity of the insulation system (primary conductor supports). H2O content can be measured by measuring the dewpoint (permissible dewpoint values can be found in the maintenance chapter, [Proc. 7.4] and [Proc. 7.5].

Decomposition products At very high temperatures, chemical reactions between the SF 6 gas and the materials inside the compartments cause a mixture of solid and gaseous products. These so-called decomposition products can be

toxic. Considerable toxicity is only created by heavy arcing i.e. in the interrupter and upon internal arcs. Therefore safety measures preventing contact with dangerous (toxic) decomposition products must be taken in the following situations:

- when opening the extinguishing gas compartment;

- when opening the compartments after an internal flash over. See maintenance chapter, ´after an internal flash overª

L145 S 010206 Components: Circuit-breaker Position Construction Circuit-breaker and driving mechanism 1 hydraulic driving

L145 S 010206

Components:

Circuit-breaker

Position Construction
Position
Construction

Circuit-breaker and driving mechanism

1 hydraulic driving mechanism

2 single phase interrupter elements

3 single base plate

Electrical Connections

The L-SEP circuit-breaker is installed in the circuit-breaker compartment. The circuit-breaker compartment is filled with low-pressure SF 6 insullationgas.

L-SEP

is filled with low-pressure SF 6 insullationgas. L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker ➜

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker

Circuit-breaker

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

The circuit-breaker consists of three single phase interrupter elements (2) of the single- pressure puffer type The interruptors are driven by a common hydraulic driving mechanism (1). The interruptors and the driving mechanism are installed on a single base plate (3). This construction makes it easy to remove the complete circuit-breaker from its housing. By removing the circuit-breaker, the interior of the circuit-breaker compartment becomes accessible.

of the circuit-breaker compartment becomes accessible. Removable circuit-breaker The three interrupter elements ( 2

Removable circuit-breaker

The three interrupter elements (2) are installed in one extinguishing gas compartment. The interrupters are installed on a single base plate (3) which is also used to close the circuit-breaker compartment. The SF 6 gas in the circuit-breaker is used for extinguishing of the arc during switching. This high pressure extinguishing SF 6 gas is separated from the low pressure insulating SF 6 gas in the circuit-breaker compartment. In this way, decomposition products caused by arcing can not damage parts inside the circuit-breaker compartment.

The primary electrical connections between the circuit-breaker and the conducting parts to the busbar disconnector are made through knife-shaped/brush contacts (1). The connections to the disconnector at the termination side (2) are made through shaft/ multi-lamel contacts.

1 2
1
2

Electrical connections

L145 S 010206 Components: Circuit-breaker (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker (continued)

L145 S 010206

Components:

Circuit-breaker

(continued)

L145 S 010206 Components: Circuit-breaker (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker (continued)

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Components: Circuit-breaker (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker (continued)

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker (continued)

Circuit-breaker (continued)

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

1 2 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
5
6
7
8
9
10

Situation A: closed position

1 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 Situation A: closed position Situation B: during opening

Situation B: during opening

10 Situation A: closed position Situation B: during opening Situation C: interrupter completely opened 3 4

Situation C: interrupter completely opened

3
3
4
4

1 main drive shaft

2 moving cylinder

3 moving part of the main contact

4 arcing contacts

5 fixed part of the main contact

6 polyester-epoxy enclosure

7 spring

8 fixed piston

9 PTFE nozzle

10 absorption filter system

Functioning of the interrupter

Opening In each interrupter arc extinguishing is done by a gas-jet. This gas jet is built-up by means of a fixed piston/moving cylinder action.

The upper drawing (situation A) shows the interrupter in the closed position. Current flows through the nominal current contacts. In this stationary position only the normal pressure of the SF 6 extinguishing gas is available.

During the first stage of the opening movement (situation B), the arcing contacts (4) remain closed by a spring (7). As the cylinder moves to the left, first the main contacts (3) and then the arcing contacts (4) open.

During the second stage, both the main contacts and the arcing contacts are opened and a gas-jet extinguishes the arc. During the opening operation, a PTFE nozzle (9) directs the flow of the gas-jet and supports the circulation of the extinguishing gas inside the interrupter.

During the third stage (situation C), the interrupter is completely opened. Absorbers (10), located in the contact housing of the fixed contact, clear SF 6 gas from decomposition products caused by arcing.

Closing During the closing operation, the above stages take place in reverse order.

L145 S 010206 Components: Circuit-breaker (continued) Driving mechanism: Hydraulic system L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

L145 S 010206

Components:

Circuit-breaker

(continued)

L145 S 010206 Components: Circuit-breaker (continued) Driving mechanism: Hydraulic system L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Driving mechanism:

Hydraulic system

L-SEP

(continued) Driving mechanism: Hydraulic system L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker (continued)

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker (continued)

Circuit-breaker (continued)

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

data ➜ System arrangement ➜ Components Driving mechanism Hydraulic driving mechanism 1. magnetic

Driving mechanism

System arrangement ➜ Components Driving mechanism Hydraulic driving mechanism 1. magnetic valve 2. booster

Hydraulic driving mechanism

1. magnetic valve

2. booster valve

3. main valve

4. differential piston

5. accumulator

6. high-pressure pump

7. manual pump

8. filter

9. driving cylinder

10. bypass tap

11. safety valve

12. indication manometer

13. oil tank

14. Pressure monitoring device

15. Blocking device

16. Non return valve

17. Choke

The driving energy needed for contact separation and gas compression is supplied by a hydraulic driving mechanism. The figures above show a schematic

The system has:

The high-pressure pump (6), manual pump (7), filter (8), bypass tap (10), safety valve (11), indication manometer (12) and the non return valve (16) are all installed inside or on the oil tank (13).

On closing, fluid pressure is supplied to the largest surface of the differential piston (4) via the main valve (3).

representation of the hydraulic driving mechanism in the open (left) and closed (right) position.

The driving cylinder (9) contains a differential piston (4), of which the section with the smallest surface (the side where the piston connects to the driving rod) is directly

The closing movement is done by differential force, caused by the fluid pressure on the different surface dimensions of both sides of the piston. The proportion of these surfaces is such that the resulting ratio of forces,

-

a

power supply unit, consisting of an oil

connected to the accumulator (5) and is

needed for the closing and tripping

supply tank (13), a high-pressure pump (6) and

therefore continuously under pressure.

movement is in balance.

a

pressure monitoring device (14);

Opening occurs when, via a command from

The main valve (3) and booster valve (2) of the

-

an accumulator (5), containing sufficient compressed nitrogen for an O-0.3 s.-CO operation.

the main valve (3), the part of the differential piston with the largest surface is relieved of fluid pressure. The differential piston (4) then

system also work in accordance with the differential principle. The booster valve (2) opens when the operating valve opens by

-

a

driving unit, consisting of a driving

moves to the left.

means of pressure drop caused by the

cylinder (9), operating valves (1), booster valves (2) and a main valve (3).

choke (17). In addition, to guarantee a defined position of the various valves in a non- pressure situation, the booster and magnetic valves are provided with extra springs and the main valve with a ratchet mechanism.

L145 S 010206 Components: Circuit-breaker (continued) Mechanical transmission from hydraulic driving system to interrupter

L145 S 010206

Components:

Circuit-breaker

(continued)

L145 S 010206 Components: Circuit-breaker (continued) Mechanical transmission from hydraulic driving system to interrupter

Mechanical transmission from hydraulic driving system to interrupter

L-SEP

from hydraulic driving system to interrupter L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker (continued)

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Circuit-breaker (continued)

Circuit-breaker (continued)

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

1 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10
1
8
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
10

Mechanical part of the drive

The main function of the mechanical part of the driving mechanism is to convert the motion of one driving cylinder into a motion of the three interrupter contacts.

Arrangement of the mechanical part of the drive On the front plate is a pressure-tight bearing for the main drive shaft (1). The gas space of the removable section is in open connection to the space in the interrupter-chamber (10).

Functioning of the mechanical part of the drive

The linear motion of the driving cylinder is transmitted to a linear motion of the interrupter contacts. This is done by:

1. transmission of the linear movement of the driving cylinder to the rotating movement of the mainshaft;

2. transmission of the rotating movement of the main shaft to a linear motion of the interrupter contacts via three levers (8) and tumblers (2).

Mechanical section of the driving mechanism

1 main drive shaft

2 tumbler

3 base plate

4 epoxi polyester enclosure

5 insulating drive shaft

6 drive box

7 hydraulic drive unit

8 lever

Drive box 1 1 2 1 Switching diagram of the circuit-breaker auxiliary contacts
Drive box
1
1
2
1
Switching diagram of the circuit-breaker
auxiliary contacts
Switching diagram of the circuit-breaker auxiliary contacts   9 open connection 10 interrupter-chamber The
Switching diagram of the circuit-breaker auxiliary contacts   9 open connection 10 interrupter-chamber The
 
 

9 open connection

9 open connection

10 interrupter-chamber

10 interrupter-chamber
  9 open connection 10 interrupter-chamber

The levers and the tumblers are installed in the extinghuishing gas chamber. A pressure tight bearing forms the bushing of the main drive shaft between the extinguishing chamber and the outer side of the driving mechanism part.

The mechanical position indicator is mounted to the main drive shaft via a lever.

The movement of the circuit-breaker is adjusted once in the factory to the length of the insulating drive shaft (5) and then locked in position.

Auxiliary contacts

Micro switches (auxiliary contacts) are used for signalling, control and interlocking circuits. They are located on two positions (S1 and S2). S1 contacts are operated in the open position of the circuit-breaker; S2 contacts are operated in the closed position of the circuit-breaker.

Location The auxiliary contacts are operated by means of a cam (11) which is connected to the main drive shaft (1) via a lever.

Functioning In the open position of the circuit-breaker, S1 contacts are operated and S2 contacts are not operated. During the running time of the circuit-breaker, neither the S1 nor the S2 contacts are operated. In the closed position of the circuit-breaker, S1 contacts are not operated and S2 contacts are operated. During the open operation of the circuit- breaker, the switching sequence is reversed.

There are early make, early break, late make and late break contacts. The figure shows the switching diagram of the circuit-breaker auxiliary contacts. The auxiliary contacts that are closed or opened at the end of the circuit-breaker movement are the late make or late break. Auxiliary contacts that are closed or opened at the beginning of the circuit-breaker movement are the early make or early break contacts.

L145 S 010206 Components: Disconnector 5 3 2 1 Busbar disconnector 5 1 cast-resin bushing

L145 S 010206

Components:

Disconnector

5 3 2 1 Busbar disconnector 5 1 cast-resin bushing 2 aluminium conductors 3 3
5
3
2
1
Busbar disconnector
5
1 cast-resin bushing
2 aluminium conductors
3
3 upper contact
2
4 lower contact
5 earthing contact
1
4
Closed position of
the disconnector
Opened position of
the disconnector
of the disconnector Opened position of the disconnector Position The disconnectors are located: -between the busbar

Position

The disconnectors are located:

-between the busbar compartment and the circuit-breaker compartment; -between the termination compartment and the circuit-breaker compartment.

L-SEP

compartment and the circuit-breaker compartment. L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Disconnector ➜ Technical

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Disconnector

Disconnector

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

Arrangement

The disconnector consists of a cast-resin bushing (1) with three rotatable aluminium conductors (2). Because the three phase- conductors of the busbar system are installed on a vertical plane, the busbar disconnector shafts do not have the same length (termination disconnector: the same length). Each conductor has an upper contact (3) and a lower contact (4) retainer holding a blade contact , which together form the conducting middle part of the disconnector. Earthing contacts (5) are installed on the wall of the busbar compartment and the termination compartment.

Functioning of the disconnector

In the closed position of the disconnector , the conducting middle part (2) forms the electrical connection between busbar and circuit-breaker (busbar disconnector) or between busbar and termination (termination disconnector).

During operation, the conducting middle part turns 180 , forming electrical gaps on both sides of the bushing.

In the open position, the conducting middle part (2) is connected to earth via the main contact (3) and the earthing contact (5). In this way, a fully-earthed screen between the compartments is made.

L145 S 010206 Components: Disconnector (continued) Driving mechanism L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Disconnector

L145 S 010206

Components:

Disconnector (continued)

L145 S 010206 Components: Disconnector (continued) Driving mechanism L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Disconnector

Driving mechanism

L-SEP

Disconnector (continued) Driving mechanism L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Disconnector (continued) ➜

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Disconnector (continued)

Disconnector (continued)

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

3 2 4 1 4 4 5
3
2
4
1
4
4 5

Disconnector driving mechanism

Position The disconnector driving mechanism is installed on top of the busbar compartment and the termination compartment.

Arrangement and functioning A worm shaft (1) is driven by an electro motor (2) via a gear drive (3). Three driving rods (4) with connected conductive middle parts are driven by the worm shaft (1). The mechanical position indicator (5) is installed on the worm wheel furthest from the electromotor.

Auxiliary contacts

Auxiliary contacts are used for signalling, - control- and interlocking- circuits. They can be in two positions (S1 and S2). S1 contacts are operated in the open position of the disconnector; S2 contacts are operated in the closed position of the disconnector.

Location The auxiliary contacts are connected to the worm wheel furthest from the motor (2). The motor auxiliary contacts are adjacent to the middle worm wheel.

Arrangement The auxiliary contacts are operated by two cams.

Disconnector driving mechanism L-SEP

1 worm shaft

2 electro motor

3 gear drive

4 driving rods (not visible)

5 position indicator

Switching diagram of the disconnector auxiliary contacts

Switching diagram of the disconnector auxiliary contacts Functioning In the open position of the disconnector, S1
Switching diagram of the disconnector auxiliary contacts Functioning In the open position of the disconnector, S1

Functioning In the open position of the disconnector, S1 contacts are operated and S2 contacts are not operated. During the running time of the disconnector, neither the S1 nor the S2 contacts are operated. In the closed position of the disconnector, S1 contacts are not operated and S2 contacts are operated. During the open operation of the disconnector, the switching sequence is reversed.

There are early make, early break, late make and late break contacts. The figure shows the switching diagram of the disconnector auxiliary contacts. The auxiliary contacts that are closed or opened at the end of the disconnector movement are the late make or late break. Auxiliary contacts that are closed or opened at the beginning of the disconnector movement are the early make or early break contacts.

L145 S 010206 Components: Busbar system The busbar system forms the connection between adjacent bays.

L145 S 010206

Components:

Busbar system

L145 S 010206 Components: Busbar system The busbar system forms the connection between adjacent bays. L-SEP

The busbar system forms the connection between adjacent bays.

L-SEP

system forms the connection between adjacent bays. L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Busbar system ➜ Technical

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Busbar system

Busbar system

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

2 3 1 Position Arrangement
2
3
1
Position
Arrangement

The busbar compartment is installed on top of the circuit-breaker compartment. It contains the three busbars (see figure of busbar compartment section).

The complete span of the busbars is installed in the busbar compartment which consists of coupled busbar compartment sections. The phase conductors consist of two aluminium profiles between which the fixed disconnector contacts (2) are installed. The conductors are installed in a plane, fixed in the enclosure by cast-resin tridental support insulators (3). Thermal expansion is absorbed by the flexibel suspension of the tridental support insulators and brush-pin contacts in the busbars.

The construction permits for a connection to be made with the circuit-breaker through a simple rotating movement of the disconnector conducting middle part.

Busbar compartment section

1 aluminium profile (busbar)

2 disconnector contacts

3 insulator

L145 S 010206 Components: Earthing switch L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System

L145 S 010206

Components:

Earthing switch

L145 S 010206 Components: Earthing switch L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Components: Earthing switch L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Technical data ➜ System arrangement

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

 

Earthing switch

➜ Components   ➜ Earthing switch Position The busbar system and the cable termination can be

Position

The busbar system and the cable termination can be earthed by means of fault-make type switches. The location of the fault-make type switches is shown in the figure above.

Arrangement

The earthing switches are of the three- phase, fault-make type and can thus be closed on to a live-circuit.

Three sets of 2 parallel contact knives (1) are installed on a main shaft (2) which can turn 90 . In the closed position these contact knives (1) make contact with the receiving-contacts on the conducting system in the cable termination compartment or the busbar compartment.

2 1 1 contact knives
2
1
1 contact knives

2 main shaft

7 2 5 4 3
7
2
5
4
3

Driving mechanism

contact knives 2 main shaft 7 2 5 4 3 Driving mechanism 3 electromotor 4 rod

3

electromotor

4

rod assembly

5

bush-mechanism

2

main shaft

7

spring

Arrangement and functioning An electromotor (3) drives a rod assembly (4) through a gearbox. The rod assembly (4) connects to the bush-mechanism (5) which has a slot. When the bush-mechanism (5) turns, the slot connects to a pin on the main shaft (2)) and

sets it in motion. The main shaft (2) charges a spring (7) which is used to effect the fast

closing of the contact knives.

L145 S 010206 Components: Earthing switch (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Earthing switch (continued)

L145 S 010206

Components:

Earthing switch

(continued)

L145 S 010206 Components: Earthing switch (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Earthing switch (continued)

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Components: Earthing switch (continued) L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Earthing switch (continued)

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Earthing switch (continued)

Earthing switch (continued)

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

8 9
8
9

Fault-make type earthing switch and auxiliary contacts

Auxiliary contacts

Auxiliary contacts are used for signalling-, control- and interlocking-circuits. They can be in two positions (S1 and S2). S1 contacts are operated in the open position of the fault- make type switch; S2 contacts are operated in the closed position of the fault-make type switch.

Location The auxiliary contacts are operated by means of a camshaft (8) connected (through a mechanical connection) to the main driving shaft (9). The camshaft (8) operates the S1 contacts when the earthing switch is in the open position, and the S2 contacts when the earthing switch is in closed position.

Functioning

In the open position of the earthing switch, S1 contacts are operated and S2 contacts are not operated. During the running time of the earthing switch, neither the S1 nor the S2 contacts are operated. In the closed position of the earthing switch, S1 contacts are not operated and S2 contacts are operated. During the open operation of the earthing switch, the switching sequence is reversed.

Switching diagram of the earthing switch auxiliary contacts

Switching diagram of the earthing switch auxiliary contacts There are early make, early break, late make
Switching diagram of the earthing switch auxiliary contacts There are early make, early break, late make

There are early make, early break, late make and late break contacts. The figure shows the switching diagram of the earthing switch auxiliary contacts. The auxiliary contacts that are closed or opened at the end of the fault-make type switch movement are the late make, or late break. The auxiliary contacts that are closed or opened at the beginning of the fault-make type switch movement are the early make or early break contacts.

L145 S 010206 Components: Transformers L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Transformers ➜ Technical data ➜

L145 S 010206

Components:

Transformers

L145 S 010206 Components: Transformers L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Transformers ➜ Technical data ➜

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Components: Transformers L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Transformers ➜ Technical data ➜

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Transformers

Transformers

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

Voltage transformers Current transformers
Voltage transformers
Current transformers

Position Voltage measurement is done through three single-phase transformers, installed in a common enclosure on top of the termination compartment.

Arrangement The transformers are of the inductive type, using a high-voltage insulation of synthetic foil and SF 6 gas. During HV cable testing, the transformers are disconnected from the primary conductors by an integrated isolating facility.

Position The ring core current transformers are installed in the circuit- breaker compartment. They are installed between the circuit- breaker and the termination compartment. This arrangement, in combination with the removable circuit-breaker, makes the current transformers readily accessible and easy to exchange, if required.

Arrangement The current transformers are shielded by aluminium screens. In this way, they are shielded from electrostatic field disturbances. The SF 6 gas in the circuit-breaker compartment is used for insulation between the primary conductors and the current transformers.

L145 S 010206 Components: Local control panel L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Local control panel

L145 S 010206

Components:

Local control panel

L145 S 010206 Components: Local control panel L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Local control panel ➜

L-SEP

L145 S 010206 Components: Local control panel L-SEP 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Local control panel ➜

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ➜ Local control panel

Local control panel

Technical data

System arrangement

Components

Position

The local control panel is attached to the circuit-breaker compartment and situated above the circuit-breaker driving mechanism.

Functioning

The local control panel (LCP) contains secondary control equipment. All components of the switchgear are connected to the LCP by means of multi- core shielded cables and multi-pole plugs (see also chapter 2, installation description, connections).

The LCP together with the multi-core cables and the multi-pole plugs give an excellent EMC environment. The multi-core cable shield is electrically connected on all sides through a screw cap to the multi-pole plug housing. The multi-pole plug housing is electrically connected at either end to the switchgear or the local control panel which are both directly connected to the substation earthing grid. In this way, the secondary equipment inside the LCP is effectively shielded from electromagnetic interference.

L145 S 010206 Survey of operating conditions: Definitions 29 L-SEP This chapter contains general information

L145 S 010206

Survey of operating conditions: Definitions

29

L-SEP

This chapter contains general information regarding operating, signalling and the interlocking system.

operating, signalling and the interlocking system. 3 OPERATION ➜ Survey of operating conditions ➜

3

OPERATION

Survey of operating conditions

Definitions

Remote, local and manual operation

Interlocking

Lockings, blockings & alarms

Remote, local and manual operation

The switchgear can be operated from four locations:

1. Remote control: control from outside the substation (e.g. from a local dispatch centre)

2. Control room: control from a remote control panel

3. Local control: control from a local control panel

4. Manual control: during maintenance activities all components can be operated manually.

Caution:

activities all components can be operated manually. Caution: For manual operation of the circuit-breaker : ➥

For manual operation of the circuit-breaker :

procedure ´manual operation of the circuit-breaker ª [Proc. 1.2 on page 62]

For manual operation of the disconnector:

procedure ´manual operation of the disconnector ª [Proc. 2.2 on page 91]

For manual operation of the fault-make earthing switch:

procedure ´manual operation of the earthing switch ª [Proc. 3.3 on page 99]

manual operation of components always bypasses all electrical interlocking.

L145 S 010206 Survey of operating conditions: Definitions Blockings and interlockings are applied to protect

L145 S 010206

Survey of operating conditions: Definitions

Blockings and interlockings are applied to protect operating personnel and the switchgear against unwanted switching operations. Lockings and alarms are applied to monitor component conditions.

In this manual, the following definitions are used:

ï Lockings inhibit operation of a particular component. The locking is caused by the condition or position of the particular component.

ï Blockings inhibit the physical operation of a component. Blockings are caused by applying a blocking device.

ï Interlockings inhibit electrical operation of a particular component. An interlocking is caused by the position of other components of the GIS or systems connected to the GIS). There are two types of interlocking:

ï safety interlocking:

30

L-SEP

two types of interlocking: ï safety interlocking: 30 L-SEP 3 OPERATION ➜ Survey of operating conditions

3

OPERATION

Survey of operating conditions

Definitions

Remote, local and manual operation

Interlocking

Lockings, blockings & alarms

safety interlockings prevent the occurrence of an internal fault caused by unacceptable switching operations. Safety interlockings are listed in this manual because they are independent on the application of the switchgear. Safety interlockings provide the minimum required safety and are not to be changed by customer specific engineering of the switchgear.

ï operational interlocking:

operational interlockings are engineered by the customer or on customer request. For that reason information about operational interlockings can not be found in this manual. Please refer to the engineering documents.

Use of the interlockings bypass key circumvents all safety and operational interlockings. Only authorized personnel should have acces to the bypass key.

key circumvents all safety and operational interlockings. Only authorized personnel should have acces to the bypass
L145 S 010206 Survey of operating conditions: Interlockings Interlockings Safety interlockings ï The busbar

L145 S 010206

Survey of operating conditions:

Interlockings

Interlockings

Safety interlockings

ï The busbar disconnectors and the termination disconnector can be operated only if the circuit-breaker is in the OPEN END position.

ï The circuit-breaker can be closed only when the busbar disconnectors and the termination disconnector are not in the intermediate position.

ï The two busbar disconnectors of one single bay are mutually interlocked. Engagement alternately only.

Operational interlockings

ï Information about operational interlockings can not be found in this manual. Please refer to the engineering documents.

L-SEP

manual. Please refer to the engineering documents. L-SEP 3 OPERATION   ➜ Survey of operating

3

OPERATION

 

Survey of operating conditions

 

Definitions

Interlocking

 

Interlockings

 

Lockings, blockings & alarms

L145 S 010206 Survey of operating conditions: Lockings, blockings and alarms L-SEP 3 OPERATION ➜

L145 S 010206

Survey of operating conditions: Lockings, blockings and alarms

L-SEP

operating conditions: Lockings, blockings and alarms L-SEP 3 OPERATION ➜ Survey of operating conditions ➜

3

OPERATION

Survey of operating conditions

Definitions

Interlocking

Lockings, blockings & alarms

Circuit-breaker

Circuit-breaker

Hydraulic control of the circuit-breaker

Nitrogen control

With decreasing oil-pressure, the electrical operation of the circuit- breaker is locked to prevent unacceptable switching.

During the switching of the circuit-breaker, the nitrogen in the accumulator pressurizes the oil. If nitrogen-loss occurs, there might

Signal

not be enough nitrogen to do a correct switching operation of the circuit-breaker. To prevent this there is a ´security levelª.

262

bar (at decreasing pressure).

Locking and alarm

Locking and alarm signalling low nitrogen locking of electrical operation (opening and

250

bar: locking of close operation (at decreasing pressure).

closing command)

232

bar: locking of open operation (at decreasing pressure).

Pump-motor operating control

282

bar: pump motor stop (at increasing pressure)

272

bar: pump motor start ( at decreasing pressure)

Safety valve

300 bar: pressure relief (at increasing pressure)

If the oil-pressure decreases to zero in the closed position, the circuit-breaker is blocked before the main contacts of the circuit- breaker may open slowly.

SF6 extinguishing gas control

Signal

52.5 kg/m3: low pressure.

If the extinguishing gas-density decreases below this level, an alarm will be initiated. Electrical operation of the circuit-breaker is still possible. However, action must be taken to prevent a further decrease of the density of the SF6 extinghuishing gas.

Locking and alarm

47.5 kg/m3: low pressure

If the extinguishing gas density is decreasing below this level, the electrical operation of the circuit-breaker will be locked (proper functioning of the interrupter is not guaranteed).

L145 S 010206 Survey of operating conditions: Lockings, blockings and alarms L-SEP 3 OPERATION ➜

L145 S 010206

Survey of operating conditions: Lockings, blockings and alarms

L-SEP

operating conditions: Lockings, blockings and alarms L-SEP 3 OPERATION ➜ Survey of operating conditions ➜

3

OPERATION

Survey of operating conditions

Definitions

Interlocking

Lockings, blockings & alarms

Disconnectors

Disconnectors

Busbar disconnector and termination disconnector

The busbar disconnectors and the termination disconnector can not be operated in the intermediate position (disturbance protection determination).

Electrical locking The disconnecor is electrically locked;

- during manual operation

- when the blocking device is installed, and

- when the disconnector is in motion.

Mechanical blocking

The disconnector is mechanically blocked when:

- the blocking device is installed.

Fault-make type earthing switch

Electrical locking

The fault-make type earthing switch is electrically locked when:

- the fault-make type earthing switch cover is removed,

- when the blocking device is installed.

- when the fault-make type earthing switch is in motion.

Mechanical blocking

The fault-make type earthing switch is mechanically blocked when:

- the blocking device is installed.

SF6 insulating gas

The circuit-breaker compartment, the busbar compartment, the voltage transformer compartment and the termination compartment have the same insulating gas density. The insulating gas density of each compartment is monitored by a separate system by means of a gasdensity meter. This meter provides electrical signalling and visual indication.

Signal 25.4 kg/m3: low pressure (3.03 barg at 200C) 24.3 kg/m3: low pressure (2.86 barg at 200C)

L145 S 010206 Inspection schedule This chapter contains information regarding maintenance and possible failures. It

L145 S 010206

Inspection schedule

This chapter contains information regarding maintenance and possible failures. It consists of:

1. advised inspection schedule;

2. general information for safe working with SF6 gas;

3. a repair procedure in the eventuality of an internal flash over;

4. a trouble-shooting guide;

5. inspection & maintenance procedures.

34

L-SEP

guide; 5. inspection & maintenance procedures. 34 L-SEP 4 MAINTENANCE ➜ Inspection schedule ➜ SF 6

4

MAINTENANCE

Inspection schedule

SF 6 safety guidelines

Trouble-shooting guide

Inspection & maintenance procedures

Introduction

As the installation is fully metal-enclosed, no outside influence can damage the insulating materials used. Thus periodic maintenance can be restricted to inspections of the driving mechanisms. The circuit-breaker needs inspection only after a maximum cummulative current switching. The advised inspection schedule is applicable where the switchgear is operated under normal service conditions (IEC 694). If as a result of inspection a defect is found, proceed to the relevant maintenance procedures.

Inspection schedule

GENERAL

Circuit-breaker

a. When 2000 operations have been done with the circuit-breaker a complete inspection must be done

[Proc. 1.1] to [Proc. 1.11]

b. If a maximum cumulative current of the circuit-breaker is reached (example 15x40 kA short circuit), the circuit-breaker must be completely inspected

[Proc. 1.1] to [Proc. 1.11]

Disconnector

a. When 1000 operations have been done, a complete inspection must be done

[Proc. 2.3] and [Proc. 2.4]

Fault-make type earthing switch

a. When 1000 operations have been done, a complete inspection must be done

[Proc. 3.3] to [Proc. 3.6] and inspection of the main contacts. For removing and returning the earthing switch

[Proc. 3.10]

b. If the earthing switch has caused a short circuit, complete inspection must be done

[Proc. 3.3] to [Proc. 3.6] and inspection of the main contacts. For removing and returning the earthing switch

[Proc. 3.10]

SF 6 extinguishing and -insulating gas

a. If a decrease in pressure has been detected (-10% signal), SF6-gas replenishing must be done

[Proc. 7.7]

b. Elin advises to measure gasdensity

[Proc. 7.1] before and after using test probes at the termination compartment

[Proc. 4.1]

L145 S 010206 Inspection schedule (continued) Periodic Inspection and maintenance EVERY YEAR Circuit-breaker, disconnector

L145 S 010206

Inspection schedule

(continued)

Periodic

Inspection and maintenance

EVERY YEAR

Circuit-breaker, disconnector and fault-make type earthing switch To maintain the switchgear condition it is advised to switch with all components twice every year.

Circuit-breaker

a. Inspection of the oil level in the hydraulic drive

[Proc. 1.6]

b. Inspection of oil leakage in the hydraulic drive

[Proc. 1.7]

Note:

If the oil level has decreased and no leakage is found, proceed to inspection of the accumulator pre-pressure [Proc. 1.9]. If pre- pressure has decreased to less than 180 bar, the accumulator will probably show leakage. An O-C-O switching cycle is no lon- ger guaranteed.

Inspection and maintenance

ONCE EVERY 5 YEARS

Circuit-breaker

a. Inspection of the hydraulic pressure switches

[Proc. 1.8]

b. Inspection of the accumulator pre-pressure

[Proc. 1.9]

Disconnector

a. Inspection of the disconnector driving mechanism

[Proc. 2.3]

Fault make type earthing switch

a. Inspection of the earthing switch driving mechanism [Proc. 3.6]

35

L-SEP

earthing switch driving mechanism ➥ [Proc. 3.6] 35 L-SEP 4 MAINTENANCE ➜ Inspection schedule ➜ SF

4

MAINTENANCE

Inspection schedule

SF 6 safety guidelines

Trouble-shooting guide

Inspection & maintenance procedures

L145 S 010206 Inspection schedule (continued) ONCE EVERY 10 YEARS 36 L-SEP 4 MAINTENANCE ➜

L145 S 010206

Inspection schedule

(continued)

ONCE EVERY 10 YEARS

36

L-SEP

Inspection schedule (continued) ONCE EVERY 10 YEARS 36 L-SEP 4 MAINTENANCE ➜ Inspection schedule ➜ SF

4

MAINTENANCE

Inspection schedule

SF 6 safety guidelines

Trouble-shooting guide

Inspection & maintenance procedures

Bay (general)

a.)Measurement of contact resistances.

b. Measuring of the SF6 insulating gas quality:

-measuring of the air percentage

[Proc. 7.4] -measuring of the dewpoint

[Proc. 7.5]

c. Inspection of the contact position of the density-meters.

d. Inspection of overtravel of auxiliary contacts circuit-breaker

[Proc. 1.4] earthing switch

[Proc. 3.4]

Circuit-breaker

a. Recording of switching velocity (x-t diagram)

c. Running time pump motor (0-282 bar, 272-282 bar).

d. Measuring of the SF6 extinguishing gas quality:

-measuring of the air percentage

[Proc. 7.4] -measuring of the dewpoint

[Proc. 7.5]

e. Inspection of the blocking mechanism

f. Inspection of driving mechanism

Disconnector

a. Recording of current-time diagram during operation.

b. Recording of switching velocity (x-t diagram).

Earthing switch

[Proc. 1.10]

a.

Recording of current-time diagram during operation.

b.

Measurement of contact resistances

b.

Recording of switching velocity (x-t diagram).

OPTIONAL INSPECTIONS EVERY 10 YEARS

 

a.

In principle all auxiliary contacts and motors on the equipment are maintenance free. However, the relevant maintenance procedures have been included in the inspection and servicing procedures should inspection be deemed necessary.

b.

Inspection / replacement of extinguishing magnets of auxiliary contacts.

L145 S 010206 Safety guidelines for working with SF 6 -gas Under normal conditions working

L145 S 010206

Safety guidelines for working with SF 6 -gas

Under normal conditions working with SF6-gas is not dangerous. There are only a few situations in which care and attention have to be paid. This paragraph contains information regarding working with SF6-gas under all circumstances.

Warning:

working with SF6-gas under all circumstances. Warning: smoking in an area where SF6-gas is present is

smoking in an area where SF6-gas is present is dangerous because toxic decomposition products are formed on hot surfaces.

Because of the properties of SF6 gas and its decomposition products it is important to be aware of the effects which may occur in the situations mentioned.

37

L-SEP

which may occur in the situations mentioned. 37 L-SEP 4 MAINTENANCE ➜ Inspection schedule ➜ SF

4

MAINTENANCE

Inspection schedule

SF 6 safety guidelines

Trouble-shooting guide

Inspection & maintenance procedures

1. Oxygen depletion

New SF6-gas complying with IEC 376 is non-toxic. It is therefore permissible for the inhaled atmosphere to contain a relatively high proportion of new SF6. However it is necessary to prevent the concentration from rising to a level at which a shortage of oxygen occurs. About 25% of SF6 can be added to air before difficulties with breathing occur.

Because SF6-gas is about five times heavier than air it tends to collect at low points in the switchgear room, replacing the air. This could be dangerous to personnel as it could cause oxygen depletion and danger of suffocation. This situation can only arise if a substantial amount of SF6 escapes from the GIS over a short period of time. Under normal operation conditions diffusion and convection always carry away escaped SF6.

Note that in opened compartments and other open spaces SF6 also displaces air at low levels.

2. Decomposition products: effects on human beings:

Under the following working conditions, personnel may be exposed to decomposition products:

- during opening of a circuit-breaker compartment, busbar compartment, or termination compartment following the occurence of an internal flash-over;

- during opening of the extinguishing gas compartment;

- during clean up after an internal flash-over.

Decomposition products can be solid or gaseous.

Solid decomposition products Solid decomposition products (white powder) are caused by chemical reactions during arcing. After opening a compartment in which arcing has occured, the powder may float in the air for a considerable time (2 hours or more). The powders together with moisture become acidic. This must be taken into account when selecting the personnel protection equipment.

Solid decomposition products may cause:

-a burning sensation on unprotected skin; -breathing problems. This effect is reversible and there will be no permanent damage if the exposure is short term.

Gaseous decomposition products Some of the gaseous decomposition products when inhaled in high concentrations for a longer time cause breathing problems. However, the concentrations at which these gases are detected by their smell are two orders of magnitude lower than the damage causing concentrations so that personnel will be automatically warned.

3.Safety provisions for personnel handling SF6

where decomposition products can be expected

Safety provisions for personnel should comprise

1. Pocketless, hooded, coated polyester or paper disposable industrial-grade overall with elasticated ankle and wrist grips which cover the footwear and gloves.

2. Protective footwear.

3. Industrial type rubber gloves.

4. Respirator filter for dust absorption, covering nose and mouth.

5. Full face respirator fitted with acid dust filter and activated charcoal cartridge.

6. Chemical-type industrial goggles. In case the oxygen percentage is less than 20% and/or the percentage of polution is more than 2% use an oxygen mask.

L145 S 010206 Trouble-shooting guide Contents ï Purpose of the trouble-shooting guide ï How to

L145 S 010206

Trouble-shooting guide

Contents

ï Purpose of the trouble-shooting guide

ï How to use this trouble-shooting guide

ï Trouble-shooting

- Inspection sequences

- Actions and reference to procedures

ï Communication with Elin Holec Service Department

38

L-SEP

Communication with Elin Holec Service Department 38 L-SEP 4 MAINTENANCE ➜ Inspection schedule ➜ SF 6

4

MAINTENANCE

Inspection schedule

SF 6 safety guidelines

Trouble-shooting guide

Inspection & maintenance procedures

Contents

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Circuitbreaker

does not trip electrically

does not close electrically

pump motor hydraulic system runs longer than allowed

gives no electrical signals

Disconnector

does not operate electrically

gives no electrical signals

Earthing switch

does not operate electrically

does not open electrically

does not close electrically

gives no electrical signals

Readings

no high voltage reading

no primary current reading

Signals

gas density ´too lowª oil pressure ´too lowª ´nitrogen lossª ´loose connectorª

Purpose of the trouble-shooting guide

´loose connectorª Purpose of the trouble-shooting guide How to use the trouble-shooting guide This trouble-shooting

How to use the trouble-shooting guide

This trouble-shooting guide provides a tool for locating, defining and solving problems on the L-SEP installation by means of a clearly structured diagnostic system. This system is based on the inspection of primary components that probably cause a failure. By using this guide problems can either be solved independently, or communication with the Elin Holec service department can be more efficient. The trouble-shooting guide does not guarantee that possible problems can be diagnosed or solved in all cases, it is meant as guidance only.

The trouble-shooting guide consists of step-by-step inspection sequences grouped per component or type of signal (listed 1-16 in bold print). To locate a fault identify the component or signal and go through the inspection sequences listed for that item. If one step does not yield results simply carry out the next. Each step is described in itallics or a reference number between [ ] may be given to the relevant item in the more detailed Inspection and Maintenance section (chapter 4). Where a step results in the detection of a fault the number following the symbol w refers to the relevant item in the problem solving

Note:

1

section of this chapter. Problem solving describes what actions may

Some procedures in this trouble-shooting guide require the use of tools. Please note that any actions performed with tools on the switchgear assembly may invalidate the warranty on the switch- gear assembly.

be taken to try to repair the fault. Go through the repair actions described. Where necessary the number between [ ] refers to a detailed explanation of the steps in the Inspection and Maintenance section.

Note:

2

This trouble-shooting guide is applicable for the L-sep system in general. Therefore some of the items may differ from the specific installation.

L145 S 010206

Inspection Sequences:

Circuit-breaker

L145 S 010206 Inspection Sequences: Circuit-breaker ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ 5a See Actions ➥ [ 3

5a

See Actions

[3.5.]

See Inspection and Maintenance procedures

L-SEP

5 . ] See Inspection and Maintenance procedures L-SEP 4 MAINTENANCE ➜ Trouble-shooting guide ➜

4

MAINTENANCE

➜ Trouble-shooting guide ➜ Inspection sequences ➜ Circuit-breaker 1. does not trip electrically.
➜ Trouble-shooting guide
➜ Inspection sequences
➜ Circuit-breaker
1. does not trip electrically.

Circuit-breaker

1. does not trip electrically.

a. Inspect supply voltage.

no supply?

1

 

Check that a voltage supply is available in the LCP.

 

b. Inspect connectors.