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Journal for the Study of the New Testament

http://jnt.sagepub.com 2. New Testament Topics


Journal for the Study of the New Testament 2006; 28; 8 DOI: 10.1177/0142064X06066451 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jnt.sagepub.com

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JSNT 28.5 (2006) 8-24 Copyright 2006 SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi) http://JSNT.sagepub.com DOI: 10.1177/0142064X06066451

2. New Testament Topics

Discovering the Holy Spirit in the New Testament Keith Warrington


Peabody: Hendrickson, 2005, 1-56563-871-9, 9.99, x + 230 pb

In this slender volume, Warrington surveys each NT document for references to the Spirit. Five do not have references, but most are given individual chapters, all considered in canonical order. Warrington looks rst at the setting of the book, then gives summary points for each chapter before turning to the texts supporting each point. Each group of texts receives a brief exposition followed by an assessment of their signicance for the original readers. Chapters end with an indicative bibliography, followed by questions under the heading Signicance for Readers Today. Warrington addresses several controversial points with judicious care. The Spirit is crucial in the church, both corporately and personally. The Spirit exalts Jesus, inspires worship, transforms people, conrms believers as children of God, gives gifts, expects and enables unity, and guides believers who listen. Warringtons treatment of Acts and 1 Corinthians, texts that have been particularly inuential in the modern Pentecostal and charismatic circles, draws helpful attention to the signicance of these texts for the original readers. On that basis, the questions asked by modern believers are understood in a different light. This book does not break new ground, but offers a sure guide through many difcult passages. Although scholars may wish to press Warrington at several points and others may nd their favourite interpretation absent, Warringtons irenic approach to these controversial issues should be widely welcomed.
Kent Brower

Does the Bible Justify Violence? John J. Collins


Minneapolis: Fortress, 2004, 0-8006-3689-9, 3.99, 56 pb

This short pamphlet represents an edited version of Collinss Presidential address to the Society of Biblical Literature previously published as The Zeal of Phineas: The Bible and the Legitimation of Violence, JBL 122 (2003), pp. 3-21. In the introductory chapter Collins suggests that it may be opportune to reect on the ways in which the Bible appears to condone violence in the contemporary context of the Western worlds war on terrorism. Five chapters follow in which Collins discusses the Ban; the question

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BOOKLIST 2. New Testament Topics

of the historicity of the conquest narratives; two examples of how biblical texts subsequently served to legitimate violent action: the Maccabean revolt and the English Puritan revolution; violence as an eschatological concept; and nally implications for the task of biblical interpretation. In such a pamphlet it is impossible for Collins to engage in detailed exegesis of the relevant texts, but the appropriate discussions in the literature are adequately referred to in the endnotes. Collins is clear that recent scholarly discussion, which recognizes the ideological dimension of the texts advocating violence, does not really relieve the moral problem these texts raise: the texts end up having a life of their own. The nal chapter on violence and hermeneutics is most illuminating. Here Collins argues persuasively that it is not the explicit language of violence contained in the biblical texts that is the main problem. Rather, it is the appeal to divine authority which gives an aura of certitude (p. 32) and, citing Oliver Wendell Holmes, he suggests that certitude leads to violence. The primary task of biblical scholars, as far as the Bible and violence is concerned, is therefore to show that such certitude is an illusion (p. 33). This is a highly accessible introduction to a complex subject and, as such, is to be commended.
Lloyd K. Pietersen

Early Christian Mission. I. Jesus and the Twelve Eckhard J. Schnabel


Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press & Leicester, UK: Apollos, 2004 [German 2002], 0-8308-2791-9, $45.00, xxi + 913 hb

This is the rst volume of Schnabels own translation of his Urchristliche Mission (Wuppertal: R. Brockhaus Verlag, 2002). After a methodological and chronological introduction there are four parts. Part 1, Promise, looks at missionary expectation and practice, from the Hebrew Bible to the Mishnah. Part 2, Fullment, considers the mission of Jesus, and of his followers during his lifetime. Part 3, Beginnings, discusses the early Jerusalem mission. Part 4, Exodus, charts Jewish Christian mission, from Jerusalem to Rome. The book gives short extracts from non-biblical texts. Maps and diagrams are found at the end of vol. 2, as are the biliography and the indexes. These volumes need to be bought together. Adolf von Harnack clearly stands looking over Schnabels shoulder. However, Schnabel has worked extensively from primary sources. He acknowledges diversity and disagreements within early Christianity and his overall theme of early Christianity as a story of missions is deliberate in its use of the plural. However, the early Christian church is a movement so the plurality is tempered. Schnabel sees most NT texts as dating from prior to 70 CE (p. 21). He also has a high view of the historical value of Acts. Having said this, those studying early Christian mission from any perspective will nd much of interest in Schnabels book, from points of detail such as his twopage list that attempts to map the semantic eld of mission, to major contributions such as his 114-page chapter discussing geographical and other aspects of early Christian vision, strategy and methods, drawing on Strabo and many other sources. This is monumental work and a valuable contribution to scholarship.
Peter Oakes

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Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28.5 (2006)

Early Christian Mission. II. Paul and the Early Church Eckhard J. Schnabel
Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press & Leicester, UK: Apollos, 2004 [German 2002], 0-8308-2792-7, $45.00, 1008 hb

Volume 2 of Schnabels opus magnum is in three sections. Part 5, Pioneer missionary work, spends 550 pages looking at Paul and his missiona vast monograph in its own right! Part 6, Growth, looks especially at the Gospels, non-Pauline epistles and Revelation, in terms of consolidation and issues such as persecution. Schnabel helpfully suggests a detailed list of churches in each province by 200 CE. Part 7, Results, is a brief summary of overall conclusions. There then follow 40 pages of maps and gures, 170 pages (sic) of bibliography and 60 pages of indexes. The bibliography is indicative of the breadth and depth of Schnabels work. No-one can really afford to ignore it, even though many will nd his way of using Acts a deep problem. Opening at random, one nds a chart of the distances between possible stopping places on Pauls missionary tour of 5255 CE, reconstructed in 76 possible stages (pp. 1197-99). The detail and care of Schnabels work, sustained over so many pages, puts us in his debt.
Peter Oakes

Entertaining Angels: Early Christian Hospitality in its Mediterranean Setting Andrew Arterbury
NTM 8; Shefeld: Shefeld Phoenix, 2005, 1-905048-21-1, 55.00, $90.00, 80.00, viii + 227 hb

Hospitality in the ancient Mediterranean is more than inviting friends for a meal; rather, it refers to helping travelling strangers, according to Arterbury. Part 1 examines Greco-Roman, Jewish and early Christian texts that depict hospitality. They show general conventions governing the relationship between guest and host that variously include extensive welcome, honoric treatment, entertainment, protection, overnight lodging, even provisions for the onward journey. Some guests are thought to be divine gures; some reciprocate with gifts. Gift-giving often leads to permanent relationship. Early Christian practice is similar. But there are differences as well. Jewish travellers, for example, avoid seeking hospitality from Gentiles; Christians normally offer hospitality to other Christians. Hospitality is not expected to be reciprocated in Christian circles. Arterbury then compiles a list of conventional terms generally used by ancient writers to refer to hospitality. From this background, he looks at Acts 1011 in Part 2. Arterburys collection of texts together with comments is valuable. Because he compiles the semantic eld of hospitality after he deals with the narratives, he avoids the pitfalls of word study. When his results are applied to Acts, Arterbury shows how Luke follows and subverts Mediterranean hospitality tradition. Christian hospitality is a way of spreading the gospel to the Gentiles, forging unity across cultural lines and leading to transformation of lives. A useful and accessible reference book.
Kent Brower

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BOOKLIST 2. New Testament Topics

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Epochs and Styles: Selected Writings on the New Testament, Greek Language and Greek Culture in the Post-Classical Era Albert Wifstrand, trans. Denis Searby, ed. Lars Rydbeck & Stanley E. Porter
WUNT 179; Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005, 3-16-148627-7, 74.00, viii + 241 hb

This book is a collection of essays by Albert Wifstrand, one-time Professor of Greek language and literature in Lund. Most were originally in Swedish and published between 1940 and 1968. The essays are set out in three sections: New Testament, Greek language, and Greek culture in the post-classical era. In the rst section the essays include: Luke and Greek Classicism, Luke and the Septuagint, Stylistic Problems in the Epistles of James and Peter, A Problem Concerning Word Order in the New Testament and Language and Style of the New Testament. In the second section the essays are: Greek Prose Style: A Historical Survey, Greek and Modern Prose Style and The Homily of Melito on the Passion. The third section includes six essays: Classical and Post-classical Greeks, The Roman Empire from the Greek Perspective, Focus on the Child, Son of Fortune: Son of Afiction, The Centre and Sidelights on Greek Culture from a Greek Medical Writer. There are three comprehensive indexes to serve the reader. These are all fascinating essays for the specialist conversant in Greek and having a background in Hellenistic culture. The essays in the section on the NT provide some fresh perspectives on continuing areas of contemporary debate, especially the two essays on Lukes Greek style. The second section on Greek language is more technical and suited to those interested in a deeper understanding of Greek writings in the Hellenistic period. In the third section on Greek culture, the essay on childhood is very interesting, covering a wide historical span and many literary sources. Many of these essays, especially in sections two and three, are too specialist and esoteric for most readers. The essays are timeless in one sense, dated in another, but they are interesting contributions to the effort to grasp the importance of the classical world for the world of the NT.
Dennis L. Stamps

Eschatologische Mitherrschaft: Entwicklungslinien einer urchristlichen Erwartung Hanna Roose


NTOA 54; Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht & Fribourg: Academic Press, 2004, 3-525-53955-X, 54.00, 376 hb

This is a fascinating study of a minor theme that opens up issues about major developments in Christianity in the rst and second centuries. Rooses starting-point is Mt. 19.28, the promise to the twelve that they will judge the tribes of Israel. She sees this as a saying of the historical Jesus: a messianic saying about the restoration of Israel but with a twist. Jesus defers the hope of the twelves rule over Israel to the eschaton. The present is to be taken up by proclaiming the kingdom. After Jesus, the twelve fade in signicance. The debate in early Christianity is over whether sharing Jesus reign is a reward for any special group. Biblical voices speak for and against, but a particularly favoured group are the martyrs. Alongside the development of discourse about authority as reward, another tradition is built up. Pauline, and then Deuteropauline, theology sees authority as a gift to all Christians.

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Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28.5 (2006)

Roose makes her case with care and by appeal to a broad range of specic texts (including Polycarps Philippians), most of which are analysed in some detail. It is inevitable that any thesis of as much complexity as this one will be open to considerable debate, especially where it involves study of a saying, such as Mt. 19.28, and of its reuse by Matthew. However, some of the outlines of the patterns that Roose has uncovered are undoubtedly a feature of NT and later texts, and her study is a valuable contribution to the understanding of early Christianity.
Peter Oakes

Ein Gott und ein Herr: Zum Kontext des Monotheismus im Neuen Testament Wiard Popkes & Ralph Brucker, eds.
BThSt 68; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 2004, 3-7887-2070-0, 19.90, 168 pb

In the introduction to this contribution to a wider project on religion in contemporary culture, Popkes discusses critiques of monotheisms totalitarian potential. Oda Wischmeyer surveys the general religious context presupposed in Acts, nding Luke accepting much of the contemporary religious imagery, himself concerned rather to sustain an exclusive belonging than to confront polytheism. Gerhard Stellin argues that insistence on Gods love and Christs self-giving counter any reading of a domineering theocracy or ecclesiocracy in Ephesians; yet might not a)ga&ph in Eph. 5.22-25 and in Dio of Prusa, Discourses 1 and 12 suggest otherwise? Eve-Marie Becker analyses 1 Cor. 8.1-6 in the light of communication theory. The authoritative Paul of ch. 7, she argues, now attempting to deal, not with polytheism as such, but with the practical issue of meat offered to idols, does so by engaging with convictions his hearers share and those they do not, but assessed in terms of a)ga&ph. (That one Lord makes a concession to henotheismp. 93may seem less persuasive.) Ralph Brucker summarizes a 1965 discussion by Raymond Brown of passages in the NT canon that appear to accord divine status to Jesus, claiming support for its quite positive conclusions from a not entirely congruent 1992 piece by Murray Harris. Dierk Starnitske considers the problems of positing an undifferentiated divine unity in the light of our claimed social and communicative reliance on binary oppositions, while faith in Christ allows the desired differentiation. Recent explorations of Trinitarian themes seem ignored. This book is commended to any pursuing these specic issues.
F. Gerald Downing

Healing and Suffering: Biblical and Pastoral Reections Keith Warrington


Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2005, 1-84227-341-8, 7.99, xi + 219 pb

This book provides a sympathetic examination of the Christian doctrine of healing. It comprises eight chapters, the principal ve of which are headed: Healing in the Gospels, Healing in Acts, Healings and Suffering in Pauls Letters, Healing in James and The Role of the Spirit in Suffering. It is a pity that there are no footnotes or endnotes to any of the chapters. However, there is a small bibliography of literature on healing and suffering at the end, which will help anyone who wishes to examine this important subject further. This highly readable book is not primarily a biblical study. Indeed, no sympathetic

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BOOKLIST 2. New Testament Topics

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examination of the Christian doctrine of healing could be. Rather, it is an examination of the doctrine of healing from an evangelical Christian perspective. As part of this examination it deals with a range of relevant biblical texts and authors, in a responsible and scholarly manner. This makes it of real value to anyone who nds themselves having to face this subject matterwhich must include the vast majority of Christians sooner or later! Indeed, given the burgeoning growth of charismatic churches outside of the Western world, this sensible and pastorally minded treatment of what is at times a highly emotive subject is welcome and necessary. May there be many more!
Glenn Balfour

Heaven on Earth: The Temple in Biblical Theology T. Desmond Alexander & Simon Gathercole, eds.
Carlisle: Paternoster, 2004, 1-84227-272-1, 19.99, xii + 283 pb

This collection of 17 essays (plus an introduction by Peter Walker and a preface and epilogue by the editors) is associated with the research of Tyndale House in Cambridge and is the third and nal publication in a series on the topics of Jerusalem, land and temple. The contributors explore the theme of the temple with a view towards discovering its relevance to evangelical biblical theology today. Within this purview the rst six chapters of the main body of the book cover topics found in the Hebrew Bible, ancient Near Eastern texts and early Jewish literature relating to the Garden of Eden (as the rst temple), the tabernacle in the wilderness, the establishment of the temple during the monarchy and the restoration of the temple after the return from exile. The next eight chapters cover treatments of the temple in NT books and concepts, such as Luke and Acts, Johns Gospel, Corinthians, Ephesians, Hebrews, Revelation and the theology of the incarnation. The nal three chapters deal with theological and contemporary issues from different perspectives: Daniel Strange reects on the location of the divine presence from the perspective of systematic theology; Jonathan Norgate explores the theology of the temple in the work of Karl Barth; and Stephen Sizer provides insights into the strange phenomenon of Christian support of Zionist ideologies and programmes for the building of the third temple. Many of the contributors utilize the language of fullment, transformation, replacement and even supersession (the editors epilogue) in relating the temple to Christ and Christology. There is at times a negative view towards the localization of Gods presence in a building. The temple and the sacricial system are described as refocused or abandoned with the coming of Christ. Even Sizers essay, which helpfully relates biblical ideas of the temple to contemporary religious struggles over Jerusalem and the temple, does so using the argument that the temple is a redundant entity (its fullment found in Christ) for Christians today. Without seeking to be exhaustive or uniform in its presentation (the authors express different views and theological positions which do not all agree or reach one conclusion), this volume accomplishes its goal of raising awareness about the temple and the importance of its place within the Bible and Christian theology.
Karen Wenell

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Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28.5 (2006)

Hidden Transcripts and the Arts of Resistance: Applying the Work of James C. Scott to Jesus and Paul Richard A. Horsley, ed.
SEST 48; Atlanta: SBL, 2004, 1-58983-134-9, 15.36, vii + 208 pb

James C. Scotts book, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), provides valuable theoretical resources for study of movements and texts, such as early Christian groups and the NT books, that come into being under oppressive rule. Scott uses broad and detailed cross-cultural study to delineate both public transcriptopen interaction between subordinates and those who dominateand hidden transcripta different system of discourse and practices that emerges among subordinate groups. Crucially, Scott includes the emotional-cultural dimension of lives in his work. Horsleys opening chapter is an excellent introduction both to Scotts ideas and to their applicability across the range of NT texts. There are then three articles on Jesus and his context: Allen Dwight Callahan on the arts of resistance, from the Hasmoneans to Bar Kochba; William Herzog on public and hidden transcripts in the Gospels; Horsley on using Scott for historical Jesus study. Warren Carter then responds. There are three articles on the Pauline letters. Neil Elliott writes a complex but interesting article looking at urban issues, mutuality, Haiti (!), Philos On Dreams (!!), and Rom. 13.1-7. Erik Heen looks at status reversal at Saturnalia and in 1 Corinthians. Cynthia Briggs Kittredge helpfully disrupts the more common work of the Paul and Politics SBL group by locating resistance among interpreters and among some recipients of Ephesians in contrast to the author. Susan Elliott then responds to the three articles. Gerald West concludes with a broader reection on the issues. This is a valuable and thought-provoking collection.
Peter Oakes

Holiness and Sexuality: Homosexuality in a Biblical Context David Peterson, ed.


Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2004, 1-84227-269-1, 7.99, xvi + 212 pb

This volume contains the fruits of the Seventh Oak Hill College Annual School of Theology held in 2003. The contributors seek to impart fresh insight and renewed condence to those who wish to maintain a conservative position. David Peterson contributes three papers: Holiness and Gods Creation Purpose, Holiness and Sexuality in the Pauline Writings and Same-Sex Unions and Romans 1. He argues that holiness is consistently linked in the OT and NT with a demand for sexual purity and loving relationships. His nal paper engages with Rowan Williams and Jeffrey John. In Radical Disorientation, David Field argues that sin is deicidal and suicidal: it contradicts life, love and truth, and embraces death, loathing and falsehood. He explores the relationship between sexual orientation, as a manifestation of fallen human nature, and the many different ways in which this undifferentiated sin manifests itself in behaviour. Martin Hallett writes as a homosexual who sees his sexuality as a gift to the church rather than as a handicap. In Nature or Nurture Peter Saunders explores the causes of homosexuality and argues that personal choice also plays a role. The bibliography helpfully recommends books from both sides of the debate to

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BOOKLIST 2. New Testament Topics

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enable readers to get a broad and representative introduction to the subject. Although this volume engages with the liberal position, it does not always do it justice. Yet Halletts chapter sounds a pastoral note; it would have been interesting and helpful to hear his response, as a homosexual, to the arguments of his fellow-contributors.
Timothy Carter

James of Jerusalem: Heir to Jesus of Nazareth Patrick J. Hartin


Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press (Michael Glazier), 2004, 0-8146-5152-6, $14.95, xxi + 170 pb

This volumes stated aim is to show James as having continued Jesus mission, taking on his brothers mantle as his heir. Chapter 1 covers the presentation of Jesus family in the Gospels, presenting a strong challenge to the consensus that the portrayal is negative (even on Jn 7.5). There follows discussion (focusing on Acts and Galatians) of James as leader of the Jerusalem community, and thereafter of the Epistle of James, taken to come from the pen of James the brother of Jesus. Finally, the images of James from the second century onward to the Nag Hammadi literature are discussed in ch. 4, with some closing remarks on Jamess legacy and present importance. (The ossuary is not mentioned, for good or ill.) The study here appears at times to elevate James above the (other) apostles; Paul perhaps gets rather rough treatment by comparison. The positive interpretation of Jn 7.5 is difcult: the statement that the brothers did not believe is then stretched to mean that they were on the periphery of faith (p. 41) and then later believers tout simple (p. 52). On Gos. Thom. 13 there could have been more discussion of the depiction of James as one for whose sake heaven and earth came into being. In general, however, it is helpful to have such an accessible guide to the Jakobusbild of the rst Christian centuries.
Simon Gathercole

Kreuzestheologie und Ethik im Neuen Testament: Gesammelte Studien Wolfgang Schrage


FRLANT 205; Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004, 3-525-53889-8, 69.00, 291 hb

Schrage, Professor emeritus in the University of Bonn and renowned for his magisterial commentary on 1 Corinthians (in the German EKK series) and his Ethics of the New Testament (German 1982, ET 1988), has assembled some of his studies on theologia crucis and ethics in the NT. All articles have previously been published; only exceptionally do we nd editorial additions. The contributions range from the late 1990s back to Schrages rst scholarly essay, Zur formalethischen Deutung der paulinischen Parnese (1960). Apart from this article, they deal with: the relationship between theologia crucis and theologia resurrectionis in Paul; the tribulation lists as marks of Pauline theologia crucis and eschatology; the attitude toward the world in Paul, Epictetus, and Apocalyptic; salvation and healing in the NT; ethical tendencies in NT textual transmission; the relationship between ethics and reason in the NT; the comparative in Early Christian ethics; sanctication as a process in Paul; the critical potential of Pauls assessment of marriage in 1 Cor. 7; problems of Pauline ethics in Gal. 5.256.10; as well as the history of interpretation and Wirkungsgeschichte of Gal. 3.28.

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Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28.5 (2006)

Critically engaging with the legacy of Bultmann and his pupils (whom Schrage often balances with evidence from Second Temple Judaism) and rmly indebted to the Theological Declaration of Barmen, Schrages studies are thoroughly historical and philological, but equally marked by deep theological interest. In a climate in which some of this is increasingly replaced by other agendas, these acute and critical contributions deserve all the more to be heard and discussed.
Lutz Doering

The Missions of James, Peter, and Paul: Tensions in Early Christianity Bruce Chilton & Craig Evans, eds.
NovTSup 115; Leiden: Brill, 2005, 90-04-14161-8, 133.00, $179.00, xiv + 534 hb

This sequel to James the Just (1999) contains 16 essays by 10 scholars who set out to consider the three missions against their Jewish backgrounds. In two contributions Jacob Neusner presents much rabbinic material for comparison and then uses this to maximize the differences between James and Paul. Richard Bauckham likewise takes his point of departure in Jewish materialviews on the impurity of Gentilesbut he rather uses it to argue for basic agreement between, and the historicity of, Gal. 2 and Acts 11 and 15. This is the essay to which I would give pride of place. It is comprehensive and convincing. In the following essay John Painter goes over much the same ground and also involves Matthew in the comparison, to draw conclusions which differ markedly from Bauckhams. Two very useful studies discuss archaeological evidence: Marcus Bockmuehl on Bethsaida and its connections with Simon Peter; Evans on Peter, James and contemporary burial practices. There are straightforward comparisons of the attitudes of Paul and James to such issues as the use of rhetoric (Painter), judgment (Marianne Sawicki), charity, riches and poverty (Peter Davids), and suffering (Davids). Chilton arguesI think unconvincinglythat James was a Nazirite. The contributors differ in their assessment of the value and reliability of the accounts in Acts 11 and 15, and as to whether the Epistle of James primarily has a Jewish (Davids again) or a Hellenistic (Wiard Popkes) background. The volume is presented as the outcome of several conferences (p. 211), but there are neither responses nor summaries, the essays do not interact and are not even cross-referenced. It would have proted immensely from some real editing. Its price would lead us to expect just that.
Pieter J. Lalleman

The Old is Better: New Testament Essays in Support of Traditional Interpretations Robert H. Gundry
WUNT 178; Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005, 3-16-148551-3, 109.00, xiii + 454 hb

Collections of essays often vary in both scope and coherence. Gundry presents 20 essays, 17 of which have previously appeared in print, under the subtitle New Testament Essays in Support of Traditional Interpretations. For the author it is this support of received readings that unies the volume, but it must be acknowledged that the range of topics covered is very diverse, and one is easily left with the feeling of a divergent miscellany to be dipped into, rather than a coherent whole to be read systematically. Focusing on the three new essays, one sees that the rst (ch. 1) afrms the hermeneutical

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BOOKLIST 2. New Testament Topics

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liberty enshrined in a diverse canon. Gundry warns against the tendency to oversystematize biblical theology, or to create touchstones of orthodoxy that are not implied by scripture itself (this is not just a theoretical concern for Gundry, but reects his own personal experiences). The second new piece (ch. 5) looks at the charge of blasphemy brought against Jesus in Mk 14.61b-64 and m. Sanh. 7.5. Gundry afrms the historicity of the Sanhedrin trial and the reliability of the Markan narrative at this point. The third new essay (ch. 16) investigates the appropriateness of the label sectarian as applied to the Fourth Gospel. Gundry opposes what he characterizes as a semantic game with various denitions of the word sectarian (p. 315). Instead, he calls for a denition of the term to be offered and then to judge the sectarian character of the Gospel against that datum. Having set up this methodological approach, Gundry maintains that the Gospel is sectarian. While it is undoubtedly helpful to have so many of Gundrys seminal essays gathered together in a single corpus, the question remains as to whether the cost justies the convenience. The answer probably depends on the access which one has to the earlier publications in which the majority of essays appeared.
Paul Foster

One Text, a Thousand Methods: Studies in Memory of Sjef van Tilborg Patrick Chatelion Counet & Ulrich Berges, eds.
BINS 71; Leiden: Brill, 2005, 0-391-04230-0, 118.00, $159.00, vi + 367 hb

This volume consists of 15 essays, 8 on OT topics, 7 on NT, in honour of the Dutch scholar Sjef van Tilborg, who died in 2003, and whose interests in biblical methodology were eclectic to say the least. A useful methodological introduction, by Patrick Chatelion Counet, focuses on the range of methods employed in the book and notes that each contributor was asked to concentrate on a (favorite) method, applying it after a short introductionto a specic text (p. 14). There is no space here to mention all the essaysthey range from The Violence of God in the Book of Lamentations (Berges), through Isaiah 4055 as a Drama (van der Woude), an essay on anti-Judaism in the Fourth Gospel, or the lack of it (Counet), to rhetorical analysis of Galatians (Tolmie). And there is much more. Obviously, different readers will pounce with delight on different essays. Van der Woudes essay, mentioned above, interested me, not just for what it said about Isaiah, but for the methodology used. Counets work on Jn 8 contributes something fresh to a vexed debate. But perhaps the most important feature of this important work is the opportunity it gives to English speakers to engage with contemporary methodology coming from a European milieu. For this, and much else, this volume should be welcomed, and used, in university settings and beyond.
Bridget Gilllan Upton

Picturing the New Testament: Studies in Ancient Visual Images Annette Weissenrieder, Friederike Wendt & Petra von Gemnden, eds.
WUNT 2.193; Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005, 3-16-148574-2, 99.00, xvii + 445 pb

This volume of essays presents a series of studies in iconography or (perhaps better) iconology. The focus is not on the development of Christian iconography (except in

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Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28.5 (2006)

Kavin Rowes essay), but rather on the ancient visual materials in the Umwelt of the NT and the ways in which these can illuminate particular NT texts and textual images. A substantial methodological essay by two of the editors (Annette Weissenrieder and Friederike Wendt) sets out four theoretical approaches to iconography. The following essays, offering a range of case-studies, are divided into three sections. First come four essays on the Synoptic Gospels: Rita Amedick examines the royal apparel (especially the crown of thorns) with which Jesus is mocked; David Balch describes Pompeian frescoes depicting Zeus as vengeful protector of the political and domestic order, relating the imagery briey to texts such as Mk 13.12-13; Weissenrieder and Wendt examine the signicance of sleep in relation to the depiction of the disciples in Lk. 22.39-46; and Weissenrieder explores the description of Paul in Acts 28.1-9, suggesting that he may be portrayed here as a divine doctor. Next come ve essays on the Johannine corpus: Petra von Gemnden looks at the constellation of water/bread/tree (or vine) images in the wisdom tradition and in Egyptian iconography; Gabriele EslenNovk and Mirko Novk explore the vine imagery of ancient Mesopotamia; in a further essay, von Gemnden examines the symbolic meaning of the palm branch in Jn 12.13; Hanna Roose interprets the image of Babylon the great harlot (Rev. 18) in the light of depictions of ageing prostitutes; and Reinhard von Bendemann compares the depiction of the Ezekiel-cycle at Dura-Europos with the reception of Ezek. 37 in the book of Revelation. Finally, there are ve essays on the Pauline corpus: C. Kavin Rowe relates Pauls use of eikn to the question of the slow appearance of Christian iconography; Weissenrieder considers the meaning of 2 Cor. 3.18 in the light of ancient views and depictions of the function of mirrors; Sigrid Brandt pursues an imagological approach to the doctrinal question of the two-natures of Christ (it is hard to see how this essay, which engages with Bonhoeffer and Pannenberg but not with Paul, belongs here); Philip Esler examines visual evidence relevant to understanding Pauls use of athletic imagery; and Harry Maier interprets Colossians (especially Col. 3.11) against the background of imperial iconography. There is a great deal of fascinating and signicant material in this volume. For a discipline which has traditionally focused on literary parallels, a turn towards the visual evidence will bring many new insights, as these essays variously show. The visual evidence is important not least because it shapes and informs the perceptions and presumptions of the common people as well as the elite. Everyone, certainly in the cities, saw coins, statues, buildings, etc., whether or not they could read, while by no means everyone read the literary texts often produced in and for elite circles. This volume is also important not only in offering new interpretations of specic texts and images, but also in outlining methodological and theoretical foundations for iconological studies, even if the essays in the book make only limited connections to these theoretical perspectives. The English in the essays translated from German is occasionally awkward, but it is nonetheless to be welcomed that about half of the book, including the methodological essay, is in English, since this should help the work to become widely known in the world of English-speaking scholarship. For, in addition to the specic insights gained from the studies here, equally important is the evident potential for further studies along the lines set out in this book.
David G. Horrell

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BOOKLIST 2. New Testament Topics


Presumed Guilty: How the Jews Were Blamed for the Death of Jesus Peter J. Tomson, trans. Janet Dyk

19

Zoetermeer, Netherlands: Uitgeverij Meinema & Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2005, 0-8006-3707-0, $15.00, 8.99, xiv + 146 pb

Tomson begins with a history of JewishChristian relations followed by a discussion of methodology and Jews under empire. He then provides reasons for the origins of Christian anti-Judaism. The historical Jesus was Law observant, his mission was largely restricted to Jews, and he saw himself as a major Jewish gure. But there were tensions, particularly in the clash with the Temple authorities, which contributed to his crucixion. For Jesus rst followers his death was located in prophetic tradition and formed an intra-Jewish protest. Pauls disputes over the Law were more a defence of Gentile practices than Jews having to abandon the Law. Increasing tensions between Jews and non-Jews in areas such as Antioch impacted upon the role of Jewish and non-Jewish Christians and led to a reassessment of earlier traditions. After the Jewish War a separate non-Jewish church emerged, and Judaism began to be seen as distinctly different. Opposition to Judaism developed in varying degrees, including the idea that God rejected Jews for what had happened to Jesus. The NT reects a range of these views and Tomson shows ways in which they can be responsibly used. This excellent short book by a scholar with detailed knowledge of rabbinic Judaism provides as good a brief introduction to the key issues as could be expected. Despite the length of the book, Tomson still manages to give plenty of examples from Jewish primary sources. His portrayal of Jesus genuinely within Judaism is well made. He is also honest enough to admit when NT texts are dangerously anti-Jewish without resorting to convenient misreading. Inevitably, given the books scope, there are various individual points which are debatable, but the overall picture of early JewishChristian relations is difcult to dispute.
James G. Crossley

Salvation in the New Testament: Perspectives on Soteriology Jan G. van der Watt, ed.
NovTSup 121; Leiden: Brill, 2005, 90-04-14297-5, 125.00 $169.00, xiii + 529 hb

Van der Watt has collected and edited essays written by South African scholars (except Craig Koester) and presented at a conference at the Faculty of Theology in Pretoria on Soteriology in the NT. The different views on salvation in the major books of the NT are systematized in canonical order (except the Pauline letters) according to the three parts of the NT: the rst deals with the NT narratives, the second part with the Pauline and deutero-Pauline letters, and the last part focuses on the general epistles, Hebrews and Revelation of John. A conclusion, written by the editor, summarizes the main aspects of NT soteriology. The approaches of the various articles differ, but they all pay special attention to the nature and power of salvic language which was contextualized. The different images and metaphors reveal the event of salvation which is presented by the contributors. All articles represent high scholarship and discuss recent publications on the topic. Open questions (in Johns Gospel, for example) and the possibility for further research are also mentioned. The editor summarizes differences and similarities of soteriology

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Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28.5 (2006)

between the different NT writings. With regard to the NT narratives he emphasizes especially the relationship with the OT and Jewish expectations, the contrast between salvation and the presence of evil, and Jesus special role in the history of salvation. He underlines the metaphorical power of soteriology in the Pauline letters contrasted by a negative anthropology. The later writings of the NT surprisingly reveal unity amidst diversity. Finally, van der Watt points out the important role of salvic images and the correlation between circumstances and soteriological language. This collection of essays on NT soteriology is an important contribution to NT theology.
Beate Kowalski

Der Septuagintapsalter im Neuen Testament: Eine textgeschichtliche Untersuchung Ulrich Rsen-Weinhold


Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 2004, 3-7887-2064-6, 34.00, xii + 372 pb

Rsen-Weinholds monograph is a revised version of his doctoral thesis supervised by Martin Karrer and submitted in 2002 to the Kirchliche Hochschule Wuppertal. It is a text-critical study on the text traditions of the OT quotations (and allusions) in the NT. The rst chapter introduces the question of the thesis, the research to date and the methodology. In particular, the author is analysing quotations of (and some selected allusions to) psalms in the NT in order to re-visit the various models which try to explain the text tradition. The rst two chapters offer introduction to the text-critical problems of the Septuagint and the history of its text before the NT writings (parallel traditions of psalms in the OT, quotations outside of the NT writings, especially Philo of Alexandria). The major fourth part discusses psalm quotations in the various NT writings, commencing with the Pauline and deutero-Pauline epistles (Romans, 1 Corinthians, Ephesians), then proceding with Hebrews and 1 Peter. Special attention is given to the Synoptic Gospels, in particular to the Passion-psalms (Pss. 22 and 69), and the use of psalms in the parallel synoptic traditions. The Gospel of John is the last writing presented. It is a little suprising that the author follows neither the chapter order within Johns Gospel nor the order of Psalms. Another more general weakness of the study is the lack of a precise denition and comprehensive treatment of all allusions (rather than to analyse some clear allusions, which might explain why Revelation is left out). Nevertheless, the study provides insight into recent developments of research on text traditions of the Septuagint (the books main emphasis) as well as into intertextual questions, and it leads the reader on to further research in the eld.
Beate Kowalski

Servant Leadership: Jesus and Paul Efrain Agosto


St Louis: Chalice, 2005, 0-827234-63-5, $29.99, viii + 248 pb

A critical appraisal of models for leadership is demanded for church and society in a world of violence, oppression and injustice. One such is here offered in a study of synoptic portrayals of Jesus and then of Pauls self-portraits, by a Latino Pentecostalist. Jesus socio-economic context is sketched in conversation with Richard Horsley, Gerd Theissen and (occasionally) Dominic Crossan. John the Baptist and Jesus address the

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BOOKLIST 2. New Testament Topics

21

poorest and most vulnerable, and it is from among the latter that Jesus draws his associates. Of these he maintains high expectations, despite their failures to adapt to his style of diakonal leadership and its clear contrast with other local models. Pauls urban context brings to the fore issues of status and patronage, sketched in conversation with Wayne Meeks tempered by Justin Meggitt. Paul subverts expectations with his acceptance of weakness and humiliation, while still determinedly leading and drawing in others, especially from the new communities, to share leadership and sustain the testing it demands. Perhaps the most interesting chapter (5) stems from Agostos doctoral research into commendation in Paul. Readers may feel considerable sympathy with the ethos of leadership presented in careful dialogue with other scholars and with the chosen texts. Yet there remains a tendency to impose a coherent vision (so that Lk. 22.35-38, for instance, must not be taken literally), the cultural resonances of Pauls peristaseis catalogues are ignored, and the sense that some readers have that Paul is (even in his contemporary terms) manipulative, is not faced.
F. Gerald Downing

The Spirit of the New Testament John Christopher Thomas


Leiden: Deo, 2005, 90-5854-029-4, 19.95, xiii + 283 pb

This volume gathers together essays published by Thomas over a 20-year period. Its focus is on hermeneutical issues emerging from a Pentecostal perspective. The rst essay sets an agenda for Pentecostal scholarship. It will issue from a worshipping community that integrates heart and mind, is accountable to its tradition, while engaging in an interdisciplinary honest and open dialogue with those outside Pentecostalism. This very helpful chapter is followed by one in which Thomas argues for a signicant biblical connection between healing and mission. An essay on the Kingdom of God in Matthew shows how this phrase is important as a narrative marker. A good essay on discipleship in Mark and two essays on Mk 16.9-20, an important text in Pentecostal tradition, are followed by ve essays on John. These range from the composition of John, John and rabbinic Judaism, the Spirit in John, an interesting discussion of the Pentecostal emphasis on healing in the atonement, and two essays on footwashing. An essay on the structure of Acts is followed by one that sets out a Pentecostal hermeneutic focused on Women, Pentecostals and the Bible. The last two essays are on the Johannine Epistles. These essays make an important addition to the serious studies emerging from Pentecostal scholars. They will be useful to those within the tradition as indications of the vigour of the work and to those outside who are in dialogue with their Pentecostal colleagues.
Kent Brower

Violence in the New Testament Shelly Matthews & E. Leigh Gibson, eds.
New York: T&T Clark Intl, 2005, 0-567-02500-4, 16.99, vii + 160 pb

This is a collection of eight essays which focus particularly on violent language about,

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Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28.5 (2006)

and depictions of violent incidents among, Jews in the NT (p. 4). In the introductory chapter the editors claim they are seeking to redress the balance concerning the subject of violence and the Bible in which most previous studies have focused on violence in the Hebrew Bible. The subsequent essays discuss violence in Paul, the Q tradition and the Apocalypse, Jesus and Imperial violence, violence in Matthew and John, the stoning of Stephen, and nally violence and religious formation. The contributors are John Gager with E. Leigh Gibson, Melanie Johnson-DeBaufre, John Marshall, Richard Horsley, Warren Carter, Adele Reinhartz, Shelly Matthews and David Frankfurter respectively. The essays are, like most collections, uneven. For example I found little of substance in the chapter by John Gager and Leigh Gibson (who resort to a psychologizing of Paul to understand the violent language he uses). For me the key essays in this collection are those of Richard Horsley and Warren Carter, which situate the language of violence in the Synoptic Gospels in the context of imperial violence and violence by ruling elites respectively. Johnson-DeBaufre also suggests that Roman imperial violence is a key to understanding the judgment oracle in Q 11.49-51. Collectively, however, the essays function powerfully to call into question the notion of Jewish violence directed against the early Jesus followers and, as such, this collection is to be commended.
Lloyd K. Pietersen

Vorsehung Gottes? Zur Rede von der providentia Dei in der Antike und im Neuen Testament Wolfgang Schrage
Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 2005, 3-7887-2088-3, 24.90, 280 pb

Talk of Gods providential care, individual and general, here involves consideration of divine planning, foreseeing, creatively sustaining and controlling, together with determinism, chance, causality and human freedom. To prepare to expound these themes as they may be found in the NT we are offered a number of sketches. Stoic reections afford clarication by way of contrast. A deliberately synchronic survey of usage in the emergent Jewish canon, Hebrew and Greek, suggests likely reception in early Judaism; this is further supplemented by Philo and Josephus (who toy with Graeco-Roman ideas), and by selections from apocalyptic Judaism and Qumran, and from the Rabbis. On the whole a coherent picture emerges from the NT, unsystematic and unspeculative, centred in salvation in and through the crucied and risen Christ, for individuals and communities, to which more general issues are subordinate. Human freedom, and evil, and Gods sovereign freedom, with us and for us, are held together unexplained. Not all will be content with a synchronic First Testament or a NT amalgam; nor the relevance of the former for our NT authors. And the proposed agreed witness does seem to leave quite a lot for embarrassed asides, such as Rom. 8.31-39, 13.1-7, Mk 10.27, Lk./Q 12.22-31, Acts 17.2431, strands in Colossians, 1 Tim. 4.4 and much more (often with pagan resonances). Further, we may wonder why only Stoic determinists and not libertarian sceptics are invited to clarify the context, and why only Stoic philosophizings, not their and others pastoral practices.
F. Gerald Downing

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BOOKLIST 2. New Testament Topics


Wahrheit und Wirklichkeit: Exegese auf dem Weg zur Fundamentaltheologie Hans Hbner
Neukirchener-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 2005, 3-7887-2108-1, 24.90, 192 pb

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Hans Hbner was professor of biblical theology at the Protestant Faculty of Theology in Gttingen. He is well known for his hermeneutical reections, his investigations on the relationship of the OT and the NT (see his very helpful tool Vetus Testamentum in Novo), and his developing of a fundamental theology which is based on biblicaltheological reections. The volume presented contains collected essays and is dedicated to him on the occasion of his 75th birthday. The various articles, which have all been published previously in different journals, focus on the two poles: truth and reality. According to the author, exegesis is more than an interpretation of texts. It includes an understanding of personal basic conditions and cultural background. Eight articles from the last ten years of Hbners scholarly work are presented in a new format. The topics are: Deus hermeneuticus, CanonhistoryGod, I-am-sayings in Johns Gospel, M. Heideggers gods and the Christian God, Gods commitment, truth and word, NT theology and fundamental theology. The rst places of publication are mentioned after the bibliography of Hbner from 19952005, compiled by Marco Voigt, at the end of the volume. An index of biblical references reveals the authors specic interest in Johns Gospel and the Pauline Epistles (especially the letter to the Romans). All the articles are of high quality and demand that the reader reect on his or her own exegetical background. The topics are well selected to be representive of the work of Hbner. The volume makes it easier for the reader to assess his critical reections on the hermeneutics of exegesis.
Beate Kowalski

Yours Faithfully: Virtual Letters from the Bible Philip R. Davies, ed.
London: Equinox, 2004, 1-904768-32-6, 14.99, xi + 160 pb

This volume is a collection of imaginary letters between biblical characters, written by a wide range of biblical scholars. In his introduction, Philip Davies highlights the variety of possibilities that have been open to letter-writers over the centuries, and explains the rationale behind the current book. The letters themselves are arranged in canonical order, and are best appreciated by a reader who is familiar with their source text(s). In content, they range from the carefully reverential (e.g. Letter 29, Onesimus to Paul), through the light-hearted and knowing (e.g. Letter 4, Pharaoh Ramses to Moses, or Letter 28, Publius Philostratus [a Roman commissioning editor] to the author of Marks Gospel), to the angry and disturbing (e.g. Letter 2, Isaac to Abraham, or Letter 7, Samson to Delilah). The thread that runs through them all is their commitment to giving a voice to characters who have up until now been silenced, such as Jephthahs daughter, King Ahab, Judas, Pontius Pilates wife, and the one called Jezebel in Rev. 2.18-29. The nal letter is a wry draft of a letter to the various Bible authors, from the Senior Editor of Word of God Books, asking, among other things, for more onmessage consistency from each of the contributors. This is a fascinating book, thought-provoking, clever and uncompromising. Some of the contributions work better than others (e.g. I found Letter 9, from Absalom to David,

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Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28.5 (2006)

too anxious and self-conscious), but the variety of styles and idioms results in a rich and widely accessible anthology.
Alison Jack

Back to the Well: Womens Encounters with Jesus in the Gospels, Gench Classical Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism, Chilton & Neusner Deutungen des Todes Jesu im Neuen Testament, Frey & Schrter, eds. Gottessohn und Menschensohn, Snger, ed. Mary: Images of the Mother of Jesus in Jewish and Christian Perspective, Pelikan et al. Redescribing Christian Origins, Cameron & Miller, eds. Religises Lernen in der biblischen, frhjdischen und frhchristlichen berlieferung, Ego & Merkel, eds. Render to Caesar, Bryan Sexuality and the Jesus Tradition, Loader Signicance of Clothing Imagery in the Pauline Corpus, Kim Transguration, Lee Why this New Race: Ethnic Reasoning in Early Christianity, Buell

35 130 27 28 153 137 123 32 44 82 45 139

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