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DIFFERENTLY ABLED SECTION OF THE SOCIETY

Eminence Health care Organization is a leading organization which has taken a stride to revolutionize the life of people who have any k ind of physical limitations. There was a time when a person if suffered from any major accident and lost any of his limbs or resulted in any kind of physical limitation, the person went into depression and life ended for him for practical purposes, But we have tried reducing the permanent scar of these limitations. W e help the differently abled people to maximum independence in their lives by making small alterations in their environment around them. W e (along with the architects and other supportive professionals) design the home, workplace, toilets, kitchen, dresses even the day to day kitchen utensils to ensure maximum independence in normal life. Our vision At Eminence is to ensure that a person is able to perform his activity of daily living independently. Eminence is a company for all the strata of the society, for one who ca n afford major changes in their environment as per their life style and for them also who dont have big budgets to make alterations. W e, work on the minor things which actually effect peoples life like dresses, shoes, bathing equipments, kitchen equipmen ts ,help designing splints at lower costs. Most people with disabilities want to function as independently as possible, and there are numerous assistive devices that help people with limited mobility perform typical tasks necessar y for daily living. This i ncludes assistive technology for the kitchen; devices that help people with disabilities prepare, serve and eat meals safely and easily. The specific assistive devices needed depend on the type of disability a person has.

Those among us who are differently abled certainly have to go through a lot, right from struggling for social acceptance, to being the least preferred in job selection. The situation is indeed appalling. Following is an analysis of things as they stand in today's times. CAUSES Professional front: If an organization has a choice between selecting a person with disability and another one who is hale and hearty, there is a significant chance that the decision will swing in favor of the latter. The reason behind this is that even if both persons are equally qualified, and even if the disabled person has proven himself/herself to be better, the decision would still be biased towards the other person, since a disability, even if it is not directly related to the job profile, is looked down upon in our society. Conventional beliefs: Irrespective of the fact that India has evolved into a modern society today, people with disabilities are not counted as being at par with other 'normal' individuals. Talking of rural areas, the situation is even worse, and people with disabilities are not able to even find any kind of employment. So dominant is the traditional set of beliefs, that till date in south India, children with disabilities are buried neck deep during the eclipse to 'cure' them of their 'problems', so to speak. On one hand, there are talks of advancement and progress, and on the other, there are such rudimentary customs still being followed. Discrimination: There are many people who are unable to get a job despite the fact that the government has given them provisions. The reason for such a phenomenon is that there is still a substantial degree of discrimination being practiced openly in organizations. Hence, being a differently abled person also has legal ramifications, but the society is not willing to even adhere to the law.

Infrastructural facilities: A majority of the public places and spaces constructed in the last 5 years do not have the provisions necessary for a differently abled person to be present at the premises. Bangalore was one of the first cities in India to have structures made disabled-friendly, and while the awareness has certainly spread, it has not reached the macro level, where it is most needed. EFFECT Underutilized talent: Owing to the stigma the society has placed among differently abled people, there are many people with genuine talent who are not able to get the kind of exposure they need because of their predicament. There are many examples in India of poets, writers and speakers who, despite being disabled, have carved a niche for themselves, proof enough that even people who may not seem physically fit to compete can have the will and talent to succeed. Also, a person born with a handicap, owing to the immense pressure of society, feels underconfident of himself/herself, since other 'normal people' around them do not consider him/her as good enough. It is essential to ensure that differently abled people are treated with dignity and at par with others. They are already leading a very difficult life, and it is the duty of their fellow countrymen to support them in their endeavors to lead a prosperous life.

According 2 UGC
Introduction The Persons with Disabilities Act 1995 indicates that disabled persons should have access to education at all levels. Though service to disabled children in India is more than 100 years old, the coverage of these children in the formal school system is not even 5 per cent. The report of manpower development published by the Rehabilitation Council of India reveals that more than 1,00,000 teachers will be needed in the next ten years to cater to the educational needs of disabled children in schools. Bachelor's and master's level teacher programmes are needed for preparing teachers to help disabled children realise the objective of education for all. The University Grants Commission (UGC) will support selected university departments and colleges of education in the country to offer special education, with financial assistance available under the programme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, or within the available resources of the UGC. The UGC had started the scheme of assistance to universities/colleges to facilitate Teacher Preparation in Special Education (TEPSE) and Higher Education for Persons with Special Needs (Differently-abled Persons) (HEPSN) during the Ninth Five-Year Plan, keeping in view the need to provide special education programmes as well as infrastructure to differently-abled persons. The infrastructure needs to be designed in a manner to enable them to easily access classrooms, laboratories, toilets, etc.

^TOP 2. Objectives The objectives of the scheme are as follows:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. To encourage universities/colleges of education in the country to promote teacher preparation programmes in the field of special education. To provide equal educational opportunities to disabled persons in higher education institutions. To create awareness among the functionaries of higher education about the specific educational needs of persons with disabilities. To equip higher education institutions with the facilities to provide access to disabled persons. To provide appropriate financial assistance to disabled individuals to increase their sustainability in higher education. To explore suitable placement opportunities for educated disabled graduates in public as well as private sector enterprises. To monitor the implementation of all existing and future legislation and policies pertaining to higher education of persons with disabilities. This scheme is aimed particularly at: 1. providing assistance to universities/colleges of education to start teacher preparation courses in special education at the B.Ed./M.Ed. level; and 2. Creating appropriate facilities for persons with special needs in higher education.

^TOP 3. Eligibility College offering special education course at B.Ed. and/or M.Ed. level will be given assistance as per the following conditions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The college/university department should have the approval of the Rehabilitation Council of India for starting the concerned teacher preparation programme in special education. The college should have a model school where disabled children are admitted. In the absence of its own model school, the college should produce in writing the acceptance of a special/integrated school in the vicinity to function as a model school. The college should have a minimum of five years of experience in running B.Ed. level teacher preparation courses. The university/college applying for grant for any one of the activities of the scheme should have enrolled a minimum of 10 disabled persons, including physically handicapped, mentally retarded and visually impaired in the academic year. The university/college should have constituted an expert committee involving faculty members from the university, experts in the field and persons with disabilities themselves. The committee should meet at least once a year to review the activities related to the concerned scheme(s). Institutions applying for the scheme should have been approved by the UGC under sections 2(f) and 12(B).

^TOP 4. Financial Assistance Financial assistance to the university departments and colleges of education will be given by the UGC as per the following norms:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The institution must have one professor or one reader and two lecturers to run a B.Ed. course; and one professor, one reader and three lecturers for an M.Ed. course in special education in any one of the specific disability areas with a minimum of 20 students and a maximum of 30. Assistance from the UGC will be for the Tenth Plan period and the implementing institute should give an undertaking that it will continue the course with the assistance of the state government or generate its own resources to meet the expenditure of the course after the Plan. The implementing institute should also provide extension services to the special schools and integrated schools to strengthen the quality of special education in those settings. In addition to the salary grant, the UGC will provide a maximum of Rs.1,00,000/- per year per institute towards purchase of books, journals, special aids and appliances for its special education teacher preparation courses. A mid-term evaluation may be carried out by the UGC.

^TOP 5. Provision of Facilities This scheme has three components. They are enumerated as follows:
1. Establishment of Special Units for Differently-abled Persons in Universities/Colleges It is a fact that uiversities and clleges are not fully aware of the needs of differently-abled persons in higher education. In order to develop awareness in the higher education system and also to provide necessary guidance and counselling to differently-abled persons, it is proposed to establish special units in universities/colleges in the country. The functions of this unit will be to: 1. 2. 3. facilitate admission of persons with disability; provide guidance and counselling to differently-abled individuals; create awareness about the needs of persons with disabilities, and other general issues concerning disabilities; and

4.

assist disabled graduates to gain successful employment in the public as well as private sector.

The special unit will be coordinated by a faculty member to be nominated by the head of the institution. He/she will work as honorary coordinator for which a token honorarium of Rs.3000/- per month will be paid. There is also a provision for the appointment of one honorary placement officer for the special unit from amongst the faculty members of the university, and he/she will be paid a token honorarium of Rs.2000/- per month. The coordinator and the placement officer will be assisted by a team of three student volunteers who will be paid a stipend of Rs.1000/- each per month. Honorarium for all categories will be paid from the date of joining. The unit will also have a budgetary provision of Rs.30,000/- per annum towards programmes, stationery, contingencies, etc., for efficient and independent functioning in order to achieve its objectives.The disability unit will also be involved in arranging awareness programmes on disabilities within the institute and also in other higher education institutes in their respective states. A budgetary provision of Rs.20,000/- per unit per year will be made by the UGC. In addition, the unit will also be responsible for the following: e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. To circulate Government of India and Commission's decisions and to collect regularly, on an annual basis, information regarding course-wise admissions of differently-abled candidates in universities and colleges for different courses, and to take follow-up action, where required. To circulate Government of India and Commission's decisions, and to collect information with respect to appointments, training of persons with disabilities in teaching and non-teaching posts in the universities and colleges, and take follow-up action where required. To collect reports and information regarding Government of India orders on the various aspects of education, training and employment of differently-abled persons for evolving new policies or modifying existing ones. To analyse information so collected, under 1 to 3 above, and prepare reports and digests for onward transmission to the Ministry of Human Resource Development/UGC and any other authorities as may be required. To deal with representations received from differently-abled persons regarding their admission, recruitment, promotion and other similar matters in universities/colleges. To function as a unit to redress grievances of differently-abled students and employees of the institution, and render them necessary help in solving their academic as well as administrative problems. To maintain a register of employment for differently-abled persons for various posts in the respective universities/colleges. Any other work assigned from time to time to promote higher education among differently-abled persons. i. To do all such things as may be deemed conducive for the welfare of differently-abled students, teachers and non-teaching employees.

Providing Access to Persons with Disabilities It has been felt that persons with disabilities need special arrangements in the environment for their mobility and independent functioning. It is also a fact that many institutes have architectural barriers that disabled persons find difficult for their day-to-day functioning. The universities and colleges under this scheme are expected to address this problem according to the Persons with Disabilities Act 1995, and ensure that all existing structures as well as future construction projects in their campuses are made disabled friendly. The institutes should create special facilities such as ramps, rails and special toilets, and make other necessary changes to suit the special needs of differently-abled persons. For this purpose, the UGC will make a one-time grant of up to Rs.5 lakh per university/college. Providing Special Equipment to Augment Educational Services for Differently-abled Persons Persons with disabilities require special aids and appliances for their daily functioning. These aids are available via various schemes of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. There may also be a need for special types of expensive equipment, which may need to be acquired by the institutes.

Availability of devices such as low-vision aids, scanners, mobility devices, etc. in the institutes would enrich the educational experiences of persons with disabilities. Therefore, universities/colleges are encouraged to procure such devices. The UGC will provide an ad hoc one-time grant of up to Rs.3.0 lakh per university/college during the Tenth Plan period.

^TOP 6. How to Apply for the Schemes


1. 2. Application for specific projects should be sent in the prescribed proforma in triplicate (Proforma A for TEPSE and Proforma B for HEPSN) Each proposal should have been scrutinised and recommended by the expert committee to be formed by the implementing institutions.

^TOP 7. Procedures of Processing the Application and Monitoring


1. The proposals received from the university departments and colleges will be placed before an expert committee constituted by the UGC for this purpose. Once the proposal is approved, the UGC will release funds as per the following criteria. For projects that are of recurring nature, the UGC will release funds for one year. The grant for second year will be released only after receiving a utilisation certificate along with an audited statement of accounts and progress report of the project. For projects that are of non-recurring nature, 50 per cent of the total amount allocated will be released at the time of approval of the proposal. Subsequently, 40 per cent will be released on receipt of: i. progress report; and ii. statement of expenditure and un-audited utilisation certificate. The balance of 10 per cent will be released on receipt of an audited utilisation certificate. 3. A mid-term evaluation may be carried out by the UGC.

2.

^TOP 8. Proforma

Proforma A : Proforma for Financial Assistance under the scheme to assist universities/colleges to facilitate Teacher Preparation in Special Education (TEPSE) Proforma B : Proforma for Financial Assistance under the scheme to assist universities/colleges to facilitate Higher Education for Persons with Special Needs (Differently-abled Persons) (HEPSN)

The Human Rights of DifferentlyAbled Persons


The People's

Movement for Human Rights Education


PDHRE Home Human Rights apply to: the aged children development differently abled discrimination education environment ethnicity food health housing indigenous peoples livelihood & land migrant workers minorities peace & disarmament poverty race refugees religion reproductive health sexual orientation women work & workers Human Rights & the Differently-Abled | Governments' Obligations | Governments' Commitments

Human Rights and Differently-Abled Persons


What are the Human Rights of Differently-Abled Persons? Human Rights are universal, and civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights belong to all human beings, including differently-abled persons. Differently-abled persons are entitled to the realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms on equal terms with others in society, without discrimination of any kind. They also enjoy certain human rights specifically linked to their status. The Human Rights at Issue The human rights of differently-abled persons include the following indivisible, interdependent and interrelated human rights: The human right to freedom from any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on the status of differently-abled, which has the purpose or effect of impairing the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. The human right to freedom from discrimination in access to housing, education, social services, health care or employment. The human right to active participation in all aspects of social, economic, political and cultural life of society, and in shaping decisions and policies affecting him- or herself and community, at the local, national and international levels. The human right to equality of opportunity. The human right to full equality before the law and equal protection of the law. The human right to the highest attainable standard of health, to

medical, psychological and functional treatment, including prosthetic and orthetic appliances, to medical and social rehabilitation, and other services necessary for the maximum development of capabilities, skills and self-reliance. The human right to work, according to capabilities, to receive wages that contribute to an adequate standard of living, and to receive equal remuneration for equal work. The human right to economic and social security, and to an adequate standard of living. The human right to be treated with dignity and respect.

Human Rights & the Differently-Abled | Governments' Obligations | Governments' Commitments

Governments' Obligations to Ensuring the Human Rights of Differently-Abled Persons:


What provisions of human rights law guarantee the human rights of differently-abled persons? Includes excerpts from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the ILO Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention, No. 159.
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.... Everyone is entitled to all ... rights and freedoms ... without distinction of any kind.... All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination ... and against any incitement to ... discrimination.... Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for ... health and well-being .. Including ... the right to security in the event of ... disability...." --Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Articles 1, 2, 7, and 25 "The States Parties ... undertake to guarantee that ... rights ... will be exercised without discrimination of any kind.... The States Parties recognize the right to work.... The right of everyone to ... equal remuneration for work of equal value.... the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living.... to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.... to education.... [Education] shall enable all persons to participate effectively in a free

society.... Primary education shall be ... available to all; Secondary education ... shall be made generally available and accessible to all...; Higher education shall be made equally accessible to all.... States Parties ... recognize the right of everyone ... to take part in cultural life; to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress...." --International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, Articles 2, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, and 15 "Each State Party ... undertakes to ... ensure ... rights ... without distinction of any kind...; to ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms ... are violated shall have an effective remedy.... No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.... no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.... All persons shall be equal before the courts.... Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.... No one shall be subjected to ... unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home.... The right of men and women ... to marry and to found a family shall be recognized.... Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity ... to take part in the conduct of public affairs...; to vote...; to have access, on ... terms of equality, to public service.... All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law.... [The] law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground...." --International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Articles 2, 7, 14, 16, 17, 23, and 26 "Each Member shall ... formulate, implement ... a national policy on vocational rehabilitation and employment of disabled persons.... The ... policy shall aim at ensuring that appropriate vocational rehabilitation measures are made available to all categories of disabled persons, and at promoting employment opportunities for disabled persons in the open labour market.... The ... policy shall be based on the principle of equal opportunity between disabled workers and workers generally. Equality of opportunity and treatment for disabled men and women workers shall be respected.... The competent authorities shall take measures with a view to providing ... vocational guidance, vocational training, placement, employment and other related services to enable disabled persons to secure, retain and advance in employment.... Measures shall be taken to promote the establishment and development of vocational rehabilitation and employment services for disabled persons in rural areas and remote communities." -- ILO Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention, No. 159, Articles 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 "States Parties shall respect and ensure ... rights ... to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind.... States Parties shall take all appropriate ... measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse..., maltreatment or exploitation.... States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance, and facilitate the child=s active participation in the community. States Parties recognize the right of the disabled child to special care and shall encourage and ensure the extension ... to the eligible child and those responsible for his or her care, of assistance ... which is appropriate to the child=s condition.... [A]ssistance ... shall be designed to ensure that the disabled child has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive to the child=s achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development...."

--Convention on the Rights of the Child, Articles 2, 19, and 23

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Human Rights & the Differently-Abled | Governments' Obligations | Governments' Commitments

Governments' Commitments to Ensuring the Human Rights of Differently-Abled Persons


What commitments have governments made to ensuring the realization of the human rights of differently-abled persons? Includes excerpts from the Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, the World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons, and commitments made at theWorld Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen, the World Conference on Women in Beijing, and the Habitat II conference in Istanbul.
"Disabled persons shall enjoy ... rights ... without any exception whatsoever and without distinction or discrimination.... Disabled persons have the inherent right to respect for their human dignity. Disabled persons, whatever the origin, nature and seriousness of their handicaps and disabilities, have the same fundamental rights as their fellow-citizens..., which implies first and foremost the right to enjoy a decent life, as normal and full as possible.... Disabled persons have the same civil and political rights as other human beings.... Disabled persons are entitled to the measures designed to enable them to become as self-reliant as possible.... Disabled persons have the right to medical, psychological and functional treatment, including prosthetic and orthetic appliances, to medical and social rehabilitation, education, vocational training and rehabilitation, aid, counselling, placement services and other services which will enable them to develop their capabilities and skills to the maximum and will hasten the processes of their social integration or reintegration.... Disabled persons have the right to economic and social security and to a decent level of living. They have the right, according to their capabilities, to secure and retain employment or to engage in a useful, productive and remunerative occupation.... Disabled persons are entitled to have their special needs taken into consideration at all stages of economic and social planning.... Disabled persons have the right to live with their families ... and to participate in all social, creative or recreational activities. No disabled person shall be subjected ... to differential treatment other than that required by his or her condition or by the improvement which he or she may derive therefrom. If the stay of a disabled person in a specialized establishment is indispensable, the environment and living conditions therein shall be as close as possible to those of the normal life of a person of his or her age.... Disabled persons shall be protected against all exploitation, all regulations and all treatment of a discriminatory, abusive or degrading nature."

--Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, Articles 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 "More than 500 million people in the world are disabled as a consequence of mental, physical or sensory impairment. They are entitled to the same rights as all other human beings and to equal opportunities.... Governments must ... ensure that [disabled] people ... have an opportunity to achieve a standard of living equal to that of their fellow citizens.... A strategy of prevention is essential for reducing the incidence of impairment and disability.... Measures should be taken for the earliest possible detection of ... symptoms ... of impairment, to be followed immediately by ... curative or remedial action, which can prevent disability or ... lead to significant reductions in the severity of disability.... For early detection it is important to ensure adequate education ... of families and technical assistance to them by medical social services.... The principle of equal rights for the disabled and non-disabled implies that the needs of each and every individual are of equal importance, that these needs must be made the basis for the planning of societies, and that all resources must be employed in such a way as to ensure, for every individual, equal opportunity for participation...." --World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons, paras. 2, 3, 13, 14, and 25 "Special attention needs to be paid to ensuring non-discrimination, and the equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by disabled persons, including their active participation in all aspects of society.... The World Conference on Human Rights reaffirms that all human rights and fundamental freedoms are universal and thus unreservedly include persons with disabilities. Every person is born equal and has the same rights to life and welfare, education and work, living independently and active participation in all aspects of society. Any direct discrimination or other negative discriminatory treatment of a disabled person is therefore a violation of his or her rights.... The place of disabled persons is everywhere. Persons with disabilities should be guaranteed equal opportunity through the elimination of all socially determined barriers, by they physical, financial, social or psychological, which exclude or restrict full participation in society." --Vienna Declaration, Part I, para. 22, and Part II, paras. 63 and 64 "Objectives ...: To ensure the realization of the rights of all persons with disabilities, and their participation in all aspects of social, economic and cultural life; To create, improve and develop necessary conditions that will ensure equal opportunities for persons with disabilities and the valuing of their capabilities in the process of economic and social development; To ensure the dignity and promote the self-reliance of persons with disabilities.... Actions: ... Governments at all levels should promote mechanisms ensuring the realization of the rights of persons with disabilities and reinforce their capabilities of integration." --Cairo Programme of Action, paras. 6.29 and 6.32 "We heads of State and Government ... will create ... action to: ... Ensure that disadvantaged and vulnerable persons and groups are included in social development, and that society acknowledges and responds to the consequences of disability by securing the legal rights of the individual and by making the physical and social environment accessible.... We will ... Ensure equal education opportunities at all levels for children, youth and adults with disabilities.... Strive to ensure that persons with disabilities have access to rehabilitation and other independent living services and assistive technology to enable them to maximize their well-being, independence and full participation in society." --Copenhagen Declaration, para. 26(I), and Commitments 2(d), 6(f),

and (n) "Broadening the range of employment opportunities for persons with disabilities requires: ... Ensuring that laws and regulations do not discriminate against persons with disabilities.... Making appropriate adjustments in the workplace to accommodate persons with disabilities.... Developing alternative forms of employment, such as supported employment, for persons with disabilities who need these services.... Governments, in collaboration with organizations of people with disabilities and the private sector, should work towards the equalization of opportunities so that people with disabilities can contribute to and benefit from full participation in society. Policies concerning people with disabilities should focus on their abilities rather than their disabilities and should ensure their dignity as citizens...." --Copenhagen Programme of Action, paras. 62(a), (c), (d), and 75(k) "Actions to be taken: ... Design and implement ... gender-sensitive health programmes ... that address the needs of women throughout their lives and take into account ... the special needs of ... women with disabilities.... Ensure that girls and women of all ages with any form of disability receive supportive services...." --Beijing Platform for Action, paras. 106 (c) and (o) "As human beings are at the centre of our concern for sustainable development, they are the basis for our actions in implementing the Habitat Agenda.... We shall intensify our efforts to eradicate ... discrimination, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and to provide for basic needs.... We shall promote full accessibility for people with disabilities ... in policies, programmes and projects for shelter and sustainable human settlements development...." --Istanbul Declaration, para. 7 "... Persons with disabilities have not always had the opportunity to participate fully and equally in human settlements development and management, including decision-making, often owing to social, economic, attitudinal and physical barriers, and discrimination. Such barriers should be removed and the needs and concerns of persons with disabilities should be fully integrated into shelter and sustainable human settlement plans and policies to create access for all.... We ... commit ourselves to ...: Promoting shelter and supporting basic services and facilities for education and health for ... persons with disabilities... and people belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.... We ... commit ourselves to ... Promoting equal access and full participation of persons with disabilities in all spheres of human settlements and providing adequate policies and legal protection against discrimination on grounds of disabilities...." --Habitat Agenda, paras. 16, 40(l), and 43(v)

See also Declaration on Social Progress and Development, Art. 11, section c; Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons; Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and for the Improvement of Mental Health Care; and the Declaration on the Rights of Deaf-Blind Persons.

Differently Abled

The Constitution of India ensures equality, freedom, justice and dignity of all individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society for all including the persons with disabilities. As per the provisions of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995(File referring to external site opens in a new window) , seven categories of disabilities have been identified viz., blindness, low vision, leprosy cured, hearing impairment, locomotor disability, mental retardation and mental illness. Persons falling under the above categories with a minimum of 40% disability are eligible for entitlement of all benefits provided by the Government. As per the 11th Plan persons with disabilities could be as high as 5-6% of India's total population. This substantial portion of our population needs equal services and opportunities for their over all development, which is also an essential attribute for the inclusive growth. Hence while recognizing the differently-abled people as valuable human resource to our country, the government has had been taking various initiatives to bring them at par with the mainstream. The policies of the government towards the welfare of persons with disabilities have been reflected in the enactments, schemes and through institutions established for development of manpower for rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. In this section of the National Portal of India, we bring to you the detailed and up-to-date information about the efforts made by the government towards empowerment of the differently-abled people. Various schemes, programmes, policies and services are also mentioned in this section.

o o o o o o

Legal Framework and Extensive Infrastructure Acts Major Milestones Extensive Infrastructure Welfare Corner Education Employment Schemes Financial Assistance

o o

Financial Support for Self-Employment Ventures Special Education with Financial Assistance

Barrier Free Built Environment

A disability may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental or some combination of these. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Thus disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a persons body and features of the society in which he or she lives. World Health Organization
[1]

An individual may also qualify as disabled if he/she has had an impairment in the past or is seen as disabled based on a personal or group standard ornorm. Such impairments may include physical, sensory, and cognitive or developmental disabilities. Mental disorders (also known as psychiatric or psychosocial disability) and various types of chronic disease may also qualify as disabilities. Some advocates object to describing certain conditions (notably deafness and autism) as "disabilities", arguing that it is more appropriate to consider them developmental differences that have been unfairly [2] stigmatized by society. A disability may occur during a person's lifetime or may be present from birth.

Types of disability
Disability is caused by impairments to various subsystems of the body - these can be broadly sorted into the following categories. [edit]Physical

disability

Main article: Physical disability Any impairment which limits the physical function of limbs or fine or gross motor ability is a physical disability. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as severe sleep apnea.

Sensory disability
Sensory disability is impairment of one of the senses. The term is used primarily to refer to vision and hearing impairment, but other senses can be impaired. [edit]Visual impairment Main article: Visual impairment Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional [3][4][5] means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery. This functional loss of vision is typically defined to manifest with 1. best corrected visual acuity of less than 20/60, or significant central field defect, 2. significant peripheral field defect including homonymous or heteronymous bilateral visual, field defect or generalized contraction or constriction of field, or 3. reduced peak contrast sensitivity with either of the above conditions. [edit]Hearing impairment Main article: Hearing impairment Hearing impairment or hard of hearing or deafness refers to conditions in which individuals are fully or partially unable to detect or perceive at least some frequencies of sound which can typically be heard by most people. Mild hearing loss may sometimes not be considered a disability.
[3][4][5][6]

[edit]Olfactory and gustatory impairment Impairment of the sense of smell and taste are commonly associated with aging but can also occur in younger people due to a wide variety of causes. Further information: Olfaction#Disorders of olfaction There are various olfactory disorders: Anosmia inability to smell Dysosmia things smell different than they should Hyperosmia an abnormally acute sense of smell. Hyposmia decreased ability to smell Olfactory Reference Syndrome psychological disorder which causes the patient to imagine he has strong body odor Parosmia things smell worse than they should Phantosmia "hallucinated smell," often unpleasant in nature

Further information: Taste#Disorders of taste Complete loss of the sense of taste is known as ageusia, while dysgeusia is persistent abnormal sense of taste, [edit]Somatosensory impairment Main article: Somatosensory disorder Insensitivity to stimuli such as touch, heat, cold, and pain are often an adjunct to a more general physical impairment involving neural pathways and is very commonly associated with paralysis (in which the motor neural circuits are also affected). [edit]Balance disorder Main article: Balance disorder A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking. It may be accompanied by symptoms of being giddy, woozy, or have a sensation of movement, spinning, or floating. Balance is the result of several body systems working together. The eyes (visual system), ears (vestibular system) and the body's sense of where it is in space (proprioception) need to be intact. The brain, which compiles this information, needs to be functioning effectively. [edit]Intellectual

disability

Main article: Intellectual disability Intellectual disability is a broad concept that ranges from mental retardation to cognitive deficits too mild or too specific (as in specific learning disability) to qualify as mental retardation. Intellectual disabilities may appear at any age. Mental retardation is a subtype of intellectual disability, and the term intellectual disability is now preferred by many advocates in most English-speaking countries as a euphemism for mental retardation.

[edit]Mental

health and emotional disabilities

Main article: Mental disorder A mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern generally associated with subjective distress or disability that occurs in an individual, and perceived by the majority of society as being outside of normal development or cultural expectations. The recognition and understanding of mental health conditions has changed over time and across cultures, and there are still variations in the definition, assessment, and classification of mental disorders, although standard guideline criteria are widely accepted. [edit]Developmental

disability

Main article: Developmental disability Developmental disability is any disability that results in problems with growth and development. Although the term is often used as a synonym or euphemism for intellectual disability, the term also encompasses many congenital medical conditions that have no mental or intellectual components, for example spina bifida. [edit]Nonvisible

disabilities

Main article: Invisible disability Several chronic disorders, such as diabetes, asthma, Inflammatory Bowel Disease or epilepsy, would be counted as nonvisible disabilities, as opposed to disabilities which are clearly visible, such as those requiring the use of a wheelchair. [edit]Sociology

of disability

Main article: Disability studies [edit]People-first

language

Main article: People-first language Many people would rather be referred to as a person with a disability instead of handicapped. "Cerebral [7] Palsy: A Guide for Care" at the University of Delaware offers the following guidelines: Impairment is the correct term to use to define a deviation from normal, such as not being able to make a muscle move or not being able to control an unwanted movement. Disability is the term used to define a restriction in the ability to perform a normal activity of daily living which someone of the same age is able to perform. For example, a three year old child who is not able to walk has a disability because a normal three year old can walk independently. Handicap is the term used to describe a child or adult who, because of the disability, is unable to achieve the normal role in society commensurate with his age and socio-cultural milieu. As an example, a sixteen-year-old who is unable to prepare his own meal or care for his own toileting or hygiene needs is handicapped. On the other hand, a sixteen-year-old who can walk only with the assistance of crutches but who attends a regular school and is fully independent in activities of daily living is disabled but not handicapped. All disabled people are impaired, and all handicapped people are disabled, but a person can be impaired and not necessarily be disabled, and a person can be disabled without being handicapped.

The American Psychological Association style guide states that, when identifying a person with an impairment, the person's name or pronoun should come first, and descriptions of the impairment/disability should be used so that the impairment is identified, but is not modifying the person. Improper examples are "a borderline", "a blind person", or "an autistic boy"; more acceptable terminology includes "a woman with Down syndrome" or "a man who has schizophrenia". It also states that a person's adaptive equipment should be described functionally as something that assists a person, not as something that limits a person, e.g., "a woman who uses a wheelchair" rather than "a woman in/confined to a wheelchair." A similar kind of "people-first" terminology is also used in the UK, but more often in the form "people with impairments" (e.g., "people with visual impairments"). However, in the UK, the term "disabled people" is generally preferred to "people with disabilities". It is argued under the social model that while someone's impairment (e.g., having a spinal cord injury) is an individual property, "disability" is something created by [8] external societal factors such as a lack of wheelchair access to the workplace. This distinction between the individual property of impairment and the social property of disability is central to the social model. The term "disabled people" as a political construction is also widely used by international organisations of disabled people, such as Disabled Peoples' International (DPI). [edit]Literature Many books on disability and disability rights point out that "disabled" is an identity that one is not necessarily born with, as disabilities are more often acquired than congenital. Some disability rights activists use an acronym TAB, "Temporarily Able-Bodied", as a reminder that many people will develop disabilities at some point in their lives due to accidents, illness (physical, mental or emotional), or late[dubious discuss][citation needed] emerging effects of genetics. [edit]Masculinity According to author Daniel J. Wilson, the characteristics of masculinity include strength, activeness, speed, endurance, and courage. These characteristics are often challenged when faced with a disability and the boy or man must reshape what it means to be masculine. For example, rather than define "being a man" through what one can physically do, one must re-define it by how one faces the world with a [9] disability and all the obstacles and stereotypes that come with the disability. In Leonard Kriegel's book, Flying Solo, he describes his fight with poliomyelitis and the process of accepting his disability in a world that values able-bodiedness. He writes, "I had to learn to be my own hero, my own role model which is another way of saying that I had to learn to live with neither heroes [10] nor role models" (pg. 40). [edit]Femininity Some note that women who are disabled face what is called a "double disability", meaning they must not only deal with the stereotypes and challenges posed by femininity, but they must also deal with those posed by being disabled. Culture also tends to view women as fragile and weaker than men, stereotypes [9] which are only heightened when a woman has a disability. According to the "Survey of Income and Program Participation", as described in the book Gendering Disability, 74 percent of women participants and 90 percent of men participants without disabilities were employed. In comparison, of those with a form of disability, 41 percent of women and 51 percent of men were employed. Furthermore, the nondisabled women participants were paid approximately $4.00 less

per hour than the nondisabled men participants. With a disability, women were paid approximately $1.00 less than the nondisabled women participants and the men were paid approximately $2.00 less than the nondisabled men participants. As these results suggest, women without disabilities face societal [9] hardships as compared to men, but disability added to the equation increases the hardships. [edit]Theory The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), produced by the World Health Organization, distinguishes between body functions (physiological or psychological, e.g., vision) and body structures (anatomical parts, e.g., the eye and related structures). Impairment in bodily structure or function is defined as involving an anomaly, defect, loss or other significant deviation from certain generally accepted population standards, which may fluctuate over time. Activity is defined as the execution of a task or action. The ICF lists 9 broad domains of functioning which can be affected: Learning and applying knowledge General tasks and demands Communication Basic physical mobility, Domestic life, and Self-care (i.e., activities of daily living) Interpersonal interactions and relationships Community, social and civic life, including employment Other major life areas

In concert with disability scholars, the introduction to the ICF states that a variety of conceptual models has been proposed to understand and explain disability and functioning, which it seeks to integrate. These models include the following: [edit]The

medical model

Main article: Medical model of disability The medical model is presented as viewing disability as a problem of the person, directly caused by disease, trauma, or other health condition which therefore requires sustained medical care provided in the form of individual treatment by professionals. In the medical model, management of the disability is aimed at a "cure," or the individuals adjustment and behavioral change that would lead to an "almost-cure" or effective cure. In the medical model, medical care is viewed as the main issue, and at the political level, the principal response is that of modifying or reforming healthcare policy. [edit]The

social model

Main article: Social model of disability The social model of disability sees the issue of "disability" as a socially created problem and a matter of the full integration of individuals into society (see Inclusion (disability rights)). In this model, disability is not an attribute of an individual, but rather a complex collection of conditions, many of which are created by the social environment. Hence, the management of the problem requires social action and it is the collective responsibility of society at large to make the environmental modifications necessary for the full participation of people with disabilities in all areas of social life. The issue is both cultural and ideological, requiring individual, community, and large-scale social change. From this perspective, equal access for someone with an impairment/disability is a human rights issue of major concern.

[edit]Other

models

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2011)

The spectrum model refers to the range of visibility, audibility and sensibility under which mankind functions. The model asserts that disability does not necessarily mean reduced spectrum of operations. The moral model refers to the attitude that people are morally responsible for their own [11] disability. For example disability may be seen as a result of bad actions of parents if congenital, or as a result of practicing witchcraft if not. This attitude may also be viewed as a religious fundamentalist offshoot of the original animal roots of human beings when humans killed any baby that could not survive on its own in the wild. Echoes of this can be seen in the doctrine of karma in Indian religions. The expert/professional model has provided a traditional response to disability issues and can be seen as an offshoot of the medical model. Within its framework, professionals follow a process of identifying the impairment and its limitations (using the medical model), and taking the necessary action to improve the position of the disabled person. This has tended to produce a system in which an authoritarian, over-active service provider prescribes and acts for a passive client. The tragedy/charity model depicts disabled people as victims of circumstance who are deserving of pity. This, along with the medical model, are the models most used by non-disabled people to define and explain disability. The legitimacy model views disability as a value-based determination about which explanations for the atypical are legitimate for membership in the disability category. This viewpoint allows for multiple explanations and models to be considered as purposive and viable. The social adapted model states although a persons disability poses some limitations in an able bodied society, oftentimes the surrounding society and environment are more limiting than the [12] disability itself. The economic model defines disability by a persons inability to participate in work. It also assesses the degree to which impairment affects an individuals productivity and the economic consequences for the individual, employer and the state. Such consequences include loss of earnings for and payment for assistance by the individual; lower profit margins for the employer; and state welfare payments. This model is directly related to the charity/tragedy model. The empowering model allows for the person with a disability and his/her family to decide the course of their treatment and what services they wish to benefit from. This, in turn, turns the professional into a service provider whose role is to offer guidance and carry out t he clients [12] decisions. This model empowers the individual to pursue his/her own goals. The market model of disability is minority rights and consumerist model of disability that recognizing people with disabilities and their stakeholders as representing a large group of consumers, employees and voters. This model looks to personal identity to define disability and empowers people to chart their own destiny in everyday life, with a particular focus on economic empowerment. By this model, based on US Census data, there are 1.2 billion people in the world who consider themselves to have a disability. An additional two billion people are considered stakeholders in disability

(family/friends/employers), and when combined to the number of people without disabilities, represents 53% of the population. This model states that, due to the size of the demographic, companies and governments will serve the desires, pushed by demand as the message becomes prevalent in the cultural mainstream.

Well Known People with Disabilities


Have a disability or medical condition? You are not alone. Many people with disabilities have contributed to society. These include actors, actresses, celebrities, singers, world leaders, and many other famous people. A disability is often used to refer to individual functioning, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment, mental illness, and various types of chronic diseases. Of course there are also millions of people worldwide who may not be famous in the sense society deems famous, but still live with, battle, and overcome their disabilities every single day of their lives. These lists are a constant work in progress and were created to prove that it is indeed possible to overcome the so called disability barrier. Below you will find in our various categories of disabilities men and women who have made a difference to the world including pictures and the names of many famous and well known people who have, or had these disabilities (often referred to as being crippled, handicapped, or having a handicap in past times.)

List of Famous People with Disabilities


A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. Types of mood disorders include depression, unipolar and bipolar disorder. Famous People with Mood Disorders. Tourette syndrome. The exact cause of Tourette's is unknown, but it is well established that both genetic and environmental factors are involved. The majority of cases of Tourette's are inherited. Famous People with Tourettes Syndrome.

Speech differences Stuttering is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds or putting thoughts into words. Stutteri has no bearing on intelligence. Famous People - Speech Differences and Stutt

Poliomyelitis, polio or infantile paralysis.Acute viral disease spread primarily via the fecal-oral route. Spinal polio is the most common resultin from viral invasion of the motor neurons of the anterior horn cells. Famous People who had and have Polio

Spina bifida falls into three categories: spina bifida occulta, spina bifida cystica, and meningocele. The most common location of malformations is the lumbar and sacral areas of the spinal cord. aging. Famous People with Spina Bifida. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious diseases that cause physical disability in human development. There is no known cure for CP. Famous People with Cerebral Palsy. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. These seizures are signs of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Famous People With Epilepsy. Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that effects many people, it manifests primarily as a difficulty with written language, particularly with reading and spelling. Dyslexia occurs at all levels of intelligence. Famous People with Dyslexia disability.

Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder the central nervous system that impairs motor and speech. Early signs and symptoms may sometimes be dismissed as the effects of norm Famous People with Parkinsons Disease

Famous wheelchair users - Well known people use wheelchairs since birth and later in life. Wheelchairs are used by people for whom walk is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, o Famous People that use Wheelchairs.

Sight Impaired is vision loss that constitutes a significant limitation of visual capability resultin from disease, trauma, or a congenital or degenerative condition that cannot be correcte Famous People who have and had Vision Impairments

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) a debilitating disease affecting the brain and spinal cord. No knows what causes MS. It may be an autoimmu Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) A psychiatric disease when your body attacks itself. disorder manifested in a variety of forms, most Famous People with Multiple Sclerosis commonly characterized by a persons obsession to perform a particular task or set of tasks. Asthma is a chronic condition involving the respiratory system in which the airway occasion Famous People with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with Dementia is the steady progressive decline in excessive amounts of mucus, often in response cognitive functions due to damage or disease in the one or more triggers. brain beyond what might be expected from the Famous People with Asthma normal human aging process. People with Asperger's Syndrome are often Famous People who Have and Had Dementia described, as having social skills deficits, relucta Hearing Impairment. A hearing loss is a full or to listen, difficulty understanding social give an partial decrease in the ability to detect or take, and other core characteristics. understand sounds. Hearing loss can be inherited Famous people with Aspergers Syndrome If a family has a dominant gene for deafness. Famous people who are amputees.Amputati Famous People with Hearing Impairments the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. A prosthesis is an artificial extension

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sometimes called Lou Gehrig's Disease, or Maladie de Charcot) is one of the most common neuromuscular diseases occurring worldwide today. Famous People with ALS or Lou Gehrigs Disease.

replaces a missing body part. Famous and well known Amputees.

Cleft lip or palate. A cleft is a congenital deformity caused by a failure in facial development during pregnancy. The term har is sometimes used colloquially to describe the

Club Foot or Feet. A clubfoot, or talipes condition. equinovarus (TEV), is a birth defect. The foot is Famous People with a Cleft. twisted in (inverted) and down. It is a common Meniere's Disease The disorder usually affect birth defect, occurring in about one in every 1,000 only one ear and is a common cause of hearin births. loss. Named after French physician Prosper Famous People with Club Feet or Foot. Meniere who first described the syndrome in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a psychiatric 1861. diagnosis that describes a mental illness. A Famous People with Meniere's Disease person with schizophrenia may show Psoriasis is a disease which affects the skin an symptoms like disorganized thinking, joints. It commonly causes red scaly patches t hallucinations, and delusions. appear on the skin. The scaly patches caused Famous People with Schizophrenia. psoriasis are called psoriatic plaques. Famous People with Psoriasis.

Disabled World - Disability News for all the Family: http://www.disabledworld.com/artman/publish/article_0060.shtml#ixzz1mctQUdrK

Facilities for Disabled

FACILITIES FOR DISABLED As per the countrywide sample survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organisation in 1991, there were 14.56 million disabled persons in India suffering from visual, speech, hearing and locomotor disabilities. In order to bring these persons into the main stream of development and enable them to make a decent living and contribute to national life, a number of measures have been initiated in various fields. This brochure describes the facilities available in the fields of education and employment.

Who are the disabled ? Disabled persons include the blind, the deaf, the orthopaedically handicapped, the negative lepers and the mild mentally retarded persons. (for more specific definitions, please see Appendix A).
Organisations providing facilities to the Disabled

The problem of rehabilitating the disabled is tackled at various levels by the Central Government, State Governments, and by Voluntary Organisations. In the Central Government, the Ministry of welfare plays a major role in framing policies and programmes for the handicapped. All State Governments and Union territories in India have established Social Welfare of the handicapped. The Voluntary Sector also plays a very important role in providing welfare and rehabilitation services for the Disabled.
Educational Facilities

While the disabled children may attend the regular schools there are also special schools for the disabled children. Most of these special schools are located in Urban areas. Voluntary Organisations are taking major initiative in opening special schools in the country. The Ministry of Welfare provides financial assistance to these organisations to establish special schools. A few special schools offer vocational training in trades like tailoring, carpentry, book binding etc. There are four national institutes in the area of visual, hearing, mental and locomotor disability which organise regular programmes for the training of teachers for the training of teachers for the handicapped. The Scheme has been transferred to the Department of Education since 1982.

Under the Integrated Education Scheme for Disabled operated by the Department of Education, handicapped children are sought to be integrated in the normal school system. Hundred per cent assistance is provided to states and UTs for education of the children suffering from certain mild handicap in common schools with the help of necessary aids, incentives and specially trained teachers. The following types of disabled children are covered under this Scheme: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Children with locomotor handicaps ( Orthopedic Handicapped ) Mildly and moderately hearing impaired. Partially sighted Children. Mentally handicapped educable group ( with IQ 50 70 ). Children with multiple handicaps ( Blind and Orthopedic ) hearing impaired and orthopaedic, educable mentally retarded and orthopaedic,

visual impaired and mild hearing handicapped. (6) Children with learning disabilities.

The Scheme provides the following facilities:(1) The Handicapped Children are provided certain allowances as indicated below:-

(a) Books and stationery allowances of Rs. 400 per annum. (b) Actual expenses on uniform upto Rs. 200 per annum. (c) Transport allowances of Rs. 50 per month.

(d) Reader allowance of Rs. 50 per month in case of blind children after Class V. (e) Escort allowance for severely handicapped children with lower extremely disabilities @ 75 per month. (f) Actual cost of equipment subject to a maximum of Rs. 2000 per student for a period of five years.

(2) The severely orthopaedically handicapped children to bring one attendant is allowed for 10 children to bring one attendant is allowed for 10 children in a school. The attendant is given the standard scale of pay prescribed for Group D employees in the States/U.T. concerned. (3) Disabled Children residing in school hostel within the same institution where they are studying may also be paid boarding and lodging charges as admissible under the State Govt. Rules/Schemes. where there is no state of Scheme of Scholarship to hostlers the disabled children, income of whose parents does not exceed Rs. 5000 per month may be paid actual boarding and lodging charges subject to a maximum of Rs. 200 p.m. (4) Severely orthopaedically handicapped children residing in school hostels may need the assistance of a helper or ayah. A special pay of Rs. 50 p.m. is admissible to any employee of the hostel willing to extend such help to Children in addition to his/ her duties. In a school in rural areas where at least 10 handicapped children are enrolled, capital cost for purchase of school rickshaw for free use of these children and expenses for Rickshaw Puller @ Rs. 300 p.m. will be provided under the scheme. In such cases, no transport allowances will be payable to the Students.
Fellowships

(5)

Junior and post-Doctoral fellowships are awarded by the U. G. C. A Post-Doctoral fellowships is of Rs. 2100 per month While Junior Fellowship is Rs. 1800 per month. The duration of a Post-Doctoral (Fellowship (P.D.F.) is two years and that of a Junior Fellowship (J.R.F.) is four years. In the third years of the ( J.R.F.) the scholar jis entitled to Rs. 2100 per month on the basis of his work done in the first two years. In addition to the monthly payment an annual contingent grant of Rs.4000 or Rs. 300 is paid to Post- Doctoral or Junior Fellow respectively . In the case of blind scholars, U.G.C. Provides a special grant to cover the appointment of a reader. The University Grant Commission has reserved 1% of the fellowships allocated to the universities or atleast one award per year to the handicapped persons.

Facilities in Employment Several facilities have been provided to handicapped persons in the field of employment by Central as well as state Governments so that these people may become independent. Some of them are as follows:

1. Ministry of Welfare has made an in-depth study of various jobs done in Government Offices and Public Sector Undertakings. The study has identified about 1100 jobs suitable for handicapped persons. Physical requirements needed have also been identified. A number of jobs under Group A and B are there that can be done by handicapped persons. There are instructions by the Govt. that in these jobs disabled persons should be given preference. The list of identified jobs is available in the Publication Brochure on reservations and Concessions for Physically Handicapped in Central Government Services brought out by Ministry of personnel, Public Grievance and Pensions. Department of Personnel and Training. 2.

The Govt. of India has reserved 3% of Vacancies in Group C and D posts in the Central Government Services against identified jobs one per cent each of the blind, the Deaf and the Orthopaedically handicapped. Some public Sector Under takings such as Banks. Railways also follow this Most of the States have also 3% reservation while other States have their own reservation policies. Upper age is relaxable upto 10 years for appointment to Clerical and Subordinate Cadre posts. Physically Handicapped persons who are otherwise qualified to hold Clerical posts and who are certified as being unable to type have been exempted from typing qualifications. In the Case of holders of Group C Group D posts who have been recruited on basis and who are handicapped may be given postings as far as possible near their native places within the region. Requests from physically handicapped employees for transfer to or near their native places may also be given preference. In Banks relaxation in minimum educational qualification has also been provided , for Clerical cadre the minimum educational requirement for physically handicapped person is IInd Division in Matric or IIIrd Division in Higher Secondary Examinations. University Grants Commission has instructed Universities with regard to recruitment of the physically handicapped when qualified blind persons are available for appointment of teaching posts in the University / Colleges. They should not be ignored because of their handicap. __ ___ They should be employed for tutorial work in certain subjects. These persons should be given preference for appointment in the

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

teaching music.
Self Employment

Government of India has introduced several other schemes to promote employment/self-employment among disabled population Government provides assistance to Voluntary Organisation for training and Sheltered workshops. Banks Provide loans at low interest rates to promote Self-employment. Certain Categories of handicapped are allotted public telephone booths and other types of shops such as tea stalls. The Ministry of Petroleum, Chemicals and Fertilizers provides reservation in dealership/distributorship in the agencies of public Sector Oil Companies. This relaxation is as follows: (i) (ii) Physically handicapped . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 % Defence personnel who are permanently or severely disabled due to war or while on duty 7

%
Other Facilities

____ The handicapped persons under Govt. Services are provided conveyance allowance as per rules. ___ Institution that are importing equipment and apparatus for education and training of the handicapped are exempted from Custom duty including the braille wrist watches. ___ Residential houses are allotted to the handicapped persons who are in Govt. service on a priority basis. The Delhi Development Authority has reserved 5% of shops, 10% residential plots and 1% flats in each housing scheme for the disabled persons. ___ Concessional tickets are available to these persons for travelling by rail or by Air. Persons having their own vehicles are exempted from paying road tax and petrol is provided on Concessional rates. ____ Ministry of Welfare provides assistance to disabled persons for the purchase and fitting of aids and appliances for their physical rehabilitation in order to increase their capacity to participate in economic activities.

Some Specialized Institutes working for Rehabilitation of Handicapped

The Central Government has established four national institutions-----

(i) The National Institute for Visually Handicapped, Rajpur Road, Dehradun. (ii) The National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped, B.T. Road, Bonhoolgy, Calcutta. (iii) The National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped Manovikas Nagar, Benrempaly, Secunderabad, A.P. (iv) The National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped, K.C. Marg, Bandra, Bombay. These Institutes are responsible for manpower development, growth of Suitable service models, research, development of educational and vocational aids at low cost to help the disabled. They also serve as premier information and documentation centers in their respective areas of disability. They also operate their evaluation and training Center for Adult Blind at Dehradun offers training in a wide range of crafts such as Radio Egg. Light Egg. Chair Canning, Weaving, Soap making etc. Some of these Institutes also have sheltered workshops where employment can be provided to a limited number of

Handicapped persons. Besides, there are several other national bodies that are looking after the training and service programmes for the handicapped. Some of these are All India Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bombay; All India Institute of Rehabilitation and Artificial Limbs, Madras; The National Institute for Physically and Orthotic Training, Bhubaneswar, etc. There are several Rehabilitation Service Centers also engaged in research activities. Some important Centers are(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Sawai Man Singh Hospital, jaipur. Medical College, Trivandrum. Regional Artifical Limb Centre, Lucknow. St. Marthas Hospital, Bangalore. National Institute for Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore. Nair Hospital, Bombay. P.G. Hospital, Calcutta. Artificial Limb Manufacturing Corporation, Kanpur. District Rehabilitation Centres In order to serve disabled in rural areas, Govt. has set up District Rehabilitation Centres. Under the Scheme each Village Consisting of 1000 people has been assigned a village rehabilitation worker to identify the needs of disabled persons. For a cluster of 20 to 30 villages a primary Rehabilitation Assistant is being appointed and a block consisting of about 1,50,000 people a primary Health Centre works to assist handicapped in getting Vocational training, appropriate education and employment. It also helps the disabled to get aids and appliances. In this hierarchy, there is a District Rehabilitation Centre over a population ranging from 1 to 1.5 million. The Regional Training Centres in the State or region serve as the Referral Centres from the DRC. These Centres provide advanced physical restoration, Vocational Counseling and professional manpower training Services. Presently DRCs are functioning at Bhiwani (Haryana), Bilaspur (M.P.), Changalpath (T.N.), Jagdishpur (U.P.), Kharakpur (West Bengal), Kota (Rajasthan), Mysore (Karnataka), Sitapur (U.P), Vijayawada (A.P), Virar ( Maharashtra) , Bhubaneshwar ( Orissa).
Vocational Rehabilitation Centres Seventeen VRCs for the Handicapped are functioning at Ludhiana, Delhi, Kanpur, Calcutta, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Baroda, Ahmedabad, Madras, Bombay, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Bhubaneshwar, Guwaahati, Agartala and patana (List Appendix B). The main purpose of these Centres is to assess the residual Capacity of the physically handicapped and recommendoccupations suited to them. VRCs also arrange for their training in industries as apprentices and in other training institutions. These Centres also provide placement services. The five categories of Handicapped persons the Deaf, the Blind, Orthopaedically Handicapped, Mildly retarded and Negative Leprosy persons may avail the services provided by VRCs. Some training Workshops on trades such as Radio Assembly, Metal, Commercial, Carpentry, Tailoring are also functioning at VRCs to provide training and evaluate skills possessed by an individual. The individuals get a stipend of Rs. 100 during evaluation period of month. No fees is taken from the candidates for evaluation and other services provided by these Centres. Assistance is also available for procuring financial aid for purchase of Artificial limbs and other aids. Centres also provide help in setting own ventures in terms of arranging finances, allotment of shops, telephone booths etc. 17 Vocational Rehabilitation

Centres are functioning under DGE&T, Ministry of Labour. The rehabilitation services have been extended to the handicapped living in rural areas. This is done through Mobile camps and 11 Rural Rehabilitation Extension Centres (RRECs) set up in 11 Blocks under 5 VRCs situated at Bombay, Calcutta, Kanpur, Ludhiana and Madras.
The Voluntary Organisations A large number of Voluntary organisations has sprung-up in recent years for the Cause of handicapped persons. As per the Directory published by the Instt. for the Physically Handicapped, New Delhi. There are about 8000 such institutions. About 80 per cent of these organisations are located in Andra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Delhi. A large majority of the Organisations are in the big cities. SPECIAL EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES Special Employment Exchanges have been established in some State Capitals and special Capitals and Special cells in other employment exchanges. These exchanges exclusively register physically handicapped persons seeking jobs. They also arrange for their placement both in public and private sector. The number of special Employment Exchanges in India is 23 while the number of special cells in ordinary exchanges is 55.

APPENDIX A

DEFINITIONS OF DISABILITY OF VARIOUS CATEGORIES

(1)

The Blind Suffering from either of the following:

A. B.

Total absence of sight. Visual acquity not exceeding 6/60 or 20/200 (snellen) in the better eye with correcting lenses. Limitation of the field of vision substanding an angle of 20 degree or worse.

C.

(2) The DeafThe deaf are those in whom the sense of hearing is nonfunctional for ordinary purposes of life. They do not hear / understand sounds at all events with complified speech . The cases included in this category will be those having hearing loss more than 90 decibles in the better ear (profound impairment) or total loss of hearing in both the ears.

(3) The Orthopaedically HandicappedThe OH are those who have a physical defect or deformity which causes interference with normal functioning of bones, muscles and joints. (4) The Negative Lepers: Cured and non-infunctions leprosy Patients.

(5)

The Mild Mentally RetardedThose having an I.Q. varying from 51 to 70 can develop social and communication, Skills, can learn academic skills approximately upto 6th grade level, can achieve social and vocational skills adequate to minimum self support , needs assistance under usual social or economic stress.

APPENDIX B

LIST OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION CENTRE FOR HANDICAPPED

S. No.

Name and Address of VRC

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

VRC for Handicapped, ITI, Kuber Nagar, Ahmedabad 382 340. VRC for Handicapped, Sicon, C.T.I. Campus, Bombay-400 002. VRC for Handicapped, 38, B.R. Lane, Beliaghata, Calcutta- 700 010. VRC for Handicapped, 22/1, Hasur Road, Banglore-560029 VRC for Handicapped, I.T.I., Pusa, New Delhi-110012. VRC for Handicapped, 4-SA 23, Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur-302 004. VRC for Handicapped, A.T.I. Campus, Vidya Nagar, Hyder-abad- 500768. VRC for Handicapped , Napier Town, Jabalpur 482001. VRC for Handicapped, C.T.I., Gobind Nagar, Kanpur-22. VRC for Handicapped, ATI, Gill Road, Ludhiana-141003. VRC for Handicapped, C.T.I., Guindy, Madras-600039. VRC for Handicapped, Rehbari, Guwahati-781008,Assam. VRC for Handicapped, Nalachira, Trivandrum-15. VRC for Handicapped, SIRC Campus, Unit VIII, Bhubanes-war-12. VRC for Handicapped, Mahadev Industrial Estate BahuchaRaji Road, karejibaug, Baroda-390018.

16.

VRC for Handicapped, C/O Director Employment and Manp power Planning, Agartala.

17.

VRC for Handicapped, Plot No. 1 (A-84) Gandhi Vihar

Patna (Bihar).

APPENDIX C
ADDRESSES OF THE SPECIAL EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES FOR PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED (RUNNING)

1. The Regional Employment Officer. Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Azamabad, Hyderabad-500020. 2. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for physically Handicapped, Barrack No. 1/ E-5, Block No. 1/E-5, Block A, Curzon Road, New Delhi. 3. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange For Physically Handicapped, No. 5, Crescent Road, High Grounds, West Bangalore 560020. 4. The Special Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Merchanitile Chambers, 3rd Floor, Graham Road, Ballard Estate, Bombay-400001. 5. The Sub-Regional Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Block No. 2, Gill Road, Ludhiana, Punjab. 6. The Assistant Director, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, 33, Mount Road, Nandanam, Madras-600035. 7. The Special Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Behala Industrial Estate, 620, D.H. Road, Calcutta-700034. 8. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, G. T. Road, Kanpur-208002. 9. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for physically Handicapped, Nadavanam Road, Palayam, Trivandrum, Kerala. 10. The Employment officer, Special Employment Exchange for physically Handicapped, 965, Wright Town, Jabalpur482001.

11.

The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Combined Labour Building, Bailey Road, Patna-800001.

12.

The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, 1282, Sector 13-C, Chandigarh160018.

13.

The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Dte. of Employment and Training (H.P.), Stock Palace, Simla- 171002.

14.

The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Jaipur-302001 (Rajasthan).

15.

The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Dte. of Employment, Flat No. 367, Sahid Nagar, Bhubaneshwar-751007 (Orissa)

16.

The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Guwahati, Assam.

17.

The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Agartala, Tripura.

18. The Sub-Regional Employment Officer for Physically HandCapped, Kotli Building, Baroda (Gujarat). 19. The Sub-Regional Employment Officer for Physically Handi- capped, Multistorey Building, Nanpura, Surat, Gujarat. 20. The Sub-Regional Employment Officer for Physically Handi-Capped, Kopasiwala Bungalow, Junction Plot Rajkot, Gujarat. 21. The Special Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Salajose Cross Road, Opp. S.V. College, Ahmedabad-380001. 22. The Director. Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Manipur, Imphal.

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Ten Famous Disabled Persons who Became World Famous Celebrities


By: Biplob Kishore Deb

There are some people who made their life lightened with their mental strength and personal intuition. They were somehow disabled in their life but nothing could sop them from their goal. I found some famous disable persons who are admired by the whole world. I found such a list of disable persons in a website. If you find anything to have included then please let me know in the comment section.

Albert Einstein Einstein is the great scientist of the twentieth century and notable physicist of all time. It is told that he had learning disability in his childhood. He could not talk till he was three and could not read till he was eight. Despite such problems he later became the noble prize winner for his contribution to the Physics. His theory of relativity is considered as a revolutionary development of Physics. He got Noble Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the Photoelectric Effect and for his research in Theoretical physics.

Image Link: Wikipedia

Thomas

Edison

Edison is the great inventor who has over 1000 patents and his inventions are in various fields used in our daily life. In his early life he was thought to have a learning disability and he could not read till he was twelve and laterhe himself admitted that he became deaf after pulling up to a train car by his ears. He first could able to turn the attention of the world after inventing Phonograph. His one of the most popular invention is the Electric Bulb. He also developed the telegraph system. His invention of carbon telephone transmitter developed the carbon microphone which was used in the telephoned till 1980. He also became a prominent businessman and his business institution produced his inventions and marketed the products to the general people.

Image Link: Wkipedia

John Milton Milton is the great English poet and widely known for his epic Paradiselost. However, before writing this famous epic he became blind at 43. Blindness could not make him stop form practicing literature. This great poet is considered as the most learned English poet as he had knowledge in different disciplines including theology, philosophy, history, politics, literature and science before starting to write poems. He got his matriculation degree form the Christs College, Cambridge in 1625 and became graduated in the same college in Mater of Arts in 1632.

Image Link: Wkipedia

Ludwig van Beethoven Beethoven is the great German composer and musician who was deaf at the later part of his life. In his early life he was famous as a pianist. He got the primary knowledge of music from his father, Johann van Beethoven who was a musician in the electoral court. He has some mysterious power which led him to create famous composes one after another. He went Vienna and learned many things from some of the prominent musicians. After his age of 28, he started becoming deaf and his personal life was not so peaceful. He composed many piano Sonatas such as Waldstein, Appassionata etc.

Image Link: Wikipedia

Stephen Hawking This famous scientist is considered as the greatest scientist of the twentieth century after Einstein. Haw kings big bang theory and black hole theory has turned the attention of the world. He is the professor of Mathematics of the University of Cambridge. Though he is now about to be paralyzed, he is teaching through a computer supported a machine by which his world are compiled. His physical illness could not make him stop form his research. His famous book is A Brief History of Time. Tanni Grey-Thompson Tanni Grey is the famous athlete of the Para Olympics. This disable athlete is a wheel chair user in her life. She won 16 medals including 11 golds and she holds over 30 world records in Para Olympic. She also won Londonmarathon for six times. She was awarded OBE for her contribution the disabled sport. Walt Disney This famous producer, director, animator has earning disability in his early life. Disney is famous for story telling, and he has some intuitive power of making animation and theme park design. Todays world Disney world is the plan of this prolific animator but he could not see his own creation as he was died before the completion of this project. Disney land is now very popular among the children.

Michael Bolton This famous pop and rock singer was deaf in his life but he achieved all obstacles and become famous in the music world. He is famous for his soft rock ballads. Boltons album sold 53 million albums. His biggest success came in the mid-thirties as a solo vocalist and he got his first contract for his record at the age of 15. Some of his famous solo wor ks are Everybodys Crazy, Soul Provider, My Secret Passion etc. Marla Runyan This American prolific runner is the first competitor of Olympic as a blind. From her birth she is blind. With her mental strength she competed with the other athlete at the highest stage of the world in 2000. She also participated in the Para Olympic in 2000. Marla set many records in the Para Olympics in Atlanta. She showed the world that quality and mental strength can make everything possible.