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# John R.

## Carr, JRC Analytical Services, Mechanical Engineering, PE, MSME, BSME,

6/25/2011
thermjrc@yahoo.com, www.jrcanalyticalservices.com, 615-218-0131
Samples of 33 Recently Solved Problems in Heat Transfer (165 total problems solved
and 49 TAK 2000 models in the last two years). References include the following:

Heat Transfer by J.P. Holman, 9th edition (2002) covered 3/12 to 4/9/2011 (69
problems and 9 TAK 2000 models).
Heat Transfer SO by Pitts & Sissom, 2nd edition (1998) - covered 2/12 to
3/10/2011 (37 problems and 4 TAK 2000 models).
Principles of Heat Transfer by Kreith & Bohn, 4th edition (1984) covered
11/16 to 12/25/2010, reviewed 5/15 to 5/24/2011 (59 problems and 36 TAK
2000 models).

## 12 Sample Holman problems & solutions (from a total of 69 problems previously

worked):
Chapter 1 Introduction
1-18. A small radiant heater has metal strips 6 mm with a total length of 3 m. The
surface emissivity of the strips is 0.85. To what temperature must the strips be heated if
they are to dissipate 2000 W of heat to a room at 25 C?
Solution: for an enclosure q = 1A1(T14 T24)
q/1A1 = T14 T24 or T14 = T24 + q/1A1
T14 = (298 K)4 + (2000 W)/{(0.85)*(5.669 x 10-8 W/m2-K4)*(0.006 m)*(3 m)}
T1 = 1233 K = 960 C
1-24. One side of a plane wall is maintained at 100 C, while the other side is exposed to
a convection environment having T = 10 C and h = 10 W/m2-C. The wall has k = 1.6
W/m-C and is 40 cm thick. Calculate the heat-transfer rate through the wall.
Solution: using two resistors in series, q = T/R = T/(R1 + R2) = T/(t/kA + 1/hA)
= A*T/(t/k + 1/h)
q/A = T/(t/k + 1/h) = (100 10)C/{(0.40 m)/(1.6 W/m-C) + 1/(10 W/m2-C)
= 90 C/{(0.25 + 0.1)m2-C} = 257 W/m2
1-30. A black 20-by-20 cm plate has air forced over it at a velocity of 2 m/s and a
temperature of 0 C. The plate is placed in a large room whose walls are at 30 C. The
back side of the plate is perfectly insulated. Calculate the temperature of the plate
resulting from the convection-radiation balance. Use information from Table 1-3(for
convection coefficients).

## Solution: energy balance gives qin = qout

Holman uses the intro equation for net exchange of radiation q = FFG A(T14 T24)
where F is an emissivity function, and FG is a geometric view factor function. In our
case, assume both are equal to 1, giving
*A*(Twalls4 TS4) = hc*A*(TS - T)
Table 1-3 (page 11) gives hc = 12 W/m2-C for flow conditions and As cancel out,
giving (5.669 x 10-8 W/m2-K4)*(3034 TS4) K4 = (12 W/m2-C)*(TS 273) K
(3034 TS4) K4 = (211677544.54 K3)*(TS 273)
Guess TS until LHS = RHS as follows:
TS
LHS
RHS
280 1481742812 2282332481
290 3598518257 1356082481
285 2540130534 1831391856
283 2116775445 2014644560
282 1905097900 2104825905
Use TS = 282 K = 9 C as the temperature of the plate.
Chapter 2 Steady-State Conduction One Dimension
2-4.

Find the heat transfer per unit area through the composite wall in Figure P2-4.
Assume one-dimensional heat flow.

Solution: Figure shows a wall such that the hot face (LHS) is at T = 370 C and the cold
face (RHS) is at 66 C. The first layer on the left is material A with kA = 150 W/m-C
and LA = 2.5 cm, second layer (middle) is a layer with materials B and D in parallel with
kB = 30 W/m-C and kD = 70 W/m-C and LB = LD = 7.5 cm and AB = AD = 0.5*AA, and
the right-most layer is material C with kC = 50 W/m-C and AC = AA = 0.1 m2.
Calculating the individual resistances according to R = L/kA gives the following:
RA = LA/kAAA = (0.025 m)/{(150 W/m-C)*(0.1 m2)} = 1.667 x 10-3 C/W
RB = LB/kBAB = (0.075)/{(30)*(0.1/2)} = 0.05 C/W
RD = LD/kDAD = (0.075)/{(70 W/m-C)*(0.1/2)} = 2.14286 x 10-2 C/W
For the parallel resistors:
Req = RBRD/(RB + RD) = (0.05)*(2.14286 x 10-2)/(0.5 + 2.14286 x 10-2)
= 2.0548 x 10-3 C/W
RC = LC/kCAC = (0.05)/{(50)*(0.1)} = 0.01 C/W
Overall heat flow is given by
q = T/R = (370 66)/(1.667 x 10-3 + 2.0548 x 10-3 + 0.01) = 22155 W (A = 0.1 m2)
gives q/A = 221550 W/m2.
2-43. A plate having a thickness of 4.0 mm has an internal heat generation of 200
MW/m3 and a thermal conductivity of 25 W/m-C. One side of the plate is insulated and
the other side is maintained at 100 C. Calculate the maximum temperature in the plate.
Solution: simplified differential equation is d2T/dx2 + qdot/k = 0
(qdot = heat generation/volume as given). Two integrations give
dT/dx = -(qdot/k)*x + C1

## T(x) = -(qdot/2k)*x2 + C1x + C2

Applying BCs: at x = 0, dT/dx = 0 gives 0 = 0 + C1 or C1 = 0
Thus T(x) = -(qdot/2k)*x2 + C2
Applying BC of T(L) = 100 C = -(qdot/2k)*L2 + C2 gives C2 = 100 + (qdot/2k)*L2
T(x) = -(qdot/2k)*L2 + 100 + (qdot/2k)*L2 = (qdot/2k)*(L2 x2) + 100
Max T occurs at x = 0 where dT/dx = 0 so Tmax = T(0) = (qdot/2k)*L2 + 100
= {(200 x 106 W/m3)/(2*25 W/m-C)}*(0.004 m)2 + 100 = 164 C
2-69. A very long copper rod (k = 372 W/m-C) 2.5 cm in diameter has one end
maintained at 90 C. The rod is exposed to a fluid whose temperature is 40 C. The heattransfer coefficient is 3.5 W/m2-C. How much heat is lost by the rod?
Solution: DE is d2/dx2 (hP/kA) = 0 where = T - T
Boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = o = To - T and case 1 as x , TT or
() = 0
solution to DE is /o = (T - T)/(To - T) = e-mx
m2 = hP/kA = {(3.5 W/m2-C)**(0.025 m)}/{(372 W/m-C)*(/4)*(0.025 m)2}
= 1.505 1/m2 giving m = 1.2269 1/m
q = (hPkA)1/2o
= {(3.5 W/m2-C)**(0.025 m)*(372 W/m-C)*(/4)*(0.025 m)2}1/2*(90 40)C
= 11.2 W
Chapter 3 Steady-State Conduction Multi Dimensions I built several TAK 2000
finite difference thermal models in support of solving some of the examples and some of
the homework problems in the book. I did no analytical or graphical solutions.
Chapter 4 Unsteady-State Conduction Again, several TAK 2000 models were built to
simulate the example problems and compare transient numerical results. Also, a couple
of lumped parameter analysis problems (among others) were worked as follows:
4-6. A piece of aluminum weighing 6 kg and initially at a temperature of 300 C is
suddenly immersed in a fluid at 20 C. The convection heat-transfer coefficient is 58
W/m2-C. Taking the aluminum as a sphere having the same weight as that given,
estimate the time required to cool the aluminum to 90 C, using the lumped-capacity
method of analysis (if applicable).
Solution: W = mg = Vg with = 2707 kg/m3
For a sphere S = A = 4R2 = D2 and V = (4/3)R3
V = (4/3)R3 = m/ = (6 kg)/(2707 kg/m3) gives R = 0.080883 m
Biot number = Bi = hS/k = h*(V/A)/k = h*(4 R3)/{k*4R2) = hR/3k
= (58 W/m2-C)*(0.080883 m)/{(3)*(204 W/m-C)} = 7.665 x 10-3
Since Bi << 0.1 lumped-parameter analysis is applicable
(T - T)/(To - T) = e-(hA/cV) where c = 896 J/kg-C
(hA/cV) = 1/(RrhCth) with c = cV/hA (time constant)
c = (896 J/kg-C)*(2707 kg/m3)*(4/3)**(0.080883 m)3/

## {(58 J/s-m2-C)*(4)*(0.088083 m)2} = 1127.5 s

Gives (T - T)/(To - T) = e-/1127.5
ln{(T - T)/(To - T)} = -/1127.5
ln{(90 - 20)/(300 - 20)} = -/1127.5
= t = 1563 s (26 min) to cool to T = 90 C
4-58. A 4.0-cm cube of aluminum is initially at 450 C and is suddenly exposed to a
convection environment at 100 C with h = 120 W/m2-C. How long does it take the
cube to cool to 250 ?
Solution: for Aluminum (pure) = 2707 kg/m3, c = 896 J/kg-C, k = 204 W/m-C
Biot number Bi = hs/k = h*(V/A)/k = h*L3/(6L2*k) = (120 W/m2-C)/(6*204 W/m-C)
= (2.353/6) x 10-2
Since Bi 0.1 lumped parameter analysis is applicable
Resulting solution of DE is (T - T)/(To - T) = e-/c where c = cV/hA (time constant)
c = (896 J/kg-C)*(2707 kg/m3)*(0.04 m)3/{(120 W/m2-C)*(0.04 m)2} = 808.5 s
Time to reach T = 250 C is given by (250 100)/(450 100) = e-/808.5
= 685 s = 11.4 min
Chapter 5 Principles of Convection
5-7. Oxygen at a pressure of 2 atm and 27 C blows across a 50-cm-square plate at a
velocity of 30 m/s. The plate temperature is maintained constant at 127 C. Calculate the
total heat lost by the plate.
Solution: film temperature is Tf = (T + Tw) /2 = 77 C = 350 K
Reynolds number ReL = uL/ = uL/
Evaluating properties of O2 at Tf = 350 K gives the following: = 1.1133 kg/m3,
= 20.80 x 10-6 m2/s, k = 0.03070 W/m-C, and Pr = 0.702
ReL = (30 m/s)*(0.50 m)/(20.80 x 10-6 m2/s) = 721154 > 5 x 105 (turbulent at trailing
edge) use Eqn. (5-85) that takes into account laminar/turbulent flow with a transition
Reynolds number of 5 x 105, eqn. is applicable for ReL < 107
NuL = hL/k = Pr1/3*(0.037*ReL0.8 871) (5-85)
= (0.702)1/3*{(0.037)*(721154)0.8 871} = 823.6
h = (823.6)k/L = (823.6)*(0.03070)/(0.50) = 50.55 W/m2-C
q = 2hA(Tw - T) = 2*(50.55)*(0.5)*(0.5)*(127 27) = 2527.5 W (both sides of plate)
5-23. Calculate the heat transfer from a 20-cm-square plate over which air flows at 35 C
and 14 kPa. The plate temperature is 250 C, and the free-stream velocity is 6 m/s.
Solution: using Tf = (Ts + T)/2 = (250 + 35)/2 = 142.5 C = 415.5 K (avg film temp)
Air properties at Tf = 415.5 gives the following linear interpolation
T(K) x 106 (m2-s) k (W/m-K) Pr
400
25.90
0.03365
0.689
415.5
x1
x2
x3
450
31.71
0.03707
0.683

## 15.5/50 = (x1 25.90)/(31.71 25.9) = (x2 0.03365)/(0.03707 0.03365)

= (x3 0.689)/(0.683 0.689)
x1 = x 106 = 27.70, = 27.70 x 10-6, x2 = k = 0.03471 W/m-K, x3 = Pr = 0.687
ReL = uL/ = (6 m/s)*(0.20 m)/(27.70 x 10-6 m2/s) = 43321.3 < 5 x 105 (laminar)
NuL = hL/k = 0.664*ReL1/2Pr1/3 equation (5.46b)
NuL = (0.664)*(43321.3)1/2*(0.687)1/3 = 121.96
h = 121.96k/L = (121.96)*(0.03471)/(0.20) = 21.165 W/m2-K
q = 2hA*(Ts - T) = 2*(21.165 W/m2-K)*(0.20 m)2*(250 35) K = 364 W
(both sides of plate)
Chapter 6 Empirical and Practical Relations for Forced-Convection Heat Transfer
6-6. Water at the rate of 0.8 kg/s is heated from 35 to 40 C in a 2.5-cm-diameter tube
whose surface is at 90 C. How long must the tube be to accomplish this heating?
Solution Tb,ave = (Tb,1 + Tb,2)/2 = 37.5 C
Water properties Table A-9: cp = 4174 J/kg-C, = 993 kg/m3, = 6.82 x 10-4 kg/m-s,
k = 0.630 W/m-C, Pr = 4.53
Reynolds number Red = umd/
mdot = 0.8 kg/s = Aum = (993 kg/m3)*(/4)*(0.025 m)2*um gives um = 1.641 m/s
Red = (993 kg/m3)*(1.641 m/s)*(0.025 m)/(6.82 x 10-4 kg/m-s) = 59741.4 (turbulent)
Using Eqn. (6-4c) good for 1.5 < Pr < 500, 3000 < Re < 106
Nu = hd/k = 0.012*(Red0.87 280)*Pr0.4 = 0.012*(59741.40.87 280)*4.530.4 = 307.9
h = 307.9k/d = (307.9)*(0.630)/(0.025) = 7758.8 W/m2-C
q = mdot*cp*Tb = hA*(Tw Tb)ave
Computing q1 = mdot*cp*Tb = (0.8 kg/s)*(4714 J/kg-C)*(40 35) C = 18856 W
so 18856 W = hdL*(Tw Tb)ave = (7758.8 W/m2-C)**(0.025 m)*L*(90 37.5) C
gives L = 0.589 m.
6-42. Air at 70 kPa and 20 C flows across a 5-cm-diameter cylinder at a velocity of 15
m/s. Compute the drag force exerted on the cylinder.
Solution: Properties of air at T = 20 C = 293 K, P = 70 x 103 Pa, using P = RT
= P/RT = (70 x 103 N/m2)/[(287 N-m/kg-K)*(293 K)] = 0.8324 kg/m3
Table A-5 (page 602) gives = 1.8462 x 10-5 kg/m-s
Red = ud/ = (0.8324)*(15)*(0.05)/(1.8462 x 10-5) = 33815
Using Fig. 6-9 (page 282) that gives drag coefficient CD vs. Red, at Red = 33815, CD = 1.1
Drag force D = FD = CDA*u2/(2gc)
= (1.1)*(0.05 m)*(1 m)*(0.8324 kg/m3)*(15 m/2)/(2*1) = 5.15 N

3 Sample Pitts & Sissom problems & solutions (from a total of 37 problems previously
worked):
Chapter 7 Forced Convection: Turbulent Flow
7.26 Ethylene glycol at 0 C flows at the rate of 23 m/s parallel to a 0.6 m square, thin
flat plate at 40 C, which is suspended from a balance. Assume the fluid flows over both
sides of the plate and that the critical Reynolds number is 500000. (a) What drag should
be indicated by the balance? (b) What is the heat transfer rate from the plate to the fluid?
Solution: Tf = (0 + 40)/2 = 20 C = 293 K, using Table B-3(SI) to evaluate properties:
= 1116.65 kg/m3, cp = 2382 J/kg-K, Pr = 204, = 19.18 x 10-6 m2/s, k = 0.249 W/m-K
ReL = VL/ = (23 m/s)*(0.6 m)/(19.18 x 10-6 m2/s) = 719500 (turbulent)
Using Eqn. (7.28) given by Nu = hL/k = Pr1/3(0.036ReL 836)
Nu = hL/k = (204)1/3*{0.036*(719500)0.8 836} = 5354
h = 5354*k/L = (5354)*(0.249)/0.6 = 2222 W/m2-K
q = 2hA(Ts - T) = 2*(2222)*(0.6)2*(40 0) = 63993 W
To get the drag force use Eqn. (7.22) Cf = 0.072/ReL1/5 (0.00334)*xc/L
For Rec = 500000 = Vxc/ = (23 m/s)*xc/(19.18 x 10-6)
Gives xc = 0.417 m
Cf = 0.072/(719500)1/5 (0.00334)*(0.417)/(0/6) = 2.531 x 10-3
Ff = Cf*(V/2)*A = (2.531 x 10-3)*(1116.65 kg/m3)*(23 m/s)2*(0.6 m)2 = 269 N
D = 2Ff = 538 N
7.28 A 3 in o.d. steam pipe without insulation is exposed to a 30 mph wind blowing
normal to it. The surface temperature of the pipe is 200 F and the air is at 40 F. Find
the heat loss per foot of pipe.
Solution: V = 30 miles/h x 5280 ft/1 mile x 1 h/3600 s = 44 ft/s
Tf = (T - Ts)/2 = (40 + 200)/2 = 120 F, using Table B-4 (Eng) with interpolation gives
T (F) (lbm/ft3) (ft2/s)
k (Btu/h-ft-F)
Pr
80
0.0735
16.88 x 10-5
0.01516
0.708
120
x1
x2
x3
x4
170
0.0623
22.38 x 10-5
0.01735
0.697
40/90 = (x1 0.0735)/(0.0623 0.0735) = (x2 16.88)/(22.38 16.88)
= (x3 0.01516)/(0.01735 0.01516) = (x4 0.708)/(0.697 0.708)
x1 = = 0.06852 lbm/ft3, x2 = x2 x 10-5 = = 19.32 x 10-5 ft2/s
x3 = k = 0.01613 Btu/h-ft-F, x4 = Pr = 0.703
ReD = VD/ = (44 ft/s)*(3/12 ft)/(19.32 x 10-5 ft2/s) = 56935.8 (turbulent)
For our case single cylinder in crossflow in air, use Equation (7.51a)
NuDf = hD/kf = CgReDfn
Our configuration gives Cg = 0.0239, n = 0.805 (for ReDf = 40000 to 250000)
NuDf = hD/kf = (0.0239)*(56935.8)0.805 = 160.87
h = (160.87)*(0.01613 Btu/h-ft-F)/(3/12 ft) = 10.38 Btu/h-ft2-F
qc = hA(Ts - T) = hDL(Ts - T)
qc/L = hD(Ts - T) = *(10.38)*(3/12)*(200 40) = 1304 Btu/h-ft

## Chapter 8 Natural Convection

8.20 The front panel of a dishwasher is at 95 F during the drying cycle. What is the rate
of heat gain by the room, which is maintained at 65 F? The panel is 2.5 ft. square.
Solution: using Equation (8.28) Empirical correlations: isothermal surfaces, gives
hL/k = Nu = C(GrLPr)a
Tf = (Ts + T)/2 = 80 F for air properties
= 0.0735 lbm/ft3, = 16.88 x 10-5 ft2/s, k = 0.01516 Btu/h-ft-F, Pr = 0.708
= 1/T = 1/540 R-1
GrL = g(Ts + T)L3/2 = (32.174)*(1/540)*(30)*(2.5)3/(16.88 x 10-5)2 = 980184191
GrLPr = (980184191)*(0.708) = 693970407 = 6.94 x 108
Using 104 to 109 (laminar) constants from Table 8-3: C = 0.59, a = gives
hL/k = Nu = 0.59*(693970407)1/4 = 95.76
h = 95.76k/L = (95.76)*(0.01516)/2.5 = 0.5807 Btu/h-ft2-F
q = hA(Ts - T) = (0.5807)(2.5)2*(30) = 108.9 Btu/h
18 Sample Kreith & Bohn problems & solutions (from a total of 59 problems previously
worked):
Chapter 1 Basic Modes of Heat Transfer
1.25. A heat exchanger wall consists of a copper plate 3/8 inch thick. The surface
coefficients on the two sides of the plate are 480 and 1250 Btu/h-ft2-F, corresponding to
fluid temperatures of 200 and 90 F, respectively. Assuming that the thermal
conductivity of the wall is 220 Btu/h-ft-F, (a) draw the thermal circuit, (b) compute the
surface temperatures in F, and (c) calculate the heat flux in Btu/h-ft2.
Solution: (a) draw the thermal circuit drawn by hand with 3 resistors in series, heat
flow from left to right, with T1 = 200 F (left-most fluid temp), hc1 = 480 Btu/h-ft2-F,
R1 = 1/hc1A, Tx unknown (left-most surface temp), R2 = t/kA (copper wall), Ty unknown
(right-most surface temp), T2 = 90 F (right-most fluid temp), hc2 = 1250 Btu/h-ft2-F,
and R3 = 1/hc2A.
(b) compute the surface temperatures overall heat flux is given by
q/A = T/RA = (200 90)/{1/480 + (0.375/12)/220 + 1/1250} = 36359 Btu/h-ft2
which is the same through each of the series resistors, so
36359 = (200 Tx)/(1/480), Tx = 124 F
36359 = (Ty 90), Ty = 119 F
(c) calculate the heat flux in Btu/h-ft2 is given above as q/A = 36359 Btu/h-ft2
1.31. A simple solar heater consists of a flat plate of glass below which is located a
shallow pan filled with water, so that the water is in contact with the glass plate above it.
Solar radiation is passing through the glass at the rate of 156 Btu/h-ft2. The water is at
200 F and the surrounding air is 80 F. If the heat transfer coefficients between the
water and the glass and the glass and the air are 5 Btu/h-ft2-F, and 1.2 Btu/h-ft2-F

respectively, determine the time required to transfer 100 Btu/ft2 of surface to the water in
the pan. The lower surface of the pan may be assumed insulated.
Solution: Assuming hci and hco act in series and neglecting resistance of the glass, gives
qc/A = T/RA = (200 80)/{(1/5) + (1/1.2)} = 116.129 Btu/h-ft2 (heat loss)
Qnet/A = 100 Btu/ft2 = {(qs qc)/A}*t = (156 116.129)*t
gives t = 2.5 h
Chapter 2 Conduction
2.5. A plane wall, 7.5 cm thick, generates heat internally at the rate of 105 W/m3. One
side of the wall is insulated, and the other side is exposed to an environment at 93 F.
The convection coefficient between the wall and the environment is 567 W/m2-K. If the
thermal conductivity of the wall is 0.12 W/m-K, calculate the maximum temperature in
the wall.
Solution: Using Fouriers law of heat conduction (1D, SS with heat generation) gives
k 2T/x2 = - qGdot (heat generated/volume) or 2T/x2 = - qGdot/k
integration gives T/x = (- qGdot/k)*x + C1
and again
T(x) = (- qGdot/2k)*x2 + C1x + C2
apply BCs: at x = 0, T/x = 0 = 0 + C1 gives C1 = 0, thus T(x) = (- qGdot/k)*x + C2
at x = 0, T = Tmax gives Tmax = C2 and T/x = (- qGdot/k)*x
at x = L, -kA*(T/x)x=L = hcA*(T2 - T)
qGdot*A*L = hcA*(T2 - T)
qGdot*A*L = hcA*(T2 - T) equation (1)
at x = L, T(L) = (- qGdot/2k)*L2 + Tmax = T2 equation (2)
substitute equation (2) into equation (1) giving qGdot*L/hc = qGdot*L2/2k + Tmax - T
Tmax = T + qGL*(L/2k + 1/hc) = 93 + (105)*(0.075)*{(0.075)/(2*0.12) + (1/567)}
= 2450 C
A TAK 2000 finite difference thermal model (problem2_5.out) gives Tmax = 2450 C
(run as a check)
Solving equation (1) for T2 = qGdot*L/hc + T = (105)*(0.075)/(567) + 93 = 106.2 C
2.15. Estimate the rate of heat loss per unit length from a 2 in-ID, 2.375 in-OD steel pipe
covered with asbestos insulation (3.375 in-OD). Steam flows in the pipe. It has a quality
of 99% and is at 300 F. The unit thermal resistance at the inner wall is 0.015 h-ft2F/Btu, the heat transfer coefficient at the outer surface is 3.0 Btu/h-ft2-F, and the
ambient temperature is 60 F.
Solution: The thermal circuit (drawn by hand) shows 4 resistors in series with Ti = 300
F as the internal fluid temperature, resistor Rci = 1/hciAi (internal fluid resistor), R1 =
ln(r2/r1)/(2Lk1) (conduction resistor through the steel), R2 = ln(r3/r2)/(2Lk2) (conduction
resistor through the asbestos), Ro = 1/hcoAo (outer fluid resistor), and T = 60 F (outer
fluid temperature).
q = T/(Ri + R1 + R2 + Ro)

## steel use k = 43 W/m-K = 24.84 Btu/h-ft-F

asbestos k = 0.113 W/m-K = 0.06528 Btu/h-ft-F
for hci 1/Ri = 1/0.015 = 66.67 Btu/h-ft2-F = hci
q = (300 60)/{(1)/(66.67**2*1/12) + ln(2.375/2)/(2**1*24.84) +
ln(3.375/2.375)/(2**1*0.06528) + 1/(3**3.375*1/12)}
q = 240/(0.0286 + 0.00110 + 0.857 + 0.377) = 190 Btu/h-ft2 (heat loss)
Chapter 4 Analysis of Convection Heat and Mass Transfer
4.17. Hydrogen at 15 C and a pressure of 1 atm is flowing along a flat plate at a velocity
of 3 m/s. If the plate is 0.3 m wide and at 71 C, calculate the following quantities at x =
0.3 m and at the distance corresponding to the transition point, i.e., Rex = 5 x 105 (take
properties at 43 C): (a) Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness, in cm, (b) Local
friction coefficient, (c) Average friction coefficient, (d) Drag force, in N, (e) Thickness of
thermal boundary layer, in cm, (f) Local convective-heat-transfer coefficient, in W/m2C, (g) Average convective-heat-transfer coefficient, in W/m2-C, and (h) Rate of heat
transfer, in W.
Solution: Table 31 (page 669) gives properties for H2 at p = 1 atm linear interpolation
T(C)
cp
k
x 106
Pr
27 14314 0.182
8.963
0.706
43
x1
x2
x3
x4
77 14436 0.206
9.954
0.697
16/50 = (x1 14314)/(14436 14314) = (x2 0.182)/0.024 = (x3 8.963)/(9.954 8.963)
= (x4 0.706)/(0.697 0.706)
x1 = cp = 14353 J/kg-K, x2 = k = 0.190 W/m-K, x3 = x 106 = 9.280,
= 9.280 x 10-6 N-s/m2, x4 = Pr = 0.703, = 0.07811 kg/m3
Transition occurs at Recr = 5 x 105, solving for xc with Re = VL/ gives
5 x 105 = (0.07811 kg/m3)*(3 m/s)*(xc)/(9.280 x 10-6 kg-m-s/s2-m2), gives xx = 19.8 m
at x = 0.3, Rex=0.3 = (0.07811)*(3)*(0.3)/(9.280 x 10-6) = 7575
(a) Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness in cm
x = 0.3 m, = 5x/(Rex)1/2 = (5)*(0.3 m)/(7575)1/2 = 1.7234 x 10-2 m = 1.7234 cm
x = 19.8 m, = 5x/(Rex)1/2 = (5)*(19.8 m)/(500000)1/2 = 0.140 m = 14 cm
(b) Local friction coefficient, Cfx = s/(U2/2) = 0.664/(Rex)1/2
x = 0.3, Cfx = 0.664/(7575)1/2 = 0.007629
x = 19.8, Cfx = 0.664/(500000)1/2 = 0.000939
(c) Average friction coefficient, Cf = (1/L)* Cfx dx (integrate from 0 to L)
= 1.33*(/UL) = 1.33/(ReL)1/2, thus for a given x or L, Cf = 2Cfx
x = 0.3, Cf = 2*(0.007629) = 0.01526
x = 19.8, Cf = 2*(0.000939) = 0.001878
(d) Drag force, D = sA where s = Cf*(U2/2), thus D = CfA*(U2/2)
for x = 0.3, D = (0.01528)*(0.07811)*(3)2*(0.30)2/2 = 0.0004827 N
for x = 19.8, D = (0.001878)*(0.07811)*(3)2*(0.30)*(19.8)/2 = 0.003921 N
(e) Thickness of thermal boundary layer, in cm, using Eqn. (4.47) rh = /Pr1/3
for x = 0.3, th = (1.7234 x 10-2)/(0.703)1/3 = 1.938 x 10-2 m = 1.938 cm
for x = 19.8, th = (0.140)/(0.703)1/3 = 0.1575 m = 15.75 cm

## (f) Local convective-heat-transfer coefficient, in W/m2-C

Nux = hcxx/k = 0.332*Re0.5*Pr0.33
for x = 0.3, Nux = (0.332)*(7575)0.5*(0.703)0.33 = 25.693
hcx = 25.693*k/x = (25.693)*(0.190)/0.3 = 16.27 W/m2-C
for x = 19.8, Nux = (0.332)*(500000)0.5*(0.703)0.33 = 208.7
hcx = 208.7*k/x = (208.7)*(0.190)/19.8 = 2.003 W/m2-C
(g) Average convective-heat-transfer coefficient, in W/m2-C
NuL = 0.664*ReL0.5Pr0.33 = 2*Nux and hc = 2*hcx
for x = L = 0.3, NuL = 2*25.693 = 51.386
hc = 2*16.27 = 32.54 W/m2-C
for x = L = 19.8, NuL = 2*208.7 = 417.4
hc = 2*2.003 = 4.006 W/m2-C
What does the following equation give for x = xc = 19.8 m:
NuL = 0.036*Pr0.33*(Re0.8 23200) = 0.036*(0.703)0.33(5000000.8 23200)
= 417.87 = hcL/k so hc = 4.01 W/m2-C
which matches well with laminar value of hc = 4.006 W/m2-C at x = xcr = 19.8 m.
4.19. Determine the rate of heat loss in Btu/hr from the wall of a building in a 10-mph
wind blowing parallel to its surface. The wall is 80 ft long, 20 ft high, its surface
temperature is 80 F, and the temperature of the ambient air is 40 F.
Solution: Tmean = Tf = (Ts - T)/2 = 60 F
Table 27 (page 665) air properties (use values at 68 F)
= 0.07267 lbm/ft3, cp = 0.2417 Btu/lbm-F, k = 0.01450 Btu/h-ft-F, Pr = 0.71
= 12.257 x 10-6 lbm/ft-s
ReL = VL/
V = (10 miles/h) * (5280 ft/1 mile) * (1 h/3600 s) = 14.67 ft/s
ReL = (0.07267)*(14.67)*)*(80)/(12.257 x 10-6) = 6956367 = 69.6 x 105 (turbulent)
Use NuL = hcL/k = 0.036*Pr0.33*(ReL0.8 23200) = 0.036*(0.71)0.33*(69563670.8 23200)
NuL = hcL/k = 8829, hc = 8829*(0.01450)/80 = 1.6002 Btu/h-ft2-F
Heat loss qc = hcA*(Ts - T) = (1.6002)*(80)*(20)*(80 40) = 102413 Btu/h
Chapter 5 Natural Convection
5.4 Compare the rate of heat loss from a human body with the typical energy intake from
consumption of food (1300 kcal/day). Model the body as a vertical cylinder 30 cm in
diameter and 1.8 m high in still air. Assume the skin temperature is 2 C below normal
body temperature. Neglect radiation, transpiration cooling (sweating), and the effects of
clothing.
Solution: assume T = 20 F (not given)
Ein = 1300 x 103 cal/day x 4.186 J/1 cal x 1 day/24 h x 1 h/3600 s = 62.9838 W
Tb = 98.6 F, T(C) = {T(F) 32}*(5/9) = {98.6 32}*(5/9) = 37 C
-2 C below normal body temperature gives Ts = 35 C

Objective: to compare the rate of heat loss (due to free convection) from a human body
to the heat gain, using vertical cylinder correlation see Figure 4.
Air properties use Tmean = (35 + 20)/2 = 27.5 C
Dimensionless parameters: GrL = g*(Ts - T)*2L3/2, Pr = cp/k = /
Linear interpolation of air properties table: (without interpolation Pr = 0.71)
T(C)
x 103 cp
k
x 106
20 1.164
3.41
1012 0.0251 18.24
27.5 x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
40 1.092
3.19
1014 0.0265 19.123
7.5/20 = (x1 1.164)/(1.092 1.164) = (x2 3.41)/(3.19 3.41)
= (x3 1012)/(1014 1012) = (x4 0.0251)/(0.0265 0.0251)
= (x5 18.24)/(19.123 18.24)
x1 = = 1.137 kg/m3, x2 = x 103 = 3.3275 1/K, x3 = cp = 1012.75 J/kg-K
x4 = k = 0.025625 W/m-K, x5 = x 106 = 18.571125 N-s/m2
GrL = (9.81 m/s)*(3.3275 x 10-3 1/K)*(15 K)*(1.137 kg/m3)*(1.8 m)3
/(18.571125 x 10-6 kg-m-s/s2-m2)2 = 10703858243.6
GrLPr = 7599739353 = 7.599737353 x 109
Figure 5.4 gives 2 appropriate correlation curves one for laminar and one for
transition/turbulent region
Using the laminar correlation: NuL = 0.555*(GrLPr)1/4 = 163.867 = hcL/kf
hc = (163.867)*(0.025625)/1.8 = 2.333 W/m2-K
Eout = qc = hcA*(Ts - T) = (2.333)**(0.30)*(1.8)*(15) = 59.36 W
Using the transition/turbulent region correlation: NuL = 0.0210*(GrLPr)2/5
= 188.165 = hcL/kf
hc = (188.165)*(0.025625)/1.8 = 2.6787 W/m2-K
Eout = qc = hcA*(Ts - T) = (2.6787)**(0.30)*(1.8)*(15) = 68.17 W
Both calculated Eout values obtained from an idealized geometric model and simplified
thermal model (sensible convection only) compare well (energy-balance wise) with Ein =
62.98 W.
5.16 Estimate the rate of heat transfer across a 1-m tall double-pane window assembly in
which the outside pane is at 0 C and the inside pane is at 20 C. The panes are spaced 1
cm apart. What is the thermal resistance (R value) of the window?
Solution: Gr = g2*(T1 T2)*3/2, use Tmean = (T1 + T2)/2 = 10 C to evaluate props.
Table A27 gives the following: = 1.208 kg/m3, x 103 = 3.535 K-1,
k = 0.0244 W/m-K, x 10-6 = 17.848 N-s/m2, Pr = 0.71
Gr = (9.81)*(3.535 x 10-3)*(1.208)2*(20)*(0.01)3/(17.848 x 10-6)2 = 3177.19
GrPr = 2255.8, L/ = 1/0.01 = 100
Because Gr 8000, the heat transfer mechanism is equivalent to conduction across the
enclosure, giving qk = kA*(T1 T2) = (0.0244)*(1)*(1)*(20)/0.01 = 48.8 W
R-value: Rk = /kA = (0.01 m)/{(0.0244 W/m-K)*(1 x 1 m2) = 0.4098 K/W

## Chapter 6 Forced Convection Inside Tubes and Ducts

6.3 For water at a bulk temperature of 32 C flowing at a velocity of 1.5 m/s through a
2.54 cm ID duct with a wall temperature of 43 C, calculate the Nusselt number and the
convection heat transfer coefficient by three different methods and compare the results.
Solution: For water at Tb = 32 C Table 13 (page 651) linear interpolation gives
T(C)

cp
k
x 106
Pr
30
995.7 4176 0.615
792.4
5.4
32
x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
35
994.1 4175 0.624
719.8
4.8
2/5 = (x1 - 995.7)/(994.1 995.7) = (x2 4.176)/(-1) = (x3 0.615)/(0.009)
= (x4 792.4)/(719.8 - 792.4) = (x5 5.4)/(-0.6)
x1 = = 995.06 kg/m3, x2 = cp = 4175.6, x3 = k = 0.6186 W/m-K,
x4 = x 106 = 763.36 N-s/m2, x5 = Pr = 5.16
ReD = VD/ = (995.06)*(1.5)*(0.0254)/(763.36 x 10-6) = 49664 (turbulent)
Method (1): using Table 6.3 (page 324) and first equation
NuD = 0.023*ReD0.8Pr0.4 = 0.023*(49664)0.8*(5.16)0.4 = 253.29
hc = (253.29)*kf/D = (253.29)*(0.6186)/(0.0254) = 6169 W/m2-K
Method (2): using Table 6.3 and second equation NuD = 0.027*ReD0.8Pr1/3*(b/s)0.2
At Tw = Ts = 43 C linear interpolation gives
T(C) x 106
3/5 = (y1 658)/(605.1 658)
40
658.0
y1= s = 626.26 x 10-6 N-s/m2
43
y1
45
605.1
NuD = 0.027*(49664)0.8 *(5.16)1/3*(763.36/626.26)0.2 = 273 = hcD/kf
hc = (273)*(0.6186)/(0.0254) = 6647 W/m2-K
Method (3): using Table 6.3 and third equation
NuD = (f/8)*ReDPr/{K1 + K2*(f/8)1/2*(Pr2/3 1)}
where f = (1.82*log10ReD 1.64)-2 and log10x = (ln x)/(ln 10), gives
f = 0.020963, K1 = 1 + 3.4f = 1.07127, K2 = 11.7 + 1.8/Pr1/3 = 12.74165
NuD = (0.020963/8)*(49664)*(5.16)/
{1.07127 + 12.74165*(0.020963/8)1/2*(5.162/3 1)} = 284 = hcD/kf
hc = (284)*(0.6186)/(0.0254) = 6910 W/m2-K
Summary: (1) NuD = 253, (2) NuD = 273, and (3) NuD = 284
gives (NuD)avg = 270 (+6% ,-6%)
6.16 Water at 82.2 C is flowing through a thin copper tube (15.2 cm ID) at a velocity of
7.6 m/s. The duct is located in a room at 15.6 C and the unit-surface-conductance at the
outer surface of the duct is 14.1 W/m2-K. (a) Determine the heat transfer coefficient at
the inner surface. (b) Estimate the length of duct in which the water temperature drops
(5/9) C.

## Solution: water at Tbi = 82.2 C Table 13 (page 651) linear interpolation

T(C)

cp
k
x 106 Pr
75 974.9 4190 0.671 376.6 2.23
82.2 x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
100 958.4 4211 0.682 277.5 1.75
0.288 = (x1 974.9)/(958.4 974.9) = (x2 4190)/(4211 4190) = (x3 0.671)/0.011
= (x4 376.6)/(277.5 376.6) = (x5 2.23)/(1.75 2.23)
x1 = = 970.148 kg/m3, x2 = cp = 9196.048 J/kg-K, x3 = k = 0.674168 W/m-K,
x4 = x 106 = 348.0592 N-s/m2, x5 = Pr = 2.09176
Re = VD/ = (970.148)*(7.6)*(0.152)/(348.0592 x 10-6) = 3219898 = 32.19898 x 105
(turbulent)
Using NuD 0.023*(ReD)0.8*(Pr)0.3 = 0.023*(3219898)0.8(2.09176)0.3 = 4614.8 = hcD/kf
hc = (4614.8)*(0.674168)/(0.152) = 20468 W/m2-K
Neglecting copper wall T or Rth
hciA*(Tb Ts) = hcoA*(Ts - T) or hci*(Tb Ts) = hco*(Ts - T)
Ts*(hco + hci) = hciTb + hcoT
Ts = (hciTb + hcoT)/(hco + hci) = {(204.68)*(82.2) + (14.1)*(15.6)}/(204.68 + 14.1)
= 82.155 C
(b) hciA*(Tb Ts) = mdot*cpTb
mdot = AV = (970.148 kg/m3)*(/4)*(0.152 m)2*(7.6 m/s) = 133.79 kg/s
hciDL*(Tb Ts) = mdot*cpTb
L = (mdot*cpTb)/{hciD*(Tb Ts)}
= (133.79 kg/s)*(4196.048 J/kg-K)*(5/9 C)/
{(20468 W/m2-K)**(0.152 m)*(82.2 82.155) C} = 2228 m (for Tb = 5/9 C drop)
Chapter 7 Forced Convection over Exterior Surfaces
7.4 Steam at 1 atm and 100 C is flowing across a 5-cm-OD tube at a velocity of 6 m/s.
Estimate the Nusselt number, the heat transfer coefficient, and the rate of heat transfer per
meter length of pipe if the pipe is at 200 C.
Solution: Use correlation NuD = hcD/k = C*(UD/)m*Prn*(Pr/Prs)0.25 (7.3)
Steam at 1 atm and 100 C Table 34 (page 672) gives = 0.5977 kg/m3,
cp = 2034 J/kg-K, k = 0.0249 W/m-K, x 106 = 12.10 N-s/m2, Pr = 0.987
To get Prs at Ts = 200 C linear interpolation gives
T(C) Prs
23/50 = (x1 1.010)/(0.996 1.010)
177 1.010
x1 = Prs = 1.00356
200
x1
227 0.996
Re = UD/ = (0.5977)*(6)*(0.05)/(12.10 x 10-6) = 14819 = 1.4819 x 104
Gives for Equation (7.3) the following constants: C = 0.26, m = 0.6, n = 0.36
NuD = hcD/k = 0.26*(14819)0.6*(0.987)0.36*(0.987/1.00356)0.25 = 81.96
hc = (81.96)*(0.0249)/(0.05) = 40.82 W/m2-K
qc = hcA*(Ts - T) = hcDL*(Ts - T)
qc/L = hcD*(Ts - T) = (40.82)**(0.05)*(100) = 256 W/m

7.6 Determine the average unit-surface conductance for air at 60 C flowing at a velocity
of 1 m/s over a bank of 6-cm-OD tubes arranged as shown in the accompanying sketch
(shows a staggered tube bank). The tube-wall temperature is 117 C.
Solution: Reference Figure 7.18 (page 372) for a typical staggered tube arrangement. In
our case, D = 6 cm, SL = 7.6 cm, ST = 5.1 cm,
SL 2 = ST2 + SL2 = 5.12 + 7.62 gives SL = 9.1526 cm, ST/SL = 5.1/7.6 2
Air properties at Tf = (Ts + T)/2 = (117 + 60)/2 = 88.5 C using linear interpolation gives
T(C)

cp
k
x 106 Pr = 0.71
80 0.968 10.19 0.0293 20.790
88.5
x1
x2
x3
x4
100 0.916
10.22 0.0307
21.673
0.425 = (x1 0.968)/(0.916 0.968) = (x2 1019)/3 = (x3 0.0293)/(0.0307 0.0293)
= (x4 20.790)/(21.673 20.790)
x1 = = 0.9459 kg/m3, x2 = cp = 1020.275 J/kg-K, x3 = k = 0.029895 W/m-K,
x4 = x 106 = 21.165275 N-s.m2
ReD = VD/ = (0.9459)*(1)*(0.06)/(21.165275 x 10-6) = 2681.5
Using a transition regime equation (for 103 ReD 2 x 105)
NuD = hcD/k = 0.35*(ST/SL)0.2ReD0.6Pr0.36(Pr/Prs)0.25
= 0.35*(5.1/7.6)0.2 *(2681.5)0.6(0.71)0.36(1)0.25 = 32.576
hc = (32.576)*(0.029895)/(0.06) = 16.23 W/m2-K
Chapter 8 Heat Exchangers
8.3 A light oil flows through a copper tube of 2.6 cm ID and 3.2 cm OD. Air is flowing
over the exterior of the tube. The convective heat transfer coefficient for the oil is 120
W/m2-K and for the air is 35 W/m2-K. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient
based on the outside area of the tube (a) considering the thermal resistance of the tube,
(b) neglecting the resistance of the tube.
Solution: Using q = UA*(Th Tc)
where UA = 1/R = 1/{(1/hciAi) + ln(ro/ri)/(2kL) + (1/hcoAo)}
hci = 120 W/m2-K, hco = 35 W/m2-K, Ai = DiL = (0.026)*(1), Ao = DoL =
(0.032)(1)
A0/Ai = D0/Di, for copper k = 399 W/m-K
(a) including Rth for the tube and based upon the outer area
Uo = 1/{(D0/Di)*(1/hci) + DoL*ln(ro/ri)/(2kL) + (1/hco)}
= 1/{(3.2/2.6)/(1/120) + (0.032)*(1)*ln(3.2/2.6)/(2**399*1) + (1/35)}
= 1/{(1.0256 x 10-2) + (8.3264 x 10-6) + (2.857 x 10-2)} = 25.75 W/m2-K
(b) without including the thermal resistance of the copper wall gives U0 = 25.76 W/m2-K.
8.9 A shell-and-tube heat exchanger has one shell pass and four tube passes. The fluid in
the tubes enters at 200 C and leaves at 100 C. The temperature of the fluid entering the
shell is 20 C and is 90 C as it leaves the shell. The overall heat transfer coefficient
based on a surface area of 12 m2 is 300 W/m2-K. Calculate the heat transfer rate between
fluids.

## Solution: Tmean = (LMTD)*(F)

(eqn 8.18)
Using Fig. 8.12 for a HX with one shell pass and four tube passes
P = (Tt,out Tt,in)/(Ts,in Tt,in) = (100 200)/(20 200) = 100/180 = 0.18
Z = (mdottcpt)/(mdotscps) = (Ts,in Ts,out)/(Tt,out Tt,in) = (20 90)/(100 200) = 0.70
From Fig. 8.12, gives F = 0.98
F * LMTD = F * (Ta Tb)/ln(Ta/Tb)
Ta = Th,in Tc,out = 200 90 = 110 C
Tb = Th,out Tc,in = 100 20 = 80 C
F * LMTD = (0.98)*(110 80)/ln(110/80) = 92.32 C
Heat transfer rate is given by
q = UA*F*LMTD = (300 W/m2-K)*(12 m2)*(92.32 C) = 332356 W (K = C)
(counterflow HX was assumed)
8.12 Water entering a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is at 35 C is to be heated to 75 C
by an oil. The oil enters at 110 C and leaves at 75 C. The heat exchanger is arranged
for counterflow with water making one shell pass and the oil two tube passes. If the
water flow rate is 68 kg/min and the overall heat transfer coefficient is estimated from
Table 8.1 to be 320 W/m2-K, calculate the required heat exchanger area.
Solution: q = UA*F*LMTD
Using Figure 8.12 for two tube passes
P = (Tt,out Tt,in)/(Ts,in Tt,in) = (75 110)/(35 110) = 35/75 = 0.4667
Z = (mdottcpt)/(mdotscps) = (Ts,in Ts,out)/(Tt,out Tt,in) = (35 75)/(75 110) = 1.143
Figure 8.12 gives F = 0.8
Ta = Th,in Tc,out = 110 75 = 35 C
Tb = Th,out Tc,in = 75 35 = 40 C
F * LMTD = F * (Ta Tb)/ln(Ta/Tb) = 0.80*(35 40)/ln(35/40) = 29.96 C
Heat transfer multiple pass need to solve for A with q = UA*F*LMTD (equation 1)
For the water mdot = 68 kg/min, at Tmean = (35 + 75)/2 = 55 C (use 50 C)
cp = 4178 J/kg-K
qwater = mdot*cp*T = (68 kg/min)*(1 min/60 s)*(4178 J/kg-K)*(40 K) = 189402.67 W
equate to equation 1: 189402.67 W = (320 W/m2-K)*A*(29.96 K)
gives A = 19.8 m2
Chapter 9 Heat Transfer by Radiation
9.3. Determine the total average hemispherical emittance and the emissive power of a
surface which has a spectral hemispherical emittance of 0.8 at wavelengths less than 1.5
m, 0.6 from 1.5 to 2.5 m, and 0.4 at wavelengths longer than 2.5 m. The surface
temperature is 1111 K.
Solution: at = 1.5 m, T = (1.5 m)*(1111 K) = 1666.5 m-K = 1.6665 x 10-3 m-K
Table 9.1 (Blackbody Radiation Functions) gives Eb(0T)/T4 = 0.0262455 ( = 0.8)
at = 2.5 m, T = (2.5 m)*(1111 K) = 2.7775 x 10-3 m-K
table 9.1 gives Eb(0T)/T4 = 0.222871 giving

= 01 ()*Eb(T)*d*{(1 ()*Eb(T)*d)/Eb}
= 0.8*(0.0262455) + 0.6*(0.222871 0.0262455) + 0.4*(1 0.222871) = 0.4498
Emissive power is given by Eg = T4 = (0.4498)*(5.67 x 10-8*(1111)4 = 38858 W/m2
9.23. A black sphere (1 inch diameter) is placed in a large infrared heating oven whose
walls are maintained at 700 F. The temperature of the air in the oven is 200 F and the
heat-transfer coefficient for convection between the surface of the sphere and air is 5
Btu/h-ft2-F. Estimate the net rate of heat flow to the sphere when its surface temperature
is 100 F.
Solution: sphere surface area S = 4R2 = D2 = in2 x ft2/(144 in2) = /144 ft2
Energy balance on sphere assume steady state
qx-1 = (Eb2 Eb1)*A1F1-2 + hcAs*(T T1)
= (0.1714 x 10-8 Btu/h-ft2-R4)*(11604 5604)R4(/144 ft2)
+ (5 Btu/h-ft2-F)*(/144 ft2)*(200 100) = 64.03 + 10.91
= 74.9 Btu/h
9.30. Three thin sheets of polished aluminum are placed parallel to each other so that the
distance between them is very small compared to the size of the sheets. If on of the outer
sheets is at 540 F, whereas the other outer sheet is at 140 F, calculate the net rate of heat
flow by radiation and the temperature of the intermediate sheet. Convection may be
ignored.
Solution: outer sheet 1 T1 = 540 F = 1000 R, outer sheet 2 T2 = 140 F = 600 R
Intermediate or middle sheet 3, known are geometric view factors F1-3 = F3-2 = 1, equal
areas, use = 0.05, = 1 = 0.95
Using q1-3 = A11-3*(Eb1 = Eb3) = q1-3 = A11-3*(Tb1 - Tb3)
Configuration factor 1-3 = 1/(1/1 + 1/3 + 1) = 1/(1/0.05 + 1/0.05 + 1) = 0.02439
q1-3 = A1*(0.02439)*(10004 T34)
also q3-2 = A33-2*(Tb3 - Tb2) = A3*(0.02439)*(T34 6004)
equate for energy balance q1-3 = q3-2
A1*(0.02439)*(10004 T34) = A3*(0.02439)*(T34 6004)
10004 T34 = T34 6004 gives T3 = 867 R = 407 F
q1-3 = A11-3*(Tb1 - Tb3) = A*(0.02439)*(0.1718 x 10-8)*(10004 - 8674) = 18.2 Btu/h-ft2