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6/25/2011

thermjrc@yahoo.com, www.jrcanalyticalservices.com, 615-218-0131

Samples of 33 Recently Solved Problems in Heat Transfer (165 total problems solved

and 49 TAK 2000 models in the last two years). References include the following:

Heat Transfer by J.P. Holman, 9th edition (2002) covered 3/12 to 4/9/2011 (69

problems and 9 TAK 2000 models).

Heat Transfer SO by Pitts & Sissom, 2nd edition (1998) - covered 2/12 to

3/10/2011 (37 problems and 4 TAK 2000 models).

Principles of Heat Transfer by Kreith & Bohn, 4th edition (1984) covered

11/16 to 12/25/2010, reviewed 5/15 to 5/24/2011 (59 problems and 36 TAK

2000 models).

worked):

Chapter 1 Introduction

1-18. A small radiant heater has metal strips 6 mm with a total length of 3 m. The

surface emissivity of the strips is 0.85. To what temperature must the strips be heated if

they are to dissipate 2000 W of heat to a room at 25 C?

Solution: for an enclosure q = 1A1(T14 T24)

q/1A1 = T14 T24 or T14 = T24 + q/1A1

T14 = (298 K)4 + (2000 W)/{(0.85)*(5.669 x 10-8 W/m2-K4)*(0.006 m)*(3 m)}

T1 = 1233 K = 960 C

1-24. One side of a plane wall is maintained at 100 C, while the other side is exposed to

a convection environment having T = 10 C and h = 10 W/m2-C. The wall has k = 1.6

W/m-C and is 40 cm thick. Calculate the heat-transfer rate through the wall.

Solution: using two resistors in series, q = T/R = T/(R1 + R2) = T/(t/kA + 1/hA)

= A*T/(t/k + 1/h)

q/A = T/(t/k + 1/h) = (100 10)C/{(0.40 m)/(1.6 W/m-C) + 1/(10 W/m2-C)

= 90 C/{(0.25 + 0.1)m2-C} = 257 W/m2

1-30. A black 20-by-20 cm plate has air forced over it at a velocity of 2 m/s and a

temperature of 0 C. The plate is placed in a large room whose walls are at 30 C. The

back side of the plate is perfectly insulated. Calculate the temperature of the plate

resulting from the convection-radiation balance. Use information from Table 1-3(for

convection coefficients).

Holman uses the intro equation for net exchange of radiation q = FFG A(T14 T24)

where F is an emissivity function, and FG is a geometric view factor function. In our

case, assume both are equal to 1, giving

*A*(Twalls4 TS4) = hc*A*(TS - T)

Table 1-3 (page 11) gives hc = 12 W/m2-C for flow conditions and As cancel out,

giving (5.669 x 10-8 W/m2-K4)*(3034 TS4) K4 = (12 W/m2-C)*(TS 273) K

(3034 TS4) K4 = (211677544.54 K3)*(TS 273)

Guess TS until LHS = RHS as follows:

TS

LHS

RHS

280 1481742812 2282332481

290 3598518257 1356082481

285 2540130534 1831391856

283 2116775445 2014644560

282 1905097900 2104825905

Use TS = 282 K = 9 C as the temperature of the plate.

Chapter 2 Steady-State Conduction One Dimension

2-4.

Find the heat transfer per unit area through the composite wall in Figure P2-4.

Assume one-dimensional heat flow.

Solution: Figure shows a wall such that the hot face (LHS) is at T = 370 C and the cold

face (RHS) is at 66 C. The first layer on the left is material A with kA = 150 W/m-C

and LA = 2.5 cm, second layer (middle) is a layer with materials B and D in parallel with

kB = 30 W/m-C and kD = 70 W/m-C and LB = LD = 7.5 cm and AB = AD = 0.5*AA, and

the right-most layer is material C with kC = 50 W/m-C and AC = AA = 0.1 m2.

Calculating the individual resistances according to R = L/kA gives the following:

RA = LA/kAAA = (0.025 m)/{(150 W/m-C)*(0.1 m2)} = 1.667 x 10-3 C/W

RB = LB/kBAB = (0.075)/{(30)*(0.1/2)} = 0.05 C/W

RD = LD/kDAD = (0.075)/{(70 W/m-C)*(0.1/2)} = 2.14286 x 10-2 C/W

For the parallel resistors:

Req = RBRD/(RB + RD) = (0.05)*(2.14286 x 10-2)/(0.5 + 2.14286 x 10-2)

= 2.0548 x 10-3 C/W

RC = LC/kCAC = (0.05)/{(50)*(0.1)} = 0.01 C/W

Overall heat flow is given by

q = T/R = (370 66)/(1.667 x 10-3 + 2.0548 x 10-3 + 0.01) = 22155 W (A = 0.1 m2)

gives q/A = 221550 W/m2.

2-43. A plate having a thickness of 4.0 mm has an internal heat generation of 200

MW/m3 and a thermal conductivity of 25 W/m-C. One side of the plate is insulated and

the other side is maintained at 100 C. Calculate the maximum temperature in the plate.

Solution: simplified differential equation is d2T/dx2 + qdot/k = 0

(qdot = heat generation/volume as given). Two integrations give

dT/dx = -(qdot/k)*x + C1

Applying BCs: at x = 0, dT/dx = 0 gives 0 = 0 + C1 or C1 = 0

Thus T(x) = -(qdot/2k)*x2 + C2

Applying BC of T(L) = 100 C = -(qdot/2k)*L2 + C2 gives C2 = 100 + (qdot/2k)*L2

T(x) = -(qdot/2k)*L2 + 100 + (qdot/2k)*L2 = (qdot/2k)*(L2 x2) + 100

Max T occurs at x = 0 where dT/dx = 0 so Tmax = T(0) = (qdot/2k)*L2 + 100

= {(200 x 106 W/m3)/(2*25 W/m-C)}*(0.004 m)2 + 100 = 164 C

2-69. A very long copper rod (k = 372 W/m-C) 2.5 cm in diameter has one end

maintained at 90 C. The rod is exposed to a fluid whose temperature is 40 C. The heattransfer coefficient is 3.5 W/m2-C. How much heat is lost by the rod?

Solution: DE is d2/dx2 (hP/kA) = 0 where = T - T

Boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = o = To - T and case 1 as x , TT or

() = 0

solution to DE is /o = (T - T)/(To - T) = e-mx

m2 = hP/kA = {(3.5 W/m2-C)**(0.025 m)}/{(372 W/m-C)*(/4)*(0.025 m)2}

= 1.505 1/m2 giving m = 1.2269 1/m

q = (hPkA)1/2o

= {(3.5 W/m2-C)**(0.025 m)*(372 W/m-C)*(/4)*(0.025 m)2}1/2*(90 40)C

= 11.2 W

Chapter 3 Steady-State Conduction Multi Dimensions I built several TAK 2000

finite difference thermal models in support of solving some of the examples and some of

the homework problems in the book. I did no analytical or graphical solutions.

(more information is available at www.tak2000.com).

Chapter 4 Unsteady-State Conduction Again, several TAK 2000 models were built to

simulate the example problems and compare transient numerical results. Also, a couple

of lumped parameter analysis problems (among others) were worked as follows:

4-6. A piece of aluminum weighing 6 kg and initially at a temperature of 300 C is

suddenly immersed in a fluid at 20 C. The convection heat-transfer coefficient is 58

W/m2-C. Taking the aluminum as a sphere having the same weight as that given,

estimate the time required to cool the aluminum to 90 C, using the lumped-capacity

method of analysis (if applicable).

Solution: W = mg = Vg with = 2707 kg/m3

For a sphere S = A = 4R2 = D2 and V = (4/3)R3

V = (4/3)R3 = m/ = (6 kg)/(2707 kg/m3) gives R = 0.080883 m

Biot number = Bi = hS/k = h*(V/A)/k = h*(4 R3)/{k*4R2) = hR/3k

= (58 W/m2-C)*(0.080883 m)/{(3)*(204 W/m-C)} = 7.665 x 10-3

Since Bi << 0.1 lumped-parameter analysis is applicable

(T - T)/(To - T) = e-(hA/cV) where c = 896 J/kg-C

(hA/cV) = 1/(RrhCth) with c = cV/hA (time constant)

c = (896 J/kg-C)*(2707 kg/m3)*(4/3)**(0.080883 m)3/

Gives (T - T)/(To - T) = e-/1127.5

ln{(T - T)/(To - T)} = -/1127.5

ln{(90 - 20)/(300 - 20)} = -/1127.5

= t = 1563 s (26 min) to cool to T = 90 C

4-58. A 4.0-cm cube of aluminum is initially at 450 C and is suddenly exposed to a

convection environment at 100 C with h = 120 W/m2-C. How long does it take the

cube to cool to 250 ?

Solution: for Aluminum (pure) = 2707 kg/m3, c = 896 J/kg-C, k = 204 W/m-C

Biot number Bi = hs/k = h*(V/A)/k = h*L3/(6L2*k) = (120 W/m2-C)/(6*204 W/m-C)

= (2.353/6) x 10-2

Since Bi 0.1 lumped parameter analysis is applicable

Resulting solution of DE is (T - T)/(To - T) = e-/c where c = cV/hA (time constant)

c = (896 J/kg-C)*(2707 kg/m3)*(0.04 m)3/{(120 W/m2-C)*(0.04 m)2} = 808.5 s

Time to reach T = 250 C is given by (250 100)/(450 100) = e-/808.5

= 685 s = 11.4 min

Chapter 5 Principles of Convection

5-7. Oxygen at a pressure of 2 atm and 27 C blows across a 50-cm-square plate at a

velocity of 30 m/s. The plate temperature is maintained constant at 127 C. Calculate the

total heat lost by the plate.

Solution: film temperature is Tf = (T + Tw) /2 = 77 C = 350 K

Reynolds number ReL = uL/ = uL/

Evaluating properties of O2 at Tf = 350 K gives the following: = 1.1133 kg/m3,

= 20.80 x 10-6 m2/s, k = 0.03070 W/m-C, and Pr = 0.702

ReL = (30 m/s)*(0.50 m)/(20.80 x 10-6 m2/s) = 721154 > 5 x 105 (turbulent at trailing

edge) use Eqn. (5-85) that takes into account laminar/turbulent flow with a transition

Reynolds number of 5 x 105, eqn. is applicable for ReL < 107

NuL = hL/k = Pr1/3*(0.037*ReL0.8 871) (5-85)

= (0.702)1/3*{(0.037)*(721154)0.8 871} = 823.6

h = (823.6)k/L = (823.6)*(0.03070)/(0.50) = 50.55 W/m2-C

q = 2hA(Tw - T) = 2*(50.55)*(0.5)*(0.5)*(127 27) = 2527.5 W (both sides of plate)

5-23. Calculate the heat transfer from a 20-cm-square plate over which air flows at 35 C

and 14 kPa. The plate temperature is 250 C, and the free-stream velocity is 6 m/s.

Solution: using Tf = (Ts + T)/2 = (250 + 35)/2 = 142.5 C = 415.5 K (avg film temp)

Air properties at Tf = 415.5 gives the following linear interpolation

T(K) x 106 (m2-s) k (W/m-K) Pr

400

25.90

0.03365

0.689

415.5

x1

x2

x3

450

31.71

0.03707

0.683

= (x3 0.689)/(0.683 0.689)

x1 = x 106 = 27.70, = 27.70 x 10-6, x2 = k = 0.03471 W/m-K, x3 = Pr = 0.687

ReL = uL/ = (6 m/s)*(0.20 m)/(27.70 x 10-6 m2/s) = 43321.3 < 5 x 105 (laminar)

NuL = hL/k = 0.664*ReL1/2Pr1/3 equation (5.46b)

NuL = (0.664)*(43321.3)1/2*(0.687)1/3 = 121.96

h = 121.96k/L = (121.96)*(0.03471)/(0.20) = 21.165 W/m2-K

q = 2hA*(Ts - T) = 2*(21.165 W/m2-K)*(0.20 m)2*(250 35) K = 364 W

(both sides of plate)

Chapter 6 Empirical and Practical Relations for Forced-Convection Heat Transfer

6-6. Water at the rate of 0.8 kg/s is heated from 35 to 40 C in a 2.5-cm-diameter tube

whose surface is at 90 C. How long must the tube be to accomplish this heating?

Solution Tb,ave = (Tb,1 + Tb,2)/2 = 37.5 C

Water properties Table A-9: cp = 4174 J/kg-C, = 993 kg/m3, = 6.82 x 10-4 kg/m-s,

k = 0.630 W/m-C, Pr = 4.53

Reynolds number Red = umd/

mdot = 0.8 kg/s = Aum = (993 kg/m3)*(/4)*(0.025 m)2*um gives um = 1.641 m/s

Red = (993 kg/m3)*(1.641 m/s)*(0.025 m)/(6.82 x 10-4 kg/m-s) = 59741.4 (turbulent)

Using Eqn. (6-4c) good for 1.5 < Pr < 500, 3000 < Re < 106

Nu = hd/k = 0.012*(Red0.87 280)*Pr0.4 = 0.012*(59741.40.87 280)*4.530.4 = 307.9

h = 307.9k/d = (307.9)*(0.630)/(0.025) = 7758.8 W/m2-C

q = mdot*cp*Tb = hA*(Tw Tb)ave

Computing q1 = mdot*cp*Tb = (0.8 kg/s)*(4714 J/kg-C)*(40 35) C = 18856 W

so 18856 W = hdL*(Tw Tb)ave = (7758.8 W/m2-C)**(0.025 m)*L*(90 37.5) C

gives L = 0.589 m.

6-42. Air at 70 kPa and 20 C flows across a 5-cm-diameter cylinder at a velocity of 15

m/s. Compute the drag force exerted on the cylinder.

Solution: Properties of air at T = 20 C = 293 K, P = 70 x 103 Pa, using P = RT

= P/RT = (70 x 103 N/m2)/[(287 N-m/kg-K)*(293 K)] = 0.8324 kg/m3

Table A-5 (page 602) gives = 1.8462 x 10-5 kg/m-s

Red = ud/ = (0.8324)*(15)*(0.05)/(1.8462 x 10-5) = 33815

Using Fig. 6-9 (page 282) that gives drag coefficient CD vs. Red, at Red = 33815, CD = 1.1

Drag force D = FD = CDA*u2/(2gc)

= (1.1)*(0.05 m)*(1 m)*(0.8324 kg/m3)*(15 m/2)/(2*1) = 5.15 N

3 Sample Pitts & Sissom problems & solutions (from a total of 37 problems previously

worked):

Chapter 7 Forced Convection: Turbulent Flow

7.26 Ethylene glycol at 0 C flows at the rate of 23 m/s parallel to a 0.6 m square, thin

flat plate at 40 C, which is suspended from a balance. Assume the fluid flows over both

sides of the plate and that the critical Reynolds number is 500000. (a) What drag should

be indicated by the balance? (b) What is the heat transfer rate from the plate to the fluid?

Solution: Tf = (0 + 40)/2 = 20 C = 293 K, using Table B-3(SI) to evaluate properties:

= 1116.65 kg/m3, cp = 2382 J/kg-K, Pr = 204, = 19.18 x 10-6 m2/s, k = 0.249 W/m-K

ReL = VL/ = (23 m/s)*(0.6 m)/(19.18 x 10-6 m2/s) = 719500 (turbulent)

Using Eqn. (7.28) given by Nu = hL/k = Pr1/3(0.036ReL 836)

Nu = hL/k = (204)1/3*{0.036*(719500)0.8 836} = 5354

h = 5354*k/L = (5354)*(0.249)/0.6 = 2222 W/m2-K

q = 2hA(Ts - T) = 2*(2222)*(0.6)2*(40 0) = 63993 W

To get the drag force use Eqn. (7.22) Cf = 0.072/ReL1/5 (0.00334)*xc/L

For Rec = 500000 = Vxc/ = (23 m/s)*xc/(19.18 x 10-6)

Gives xc = 0.417 m

Cf = 0.072/(719500)1/5 (0.00334)*(0.417)/(0/6) = 2.531 x 10-3

Ff = Cf*(V/2)*A = (2.531 x 10-3)*(1116.65 kg/m3)*(23 m/s)2*(0.6 m)2 = 269 N

D = 2Ff = 538 N

7.28 A 3 in o.d. steam pipe without insulation is exposed to a 30 mph wind blowing

normal to it. The surface temperature of the pipe is 200 F and the air is at 40 F. Find

the heat loss per foot of pipe.

Solution: V = 30 miles/h x 5280 ft/1 mile x 1 h/3600 s = 44 ft/s

Tf = (T - Ts)/2 = (40 + 200)/2 = 120 F, using Table B-4 (Eng) with interpolation gives

T (F) (lbm/ft3) (ft2/s)

k (Btu/h-ft-F)

Pr

80

0.0735

16.88 x 10-5

0.01516

0.708

120

x1

x2

x3

x4

170

0.0623

22.38 x 10-5

0.01735

0.697

40/90 = (x1 0.0735)/(0.0623 0.0735) = (x2 16.88)/(22.38 16.88)

= (x3 0.01516)/(0.01735 0.01516) = (x4 0.708)/(0.697 0.708)

x1 = = 0.06852 lbm/ft3, x2 = x2 x 10-5 = = 19.32 x 10-5 ft2/s

x3 = k = 0.01613 Btu/h-ft-F, x4 = Pr = 0.703

ReD = VD/ = (44 ft/s)*(3/12 ft)/(19.32 x 10-5 ft2/s) = 56935.8 (turbulent)

For our case single cylinder in crossflow in air, use Equation (7.51a)

NuDf = hD/kf = CgReDfn

Our configuration gives Cg = 0.0239, n = 0.805 (for ReDf = 40000 to 250000)

NuDf = hD/kf = (0.0239)*(56935.8)0.805 = 160.87

h = (160.87)*(0.01613 Btu/h-ft-F)/(3/12 ft) = 10.38 Btu/h-ft2-F

qc = hA(Ts - T) = hDL(Ts - T)

qc/L = hD(Ts - T) = *(10.38)*(3/12)*(200 40) = 1304 Btu/h-ft

8.20 The front panel of a dishwasher is at 95 F during the drying cycle. What is the rate

of heat gain by the room, which is maintained at 65 F? The panel is 2.5 ft. square.

Solution: using Equation (8.28) Empirical correlations: isothermal surfaces, gives

hL/k = Nu = C(GrLPr)a

Tf = (Ts + T)/2 = 80 F for air properties

= 0.0735 lbm/ft3, = 16.88 x 10-5 ft2/s, k = 0.01516 Btu/h-ft-F, Pr = 0.708

= 1/T = 1/540 R-1

GrL = g(Ts + T)L3/2 = (32.174)*(1/540)*(30)*(2.5)3/(16.88 x 10-5)2 = 980184191

GrLPr = (980184191)*(0.708) = 693970407 = 6.94 x 108

Using 104 to 109 (laminar) constants from Table 8-3: C = 0.59, a = gives

hL/k = Nu = 0.59*(693970407)1/4 = 95.76

h = 95.76k/L = (95.76)*(0.01516)/2.5 = 0.5807 Btu/h-ft2-F

q = hA(Ts - T) = (0.5807)(2.5)2*(30) = 108.9 Btu/h

18 Sample Kreith & Bohn problems & solutions (from a total of 59 problems previously

worked):

Chapter 1 Basic Modes of Heat Transfer

1.25. A heat exchanger wall consists of a copper plate 3/8 inch thick. The surface

coefficients on the two sides of the plate are 480 and 1250 Btu/h-ft2-F, corresponding to

fluid temperatures of 200 and 90 F, respectively. Assuming that the thermal

conductivity of the wall is 220 Btu/h-ft-F, (a) draw the thermal circuit, (b) compute the

surface temperatures in F, and (c) calculate the heat flux in Btu/h-ft2.

Solution: (a) draw the thermal circuit drawn by hand with 3 resistors in series, heat

flow from left to right, with T1 = 200 F (left-most fluid temp), hc1 = 480 Btu/h-ft2-F,

R1 = 1/hc1A, Tx unknown (left-most surface temp), R2 = t/kA (copper wall), Ty unknown

(right-most surface temp), T2 = 90 F (right-most fluid temp), hc2 = 1250 Btu/h-ft2-F,

and R3 = 1/hc2A.

(b) compute the surface temperatures overall heat flux is given by

q/A = T/RA = (200 90)/{1/480 + (0.375/12)/220 + 1/1250} = 36359 Btu/h-ft2

which is the same through each of the series resistors, so

36359 = (200 Tx)/(1/480), Tx = 124 F

36359 = (Ty 90), Ty = 119 F

(c) calculate the heat flux in Btu/h-ft2 is given above as q/A = 36359 Btu/h-ft2

1.31. A simple solar heater consists of a flat plate of glass below which is located a

shallow pan filled with water, so that the water is in contact with the glass plate above it.

Solar radiation is passing through the glass at the rate of 156 Btu/h-ft2. The water is at

200 F and the surrounding air is 80 F. If the heat transfer coefficients between the

water and the glass and the glass and the air are 5 Btu/h-ft2-F, and 1.2 Btu/h-ft2-F

respectively, determine the time required to transfer 100 Btu/ft2 of surface to the water in

the pan. The lower surface of the pan may be assumed insulated.

Solution: Assuming hci and hco act in series and neglecting resistance of the glass, gives

qc/A = T/RA = (200 80)/{(1/5) + (1/1.2)} = 116.129 Btu/h-ft2 (heat loss)

Qnet/A = 100 Btu/ft2 = {(qs qc)/A}*t = (156 116.129)*t

gives t = 2.5 h

Chapter 2 Conduction

2.5. A plane wall, 7.5 cm thick, generates heat internally at the rate of 105 W/m3. One

side of the wall is insulated, and the other side is exposed to an environment at 93 F.

The convection coefficient between the wall and the environment is 567 W/m2-K. If the

thermal conductivity of the wall is 0.12 W/m-K, calculate the maximum temperature in

the wall.

Solution: Using Fouriers law of heat conduction (1D, SS with heat generation) gives

k 2T/x2 = - qGdot (heat generated/volume) or 2T/x2 = - qGdot/k

integration gives T/x = (- qGdot/k)*x + C1

and again

T(x) = (- qGdot/2k)*x2 + C1x + C2

apply BCs: at x = 0, T/x = 0 = 0 + C1 gives C1 = 0, thus T(x) = (- qGdot/k)*x + C2

at x = 0, T = Tmax gives Tmax = C2 and T/x = (- qGdot/k)*x

at x = L, -kA*(T/x)x=L = hcA*(T2 - T)

qGdot*A*L = hcA*(T2 - T)

qGdot*A*L = hcA*(T2 - T) equation (1)

at x = L, T(L) = (- qGdot/2k)*L2 + Tmax = T2 equation (2)

substitute equation (2) into equation (1) giving qGdot*L/hc = qGdot*L2/2k + Tmax - T

Tmax = T + qGL*(L/2k + 1/hc) = 93 + (105)*(0.075)*{(0.075)/(2*0.12) + (1/567)}

= 2450 C

A TAK 2000 finite difference thermal model (problem2_5.out) gives Tmax = 2450 C

(run as a check)

Solving equation (1) for T2 = qGdot*L/hc + T = (105)*(0.075)/(567) + 93 = 106.2 C

2.15. Estimate the rate of heat loss per unit length from a 2 in-ID, 2.375 in-OD steel pipe

covered with asbestos insulation (3.375 in-OD). Steam flows in the pipe. It has a quality

of 99% and is at 300 F. The unit thermal resistance at the inner wall is 0.015 h-ft2F/Btu, the heat transfer coefficient at the outer surface is 3.0 Btu/h-ft2-F, and the

ambient temperature is 60 F.

Solution: The thermal circuit (drawn by hand) shows 4 resistors in series with Ti = 300

F as the internal fluid temperature, resistor Rci = 1/hciAi (internal fluid resistor), R1 =

ln(r2/r1)/(2Lk1) (conduction resistor through the steel), R2 = ln(r3/r2)/(2Lk2) (conduction

resistor through the asbestos), Ro = 1/hcoAo (outer fluid resistor), and T = 60 F (outer

fluid temperature).

q = T/(Ri + R1 + R2 + Ro)

asbestos k = 0.113 W/m-K = 0.06528 Btu/h-ft-F

for hci 1/Ri = 1/0.015 = 66.67 Btu/h-ft2-F = hci

q = (300 60)/{(1)/(66.67**2*1/12) + ln(2.375/2)/(2**1*24.84) +

ln(3.375/2.375)/(2**1*0.06528) + 1/(3**3.375*1/12)}

q = 240/(0.0286 + 0.00110 + 0.857 + 0.377) = 190 Btu/h-ft2 (heat loss)

Chapter 4 Analysis of Convection Heat and Mass Transfer

4.17. Hydrogen at 15 C and a pressure of 1 atm is flowing along a flat plate at a velocity

of 3 m/s. If the plate is 0.3 m wide and at 71 C, calculate the following quantities at x =

0.3 m and at the distance corresponding to the transition point, i.e., Rex = 5 x 105 (take

properties at 43 C): (a) Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness, in cm, (b) Local

friction coefficient, (c) Average friction coefficient, (d) Drag force, in N, (e) Thickness of

thermal boundary layer, in cm, (f) Local convective-heat-transfer coefficient, in W/m2C, (g) Average convective-heat-transfer coefficient, in W/m2-C, and (h) Rate of heat

transfer, in W.

Solution: Table 31 (page 669) gives properties for H2 at p = 1 atm linear interpolation

T(C)

cp

k

x 106

Pr

27 14314 0.182

8.963

0.706

43

x1

x2

x3

x4

77 14436 0.206

9.954

0.697

16/50 = (x1 14314)/(14436 14314) = (x2 0.182)/0.024 = (x3 8.963)/(9.954 8.963)

= (x4 0.706)/(0.697 0.706)

x1 = cp = 14353 J/kg-K, x2 = k = 0.190 W/m-K, x3 = x 106 = 9.280,

= 9.280 x 10-6 N-s/m2, x4 = Pr = 0.703, = 0.07811 kg/m3

Transition occurs at Recr = 5 x 105, solving for xc with Re = VL/ gives

5 x 105 = (0.07811 kg/m3)*(3 m/s)*(xc)/(9.280 x 10-6 kg-m-s/s2-m2), gives xx = 19.8 m

at x = 0.3, Rex=0.3 = (0.07811)*(3)*(0.3)/(9.280 x 10-6) = 7575

(a) Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness in cm

x = 0.3 m, = 5x/(Rex)1/2 = (5)*(0.3 m)/(7575)1/2 = 1.7234 x 10-2 m = 1.7234 cm

x = 19.8 m, = 5x/(Rex)1/2 = (5)*(19.8 m)/(500000)1/2 = 0.140 m = 14 cm

(b) Local friction coefficient, Cfx = s/(U2/2) = 0.664/(Rex)1/2

x = 0.3, Cfx = 0.664/(7575)1/2 = 0.007629

x = 19.8, Cfx = 0.664/(500000)1/2 = 0.000939

(c) Average friction coefficient, Cf = (1/L)* Cfx dx (integrate from 0 to L)

= 1.33*(/UL) = 1.33/(ReL)1/2, thus for a given x or L, Cf = 2Cfx

x = 0.3, Cf = 2*(0.007629) = 0.01526

x = 19.8, Cf = 2*(0.000939) = 0.001878

(d) Drag force, D = sA where s = Cf*(U2/2), thus D = CfA*(U2/2)

for x = 0.3, D = (0.01528)*(0.07811)*(3)2*(0.30)2/2 = 0.0004827 N

for x = 19.8, D = (0.001878)*(0.07811)*(3)2*(0.30)*(19.8)/2 = 0.003921 N

(e) Thickness of thermal boundary layer, in cm, using Eqn. (4.47) rh = /Pr1/3

for x = 0.3, th = (1.7234 x 10-2)/(0.703)1/3 = 1.938 x 10-2 m = 1.938 cm

for x = 19.8, th = (0.140)/(0.703)1/3 = 0.1575 m = 15.75 cm

Nux = hcxx/k = 0.332*Re0.5*Pr0.33

for x = 0.3, Nux = (0.332)*(7575)0.5*(0.703)0.33 = 25.693

hcx = 25.693*k/x = (25.693)*(0.190)/0.3 = 16.27 W/m2-C

for x = 19.8, Nux = (0.332)*(500000)0.5*(0.703)0.33 = 208.7

hcx = 208.7*k/x = (208.7)*(0.190)/19.8 = 2.003 W/m2-C

(g) Average convective-heat-transfer coefficient, in W/m2-C

NuL = 0.664*ReL0.5Pr0.33 = 2*Nux and hc = 2*hcx

for x = L = 0.3, NuL = 2*25.693 = 51.386

hc = 2*16.27 = 32.54 W/m2-C

for x = L = 19.8, NuL = 2*208.7 = 417.4

hc = 2*2.003 = 4.006 W/m2-C

What does the following equation give for x = xc = 19.8 m:

NuL = 0.036*Pr0.33*(Re0.8 23200) = 0.036*(0.703)0.33(5000000.8 23200)

= 417.87 = hcL/k so hc = 4.01 W/m2-C

which matches well with laminar value of hc = 4.006 W/m2-C at x = xcr = 19.8 m.

4.19. Determine the rate of heat loss in Btu/hr from the wall of a building in a 10-mph

wind blowing parallel to its surface. The wall is 80 ft long, 20 ft high, its surface

temperature is 80 F, and the temperature of the ambient air is 40 F.

Solution: Tmean = Tf = (Ts - T)/2 = 60 F

Table 27 (page 665) air properties (use values at 68 F)

= 0.07267 lbm/ft3, cp = 0.2417 Btu/lbm-F, k = 0.01450 Btu/h-ft-F, Pr = 0.71

= 12.257 x 10-6 lbm/ft-s

ReL = VL/

V = (10 miles/h) * (5280 ft/1 mile) * (1 h/3600 s) = 14.67 ft/s

ReL = (0.07267)*(14.67)*)*(80)/(12.257 x 10-6) = 6956367 = 69.6 x 105 (turbulent)

Use NuL = hcL/k = 0.036*Pr0.33*(ReL0.8 23200) = 0.036*(0.71)0.33*(69563670.8 23200)

NuL = hcL/k = 8829, hc = 8829*(0.01450)/80 = 1.6002 Btu/h-ft2-F

Heat loss qc = hcA*(Ts - T) = (1.6002)*(80)*(20)*(80 40) = 102413 Btu/h

Chapter 5 Natural Convection

5.4 Compare the rate of heat loss from a human body with the typical energy intake from

consumption of food (1300 kcal/day). Model the body as a vertical cylinder 30 cm in

diameter and 1.8 m high in still air. Assume the skin temperature is 2 C below normal

body temperature. Neglect radiation, transpiration cooling (sweating), and the effects of

clothing.

Solution: assume T = 20 F (not given)

Ein = 1300 x 103 cal/day x 4.186 J/1 cal x 1 day/24 h x 1 h/3600 s = 62.9838 W

Tb = 98.6 F, T(C) = {T(F) 32}*(5/9) = {98.6 32}*(5/9) = 37 C

-2 C below normal body temperature gives Ts = 35 C

Objective: to compare the rate of heat loss (due to free convection) from a human body

to the heat gain, using vertical cylinder correlation see Figure 4.

Air properties use Tmean = (35 + 20)/2 = 27.5 C

Dimensionless parameters: GrL = g*(Ts - T)*2L3/2, Pr = cp/k = /

Linear interpolation of air properties table: (without interpolation Pr = 0.71)

T(C)

x 103 cp

k

x 106

20 1.164

3.41

1012 0.0251 18.24

27.5 x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

40 1.092

3.19

1014 0.0265 19.123

7.5/20 = (x1 1.164)/(1.092 1.164) = (x2 3.41)/(3.19 3.41)

= (x3 1012)/(1014 1012) = (x4 0.0251)/(0.0265 0.0251)

= (x5 18.24)/(19.123 18.24)

x1 = = 1.137 kg/m3, x2 = x 103 = 3.3275 1/K, x3 = cp = 1012.75 J/kg-K

x4 = k = 0.025625 W/m-K, x5 = x 106 = 18.571125 N-s/m2

GrL = (9.81 m/s)*(3.3275 x 10-3 1/K)*(15 K)*(1.137 kg/m3)*(1.8 m)3

/(18.571125 x 10-6 kg-m-s/s2-m2)2 = 10703858243.6

GrLPr = 7599739353 = 7.599737353 x 109

Figure 5.4 gives 2 appropriate correlation curves one for laminar and one for

transition/turbulent region

Using the laminar correlation: NuL = 0.555*(GrLPr)1/4 = 163.867 = hcL/kf

hc = (163.867)*(0.025625)/1.8 = 2.333 W/m2-K

Eout = qc = hcA*(Ts - T) = (2.333)**(0.30)*(1.8)*(15) = 59.36 W

Using the transition/turbulent region correlation: NuL = 0.0210*(GrLPr)2/5

= 188.165 = hcL/kf

hc = (188.165)*(0.025625)/1.8 = 2.6787 W/m2-K

Eout = qc = hcA*(Ts - T) = (2.6787)**(0.30)*(1.8)*(15) = 68.17 W

Both calculated Eout values obtained from an idealized geometric model and simplified

thermal model (sensible convection only) compare well (energy-balance wise) with Ein =

62.98 W.

5.16 Estimate the rate of heat transfer across a 1-m tall double-pane window assembly in

which the outside pane is at 0 C and the inside pane is at 20 C. The panes are spaced 1

cm apart. What is the thermal resistance (R value) of the window?

Solution: Gr = g2*(T1 T2)*3/2, use Tmean = (T1 + T2)/2 = 10 C to evaluate props.

Table A27 gives the following: = 1.208 kg/m3, x 103 = 3.535 K-1,

k = 0.0244 W/m-K, x 10-6 = 17.848 N-s/m2, Pr = 0.71

Gr = (9.81)*(3.535 x 10-3)*(1.208)2*(20)*(0.01)3/(17.848 x 10-6)2 = 3177.19

GrPr = 2255.8, L/ = 1/0.01 = 100

Because Gr 8000, the heat transfer mechanism is equivalent to conduction across the

enclosure, giving qk = kA*(T1 T2) = (0.0244)*(1)*(1)*(20)/0.01 = 48.8 W

R-value: Rk = /kA = (0.01 m)/{(0.0244 W/m-K)*(1 x 1 m2) = 0.4098 K/W

6.3 For water at a bulk temperature of 32 C flowing at a velocity of 1.5 m/s through a

2.54 cm ID duct with a wall temperature of 43 C, calculate the Nusselt number and the

convection heat transfer coefficient by three different methods and compare the results.

Solution: For water at Tb = 32 C Table 13 (page 651) linear interpolation gives

T(C)

cp

k

x 106

Pr

30

995.7 4176 0.615

792.4

5.4

32

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

35

994.1 4175 0.624

719.8

4.8

2/5 = (x1 - 995.7)/(994.1 995.7) = (x2 4.176)/(-1) = (x3 0.615)/(0.009)

= (x4 792.4)/(719.8 - 792.4) = (x5 5.4)/(-0.6)

x1 = = 995.06 kg/m3, x2 = cp = 4175.6, x3 = k = 0.6186 W/m-K,

x4 = x 106 = 763.36 N-s/m2, x5 = Pr = 5.16

ReD = VD/ = (995.06)*(1.5)*(0.0254)/(763.36 x 10-6) = 49664 (turbulent)

Method (1): using Table 6.3 (page 324) and first equation

NuD = 0.023*ReD0.8Pr0.4 = 0.023*(49664)0.8*(5.16)0.4 = 253.29

hc = (253.29)*kf/D = (253.29)*(0.6186)/(0.0254) = 6169 W/m2-K

Method (2): using Table 6.3 and second equation NuD = 0.027*ReD0.8Pr1/3*(b/s)0.2

At Tw = Ts = 43 C linear interpolation gives

T(C) x 106

3/5 = (y1 658)/(605.1 658)

40

658.0

y1= s = 626.26 x 10-6 N-s/m2

43

y1

45

605.1

NuD = 0.027*(49664)0.8 *(5.16)1/3*(763.36/626.26)0.2 = 273 = hcD/kf

hc = (273)*(0.6186)/(0.0254) = 6647 W/m2-K

Method (3): using Table 6.3 and third equation

NuD = (f/8)*ReDPr/{K1 + K2*(f/8)1/2*(Pr2/3 1)}

where f = (1.82*log10ReD 1.64)-2 and log10x = (ln x)/(ln 10), gives

f = 0.020963, K1 = 1 + 3.4f = 1.07127, K2 = 11.7 + 1.8/Pr1/3 = 12.74165

NuD = (0.020963/8)*(49664)*(5.16)/

{1.07127 + 12.74165*(0.020963/8)1/2*(5.162/3 1)} = 284 = hcD/kf

hc = (284)*(0.6186)/(0.0254) = 6910 W/m2-K

Summary: (1) NuD = 253, (2) NuD = 273, and (3) NuD = 284

gives (NuD)avg = 270 (+6% ,-6%)

6.16 Water at 82.2 C is flowing through a thin copper tube (15.2 cm ID) at a velocity of

7.6 m/s. The duct is located in a room at 15.6 C and the unit-surface-conductance at the

outer surface of the duct is 14.1 W/m2-K. (a) Determine the heat transfer coefficient at

the inner surface. (b) Estimate the length of duct in which the water temperature drops

(5/9) C.

T(C)

cp

k

x 106 Pr

75 974.9 4190 0.671 376.6 2.23

82.2 x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

100 958.4 4211 0.682 277.5 1.75

0.288 = (x1 974.9)/(958.4 974.9) = (x2 4190)/(4211 4190) = (x3 0.671)/0.011

= (x4 376.6)/(277.5 376.6) = (x5 2.23)/(1.75 2.23)

x1 = = 970.148 kg/m3, x2 = cp = 9196.048 J/kg-K, x3 = k = 0.674168 W/m-K,

x4 = x 106 = 348.0592 N-s/m2, x5 = Pr = 2.09176

Re = VD/ = (970.148)*(7.6)*(0.152)/(348.0592 x 10-6) = 3219898 = 32.19898 x 105

(turbulent)

Using NuD 0.023*(ReD)0.8*(Pr)0.3 = 0.023*(3219898)0.8(2.09176)0.3 = 4614.8 = hcD/kf

hc = (4614.8)*(0.674168)/(0.152) = 20468 W/m2-K

Neglecting copper wall T or Rth

hciA*(Tb Ts) = hcoA*(Ts - T) or hci*(Tb Ts) = hco*(Ts - T)

Ts*(hco + hci) = hciTb + hcoT

Ts = (hciTb + hcoT)/(hco + hci) = {(204.68)*(82.2) + (14.1)*(15.6)}/(204.68 + 14.1)

= 82.155 C

(b) hciA*(Tb Ts) = mdot*cpTb

mdot = AV = (970.148 kg/m3)*(/4)*(0.152 m)2*(7.6 m/s) = 133.79 kg/s

hciDL*(Tb Ts) = mdot*cpTb

L = (mdot*cpTb)/{hciD*(Tb Ts)}

= (133.79 kg/s)*(4196.048 J/kg-K)*(5/9 C)/

{(20468 W/m2-K)**(0.152 m)*(82.2 82.155) C} = 2228 m (for Tb = 5/9 C drop)

Chapter 7 Forced Convection over Exterior Surfaces

7.4 Steam at 1 atm and 100 C is flowing across a 5-cm-OD tube at a velocity of 6 m/s.

Estimate the Nusselt number, the heat transfer coefficient, and the rate of heat transfer per

meter length of pipe if the pipe is at 200 C.

Solution: Use correlation NuD = hcD/k = C*(UD/)m*Prn*(Pr/Prs)0.25 (7.3)

Steam at 1 atm and 100 C Table 34 (page 672) gives = 0.5977 kg/m3,

cp = 2034 J/kg-K, k = 0.0249 W/m-K, x 106 = 12.10 N-s/m2, Pr = 0.987

To get Prs at Ts = 200 C linear interpolation gives

T(C) Prs

23/50 = (x1 1.010)/(0.996 1.010)

177 1.010

x1 = Prs = 1.00356

200

x1

227 0.996

Re = UD/ = (0.5977)*(6)*(0.05)/(12.10 x 10-6) = 14819 = 1.4819 x 104

Gives for Equation (7.3) the following constants: C = 0.26, m = 0.6, n = 0.36

NuD = hcD/k = 0.26*(14819)0.6*(0.987)0.36*(0.987/1.00356)0.25 = 81.96

hc = (81.96)*(0.0249)/(0.05) = 40.82 W/m2-K

qc = hcA*(Ts - T) = hcDL*(Ts - T)

qc/L = hcD*(Ts - T) = (40.82)**(0.05)*(100) = 256 W/m

7.6 Determine the average unit-surface conductance for air at 60 C flowing at a velocity

of 1 m/s over a bank of 6-cm-OD tubes arranged as shown in the accompanying sketch

(shows a staggered tube bank). The tube-wall temperature is 117 C.

Solution: Reference Figure 7.18 (page 372) for a typical staggered tube arrangement. In

our case, D = 6 cm, SL = 7.6 cm, ST = 5.1 cm,

SL 2 = ST2 + SL2 = 5.12 + 7.62 gives SL = 9.1526 cm, ST/SL = 5.1/7.6 2

Air properties at Tf = (Ts + T)/2 = (117 + 60)/2 = 88.5 C using linear interpolation gives

T(C)

cp

k

x 106 Pr = 0.71

80 0.968 10.19 0.0293 20.790

88.5

x1

x2

x3

x4

100 0.916

10.22 0.0307

21.673

0.425 = (x1 0.968)/(0.916 0.968) = (x2 1019)/3 = (x3 0.0293)/(0.0307 0.0293)

= (x4 20.790)/(21.673 20.790)

x1 = = 0.9459 kg/m3, x2 = cp = 1020.275 J/kg-K, x3 = k = 0.029895 W/m-K,

x4 = x 106 = 21.165275 N-s.m2

ReD = VD/ = (0.9459)*(1)*(0.06)/(21.165275 x 10-6) = 2681.5

Using a transition regime equation (for 103 ReD 2 x 105)

NuD = hcD/k = 0.35*(ST/SL)0.2ReD0.6Pr0.36(Pr/Prs)0.25

= 0.35*(5.1/7.6)0.2 *(2681.5)0.6(0.71)0.36(1)0.25 = 32.576

hc = (32.576)*(0.029895)/(0.06) = 16.23 W/m2-K

Chapter 8 Heat Exchangers

8.3 A light oil flows through a copper tube of 2.6 cm ID and 3.2 cm OD. Air is flowing

over the exterior of the tube. The convective heat transfer coefficient for the oil is 120

W/m2-K and for the air is 35 W/m2-K. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient

based on the outside area of the tube (a) considering the thermal resistance of the tube,

(b) neglecting the resistance of the tube.

Solution: Using q = UA*(Th Tc)

where UA = 1/R = 1/{(1/hciAi) + ln(ro/ri)/(2kL) + (1/hcoAo)}

hci = 120 W/m2-K, hco = 35 W/m2-K, Ai = DiL = (0.026)*(1), Ao = DoL =

(0.032)(1)

A0/Ai = D0/Di, for copper k = 399 W/m-K

(a) including Rth for the tube and based upon the outer area

Uo = 1/{(D0/Di)*(1/hci) + DoL*ln(ro/ri)/(2kL) + (1/hco)}

= 1/{(3.2/2.6)/(1/120) + (0.032)*(1)*ln(3.2/2.6)/(2**399*1) + (1/35)}

= 1/{(1.0256 x 10-2) + (8.3264 x 10-6) + (2.857 x 10-2)} = 25.75 W/m2-K

(b) without including the thermal resistance of the copper wall gives U0 = 25.76 W/m2-K.

8.9 A shell-and-tube heat exchanger has one shell pass and four tube passes. The fluid in

the tubes enters at 200 C and leaves at 100 C. The temperature of the fluid entering the

shell is 20 C and is 90 C as it leaves the shell. The overall heat transfer coefficient

based on a surface area of 12 m2 is 300 W/m2-K. Calculate the heat transfer rate between

fluids.

(eqn 8.18)

Using Fig. 8.12 for a HX with one shell pass and four tube passes

P = (Tt,out Tt,in)/(Ts,in Tt,in) = (100 200)/(20 200) = 100/180 = 0.18

Z = (mdottcpt)/(mdotscps) = (Ts,in Ts,out)/(Tt,out Tt,in) = (20 90)/(100 200) = 0.70

From Fig. 8.12, gives F = 0.98

F * LMTD = F * (Ta Tb)/ln(Ta/Tb)

Ta = Th,in Tc,out = 200 90 = 110 C

Tb = Th,out Tc,in = 100 20 = 80 C

F * LMTD = (0.98)*(110 80)/ln(110/80) = 92.32 C

Heat transfer rate is given by

q = UA*F*LMTD = (300 W/m2-K)*(12 m2)*(92.32 C) = 332356 W (K = C)

(counterflow HX was assumed)

8.12 Water entering a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is at 35 C is to be heated to 75 C

by an oil. The oil enters at 110 C and leaves at 75 C. The heat exchanger is arranged

for counterflow with water making one shell pass and the oil two tube passes. If the

water flow rate is 68 kg/min and the overall heat transfer coefficient is estimated from

Table 8.1 to be 320 W/m2-K, calculate the required heat exchanger area.

Solution: q = UA*F*LMTD

Using Figure 8.12 for two tube passes

P = (Tt,out Tt,in)/(Ts,in Tt,in) = (75 110)/(35 110) = 35/75 = 0.4667

Z = (mdottcpt)/(mdotscps) = (Ts,in Ts,out)/(Tt,out Tt,in) = (35 75)/(75 110) = 1.143

Figure 8.12 gives F = 0.8

Ta = Th,in Tc,out = 110 75 = 35 C

Tb = Th,out Tc,in = 75 35 = 40 C

F * LMTD = F * (Ta Tb)/ln(Ta/Tb) = 0.80*(35 40)/ln(35/40) = 29.96 C

Heat transfer multiple pass need to solve for A with q = UA*F*LMTD (equation 1)

For the water mdot = 68 kg/min, at Tmean = (35 + 75)/2 = 55 C (use 50 C)

cp = 4178 J/kg-K

qwater = mdot*cp*T = (68 kg/min)*(1 min/60 s)*(4178 J/kg-K)*(40 K) = 189402.67 W

equate to equation 1: 189402.67 W = (320 W/m2-K)*A*(29.96 K)

gives A = 19.8 m2

Chapter 9 Heat Transfer by Radiation

9.3. Determine the total average hemispherical emittance and the emissive power of a

surface which has a spectral hemispherical emittance of 0.8 at wavelengths less than 1.5

m, 0.6 from 1.5 to 2.5 m, and 0.4 at wavelengths longer than 2.5 m. The surface

temperature is 1111 K.

Solution: at = 1.5 m, T = (1.5 m)*(1111 K) = 1666.5 m-K = 1.6665 x 10-3 m-K

Table 9.1 (Blackbody Radiation Functions) gives Eb(0T)/T4 = 0.0262455 ( = 0.8)

at = 2.5 m, T = (2.5 m)*(1111 K) = 2.7775 x 10-3 m-K

table 9.1 gives Eb(0T)/T4 = 0.222871 giving

= 01 ()*Eb(T)*d*{(1 ()*Eb(T)*d)/Eb}

= 0.8*(0.0262455) + 0.6*(0.222871 0.0262455) + 0.4*(1 0.222871) = 0.4498

Emissive power is given by Eg = T4 = (0.4498)*(5.67 x 10-8*(1111)4 = 38858 W/m2

9.23. A black sphere (1 inch diameter) is placed in a large infrared heating oven whose

walls are maintained at 700 F. The temperature of the air in the oven is 200 F and the

heat-transfer coefficient for convection between the surface of the sphere and air is 5

Btu/h-ft2-F. Estimate the net rate of heat flow to the sphere when its surface temperature

is 100 F.

Solution: sphere surface area S = 4R2 = D2 = in2 x ft2/(144 in2) = /144 ft2

Energy balance on sphere assume steady state

qx-1 = (Eb2 Eb1)*A1F1-2 + hcAs*(T T1)

= (0.1714 x 10-8 Btu/h-ft2-R4)*(11604 5604)R4(/144 ft2)

+ (5 Btu/h-ft2-F)*(/144 ft2)*(200 100) = 64.03 + 10.91

= 74.9 Btu/h

(radiation) (convection)

9.30. Three thin sheets of polished aluminum are placed parallel to each other so that the

distance between them is very small compared to the size of the sheets. If on of the outer

sheets is at 540 F, whereas the other outer sheet is at 140 F, calculate the net rate of heat

flow by radiation and the temperature of the intermediate sheet. Convection may be

ignored.

Solution: outer sheet 1 T1 = 540 F = 1000 R, outer sheet 2 T2 = 140 F = 600 R

Intermediate or middle sheet 3, known are geometric view factors F1-3 = F3-2 = 1, equal

areas, use = 0.05, = 1 = 0.95

Using q1-3 = A11-3*(Eb1 = Eb3) = q1-3 = A11-3*(Tb1 - Tb3)

Configuration factor 1-3 = 1/(1/1 + 1/3 + 1) = 1/(1/0.05 + 1/0.05 + 1) = 0.02439

q1-3 = A1*(0.02439)*(10004 T34)

also q3-2 = A33-2*(Tb3 - Tb2) = A3*(0.02439)*(T34 6004)

equate for energy balance q1-3 = q3-2

A1*(0.02439)*(10004 T34) = A3*(0.02439)*(T34 6004)

10004 T34 = T34 6004 gives T3 = 867 R = 407 F

q1-3 = A11-3*(Tb1 - Tb3) = A*(0.02439)*(0.1718 x 10-8)*(10004 - 8674) = 18.2 Btu/h-ft2

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