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LECTURE 3 3.

1Rules of Vector Differentiation

We have defined three kinds of derivatives involving the operator
grad () = = i+ j+ k, x y z

div (v ) = .v =

v1 v2 v3 + + , x y z

curl (v ) = v

i = x v1

j y v2

k z v3

Let

and

be vector fields, f and g be scalar fields and

and

be constants.

1 Differentiation is Linear
grad (f + g ) = f + g = grad ( f ) + grad ( g )
div (u + v ) = div (u ) + div (v) curl (u + v ) = curl (u ) + curl (v )

grad ( fg ) = fgrad ( g ) + ggrad ( f )

div ( f u ) = fdiv (u ) + grad ( f ).(u ) curl ( f u ) = fu + ( f ) u = fcurl (u ) + grad ( f ) (u )

2 Vector Product Rule

div (u v ) = v.curl (u ) u.curl (v ) curl (u v ) = u (div (v )) v (div (u ) ) +(v. )u (u. )v grad (u.v ) = ( u. )v + (v. )u +u curl (v ) + v curl (u )

3. Vector Multiple Operations

2 div ( grad ( f )) = . (f) = f

curl ( grad ( f )) = x (f) = 0

div (curl (u )) = . x (u ) = 0
2 curl (curl (u )) = ( .(u ) u

Example: Let

v =3 xyz 2 i +2 xy 3 j x 2 yz k ,

= 3 x 2 yz

Find (i) div (v ) (ii) curl (v) (iii) v.grad () and hence (iv) div (v ) (v) curl (v) .

3.2 Path integrals of scalar and vector fields

Scalar field:
If a scalar field V exists for all points on the curve, then integral of V along the curve c. i.e. line integral
C

Vd r
p= 1

with d r 0 , defines the line

V .d r

In order to evaluate such path integrals we need to have a parameterization of the curve C(t). That is we write, r (t ) = x(t )i +y (t ) j +z (t ) k Then
d r (t ) = d r (t ) = dx (t )i + dy (t ) j + dz (t )k dt .

Vector field: The wok done by vector field is defined as line integral of The answer is a scalar
C

F .d r .

F .d r

= ( F1 dx + F2 dy + F3 dz )
C

Parametrisation of Curves
The key to evaluating such integrals is to define a single co-ordinate t that parametrises the curve C. Consider the curves in 2D. For some curves it is obvious how to do this, eg. Use the x-coordinate as the parameter: Straight line y = a + bx x = t , y = a + bt or r (t ) = (t , a +bt ) Parabola y = a + bx 2 x = t , y = a + bt 2 or r (t ) = (t , a + bt 2 ) For other curves one can use an angular formulation Circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2 x = a cos t , y = a sin t or r (t ) = ( a cos t , a sin t ) and
dr (t ) = ( a sin t , a cos t )

x2 y2 + = 1 x = a cos t , y = b sin t or a2 b2 r (t ) = ( a cos t , b sin t ) and dr (t ) = ( a sin t , b cos t )

Ellipse

Example: V = xy 2 z evaluate

V .d r

Evaluation of work Integrals

1 parametrise the curve C as r (t ) = ( x(t ), y (t ), z (t )) 2 work the limits a and b on t . 3 evaluate the vector field v along the (x,y,z)=(x(t),y(t),z(t)), form the dot product and integrate w.r.t t:
C

v(r ).d r =

t =b

t =a

( v( x(t ), y(t ), z (t ) ).

dy (t ) dz (t ) dx (t ) i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt

Example: If

F = (2 xy + z 3 )i + x 2 j + 3 xz 2 k

,evaluate

F .d r

between (0,0,0) and (1,1,1)

a) the straight path C1, the straight line joining (0,0,0) to (1,1,1) . b) the path C2 composed of the three straight lines joining (0,0,0) to (1,0,0) to (1,1,0) to (1,1,1).

Note that both answers are same as they would be for any curve C joining (0,0,0) and (1,1,1 ). This is because the above force field F is conservative.

3.5 Conservative Vector fields and independence of path

Recall from lecture 2 , a vector field is v conservative in a region , if its circulation along every closed curve in the region is zero. i.e. curl (v) = 0 v =

The Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals

Let F be a conservative vector field with potential function f, and C be any smooth curve starting at the point A and ending at the point B. Then

Theorem:
The necessary and sufficient condition for a continuous vector field F to be conservative (or irrotational) that it is the gradient of a scaler field. in a simply connected region R is F = Example: Find the work done by the vector field, F(x,y) = (2x -3y)i + (3y2 - 3x)j indicated in the graph below along the curve

Independence of Path and Closed Curves

Example: Find the work done by the vector field, F(x,y) = (cos x + y)i + (x+ esin y)j + (sin(cos z))k along the closed curve shown below

Since the vector field is conservative, we can use the fundamental theorem of line integrals. Notice that the curve begins and ends at the same place. We do not even need to find the potential function, since whatever it is, say f, we have f(A) - f(A) = 0

In general, the work done by a conservative vector field is zero along any closed curve. The converse is also true, which we state without proof. Theorem: Conservative Vector Fields and Closed Curves Let F be a vector field with components that have continuous first order partial derivatives and let C be a piecewise smooth curve. Then the following three statements are equivalent 1. F is conservative. 2. is independent of path.

3.

for all closed curves C.

Example: Calculate curl ( F ) for the force field F taken in worked in previous example, hence show that the field is conservative. Find the scalar field and hence calculate the work done in moving from (1,2,1) to (3,1,4). Remarks The course is also true; if the work integral is independent of path taken between any two points . then there must exist a scalar potential function such that F =