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PSYCHOLOGY PAPER - I Foundations of Psychology 1.

Introduction: Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems. 2. Methods of Psychology: Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnosticand prognostic; Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study andexperiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental design, Quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach. 3. Research Methods: Major steps in Psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing) Fundamental versus applied research; Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire); Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental); Application of statistical technique (t - test, two way ANOVA correlation, regression and factor analysis); Item response theory. 4. Development of Human Behaviour: Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determininghuman behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development - Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span. 5. Sensation, Attention and Perception: Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus; Definitionand concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptualorganization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception. 6. Learning: Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and

Information processing models); The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization; Programmed learning, probability learning, selfinstructional learning, concepts; Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modeling and social learning. 7. Memory: Encoding and remembering; Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.
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8. Thinking and Problem Solving: Piagets theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgment; Recent trends. 9. Motivation and Emotion: Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues. 10. Intelligence and Aptitude: Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence - Spearman, Thurstone, Gullford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P; Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. 11. Personality: Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, socio-cultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions. 12. Attitudes, Values and Interests: Definition of attitudes, values and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes; Measurement of attitudes, values and interests; Theories of attitude change; Strategies for fostering values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour; Theories of attribution; Recent trends. 13. Language and Communication: Human language - Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development - Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication - effective communication training. 14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology: Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception Simulation studies.

PAPER - II Psychology: Issues and Applications 1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences: The nature of individual differences; Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests; Types of psychological tests; Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests; Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests. 2. Psychological well being and Mental Disorders: Concept of health-ill
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health; Positive health, well being; Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders); Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life; Happiness disposition. 3. Therapeutic Approaches: Psychodynamic therapies; Behaviour therapies; Client centered therapy; Cognitive therapies; Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation); Bio-feedback therapy; Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill; Fostering mental health. 4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour: Personnel selection and training; Use of psychological tests in the industry; Training and human resource development; Theories of work motivation Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom; Leadership and participatory management; Advertising and marketing; Stress and its management; Ergonomics; consumer psychology; Managerial effectiveness; Transformational leadership; Sensitivity training; Power and politics in organizations. 5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field: Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process; Learning styles; Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training; Training for improving memory and better academic achievement; Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling; Use of psychological tests in educational institutions; Effective strategies in guidance programmes. 6. Community Psychology: Definition and concept of community psychology; Use of small groups in social action; Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems; Group decision making and leadership for social change; Effective strategies for social change. 7. Rehabilitation Psychology: Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes-role of psychologists; Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons, Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviour; Rehabilitation of victims of violence, Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims, the role of social agencies. 8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups: The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation; Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups; Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.

9. Psychological problems of social integration: The concept of social integration; The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice; Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group; Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices; Psychological
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strategiesfor handling the conflicts and prejudices; Measures to achieve social integration. 10. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media: The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists; Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media; Distance learning through IT and mass media; Entrepreneurship through e-commerce; Multilevel marketing; Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media; Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology. 11. Psychology and Economic development: Achievement motivation and economic development; Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour; Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development; Consumer rights and consumer awareness, Government policies for promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs. 12. Application of psychology to environment and related fields: Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding; Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density; Motivating for small family norm; Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment. 13. Application of psychology in other fields: (a) Military Psychology Devising psychological tests for defence personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling; training psychologists to work with defence personnel in promoting positive health; Human engineering in defence. (b) Sports Psychology Psychological interventions in improving performance of athletes and sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team Games. (c) Media influences on pro and antisocial behaviour. (d) Psychology of terrorism. 14. Psychology of Gender: Issues of discrimination, Management of diversity; Glass ceiling effect, Self fulfilling prophesy, Women and Indian society
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SOCIOLOGY PAPER - I FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIOLOGY 1. Sociology - The Discipline: (a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology. (b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences. (c) Sociology and common sense. 2. Sociology as Science: (a) Science, scientific method and critique. (b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology. (c) Positivism and its critique. (d) Fact value and objectivity. (e) Non- positivist methodologies. 3. Research Methods and Analysis: (a) Qualitative and quantitative methods. (b) Techniques of data collection. (c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity. 4. Sociological Thinkers: (a) Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle. (b) Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society. (c) Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. (d) Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables. (e) Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups (f) Mead - Self and identity. 5. Stratification and Mobility: (a) Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation (b) Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory. (c) Dimensions Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race. (d) Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility. 6. Works and Economic Life: (a) Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society. (b) Formal and informal organization of work
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(c) Labour and society. 7. Politics and Society: (a) Sociological theories of power (b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties. (c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology. (d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

8. Religion and Society: (a) Sociological theories of religion. (b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults. (c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism. 9. Systems of Kinship: (a) Family, household, marriage. (b) Types and forms of family. (c) Lineage and descent (d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour (e) Contemporary trends. 10. Social Change in Modern Society: (a) Sociological theories of social change. (b) Development and dependency. (c) Agents of social change. (d) Education and social change. (e) Science, technology and social change.

PAPER - II INDIAN SOCIETY : STRUCTURE AND CHANGE A. Introducing Indian Society: (i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society: (a) Indology (GS. Ghurye). (b) Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas). (c) Marxist sociology ( A R Desai). (ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society : (a) Social background of Indian nationalism. (b) Modernization of Indian tradition. (c) Protests and movements during the colonial period. (d) Social reforms B. Social Structure: (i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure: (a) The idea of Indian village and village studiesRAUS
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(b) Agrarian social structure evolution of land tenure system, land reforms. (ii) Caste System: (a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille. (b) Features of caste system. (c) Untouchability - forms and perspectives (iii) Tribal communities in India: (a) Definitional problems. (b) Geographical spread. (c) Colonial policies and tribes. (d) Issues of integration and autonomy. (iv) Social Classes in India: (a) Agrarian class structure. (b) Industrial class structure. (c) Middle classes in India. (v) Systems of Kinship in India: (a) Lineage and descent in India. (b) Types of kinship systems. (c) Family and marriage in India. (d) Household dimensions of the family. (e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour. (vi) Religion and Society: (a) Religious communities in India. (b) Problems of religious minorities. C. Social Changes in India: (i) Visions of Social Change in India: (a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy. (b) Constitution, law and social change.

(c) Education and social change. (ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India: (a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes. (b) Green revolution and social change. (c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture . (d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration. (iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
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(a) Evolution of modern industry in India. (b) Growth of urban settlements in India. (c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization. (d) Informal sector, child labour (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas. (iv) Politics and Society: (a) Nation, democracy and citizenship. (b) Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite. (c) Regionalism and decentralization of power. (d) Secularization (v) Social Movements in Modern India: (a) Peasants and farmers movements. (b) Womens movement. (c) Backward classes & Dalit movement. (d) Environmental movements. (e) Ethnicity and Identity movements. (vi) Population Dynamics: (a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution. (b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration. (c) Population policy and family planning. (d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health. (vii) Challenges of Social Transformation: (a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability. (b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities. (c) Violence against women. (d) Caste conflicts. (e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism. (f) Illiteracy and disparities in education

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PAPER I Administrative Theory 1. Introduction: Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration; Wilsons vision of Public Administration; Evolution of the discipline and its present status; New Public Administration; Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management. 2. Administrative Thought: Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Webers bureaucratic model its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simons decision-making theory; Participative Management (R. Likert, C.Argyris, D.McGregor). 3. Administrative Behaviour: Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories content, process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modern. 4. Organisations: Theories systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies, Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public - Private Partnerships. 5. Accountability and control: Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive and Judicial control over administration; Citizen and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizens Charters; Right to Information; Social audit. 6. Administrative Law: Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals. 7. Comparative Public Administration: Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique. 8. Development Dynamics: Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; Anti-development thesis; Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries; Women and development - the self-help group movement. 9. Personnel Administration: Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pay and service conditions; employeremployee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics. 10. Public Policy: Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation. 11. Techniques of Administrative Improvement: Organisation and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information technology;

Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM. 12. Financial Administration: Monetary and fiscal policies; Public borrowings and public debt Budgets - types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit. PAPER - II Indian Administration 1. Evolution of Indian Administration: Kautilyas Arthashastra; Mughal administration; Legacy of British rule in politics and administration Indianization of public services, revenue administration, district administration, local self-government. 2. Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureaucracy and democracy; Bureaucracy and development. 3. Public Sector Undertakings: Public sector in modern India; Forms of Public Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability and control; Impact of liberalization and privatization. 4. Union Government and Administration: Executive, Parliament, Judiciary structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends; Intragovernmental relations; Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Ministers Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards; Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations. 5. Plans and Priorities: Machinery of planning; Role, composition and functions of the Planning Commission and the National Development Council; Indicative planning; Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels; Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice. 6. State Government and Administration: Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates. 7. District Administration since Independence: Changing role of the Collector; Union-state-local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization. 8. Civil Services: Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and
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capacity-building; Good governance initiatives; Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil service neutrality; Civil service activism. 9. Financial Management: Budgetas a political instrument; Parliamentary control of public expenditure; Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area; Accounting techniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and Auditor General of India. 10. Administrative Reforms since Independence: Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and human resource development; Problems of implementation.

11. Rural Development: Institutions and agencies since independence; Rural development programmes: foci and strategies; Decentralization and Panchayati Raj; 73rd Constitutional amendment. 12. Urban Local Government: Municipal governance: main features, structures, finance and problem areas; 74th Constitutional Amendment; Global-local debate; New localism; Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference to city management. 13. Law and Order Administration: British legacy; National Police CommissionInvestigative agencies; Role of central and state agencies including paramilitary forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism; Criminalisation of politics and administration; Police-public relations; Reforms in Police. 14. Significant issues in Indian Administration: Values in public service; Regulatory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of administration in coalition regimes; Citizen-administration interface; Corruption and administration; Disaster management.