Tutorial 5.
Modeling Radiation and
Natural Convection
Introduction: In this tutorial, combined radiation and natural convec tion are solved in a twodimensional square box on a mesh consist ing of quadrilateral elements.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
• Use the radiation models in FLUENT (Rosseland, P1, DTRM, discrete ordinates (DO), and surfacetosurface (S2S)) and un derstand their ranges of application
• Use the Boussinesq model for density
• Set the boundary conditions for a heat transfer problem in volving natural convection and radiation
• Separate a single wall zone into multiple wall zones
• Change the properties of an existing ﬂuid material
• Calculate a solution using the segregated solver
• Display velocity vectors and contours of stream function and temperature for ﬂow visualization
Prerequisites: This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in FLUENT, and that you have solved Tutorial 1. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.
Problem Description: The problem to be considered is shown schemat ically in Figure 5.1. A square box of side L has a hot right wall at T = 2000 K, a cold left wall at T = 1000 K, and adiabatic top and bottom walls. Gravity points downwards. A buoyant ﬂow devel ops because of thermallyinduced density gradients. The medium
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contained in the box is assumed to be absorbing and emitting, so that the radiant exchange between the walls is attenuated by ab sorption and augmented by emission in the medium. All walls are black. The objective is to compute the ﬂow and temperature pat terns in the box, as well as the wall heat ﬂux, using the radiation models available in FLUENT, and to compare their performance for diﬀerent values of the optical thickness aL.
The working ﬂuid has a Prandtl number of approximately 0.71, and the Rayleigh number based on L is 5 × 10 ^{5} . This means the ﬂow is inherently laminar. The Boussinesq assumption is used to model buoyancy. The Planck number k/(4σLT ) is 0.02, and measures the relative importance of conduction to radiation; here T _{0} = (T _{h} + T _{c} )/2. Three values for the optical thickness are considered: aL = 0, aL = 0.2, and aL = 5.
Note that the values of physical properties and operating conditions (e.g., gravitational acceleration) have been adjusted to yield the desired Prandtl, Rayleigh, and Planck numbers.
3
0
Figure 5.1: Schematic of the Problem
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Preparation
1. Copy the ﬁle rad/rad.msh from the FLUENT documentation CD to your working directory (as described in Tutorial 1).
2. Start the 2D version of FLUENT.
Step 1: Grid
1. Read the mesh ﬁle rad.msh.
File −→ Read −→ Case
As the mesh is read in, messages will appear in the console window reporting the progress of the reading. The mesh size will be reported as 2500 cells.
2. Check the grid.
Grid −→ Check
FLUENT performs various checks on the mesh and reports the progress in the console window. Pay particular attention to the minimum volume. Make sure this is a positive number.
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3. Display the grid (Figure 5.2).
Display −→ Grid
Note: All the walls are currently contained in a single wall zone, wall4. You will need to separate them out into four diﬀerent walls so that you can specify diﬀerent boundary conditions for each wall.
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^{G}^{r}^{i}^{d}
Jul 25, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.2: Graphics Display of Grid
4. Separate the single wall zone into four wall zones. Grid −→ Separate −→ Faces
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(a) 
Select the Angle separation method (the default) under Op tions. 
(b) 
Select wall4 in the Zones list. 
(c) 
Specify 89 ^{◦} as the signiﬁcant Angle. 
(d) 
Click on the Separate button. 
Faces with normal vectors that diﬀer by more than 89 ^{◦} will be placed in separate zones. Since the four wall zones are perpendicular (an gle = 90 ^{◦} ), wall4 will be separated into four zones.
5. Display the grid again.
(a) Select all Surfaces and click on Display.
Notice that you now have four diﬀerent wall zones instead of only one.
Extra: You can use the right mouse button to check which wall zone number corresponds to each wall boundary. If you click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries in the graphics window, its zone number, name, and type will be printed in the FLUENT console window. This fea ture is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. In some cases, you may want to disable the dis play of the interior grid so as to more accurately select the boundaries for identiﬁcation.
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Step 2: Models
As discussed earlier, in this tutorial you will enable each radiation model in turn, obtain a solution, and postprocess the results. You will start with the Rosseland model, then use the P1 model, the discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM), and the discrete ordinates (DO) model. At the end of the tutorial, you will use the surfacetosurface (S2S) model.
1. Keep the default solver settings.
Deﬁne −→ Models −→ Solver
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2. Turn on the Rosseland radiation model.
Deﬁne −→ Models −→ Radiation
When you click OK in the Radiation Model panel, FLUENT will present an Information dialog box telling you that new material properties have been added for the radiation model. You will be setting properties later, so you can simply click OK in the dialog box to acknowledge this information.
Note: FLUENT will automatically enable the energy calculation when you enable a radiation model, so you need not visit the Energy panel.
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3. Add the eﬀect of gravity on the model.
Deﬁne −→ Operating Conditions
(a) 
Turn on Gravity. 
The panel will expand to show additional inputs. 

(b) 
Set the Gravitational Acceleration in the Y direction to 6.94e5 m/s ^{2} . 
As mentioned earlier, the gravitational acceleration has been adjusted to yield the correct dimensionless quantities (Prandtl, Rayleigh, and Planck numbers). See Figure 5.1 and the asso ciated comments. 

(c) 
Set the Operating Temperature to 1000 K. 
The operating temperature will be used by the Boussinesq model, which you will enable in the next step.
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Step 3: Materials
The default ﬂuid material is air, which is the working ﬂuid in this prob lem. However, since you are working with a ﬁctitious ﬂuid whose prop erties have been adjusted to give the desired values of the dimensionless parameters, you must change the default properties for air. You will use an optical thickness aL of 0.2 for this calculation. (Since L = 1, the ab sorption coeﬃcient a will be set to 0.2.) Later in the tutorial, results for an optically thick medium with aL = 5 and nonparticipating medium with aL = 0 are computed to show how the diﬀerent radiation models behave for diﬀerent optical thicknesses.
Deﬁne −→ Materials
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1. Select boussinesq in the dropdown list next to Density, and then set the Density to 1000 kg/m ^{3} .
For details about the Boussinesq model, see the User’s Guide.
2. Set the speciﬁc heat, Cp, to 1.103e4 J/kgK.
3. Set the Thermal Conductivity to 15.309 W/mK.
4. Set the Viscosity to 0.001 kg/ms.
5. Set the
Absorption Coeﬃcient to 0.2 m ^{−}^{1} .
Hint: Use the scroll bar to access the properties that are not ini tially visible in the panel.
6. Keep the default settings for the Scattering Coeﬃcient and the Scat tering Phase Function, since there is no scattering in this problem.
7. Set the Thermal Expansion Coeﬃcient (used by the Boussinesq model) to 1e5 K ^{−}^{1} .
8. Click on Change/Create and close the Materials panel.
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Step 4: Boundary Conditions
Deﬁne −→ Boundary Conditions
1. Set the boundary conditions for the bottom wall (wall4.006).
Note: The bottom wall should be called wall4.006, but to be sure that you have the correct wall, use your right mouse button to click on the bottom wall in the graphics window. When you do this, the corresponding zone will be selected automatically in the Zone list in the Boundary Conditions panel. You can do this when you set boundary conditions for the other walls as well, to be sure that you are deﬁning the correct conditions.
(a) 
Change the Zone Name to bottom. 
(b) 
Retain the default thermal conditions (heat ﬂux of 0) to spec ify an adiabatic wall. 
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Note: The Rosseland model does not require you to set a wall emissivity. Later in the tutorial, you will need to deﬁne the wall emissivity for the other radiation models.
2. Set the boundary conditions for the left wall, wall4.
(a) 
Change the Zone Name to left. 
(b) 
Select Temperature under Thermal Conditions and set the Tem perature to 1000 K. 
3. Set the boundary conditions for the right wall, wall4:007.
(a) 
Change the Zone Name to right. 
(b) 
Select Temperature under Thermal Conditions and set the Tem perature to 2000 K. 
4. Set the boundary conditions for the top wall, wall4:005.
(a) 
Change the Zone Name to top. 
(b) 
Retain the default thermal conditions (heat ﬂux of 0) to spec ify an adiabatic wall. 
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Step 5: Solution for the Rosseland Model
1. Set the parameters that control the solution.
Solve −→ Controls −→ Solution
(a) 
Retain the default selected Equations (all of them) and Under Relaxation Factors. 
(b) 
Under Discretization, select PRESTO! for Pressure, and Second Order Upwind for Momentum and Energy. 
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2. Initialize the ﬂow ﬁeld. Solve −→ Initialize −→ Initialize
(a) Set the Temperature to 1500 K and click on Init.
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3. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation.
Solve −→ Monitors −→ Residual
(a) 
Under Options, select Plot. 
(b) 
Click OK. 
Note: There is no extra residual for the radiation heat transfer because the Rosseland model does not solve extra transport equations for radiation; instead, it augments the thermal con ductivity in the energy equation. When you use the P1 and DO radiation models, which both solve additional transport equations, you will see additional residuals for radiation.
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4. Save the case ﬁle (rad ross.cas).
File −→ Write −→ Case
5. Start the calculation by requesting 200 iterations. Solve −→ Iterate The solution will converge in about 180 iterations.
6. Save the data ﬁle (rad ross.dat).
File −→ Write −→ Data
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Step 6: Postprocessing for the Rosseland Model
1. Display velocity vectors (Figure 5.3). Display −→ Vectors
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2.11e04
1.90e04
1.68e04
1.47e04
1.26e04
1.05e04
8.42e05
6.32e05
4.21e05
2.11e05
2.61e09
Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s)
Jul 25, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.3: Velocity Vectors for the Rosseland Model
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2. Display contours of stream function (Figure 5.4).
Display −→ Contours
The recirculatory patterns observed are due to the natural convec tion in the box. At a low optical thickness (0.2), radiation should not have a large inﬂuence on the ﬂow. The ﬂow pattern is ex pected to be similar to that obtained with no radiation (Figure 5.5). However, the Rosseland model predicts a ﬂow pattern that is very symmetric (Figure 5.4), and quite diﬀerent from the pure natu ral convection case. This discrepancy occurs because the Rosseland model is not appropriate for small optical thickness.
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6.95e02
6.26e02
5.56e02
4.87e02
4.17e02
3.48e02
2.78e02
2.09e02
1.39e02
6.95e03
0.00e+00
Contours of Stream Function (kg/s)
Jul 25, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.4: Contours of Stream Function for the Rosseland Model
Extra: If you want to compute the results without radiation your self, turn oﬀ all the radiation models in the Radiation Model panel, set the underrelaxation factor for energy to 0.8, and calculate until convergence. (Remember to reset the under relaxation factor to 1 before continuing with the tutorial).
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1.97e02
1.77e02
1.57e02
1.38e02
1.18e02
9.84e03
7.87e03
5.90e03
3.94e03
1.97e03
0.00e+00
Contours of Stream Function (kg/s)
Jul 25, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.5: Contours of Stream Function with No Radiation
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3. Display ﬁlled contours of temperature (Figure 5.6).
Display −→ Contours
The Rosseland model predicts a temperature ﬁeld (Figure 5.6) very diﬀerent from that obtained without radiation (Figure 5.7). For the low optical thickness in this problem, the temperature ﬁeld predicted by the Rosseland model is not physical.
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Figure 5.7: Contours of Temperature with No Radiation
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4. Plot the y velocity along the horizontal centerline of the box.
(a) Create an isosurface at y = 0.5, the horizontal line through the center of the box.
Surface −→IsoSurface
i. Select Grid
in the Surface of Constant dropdown list
and select YCoordinate from the list below.
ii. Click on Compute to see the extents of the domain.
iii. Set a value of 0.5 in the IsoValues ﬁeld, and change the New Surface Name to y=0.5.
iv. Click on Create to create a surface at y = 0.5.
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(b) Create an XY plot of y velocity on the isosurface.
Plot −→ XY Plot
i. Check that the Plot Direction for X is 1, and the Plot Direction for Y is 0.
With a Plot Direction vector of (1,0), FLUENT will plot the selected variable as a function of x. Since you are plotting the velocity proﬁle on a crosssection of constant y, the x direction is the one in which the velocity varies.
ii. Select Velocity
and Y Velocity under Y Axis Function.
iii. Select y=0.5 in the Surfaces list.
iv. Click on Plot.
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Figure 5.8: XY Plot of Centerline y Velocity for the Rosseland Model
The velocity proﬁle reﬂects the rising plume at the hot right wall, and the falling plume at the cold left wall. Compared to the case with no radiation, the proﬁle pre dicted by the Rosseland model exhibits thicker wall layers. As discussed before, the expected proﬁle for aL = 0.2 is similar to the case with no radiation.
(c) Save the plot data to a ﬁle.
i. Select the Write to File option, and click the Write button.
push
ii. In the resulting Select File dialog box, specify rad ross.xy in the XY File text entry box and click OK.
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5. Compute the total wall heat ﬂux on each lateral wall.
Report −→Fluxes
(a) 
Select Total Heat Transfer Rate under Options. 
(b) 
Select right and left under Boundaries. 
(c) 
Click the Compute button. 
The total wall heat transfer rate is reported for the hot and cold walls as approximately 7.43 × 10 ^{5} W. The sum of the heat ﬂuxes on the lateral walls is a negligible imbalance.
6. Save the case and data ﬁles (rad ross.cas and rad ross.dat).
File −→ Write −→ Case & Data
Thus far in this tutorial, you have learned how to set up a natural con vection problem using the Rosseland model to compute radiation. You have also learned to postprocess the results. You will now turn on the P1 model and compare the results so computed with those of the Rosse land model.
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Step 7: P1 Model Deﬁnition, Solution, and Post processing
You will now repeat the above calculation using the P1 radiation model. The main steps are identical to the procedure described above for the Rosseland model.
1. Enable the P1 model.
Deﬁne −→ Models −→ Radiation
2. Conﬁrm that the wall emissivity is 1 for all walls.
Deﬁne −→ Boundary Conditions
For each wall boundary, there will be a new entry, Internal Emis sivity, in the Thermal section of the Wall panel. Retain the default value of 1.
3. Modify the underrelaxation parameters.
Solve −→ Controls −→ Solution
(a) Under UnderRelaxation Factors, set the factor for P1 to 1.0, and retain the default factors for Pressure, Momentum, and Energy (0.3, 0.7, and 1.0).
Note that an additional equation, P1, appears because the P1 model solves an additional radiation transport equation. This problem is relatively easy to converge for the P1 model since there is not much coupling between the radiation and tempera ture equations at low optical thicknesses. Consequently a high underrelaxation factor can be used for P1.
4. Save the case ﬁle (rad p1.cas).
File −→ Write −→ Case
5. Continue the calculation by requesting another 200 iterations.
Solve −→ Iterate
The P1 model reaches convergence after about 115 additional it erations.
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6. Save the data ﬁle (rad p1.dat).
File −→ Write −→ Data
7. Examine the results of the P1 model calculation.
Note: The steps below do not include detailed instructions because the procedure is the same one that you followed for the Rosse land model postprocessing. See Step 6: Postprocessing for the Rosseland Model if you need more detailed instruc tions.
(a) Display velocity vectors (Figure 5.9).
Display −→ Vectors
2.87e04
2.58e04
2.29e04
2.01e04
1.72e04
1.43e04
1.15e04
8.61e05
5.75e05
2.89e05
2.27e07
Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s)
Jul 26, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.9: Velocity Vectors for the P1 Model
(b)
Plot the y velocity along the horizontal centerline (Figure 5.10), and save the plot data to a ﬁle called rad p1.xy.
Plot −→ XY Plot
! You will need to reselect Y Velocity under Y Axis Function. Also, remember to turn oﬀ the Write to File option so that you can access the Plot button to generate the plot.
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Figure 5.10: XY Plot of Centerline y Velocity for the P1 Model
(c) Compute the total wall heat transfer rate.
Report −→Fluxes
The total heat transfer rate reported on the right wall is 8.47× 10 ^{5} W. The heat imbalance at the lateral walls is negligibly small. You will see later that the Rosseland and P1 wall heat transfer rates are substantially diﬀerent from those obtained by the DTRM and the DO model.
Notice how diﬀerent the velocity vectors and yvelocity proﬁle are from those obtained using the Rosseland model. The P1 velocity proﬁles show a clear momentum boundary layer along the hot and cold walls. These proﬁles are much closer to those obtained from the nonradiating case (Figures 5.11 and 5.12). Though the P1 model is not appropriate for this optically thin limit, it yields the correct velocity proﬁles since the radiation source in the energy equation, which is proportional to the ab sorption coeﬃcient, is small. The Rosseland model uses an eﬀective conductivity to account for radiation, and yields the wrong temperature ﬁeld, which in turn results in an erroneous velocity ﬁeld.
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2.16e04
1.94e04
1.73e04
1.51e04
1.29e04
1.08e04
8.63e05
6.47e05
4.31e05
2.16e05
8.78e09
Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s)
Jul 26, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.11: Velocity Vectors with No Radiation
Figure 5.12: XY Plot of Centerline y Velocity with No Radiation
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Step 8: DTRM Deﬁnition, Solution, and Post processing
1. Turn on the discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM) and deﬁne the ray tracing.
Deﬁne −→ Models −→ Radiation
(a) Select Discrete Transfer under Model.
The panel will expand to show additional inputs.
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(b) Accept the defaults by clicking OK.
The Ray Tracing panel will open automatically.
(c) 
Accept the default settings for Clustering and Angular Dis cretization by clicking OK. 
When you click OK, FLUENT will open a Select File dialog box so you can specify a name for the ray ﬁle used by the DTRM. A detailed description of the ray tracing procedure can be found in the User’s Guide. In brief, the number of Cells Per Volume Cluster and Faces Per Surface Cluster control the total number of radiating surfaces and absorbing cells. For a small 2D problem, the default number of 1 is acceptable. For a large problem, however, you will want to increase these numbers to reduce the ray tracing expense. The Theta Divisions and Phi Divisions control the number of rays being created from each surface cluster. For most practical problems, the default settings will suﬃce. 

(d) 
In the Ray File text entry box in the Select File dialog box, enter rad dtrm.ray for the name of the ray ﬁle. Then click OK. 
FLUENT will print an informational message describing the progress of the ray tracing procedure.
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2. Retain the current underrelaxation factors for pressure, momen tum, and energy (0.3, 0.7, and 1.0).
Solve −→ Controls −→ Solution
3. Save the case ﬁle (rad dtrm.cas).
File −→ Write −→ Case
4. Continue the calculation by requesting another 100 iterations.
Solve −→ Iterate
The solution will converge after about 80 additional iterations.
5. Save the data ﬁle (rad dtrm.dat).
File −→ Write −→ Data
6. Examine the results of the DTRM calculation.
Note: The steps below do not include detailed instructions because the procedure is the same one that you followed for the Rosse land model postprocessing. See Step 6: Postprocessing for the Rosseland Model if you need more detailed instruc tions.
(a) Display velocity vectors (Figure 5.13).
Display −→ Vectors
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2.88e04
2.59e04
2.30e04
2.02e04
1.73e04
1.44e04
1.15e04
8.65e05
5.77e05
2.90e05
2.08e07
Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s)
Jul 26, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.13: Velocity Vectors for the DTRM
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(b) Plot the y velocity along the horizontal centerline (Figure 5.14), and save the plot data to a ﬁle called rad dtrm.xy.
Plot −→ XY Plot
! You will need to reselect Y Velocity under Y Axis Function. Also, remember to turn oﬀ the Write to File option so that you can access the Plot button to generate the plot.
Figure 5.14: XY Plot of Centerline y Velocity for the DTRM
(c) Compute the total wall heat transfer rate.
Report −→Fluxes
The total heat transfer rate reported on the right wall is 6.06× 10 ^{5} W. Note that this is substantially lower than the values predicted by the Rosseland and P1 models.
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Step 9: DO Model Deﬁnition, Solution, and Post processing
1. Turn on the discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model and deﬁne the angular discretization.
Deﬁne −→ Models −→ Radiation
(a) 
Select Discrete Ordinates under Model. 
The panel will expand to show additional inputs for the DO model. 

(b) 
Set the number of Flow Iterations Per Radiation Iteration to 1. 
This is a relatively simple ﬂow problem, and will converge easily. Consequently it is useful to do the DO calculation every iteration of the ﬂow solution. For problems that are diﬃcult to
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converge, it is sometimes useful to allow the ﬂow solution to establish itself between radiation calculations. In such cases, it may be useful to set Flow Iterations Per Radiation Iteration to a higher value, such as 10.
(c) Retain the default settings for Angular Discretization and Non Gray Model.
For details about the angular discretization used by the DO model, see the User’s Guide. The Number of Bands for the NonGray Model is zero because only gray radiation is being modeled in this tutorial.
Note: When you click OK in the Radiation Model panel, FLU ENT will present an Information dialog box telling you that new material properties have been added for the radiation model. The property that is new for the DO model is the refractive index, which is relevant only when you are mod eling semitransparent media. Since you are not modeling semitransparent media here, you can simply click OK in the dialog box to acknowledge this information.
2. Retain the current underrelaxation factors for pressure, momen tum, and energy (0.3, 0.7, and 1.0), as well as the default under relaxation of 1 for the discrete ordinates transport equation.
Solve −→ Controls −→ Solution
3. Save the case ﬁle (rad do.cas).
File −→ Write −→ Case
4. Continue the calculation by requesting another 100 iterations.
Solve −→ Iterate
The solution will converge after about 25 additional iterations.
5. Save the data ﬁle (rad do.dat).
File −→ Write −→ Data
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6. Examine the results of the DO calculation.
Note: The steps below do not include detailed instructions because the procedure is the same one that you followed for the Rosse land model postprocessing. See Step 6: Postprocessing for the Rosseland Model if you need more detailed instruc tions.
(a) Display velocity vectors (Figure 5.15).
Display −→ Vectors
2.89e04
2.61e04
2.32e04
2.03e04
1.74e04
1.45e04
1.16e04
8.70e05
5.80e05
2.91e05
1.91e07
Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s)
Jul 26, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.15: Velocity Vectors for the DO Model
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(b)
Plot the y velocity along the horizontal centerline (Figure 5.16), and save the plot data to a ﬁle called rad do.xy.
Plot −→ XY Plot
! You will need to reselect Y Velocity under Y Axis Function. Also, remember to turn oﬀ the Write to File option so that you can access the Plot button to generate the plot.
Figure 5.16: XY Plot of Centerline y Velocity for the DO Model
(c) Compute the total wall heat transfer rate.
Report −→Fluxes
The total heat transfer rate reported on the right wall is 6.12× 10 ^{5} W. Note that this is about 1.5% higher than that predicted by the DTRM. The DO and DTRM values are comparable to each other, while the Rosseland and P1 values are both substantially diﬀerent. The DTRM and DO models are valid across the range of optical thickness, and the heat transfer rates computed using them are expected to be closer to the correct heat transfer rate.
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Step 10: Comparison of yVelocity Plots
In this step, you will read the plot ﬁles you saved for all the solutions and compare them in a single plot.
Plot −→File
1. Read in all the XY plot ﬁles.
(a) 
Click on the Add 
button. 
(b) 
In the resulting Select File dialog box, select rad do.xy, rad dtrm.xy, rad p1.xy, and rad ross.xy in the Files list. 

They will be added to the XY File(s) list. If you accidentally add an incorrect ﬁle, you can select it in this list and click Remove. 

(c) 
Click OK to load the 4 ﬁles. 
2. Click on Plot.
Extra: You can click Curves
in the File XY Plot panel to open
the Curves panel, where you can deﬁne diﬀerent styles for dif ferent plot curves. In Figure 5.17, diﬀerent symbols have been selected for each curve.
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3. Resize and move the legend box so that you can read the informa tion inside it.
Figure 5.17: Comparison of Computed y Velocities for aL = 0.2
Notice in Figure 5.17 that the velocity proﬁles for the P1 model, DTRM, and DO model are nearly identical even though the reported wall heat transfer rates are diﬀerent. This is because in an optically thin problem, the velocity ﬁeld is essentially independent of the radiation ﬁeld, and all three models give a ﬂow solution very close to the nonradiating case. The Rosseland model gives substantially erroneous solutions for an optically thin case.
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Step 11: Comparison of Radiation Models for an Optically Thick Medium
In the previous steps, you compared the results of four radiation models for an optically thin (aL = 0.2) medium. It was found that, as a result of the low optical thickness, the velocity ﬁelds predicted by the P1, DTRM, and DO models were very similar and close to that obtained in the non radiating case. The wall heat transfer rates for DO and DTRM were very close to each other, and substantially diﬀerent from those obtained with the Rosseland and P1 models. In this step, you will recalculate a solution (using each radiation model) for an optically thick (aL = 5) medium. This is accomplished by increasing the value of the absorption coeﬃcient from 0.2 to 5. You will repeat the process outlined below for each set of case and data ﬁles that you saved earlier in the tutorial.
1. For each radiation model, calculate a new solution for aL = 5.
(a) 
Read in the case and data ﬁle saved earlier (e.g., rad ross.cas and rad ross.dat). 
File −→ Read −→ Case & Data 

(b) 
Set the absorption coeﬃcient to 5. 
This will result in an optical thickness aL of 5, since L = 1. 

Deﬁne −→ Materials 

(c) 
Calculate until the new solution converges. 
Solve −→ Iterate 
! For the DTRM calculation, you may need to click the It erate button repeatedly until the radiation ﬁeld is updated. Since the number of Flow Iterations Per Radiation Iteration in the Radiation Model panel is 10, it is possible that the radiation ﬁeld will not be updated for as many as 9 iter ations, although FLUENT will report that the solution is converged. If this happens, keep clicking the Iterate but ton until the radiation ﬁeld is updated and the solution proceeds for multiple iterations.
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(d) 
Save the new case and data ﬁles using a diﬀerent ﬁle name (e.g., rad ros5.cas and rad ros5.dat). 
File −→ Write −→ Case & Data 

(e) 
Compute the total wall heat transfer rate. 
Report −→Fluxes 

(f) 
Plot the y velocity along the horizontal centerline, and save the plot data to a ﬁle (e.g., rad ros5.xy). 
Plot −→ XY Plot 
2. Compare the computed heat transfer rates for the four models.
The wall heat transfer rates predicted by the four radiation models range from 3.50 × 10 ^{5} to 3.97 × 10 ^{5} W.
3. Compare the yvelocity proﬁles in a single plot (Figure 5.18).
Plot −→ File
Note: Use the Delete button in the File XY Plot panel to remove the old XY plot data ﬁles.
The XY plots of y velocity are nearly identical for the P1 model, DO model, and DTRM. The Rosseland model gives somewhat dif ferent velocities, but is still within 10% of the other results. The Rosseland and P1 models are suitable for the optically thick limit; the DTRM and DO models are valid across the range of optical thicknesses. Consequently, they yield similar answers at aL = 5. For many applications with large optical thicknesses, the Rosseland and P1 models provide a simple lowcost alternative.
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Figure 5.18: Comparison of Computed y Velocities for aL = 5
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Step 12: S2S Model Deﬁnition, Solution and Post processing for a NonParticipating Medium
In the previous steps, you compared the results of four radiation models for optically thin (aL = 0.2) and optically thick (aL = 5) media. The surfacetosurface (S2S) radiation model cannot be used to model partic ipating radiation problems, but it is suitable for modeling the enclosure radiative transfer without participating media. The S2S model assumes that all surfaces are gray and diﬀuse. Thus, according to the graybody model, if a certain amount of radiation is incident on a surface, a frac tion is reﬂected, a fraction is absorbed, and a fraction is transmitted.
For most applications the surfaces in question are opaque to thermal radiation (in the infrared spectrum), so the surfaces can be considered opaque. The transmissivity, therefore, can be neglected. Eﬀectively, for the S2S model the absorption coeﬃcient can be considered to be zero.
In this step, you will calculate a solution for aL = 0 using the S2S radiation model. In the next step, you will use the DTRM and DO models for aL = 0, and compare the results of the three models. The Rosseland and P1 models are not considered here as they have been shown (earlier in the tutorial) to be inappropriate for optically thin media.
1. Turn on the surfacetosurface (S2S) radiation model and deﬁne the view factor and cluster parameters.
Deﬁne −→ Models −→ Radiation
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(a) Select Surface to Surface under Model.
The panel will expand to show additional inputs for the S2S model.
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(b) Set the view factor and cluster parameters.
i. Click Set
under Parameters.
The View Factor and Cluster Parameters panel will open automatically.
ii. Click OK to accept the default settings.
The S2S radiation model is computationally very expen sive when there are a large number of radiating surfaces. The number of radiating surfaces is reduced by cluster ing surfaces into surface “clusters”. The surface clusters are made by starting from a face and adding its neighbors and their neighbors until a speciﬁed number of faces per surface cluster is collected. For a small 2D problem, the default value of 1 for Faces Per Surface Cluster is accept able. For a large problem, you can increase this number
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to reduce the memory requirement for the view factor ﬁle that is saved in a later step. This may also lead to some reduction in the computational expense. However, this is at the cost of some accuracy.
Using the Blocking option ensures that any additional sur face that is blocking the view between two opposite surfaces is considered in the view factor calculation. In this case, there is no obstructing surface between the opposite walls, so selecting either the Blocking or the Nonblocking op tion will produce the same result. The default setting for Smoothing is None, which is appropriate for small prob lems. The Least Square option is more accurate, but also more computationally expensive. See the User’s Guide for details about view factors and clusters for the S2S model.
(c) Compute the view factors for the S2S model.
This step is required only if the problem is being solved for the ﬁrst time. For subsequent calculations, you can read the view factor and cluster information from an existing ﬁle (by
clicking Read
instead of Compute/Write
).
i. Click Compute/Write Model panel.
under Methods in the Radiation
FLUENT will open a Select File dialog box so you can spec ify a name for the ﬁle where the cluster and view factor parameters are stored.
ii. In the S2S File text entry box in the Select File dialog box, enter rad s2s.s2s for the name of the S2S ﬁle. Then click OK.
FLUENT will print an informational message describing the progress of the view factor calculation.
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2. Retain the current underrelaxation factors for pressure, momen tum, and energy (0.3, 0.7, and 1.0).
Solve −→ Controls −→ Solution
3. Save the case ﬁle (rad s2s.cas).
File −→ Write −→ Case
4. Continue the calculation by requesting another 100 iterations.
Solve −→ Iterate
The solution will converge after about 80 additional iterations.
5. Save the data ﬁle (rad s2s.dat).
File −→ Write −→ Data
6. Examine the results of the S2S calculation.
Note: The steps below do not include detailed instructions because the procedure is the same one that you followed for the Rosse land model postprocessing. See Step 6: Postprocessing for the Rosseland Model if you need more detailed instruc tions.
(a) Display velocity vectors (Figure 5.19).
Display −→ Vectors
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2.47e04
2.22e04
1.98e04
1.73e04
1.48e04
1.24e04
9.89e05
7.43e05
4.96e05
2.49e05
1.92e07
Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s)
Jul 26, 2001 FLUENT 6.0 (2d, segregated, lam)
Figure 5.19: Velocity Vectors for the S2S Model
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(b)
Plot the y velocity along the horizontal centerline (Figure 5.20), and save the plot data to a ﬁle called rad s2s.xy.
Plot −→ XY Plot
! You will have to reselect Y Velocity under Y Axis Function. Also, remember to turn oﬀ the Write to File option to access the Plot button to generate the plot.
Figure 5.20: XY Plot of Centerline y Velocity for the S2S Model
(c) Compute the total wall heat transfer rate.
Report −→Fluxes
The total heat transfer rate on the right wall is 6.77 × 10 ^{5} W.
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Step 13: Comparison of Radiation Models for a NonParticipating Medium
In this step, you will calculate a solution for the aL = 0 case, using the DTRM and DO models, and then compare the results with the S2S results.
1. For the DTRM and DO models, calculate a new solution for aL =
0.
(a)
(b)
Read in the case and data ﬁles saved earlier (e.g., rad dtrm.cas and rad dtrm.dat).
File −→ Read −→ Case & Data
Set the absorption coeﬃcient to 0.
This will result in an optical thickness aL of 0.
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Deﬁne −→ Materials
Calculate until the new solution converges.
Solve −→ Iterate
Save the new case and data ﬁles using a diﬀerent ﬁle name (e.g., rad dtr0.cas and rad dtr0.dat).
File −→ Write −→ Case & Data
Compute the total wall heat transfer rate.
Report −→Fluxes
Plot the y velocity along the horizontal centerline, and save the plot data to a ﬁle (e.g., rad dtr0.xy)
Plot −→ XY Plot
2. Compare the computed heat transfer rates for the three models.
For the S2S model, the total heat transfer rate on the right wall was 6.77 × 10 ^{5} W. This is about 5% higher than that predicted by the DTRM and 1.5% higher than DO. Although the S2S, DO, and DTRM values are comparable to each other, this problem involves enclosure radiative transfer without participating media. Therefore, the S2S model provides the most accurate solution.
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3. Compare the yvelocity proﬁles in a single plot (Figure 5.21)
Plot −→ File
(a) 
Use the Delete button in the File XY Plot panel to remove the old XY plot data ﬁles. 
(b) 
Read in all the XY plot ﬁles you saved for the S2S, DTRM, and DO models. 
(c) 
Click on Plot. 
Figure 5.21: Comparison of Computed y Velocities for aL = 0
In Figure 5.21, the velocity proﬁles for the DTRM, DO, and S2S models are almost identical even though the wall heat transfer rates are diﬀerent.
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Summary: In this tutorial, you studied combined natural convection and radiation in a square box and compared the performance of four radiation models in FLUENT for optically thin and optically thick cases, and the performance of three radiation models for a nonparticipating medium.
• For the optically thin case, the Rosseland and P1 models are not appropriate; the DTRM and the DO model are applicable, and yield similar results.
• In the optically thick limit, all four models are appropriate and yield similar results. In this limit, the less computationally expensive Rosseland and P1 models may be adequate for many engineering applications.
• The S2S radiation model is appropriate for modeling the en closure radiative transfer without participating media, where the methods for participating radiation may not always be eﬃcient.
For more information about the applicability of the diﬀerent radi ation models, see the User’s Guide.
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