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Step recovery diode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Step recovery diode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Step_recovery_diode

In electronics, a step recovery diode (SRD) is a semiconductor junction diode having the ability to generate extremely short pulses. It is also called snap-off diode or charge-storage diode or memory varactor, and has a variety of uses in microwave electronics as pulse generator or parametric amplifier.

When diodes switch from forward conduction to reverse cut-off, a reverse current flows briefly as stored charge is removed. It is the abruptness with which this reverse current ceases which characterises the step recovery diode.

1 Historical note 2 Operating the SRD 2.1 Physical principles 3 Operation of the Drift
1 Historical note

1 Historical note

2 Operating the SRD 2.1 Physical principles

2 Operating the SRD 2.1 Physical principles

2 Operating the SRD 2.1 Physical principles
3 Operation of the Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD)

3 Operation of the Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD)

4 See also

4 See also

5 References

5 References

6 External links

6 External links

(DSRD) 4 See also 5 References 6 External links The first published paper on the SRD

The first published paper on the SRD is (Boff, Moll & Shen 1960): the authors start the brief survey stating that "the recovery characteristics of certain types of pn-junction diodes exhibit a discontinuity which may be used to advantage for the generation of harmonics or for the production of millimicrosecond pulses". They also refer that they first observed this phenomenon in February, 1959.

that they first observed this phenomenon in February, 1959. Physical principles The main phenomenon used in

Physical principles

The main phenomenon used in SRDs is the storage of electric charge during forward conduction, which is present in all semiconductor junction diodes and is due to finite lifetime of minority carriers in semiconductors. Assume that the SRD is forward biased and in steady state i.e. the anode bias current does not change with time:

since charge transport in a junction diode is mainly due to diffusion, i.e. to a non constant spatial charge carrier density caused by bias voltage, a charge Q s is stored in the device. This stored charge depends on

1. Intensity of the forward anode current

2. Minority carrier lifetime τ, i.e. the mean time a free charge carrier moves inside a semiconductor region before recombining.

I A

flowing in the device during its steady state.

Quantitatively, if the steady state of forward conduction lasts for a time much greater than τ, the stored charge has the following approximate expression

Step recovery diode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Step recovery diode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Step_recovery_diode Now suppose that

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Step_recovery_diode

Now suppose that the voltage bias abruptly changes, switching from its stationary positive value to a higher magnitude constant negative value: then, since a certain amount of charge has been stored during forward conduction, diode resistance is still low (i.e. the anode-to-cathode voltage V AK has nearly the same forward conduction value). Anode current does not cease but reverses its polarity (i.e. the direction of its flow) and stored charge Q s starts to flow out of the device at an almost constant rate I R . All the stored charge is thus removed in a certain amount of time: this time is the storage time t S and its approximate expression is

the storage time t S and its approximate expression is When all stored charge has been

When all stored charge has been removed, diode resistance suddenly changes, rising to its cut-off value at reverse bias within a time t Tr , the transition time: this behavior can be used to produce pulses with rise time equal to this time.

used to produce pulses with rise time equal to this time. Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD)has

Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD)has been discovered by Russian scientists in 1981 (Grekhov et al., 1981). The Principle of the DSRD operation is similar to the SRD. However there is an essential difference - the forward pumping current should be pulsed, not continuous, because drift diodes function with slow carriers. The principle of DSRD operation can be explained as follows: Short pulse of current is applied in the forward direction of the DSRD effectively "pumping" the P-N junction, or in other words, “charging” the P-N junction capacitively. When the current direction reverses, the accumulated charges are removed from the base region. As soon as the accumulated charge decreases to zero, the diode opens rapidly. A high voltage spike can appear due to the self-induction of the diode circuit. The larger the commutation current and the shorter the transition from forward to reverse conduction, the higher the pulse amplitude and efficiency of the pulse generator (Kardo-Sysoev et al., 1997).

of the pulse generator (Kardo-Sysoev et al., 1997). Minority carrier. P-n junction. Pulse generator

Minority carrier.of the pulse generator (Kardo-Sysoev et al., 1997). P-n junction. Pulse generator Semiconductor diode. Boff, A.

P-n junction.generator (Kardo-Sysoev et al., 1997). Minority carrier. Pulse generator Semiconductor diode. Boff, A. F.; Moll, J.;

Pulse generator(Kardo-Sysoev et al., 1997). Minority carrier. P-n junction. Semiconductor diode. Boff, A. F.; Moll, J.; Shen,

Semiconductor diode.al., 1997). Minority carrier. P-n junction. Pulse generator Boff, A. F.; Moll, J.; Shen, R. (February

carrier. P-n junction. Pulse generator Semiconductor diode. Boff, A. F.; Moll, J.; Shen, R. (February 1960),

Boff, A. F.; Moll, J.; Shen, R. (February 1960), "A new high speed effect in solid state diodes" (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1157249) , IRE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, III , (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1157249) , IRE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, III, New York: IEEE Press, pp. 50–51, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org /xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1157249. The first paper dealing with SRDs: interesting but "restricted access".

The following two books contain a comprehensive analysis of the theory of non-equilibrium charge transport in semiconductor diodes, and give also an overview of applications (at least up to the end of the seventies).

Nosov, Yurii Romanovich (1969), Switching in semiconductor diodes , Monographs in Semiconductor Switching in semiconductor diodes, Monographs in Semiconductor

Step recovery diode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Physics, 4, New York: Plenum Press.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Step_recovery_diode

Tkhorik, Yurii Aleksandrovich (1968), Transients in pulsed semiconductor diodes , Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Ltd Transients in pulsed semiconductor diodes, Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Ltd

The following application notes deals extensively with practical circuits and applications using SRDs.

"Pulse and Waveform Generation with Step Recovery Diodes" (http://www.hp.woodshot.com/hprfhelp /5_downld/lit/diodelit/an918.pdf) , Application note AN 918, Palo Alto: Hewlett-Packard, October 1984, /5_downld/lit/diodelit/an918.pdf) , Application note AN 918, Palo Alto: Hewlett-Packard, October 1984, http://www.hp.woodshot.com/hprfhelp/5_downld/lit/diodelit/an918.pdf. Available at Hewlett-Packard HPRFhelp (http://www.hp.woodshot.com/hprfhelp/hprfhelp.htm) .

(http://www.hp.woodshot.com/hprfhelp/hprfhelp.htm) . Tan, Michael R.; Wang, S.Y.; Mars, D.E.; Moll, J.L.

Tan, Michael R.; Wang, S.Y.; Mars, D.E.; Moll, J.L. (December 31 1991), "A 12 psec GaAs Double Heterostructure Step Recovery Diode" (http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/91/HPL-91-187.html) , HP Labs Technical Heterostructure Step Recovery Diode" (http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/91/HPL-91-187.html) , HP Labs Technical Reports (http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/) , HPL-91-187, Palo Alto: Hewlett-Packard, http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/91/HPL-91-187.html. An interesting paper describing the construction and reporting the measured performance of an extremely fast heterojunction SRD.

Kirkby, David (April 1999), "Chapter 5 - Pulse Generators" (http://www.medphys.ucl.ac.uk/research /borl/homepages/davek/phd/chapter5.pdf) , A Picosecond Optoelectronic Cross Correlator using a Gain Modulated Avalanche /borl/homepages/davek/phd/chapter5.pdf) , A Picosecond Optoelectronic Cross Correlator using a Gain Modulated Avalanche Photodiode for Measuring the Impulse Response of Tissue (http://www.medphys.ucl.ac.uk/research/borl/homepages/davek/phd/phd.html) , http://www.medphys.ucl.ac.uk/research/borl/homepages/davek/phd/chapter5.pdf. It is a PhD thesis in which an SRD is a key element. Chapter 5 is particularly relevant.

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