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PAPER II GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA 1. Physical Setting: a. Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; b. Structure and relief; c.

. Drainage system and watersheds; d. Physiographic regions; e. Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, f. Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; g. Floods and droughts; h. Climatic regions; i. Natural vegetation; j. Soil types and their distributions. 2. Resources: a. Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; b. Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; c. Energy crisis. 3. Agriculture: a. Infrastructure: b. irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; c. Institutional factors: d. land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; e. Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; f. Agro and social-forestry; g. Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; h. Significance of dry farming; i. Livestock resources and white revolution; j. aqua - culture; k. sericulture, apiculture and poultry; l. agricultural regionalisation; m. agro-climatic zones; n. agro- ecological regions. 4. Industry: a. Evolution of industries; b. Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; c. Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; d. Industrial regionalisation; e. New industrial policies; f. Multinationals and liberalization; g. Special Economic Zones; h. Tourism including eco-tourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade: a. Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; b. Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; c. Trade balance; d. Trade Policy; e. Export processing zones; f. Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; g. Indian space programme. 6. Cultural Setting: a. Historical Perspective of Indian Society; b. Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; c. religious minorities; d. major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; e. cultural regions; f. Growth, distribution and density of population; g. Demographic attributes: h. sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; i. migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; j. Population problems and policies; k. Health indicators. 7. Settlements: a. Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; b. Urban developments; c. Morphology of Indian cities; d. Functional classification of Indian cities; e. Conurbations and metropolitan regions; f. urban sprawl; g. Slums and associated problems; h. town planning; i. Problems of urbanization and remedies. 8. Regional Development and Planning: a. Experience of regional planning in India; b. Five Year Plans; c. Integrated rural development programmes; d. Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; e. Command area development; f. Watershed management; g. Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; h. multi-level planning; i. Regional planning and development of island territories. 9. Political Aspects: a. Geographical basis of Indian federalism; b. State reorganisation;

c. Emergence of new states; d. Regional consciousness and inter state issues; e. international boundary of India and related issues; f. Cross border terrorism; g. Indias role in world affairs; h. Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm. 10. Contemporary Issues: a. Ecological issues: b. Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; c. Issues relating to environmental pollution; d. Changes in patterns of land use; e. Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; f. Population explosion and food security; g. Environmental degradation; h. Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; i. Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; j. Regional disparities in economic development; k. Concept of sustainable growth and development; l. Environmental awareness; m. Linkage of rivers; n. Globalisation and Indian economy 11. NOTE:Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.