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Purdue e-Pubs

International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering

1982

Performance Characteristics of Fixed Volume Ratio

Compressors

J. R. Sauls

Follow this and additional works at: htp://docs.lib.purdue.edu/icec

Tis document has been made available through Purdue e-Pubs, a service of the Purdue University Libraries. Please contact epubs@purdue.edu for

additional information.

Complete proceedings may be acquired in print and on CD-ROM directly from the Ray W. Herrick Laboratories at htps://engineering.purdue.edu/

Herrick/Events/orderlit.html

Sauls, J. R., "Performance Characteristics of Fixed Volume Ratio Compressors" (1982). International Compressor Engineering

Conference. Paper 394.

htp://docs.lib.purdue.edu/icec/394

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF

FIXED VOLUME RATIO COMPRESSORS

J, R. Sauls, Principal Engineer

Advanced Development Engineering, The Trane Company, La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601

ABSTRACT

The effects of built-in volume ratio on the per-

formance characteristics of fixed volume ratio,

positive displacement compressors are demonstrat-

ed in an analysis using idealized pressure-volume

diagrams. Power and adiabatic efficiency charac-

teristics are computed and a discussion as to

how the built-in volume ratio influences these

characteristics is

It is shown that the shapes of the performance

curves are controlled by the mis-matching be-

tween internal compressor pressure and system

pressure at the discharge. Internal losses,

while dictating levels of performance, are of

secondary importance in determining the charac-

teristic shapes of the performance curves.

The analysis is applied to fully loaded and un-

loaded compressor operation. Examples indicate

the importance of selecting the right built-in

volume ratio and the performance penalties that

can be expected when a fixed volume ratio comp-

ressor is required to operate over a wide range

of system pressure ratio.

INTRODUCTION

Investigation of fixed volume ratio, positive

displacement compressors reveals that they have

distinctive performance characteristics. A

typical set of power curves for a rotary screw

compressor (Reference [1]) is shown in Figure 1.

Data for compressors with built-in volume ratios

(Vi) of 2.6 and 4.8 are presented, showing the

powerful effect that this design parameter has

on compressor performance. Increasing the con-

denser temperature has about the same effect on

the 2.6 and 4.8 compressors, shifting the power

curves to higher levels but having little effect

on the slopes. Raising the volume ratio, however,

results in an increase in the slope of the power

curves.

The purpose of this study is to explore the

performance of fixed volume ratio compressors

in an attempt to explain the characteristics

noted above. An expression for compressor

power as a ,function of suction pressure, pressure

201

ratio and built-in volume ratio is developed

using idealized pressure-volume diagrams for both

fully loaded and unloaded operation. No provi-

sion for internal losses is included, and thus the

analysis does not reflect actual compressor per-

formance levels. However, the model does show

how a compressor responds to changes in operating

conditions and how the built-in volume ratio

affects performance characteristics.

The following assumptions are used in the analysis:

1) The fluid is an ideal gas with constant

specific heats.

2) The pressure within lhe compressor adjusts

instantaneously to the system imposed dis-

charge pressure when porting begins.

3) The volumetric efficiency is 100%.

NOMENCLATURE

CP Specific heat at constant

pressure

f Fraction of fully loaded

suction volume at which un-

loader closes

g Fraction of fully loaded

suction volume at which un-

loader opens

h Enthalpy

k Isentropic exponent

m. Mass flow rate

N Compressor speed

p

Pressure

R Universal gas constant

r Pressure ratio

T Temperature

v Volume

v Specific volume

vi

Built-in volume ratio

w Compressor power

lla

Adiabatic efficiency

SUBSCRIPTS

1

3

f

g

i

Suction conditions

Discharge conditions

Point of unloader closing

Point of unloader opening

Isentropic state point

BTU/lbm

lbm/min

rev/min

lbf/ft2

lbm-F/ft-lbf

OF

ft3/rev

ft

3

/lbm

ft-lbf/min

ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION ANALYSIS

Before studying the performance of fixed volume

ratio compressors, it is useful to compute the

power required for an isentropic compression be-

tween specified suction and discharge pressures.

From the first law of thermodynamic-s, the isen-

tropic power is

( 1)

Since we are considering a positive displacement

compressor, the mass flow rate can be .expressed

as a function of the compressor's constant volume

flow rate and the specific volume of the vapor

m = !:!.'!1

v

For an ideal gas:

v = RT/P

6hi = c, <T

31

- T

1

) = C,

0

r

1

--1)

T31 =

Tl

Using equations 2 through 5 in equation

in the following expression for power:

_ NV1 [(p )lk-ll/k J

Wj - R . -1

(2)

OJ

(4)

( 5)

1 results

(6)

For constant speed operation, NV

1

is a constant

and for an ideal gas Cp/R=k/ (k-1). Equation ,6

can thus be written as

.J!.... = _k . p [(!2)(k-l)/k -I J

NV1 k-1

1

P

1

(7)*

A family of performance curves computed using

equation 7 is illustratP.d in Figure 2. The condi-

tions are the same as those for which the screw

compressor data is presented in Fig-ure 1. Com-

parison of the isentropic curves with performance

of the screw compressor reveals little similarity.

The performance curves in Figure 2 r-epresent

compressor power requirements. Operation

below these curves would require a decrease in

entropy, violating the second law of thermo-

dynamics. Compressors requiring power above

that given by equation 7 will do so because of

some loss in efficiency (leakage, friction, ete.. ) ..

The isentropic compression re-presented by equation

7 can be illustrated on a pressure-volume diagram

such as that shown in Figure 3. The ideal comr

pressor fills at constant pressure (P/P

1

=1_) __

as swept volume increases to V1. The line 123

is the isentropic compression line which, for an

ideal gas, is defined by

< e l

* A non-dimensional power func-tion, W/ (NV1P1)

could be used. However, since most compressor

data is presented using P1 as the independent

variable, the analysis will continue with P1 as

the independent variable.

.202

For this idealized compressor, it is assumed that

the compression pro.ceeds isentropically until

the pressure inside the compressor is equal to

the imposed system pr.essure. Then t.he compressor

discharges at constant pre-ssure. The process

la-1-2-Za is for -operation at a pressure ra-tio of

while the process la-l-3-3a shows operation

at 6:1 pr.essure ratio. The work of compression

is the area bounded by the filling, compression

/i.Ud discharging curves and it is easy to show

that evaluating this area re.sults in equation 7.

The volume ratio at which the compressor begins

discharging varies with the pressure ratio.

This would be the case for an ideal reciprocating

compressor where the discharge valve stays closed

.until the internal pressure reaches discharge

pressure. It then opens and the mass within the

compressor flows out with no losses. For a

fixed volume ratio compressor, however, the story

is quite different. "The geometry of the compres-

sor dictates the internal volume to which the

gas is compressed. When the compression has

reached this point, discharging begins through

a fixed port, regardless of the system pressure

(for high system pres.sures, the discharge process

starts with a flow from the system into the

compressor). This process is in the

next section, resulting in an expression for

power as a function of P1, P3 and vi for fully

loaded compressors. A more g.eneral analysis

allowing for unloaded operation follows.

FULLY LOADED COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE

Figures 4 and 5 show the pressure-volume diagrams

for a fixed volume ratio compressor operating at

high and low system pre.ssure ratios, respectively.

These figures represent a compressor with a built-

in volume ratio of 3.5. Regardless of the system

imposed discharge pressure, the pressure in the

compressor rises to the level where P2/P1=(V1/V2)k.

At this point, the trapped volume can communicate

wi.th the system through a fixed positioned

port. In the case of high syst.em pressure as

illustrated in Figure 4, the pressure rise in the

compressor is too low. When the port opens,

high pressure gas flows into the compressor until

the internal and external pressures are equal

(process 2-3 on figure). An isentropic compres-

sor, on the other hand, wo.uld follow the path

1-2-3

1

Thus, the shaded area 2-3-3'-2 repre-

sents the excess work required of the fixed

volume ratio compressor.

For low system pressure ratios (Figure 5), the

internal pressure rises above the system pressure

before discharging begins. When the port is

finally opened, the high pressure gas rushes

-out until the internal and external pres_sures are

equalized. The remaining mass is discharged

by reducing the internal volume to zero. The

.isentropic compressor would .compress from 1

t<D 3' then discharge at constant pressure from

3

1

to 3a. The excess work .required of the fixed

volume ra,tio compres.sor is again represented by

the area 2-3-3"

1

-2 .

In order to derive an expression for the revers-

ible work of compression, valid for arbitrary

system pressure ratios and compressor volume

ratios, the area under the P-V diagram is computed

(area la-l-2-3-3a-la in either Figure 4 or 5).

Yf.. = J.

3

" Pdv

N IO

J

l !,2 13" = Pdv + Pdv + Pdv

Ia I 3

( 9)

The process 2-3 is assumed to occur at constant

volume and thus does not contribute to the total

work. The filling and emptying phases of the

compression (la-1 and 3-3a) are assumed to occur

at constant pressure. With the first

and last integrals on the right hand side of

equation 9 are -P1V1 and P3V2, respectively.

To evaluate the work from 1 to 2, use the rela-

tion between pressure and volume for isentropic

compression of an ideal gas

( 10)

Using 10 in 9 and evaluating the integral results

in

':!!..: P

2

V2

P

1

V

1

=

N k-1 k-1 P

1

I

(I I)

Again using 10 to express Pz/Pl in terms of the

compressor's built-in volume ratio

W - "'v' ..L (v k -v )

"fl-k-IVj i i

= f'IV, (vkl -I)

K- I I

The total work of compression is then

w - F\ v, ( k-1 )

N N vi -I + P3 Vz P, v,

[

k-1 I

_ Vj -1 J

-F;V, ... V I

I

( 12)

( 13)

Or, presenting the work per unit suction volume

as was done for the isentropic compressor:

W [ y.k -I -k P3/P, J

-=P +--

NV1 1 k -I vi

(14)

Equation 14 shows that for fixed P3 and vi'

the W/NV

1

vs. P

1

characteristic is a straight

line. The slope of the line can be found by

differentiating 14 with respect to P1:

d (.J!....) k-1

(15)

dP, k -I

Equation 14 and 15 show that the power vs. suc-

tion pressure curves for a fixed volume ratio

compressor have the following characteristics:

1) Power increases with increasing discharge

pressure at constant suction pressure.

2) Discharge pressure does not affect the slope

of the power curves,

3) Increasing the built-in volume ratio in-

creases the slope of the power curves.

203

These characteristics are also exhibited by the

screw compressor performance curves shown in

Figure 1.

For any volume ratio, it can be shown that

equations 7 and 14 give the same power when

evaluated at a pressure ratio r=P3/P1=vik.

Since 7 represents isentropic compression, the

line described by 14 cannot ckoss the curve

described by 7. Thus, at r=vi the curves are

tangent. At this point, the P-V diagrams for

the isentropic compressor and the fixed volume

ratio compressor are identical. For pressure

ratios less than vf, the fixed volume ratio

compressor produces over pressure losses

(Figure 5) which increase as the pressure ratio

is reduced. Square carding losses occur in the

fixed volume ratio compressor for pressure

ratios greater than vf (Figure 4). This loss

also increases as the pressure ratio moves away

from r=vf.

Figure 6 shows the computed power characteristics

at 172.9 psia condenser pressure (86F in R-22)

for ideal compressors with built-in volume ratios

from 1.5 to 5.0. The isentropic compression

curve computed from equation 7 is also included.

This figure illustrates the powerful effect that

the built-in volume ratio has on compressor

performance characteristics.

Performance characteristics for compressors with

built-in volume ratios of 2.6 and 4.8 were

computed for the same conditions at which the

screw compressor data is presented in Figure 1.

The resulting curves are shown in Figure 7. The

idealized curves and the actual performance

characteristics are remarkably similar. Thus,

while internal losses such as leakage or friction

may be high, it appears that the underlying

determinant of the shapes of the power character-

istics for fixed volume ratio compressors is the

excess work at the discharge associated with the

mis-match between compressor and system pressures.

UNLOADED COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE

Unloaded compressor performance was analyzed

using the same techniques that were applied to

the fully loaded analysis. The P-V diagram re-

presenting unloaded operation is shown in Figure

8. The point g represents the point at which

the unloader opens. Ideally, g would be at

v

1

so that the work associated with the area

g'-1-g-g' would be 0. f is the ratio of the

volume at the point of unloader closure to the

fully loaded suction volume, v

1

. For a given

P

1

and P

3

, f represents the fraction of full

load at which the compressor is operating.

From the assumptions

Vg

v

g

v3 Vg

Pg

pf = PI

( 16)

R'

g

P

1

(VI/Vglk

Pz PI(Vf/Vzl

k

The work of compression from 1 to g' is

(

Yi)

0

= Pg' Vg- P

1

V

1

N1-9 k-1

( 17)

and for the compression from f to 2

(

'!J. ) = p2 Vg - PI Vf ( 18 )

N f-

2

k-1

Using equations 16 through 18 and noting that

Vf=fV1 and Vg=gV

1

, the total work of compression

for unloaded operation is

.Jf_- {t[(tv;lk-1_1] + gl-k_1 + L-1+g-f} (19)

NVI - PI k-1 k-1 V;

Fully loaded operation is represented by f=l

and g=l. When equation 19 is evaluated using

these values, it reduces to equation 14.

Figures 9 through 11 show some part load operat-

ing characteristics computed using equation 19.

In each of these figures, g=l.O (no loss due to

late opening of the unloader) and the pressure

ratio is fixed. Power vs. f for several values

of vi are shown. Figure 9 shows operation at a

pressure ratio of 5:1, Figure 10 operation at

r=4:1 and Figure 11 shows operation at r=2:1.

The significant feature of these curves is the

effect of vi on the power vs. load characteristic-

Figure 9 shows that the minimum power at a pres-

sure ratio of 5:1 is achieved with the vi=4

compressor at full load, but at part load the

higher volume ratio compressors are more efficient.

The same trend is seen for the lower pressure

ratios illustrated in Figures 10 and 11, but the

effect of vi on unloaded power is not as great.

The implication of these unloaded characteristics

is that the system operating characteristics must

be known in order to select the correct built-in

volume ratio. Compressors running at part load

should have built-in volume ratios that are higher

than required for minimum power at full load.

For example, at a pressure ratio of 5:1, the Vi=4

compressor uses 25% more power at 50% load than

the vi=8 compressor, but uses 13% less at full

load. The more hours the compressor is required

to run at part load, the greater the excess

operating cost that must be paid for selection of

the lower built-in volume ratio.

ADIABATIC EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS

To this point, the analysis has focused on the

power characteristics of fixed volume ratio

compressors. These compressors also have dis-

tinctive adiabatic efficiency characteristics,

which are strongly affected by the built-in volume

204

ratio. An expression for adiabatic efficiency

can be derived for t h ~ ideal compressors.

Equation 7 defines the isentropic work and equation

14 the actual work for a fully loaded fixed

volume ratio compressor. T h ~ ratio of these

work terms is the adiabatic efficiency, equation

20.

k [r(k-1) /k -1]

'I'Ja =

(201

y.k-1 + r(k-1) _ k

I Yj

Adiabatic efficiency characteristics for the

screw compressor of Figure 1 (Reference [1]) are

shown in Figure 12. Also shown in the figure are

ideal compressor characteristics for the 2.6 and

4.8 volume ratio compressors computed using

equation 20. As was the case with the power

curves, the characters of the computed and actual

efficiency curves are much the same. The shapes

and the pressure ratio at which peak efficiency

occurs are virtually identical. The main dif-

ferences are the lower level of efficiency of the

actual compressor and the sensitivity of its

characteristics to discharge pressure. Both

of these differences are probably due to the

leakage inherent in the screw compressor.

As shown above, ideal fixed volume ratio compres-

sors have efficiencies less than 1.0 (except

where r=vf, where they achieve isentropic com-

pression with no excess work). Because of this,

it is suggested that a relative efficiency,

defined as the ratio of measured adiabatic ef-

ficiency to the ideal efficiency of equation 20,

be used as a measure of design quality. In this

way, the performance achieved is compared to

the best performance that could be expected.

The magnitude of the relative efficiency would

thus be a measure of the losses that, in theory,

could be controlled by the design.

The relative efficiency is computed from the

data on Figure 12 for the 2.6 Vi compressor

operating at 86 condenser temperature. Results

are listed in 'Table 1. While the data shows

significant variation in efficiency for the

screw (from 0.76 at 2.9 pressure ratio to 0.62

at 6:1 pressure ratio), the relative efficiency

changes less than 4 percentage points. This

means that the controllable losses, amounting to

24 percentage points at peak efficiency, do not

change much with changes in pressure ratio.

Most of the drop in efficiency at high pressure

ratio is due to the losses at the discharge,

inherent in the fixed volume ratio compressor

design.

Data at 86F Condenser Temp.

2.6 Vi Screw Compressor

Pressure Ratio

1.75

2.25

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

Table 1

Relative Efficiency

.738

.750

.760

.753

.747

.723

CONCLUSIONS

A procedure for analyzing the performance of an

idealized fixed volume ratio compressor has been

presented. The analysis explains the character-

istic 'Shapes of fixed volume ratio compressor

power and efficiency curves and can be used to

study the effect of built-in volume ratio and

late opening unloaders on unloaded performance.

An eXpression for adiabatic efficiency was dev-

eloped and it was shown that the idealized fixed

volume ratio compressor efficiency varies with

pressure ratio. The losses in efficiency are

the penalty paid for use of a fixed volume ratio

concept. It is suggested that the efficiency

computed including these losses (equation 20)

is a proper reference performance level and

comparison of actual performance with this

reference is a good measure of design quality.

REFERENCES

[1] Sullair Corp., "Packaged Refrigeration

Screw Compressors, Engineering Data",

September, 1972.

310

300

290

270

260

"'

"'

240

""

"'

230

"'

"'

0 220

:z:

"'

210

"' ..

2DO

"' Ill

190

ISO

170

160

150

140

130

20

FIGURE l

ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSOR

POWER CHARACTERISTICS

DATA FROM REFERENCE (l)

I 3

I

I

I

I

I

I

/

I

2

I

/

------1---r;

I I I

I I 1

I I I

/ I /

I I I

I

/

I

I I

2

I / I

I /

I

I

I /

I

I

I

.-1----1

I

I

40 60 so 100

EVAPORATOR PRESSURE

I T COND 66.0

2 T COND 105.0

3 T CONO 122.0

VI. 2.6

110 120

...

>

z

205

120

115

110

105

100

95

90

as

80

75

70

65

so

55

50

p

FIGURE 2

ISENTROPIC POWER RATIO VS Pl

REFRIGERANT R-22

20

K: 1.135

EQUATION 7

P3 261.7 PSIA

!T SAT 122.0 DEGl

P3: 225.5 P$1A

I (T SATI05.0 DEGI

P3172.9P$1A

(TSAT 86.0 DEG I

40 60 BO 100 120 1<10

Pl PSIA

FIGURE 3

._ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION r

P, 2.01t='

20

:......--ir----"'

p

P,

1.0 Ia

0

30 3

1

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Ia

3

1.0

vtv,

FIGURE 4

SYSTEM r 61

COMPRESSOR Yj II 3_5

1.135

ISENTROPE

0 .g86BJ/yj 1.0

V/V,

p

P,

FIGURE 5

SYSTEM r .2'1

COMPRESSOR v

1

: 3.5

k = 1.135

FIGURE 6

POWER RATIO VS Pl

CONDENSER PRESSURE= 172.9 PSI A

CONDENSER TEMPERATURE= 86.0 DEG.

120

115

110

105

100

95

;: 90

z 85

....

eo

76

70

65

so

55

50

20

120

115

110

105

100

95

...

90

>

.

85

z

i;

eo

75

70

65

60

56

50

20

REFRIGERANT R-22

40

K: 1.135

6

5

I- vi= 1.5

2-vl2.0

5-yj;:4.0

6- vi '5.0

ISENTROPE(EQN 7)

6o eo 1oo 12o J4o

Pl- PSIA

FIGURE 7

POWER RATIO VS Pl

REFRIGERANT R- 22

K= 1.135

3 2

I 1 I

I I I

/ I I

/ // /

I

I

,

I I I

I I I

I I

, ,

I I

/ I

I / I

I I

/ ,'

, ,

I I

,

,

I T- CONO 86.0

2 T- CONO 105.0

3 T- COND = 122.0

"i- 2.6

40 60 eo 100 120 140

Pl-PSIA

p

P,

...

>

.

z

:::.:

"'

...

>

:z

....

30

"

206

FIGURE 8

6,0

3o

5,0

kO

3.0

2.0

LO

0 1.0

V/V1

fiGURE 9

PART LOAD PERFORMANCE

5:1 PRESSURE RATIO

P1=50.0 PSIA

Kl.l35

106

100

96

90

86

80

75

10

65

so-

55

50

45

40

35

4-1 = e.o

30

25

20

0.0 o.a 0,4 0.6 o.e 1.0

100

95

90

85

80

75

70

66

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

FRJ.CTJON OF SWEPT VOLUME

FIGURE 10

PART LOAD PERFORMANCE

41 PRESSURE RATIO

Pl= 50.0 PSI A

K = 1.135

4

I - ;' 4.0

2- Vi'!il

:s-vi=s.o

4- " 8.0

o.o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 I .o

FFIACTION OF SWEPT VOLUME

85

80

75

70

65

60

55

FIGURE II

PART LOAD PERFORMANCE

2<1 PRESSURE RATIO

Pl: 50,0 PSI A

K: 1.135

4

3

2

> 50

.. 45

"'

l

.....

;..

""

1.0

0.9

i:; o.a

"'

0.7

" Li: 0.6

l:;

0.5

" j: 0.4

<f.

0,3

Q

0.2

..

0.1

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

1- "r- 4.o

2- yi; 5.0

3- v; :s 6,0

a.o

0.0 0.2 o.4 o.G o.a 1.0

FRACTION OF SWEPT VOLUME

FIGURE 12

ADIABATIC EFFICIENCY

DATA FROM REFERENCE (tl

. EQUATION 20

ITCOND' 86.0 ,z;

I

3 105,0

I

3 T CONO 1!2.0

0. 0 +--...-...... -.---,.......,..-.-.,--.--.---.--,

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12

PRESSURE RATIO

207

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