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RULE 12. DEFENSES AND OBJECTIONS: WHEN AND HOW PRESENTED; MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS; CONSOLIDATING MOTIONS; WAIVING DEFENSES; PRETRIAL HEARING
(a ) T im e to S e rve a R e sp o n sive P le a d in g . (1 ) In G e n e ra l. U n le ss a n o th e r tim e is sp e cifie d b y th is ru le o r a fe d e ra l sta tu te , th e tim e fo r se rvin g a re sp o n sive p le a d in g is a s fo llo w s: (A ) A d e fe n d a n t m u st se rve a n a n sw e r: (i) w ith in 2 1 d a ys a fte r b e in g se rve d w ith th e su m m o n s a n d co m p la in t; o r (ii) if it h a s tim e ly w a ive d se rvice u n d e r R u le 4 (d ), w ith in 6 0 d a ys a fte r th e re q u e st fo r a w a ive r w a s se n t, o r w ith in 9 0 d a ys a fte r it w a s se n t to th e d e fe n d a n t o u tsid e a n y ju d icia l d istrict o f th e U n ite d S ta te s. (B) A p a rty m u st se rve a n a n sw e r to a co u n te rcla im o r cro sscla im w ith in 2 1 d a ys a fte r b e in g se rve d w ith th e p le a d in g th a t sta te s th e co u n te rcla im o r cro sscla im . (C ) A p a rty m u st se rve a re p ly to a n a n sw e r w ith in 2 1 d a ys a fte r b e in g se rve d w ith a n o rd e r to re p ly, u n le ss th e o rd e r sp e cifie s a d iffe re n t tim e . (2 ) U n ite d S ta te s a n d Its A g e n cie s, O ffice rs, o r E m p lo ye e s S u e d in a n O fficia l C a p a city. T h e U n ite d S ta te s, a U n ite d S ta te s a g e n cy, o r a U n ite d S ta te s o ffice r o r e m p lo ye e su e d o n ly in a n o fficia l ca p a city m u st se rve a n a n sw e r to a co m p la in t, co u n te rcla im , o r cro sscla im w ith in 6 0 d a ys a fte r se rvice o n th e U n ite d S ta te s a tto rn e y. (3 ) U n ite d S ta te s O ffice rs o r E m p lo ye e s S u e d in a n In d ivid u a l C a p a city. A U n ite d S ta te s o ffice r o r e m p lo ye e su e d in a n in d ivid u a l ca p a city fo r a n a ct o r o m issio n o ccu rrin g in co n n e ctio n w ith d u tie s p e rfo rm e d o n th e U n ite d S ta te s b e h a lf m u st se rve a n a n sw e r to a co m p la in t, co u n te rcla im , o r cro sscla im w ith in 6 0 d a ys a fte r se rvice o n th e o ffice r o r e m p lo ye e o r se rvice o n th e U n ite d S ta te s a tto rn e y, w h ich e ve r is la te r. (4 ) E ffe ct o f a M o tio n . U n le ss th e co u rt se ts a d iffe re n t tim e , se rvin g a m o tio n u n d e r th is ru le a lte rs th e se p e rio d s a s fo llo w s: (A ) if th e co u rt d e n ie s th e m o tio n o r p o stp o n e s its d isp o sitio n u n til tria l, th e re sp o n sive p le a d in g m u st b e se rve d w ith in 1 4 d a ys a fte r n o tice o f th e co u rt's a ctio n ; or (B) if th e co u rt g ra n ts a m o tio n fo r a m o re d e fin ite sta te m e n t, th e re sp o n sive p le a d in g m u st b e se rve d w ith in 1 4 d a ys a fte r th e m o re d e fin ite sta te m e n t is se rve d . (b ) H o w to P re se n t D e fe n se s. E ve ry d e fe n se to a cla im fo r re lie f in a n y p le a d in g m u st b e a sse rte d in th e re sp o n sive p le a d in g if o n e is re q u ire d . Bu t a p a rty m a y a sse rt th e fo llo w in g d e fe n se s b y m o tio n : (1 ) la ck o f su b je ct-m a tte r ju risd ictio n ; (2 ) la ck o f p e rso n a l ju risd ictio n ;

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(3 ) im p ro p e r ve n u e ; (4 ) in su fficie n t p ro ce ss; (5 ) in su fficie n t se rvice o f p ro ce ss; (6 ) fa ilu re to sta te a cla im u p o n w h ich re lie f ca n b e g ra n te d ; a n d (7 ) fa ilu re to jo in a p a rty u n d e r R u le 1 9 . A m o tio n a sse rtin g a n y o f th e se d e fe n se s m u st b e m a d e b e fo re p le a d in g if a re sp o n sive p le a d in g is a llo w e d . If a p le a d in g se ts o u t a cla im fo r re lie f th a t d o e s n o t re q u ire a re sp o n sive p le a d in g , a n o p p o sin g p a rty m a y a sse rt a t tria l a n y d e fe n se to th a t cla im . N o d e fe n se o r o b je ctio n is w a ive d b y jo in in g it w ith o n e o r m o re o th e r d e fe n se s o r o b je ctio n s in a re sp o n sive p le a d in g o r in a m o tio n . (c) M o tio n fo r Ju d g m e n t o n th e P le a d in g s. A fte r th e p le a d in g s a re clo se d b u t e a rly e n o u g h n o t to d e la y tria l a p a rty m a y m o ve fo r ju d g m e n t o n th e p le a d in g s. (d ) R e su lt o f P re se n tin g M a tte rs O u tsid e th e P le a d in g s. If, o n a m o tio n u n d e r R u le 1 2 (b )(6 ) o r 1 2 (c), m a tte rs o u tsid e th e p le a d in g s a re p re se n te d to a n d n o t e x clu d e d b y th e co u rt, th e m o tio n m u st b e tre a te d a s o n e fo r su m m a ry ju d g m e n t u n d e r R u le 5 6 . A ll p a rtie s m u st b e g ive n a re a so n a b le o p p o rtu n ity to p re se n t a ll th e m a te ria l th a t is p e rtin e n t to th e m o tio n . (e ) M o tio n fo r a M o re D e fin ite S ta te m e n t. A p a rty m a y m o ve fo r a m o re d e fin ite sta te m e n t o f a p le a d in g to w h ich a re sp o n sive p le a d in g is a llo w e d b u t w h ich is so va g u e o r a m b ig u o u s th a t th e p a rty ca n n o t re a so n a b ly p re p a re a re sp o n se . T h e m o tio n m u st b e m a d e b e fo re filin g a re sp o n sive p le a d in g a n d m u st p o in t o u t th e d e fe cts co m p la in e d o f a n d th e d e ta ils d e sire d . If th e co u rt o rd e rs a m o re d e fin ite sta te m e n t a n d th e o rd e r is n o t o b e ye d w ith in 1 4 d a ys a fte r n o tice o f th e o rd e r o r w ith in th e tim e th e co u rt se ts, th e co u rt m a y strike th e p le a d in g o r issu e a n y o th e r a p p ro p ria te o rd e r. (f) M o tio n to S trike . T h e co u rt m a y strike fro m a p le a d in g a n in su fficie n t d e fe n se o r a n y re d u n d a n t, im m a te ria l, im p e rtin e n t, o r sca n d a lo u s m a tte r. T h e co u rt m a y a ct: (1 ) o n its o w n ; o r (2 ) o n m o tio n m a d e b y a p a rty e ith e r b e fo re re sp o n d in g to th e p le a d in g o r, if a re sp o n se is n o t a llo w e d , w ith in 2 1 d a ys a fte r b e in g se rve d w ith th e p le a d in g . (g ) Jo in in g M o tio n s. (1 ) R ig h t to Jo in . A m o tio n u n d e r th is ru le m a y b e jo in e d w ith a n y o th e r m o tio n a llo w e d b y th is ru le . (2 ) Lim ita tio n o n F u rth e r M o tio n s. E x ce p t a s p ro vid e d in R u le 1 2 (h )(2 ) o r (3 ), a p a rty th a t m a ke s a m o tio n u n d e r th is ru le m u st n o t m a ke a n o th e r m o tio n u n d e r th is ru le ra isin g a d e fe n se o r o b je ctio n th a t w a s a va ila b le to th e p a rty b u t o m itte d fro m its e a rlie r m o tio n . (h ) W a ivin g a n d P re se rvin g C e rta in D e fe n se s. (1 ) W h e n S o m e A re W a ive d . A p a rty w a ive s a n y d e fe n se liste d in R u le 1 2 (b )(2 )(5 ) b y: (A ) o m ittin g it fro m a m o tio n in th e circu m sta n ce s d e scrib e d in R u le 1 2 (g )(2 ); o r (B) fa ilin g to e ith e r: (i) m a ke it b y m o tio n u n d e r th is ru le ; o r (ii) in clu d e it in a re sp o n sive p le a d in g o r in a n a m e n d m e n t a llo w e d b y R u le 1 5 (a )(1 ) a s a m a tte r o f co u rse . (2 ) W h e n to R a ise O th e rs. F a ilu re to sta te a cla im u p o n w h ich re lie f ca n b e g ra n te d , to jo in a p e rso n re q u ire d b y R u le 1 9 (b ), o r to sta te a le g a l d e fe n se to a cla im m a y b e ra ise d :

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(A ) in a n y p le a d in g a llo w e d o r o rd e re d u n d e r R u le 7 (a ); (B) b y a m o tio n u n d e r R u le 1 2 (c); o r (C ) a t tria l. (3 ) La ck o f S u b je ct-M a tte r Ju risd ictio n . If th e co u rt d e te rm in e s a t a n y tim e th a t it la cks su b je ct-m a tte r ju risd ictio n , th e co u rt m u st d ism iss th e a ctio n . (i) H e a rin g Be fo re T ria l. If a p a rty so m o ve s, a n y d e fe n se liste d in R u le 1 2 (b )(1 )(7 ) w h e th e r m a d e in a p le a d in g o r b y m o tio n a n d a m o tio n u n d e r R u le 1 2 (c) m u st b e h e a rd a n d d e cid e d b e fo re tria l u n le ss th e co u rt o rd e rs a d e fe rra l u n til tria l. NOTES (A s a m e n d e d D e c. 2 7 , 1 9 4 6 , e ff. M a r. 1 9 , 1 9 4 8 ; Ja n . 2 1 , 1 9 6 3 , e ff. Ju ly 1 , 1 9 6 3 ; F e b . 2 8 , 1 9 6 6 , e ff. Ju ly 1 , 1 9 6 6 ; M a r. 2 , 1 9 8 7 , e ff. A u g . 1 , 1 9 8 7 ; A p r. 2 2 , 1 9 9 3 , e ff. D e c. 1 , 1 9 9 3 ; A p r. 1 7 , 2 0 0 0 , e ff. D e c. 1 , 2 0 0 0 ; A p r. 3 0 , 2 0 0 7 , e ff. D e c. 1 , 2 0 0 7 ; M a r. 2 6 , 2 0 0 9 , e ff. D e c. 1 , 2 0 0 9 .) N O TES O F A DV ISO RY C O M M ITTEE O N R U LES 1 9 3 7

N o te to S u b d ivisio n (a ) . 1 . C o m p a re [fo rm e r] E q u ity R u le s 1 2 (Issu e o f S u b p o e n a T im e fo r A n sw e r) a n d 3 1 (R e p ly W h e n R e q u ire d W h e n C a u se a t Issu e ); 4 M o n t.R e v.C o d e s A n n . (1 9 3 5 ) 9 1 0 7 , 9 1 5 8 ; N .Y .C .P .A . (1 9 3 7 ) 2 6 3 ; N .Y .R .C .P . (1 9 3 7 ) R u le s 1 0 9 1 1 1 .


2 . U .S .C ., T itle 2 8 , 7 6 3 [n o w 5 4 7 ] (P e titio n in a ctio n a g a in st U n ite d S ta te s; se rvice ; a p p e a ra n ce b y d istrict a tto rn e y) p ro vid e s th a t th e U n ite d S ta te s a s a d e fe n d a n t sh a ll h a ve 6 0 d a ys w ith in w h ich to a n sw e r o r o th e rw ise d e fe n d . T h is a n d o th e r sta tu te s w h ich p ro vid e 6 0 d a ys fo r th e U n ite d S ta te s o r a n o ffice r o r a g e n cy th e re o f to a n sw e r o r o th e rw ise d e fe n d a re co n tin u e d b y th is ru le . In so fa r a s a n y sta tu te s n o t e x ce p te d in R u le 8 1 p ro vid e a d iffe re n t tim e fo r a d e fe n d a n t to d e fe n d , su ch sta tu te s a re m o d ifie d . S e e U .S .C ., T itle 2 8 , [fo rm e r] 4 5 (D istrict co u rts; p ra ctice a n d p ro ce d u re in ce rta in ca se s u n d e r th e in te rsta te co m m e rce la w s) (3 0 d a ys). 3 . C o m p a re th e la st se n te n ce o f [fo rm e r] E q u ity R u le 2 9 (D e fe n se s H o w P re se n te d ) a n d N .Y .C .P .A . (1 9 3 7 ) 2 8 3 . S e e R u le 1 5 (a ) fo r tim e w ith in w h ich to p le a d to a n a m e n d e d p le a d in g .

N o te to S u b d ivisio n s (b ) a n d (d ) . 1 . S e e g e n e ra lly [fo rm e r] E q u ity R u le s 2 9 (D e fe n se s H o w P re se n te d ), 3 3 (T e stin g S u fficie n cy o f D e fe n se ), 4 3 (D e fe ct o f P a rtie s R e sistin g O b je ctio n ), a n d 4 4 (D e fe ct o f P a rtie s T a rd y O b je ctio n ); N .Y .C .P .A . (1 9 3 7 ) 2 7 7 2 8 0 ; N .Y .R .C .P . (1 9 3 7 ) R u le s 1 0 6 1 1 2 ; E n g lish R u le s U n d e r th e Ju d ica tu re A ct (T h e A n n u a l P ra ctice , 1 9 3 7 ) O . 2 5 , r.r. 1 4 ; C la rk, C o d e P le a d in g (1 9 2 8 ) p p . 3 7 1 3 8 1 .
2 . F o r p ro visio n s a u th o riz in g d e fe n se s to b e m a d e in th e a n sw e r o r re p ly se e E n g lish R u le s U n d e r th e Ju d ica tu re A ct (T h e A n n u a l P ra ctice , 1 9 3 7 ) O . 2 5 , r.r. 1 4 ; 1 M iss.C o d e A n n . (1 9 3 0 ) 3 7 8 , 3 7 9 . C o m p a re [fo rm e r] E q u ity R u le 2 9 (D e fe n se s H o w P re se n te d ); U .S .C ., T itle 2 8 , [fo rm e r] 4 5 (D istrict C o u rts; p ra ctice a n d p ro ce d u re in ce rta in ca se s u n d e r th e in te rsta te co m m e rce la w s). U .S .C ., T itle 2 8 , [fo rm e r] 4 5 , su b sta n tia lly co n tin u e d b y th is ru le , p ro vid e s: N o re p lica tio n n e e d b e file d to th e a n sw e r, a n d o b je ctio n s to th e su fficie n cy o f th e p e titio n o r a n sw e r a s n o t se ttin g fo rth a ca u se o f a ctio n o r d e fe n se m u st b e ta ke n a t th e fin a l h e a rin g o r b y m o tio n to d ism iss th e p e titio n b a se d o n sa id g ro u n d s, w h ich m o tio n m a y b e m a d e a t a n y tim e b e fo re a n sw e r is file d . C o m p a re C a lif.C o d e C iv.P ro c. (D e e rin g , 1 9 3 7 ) 4 3 3 ; 4 N e v.C o m p .La w s (H illye r, 1 9 2 9 ) 8 6 0 0 . F o r p ro visio n s th a t th e d e fe n d a n t m a y d e m u r a n d a n sw e r a t th e sa m e tim e , se e C a lif.C o d e C iv.P ro c. (D e e rin g , 1 9 3 7 ) 4 3 1 ; 4 N e v.C o m p .La w s (H illye r, 1 9 2 9 ) 8 5 9 8 . 3 . [F o rm e r] E q u ity R u le 2 9 (D e fe n se s H o w P re se n te d ) a b o lish e d d e m u rre rs a n d p ro vid e d th a t d e fe n se s in p o in t o f la w a risin g o n th e fa ce o f th e b ill sh o u ld b e m a d e b y m o tio n to d ism iss o r in th e a n sw e r, w ith fu rth e r p ro visio n th a t e ve ry su ch p o in t o f la w g o in g to th e w h o le o r m a te ria l p a rt o f th e ca u se o r ca u se s sta te d m ig h t b e ca lle d u p a n d d isp o se d o f b e fo re fin a l h e a rin g a t th e d iscre tio n o f th e co u rt. Like w ise m a n y sta te p ra ctice s h a ve a b o lish e d th e d e m u rre r, o r re ta in it o n ly to a tta ck su b sta n tia l a n d n o t

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fo rm a l d e fe cts. S e e 6 T e n n .C o d e A n n . (W illia m s, 1 9 3 4 ) 8 7 8 4 ; A la .C o d e A n n . (M ich ie , 1 9 2 8 ) 9 4 7 9 ; 2 M a ss.G e n .La w s (T e r.E d ., 1 9 3 2 ) ch . 2 3 1 , 1 5 1 8 ; K a n sa s G e n .S ta t.A n n . (1 9 3 5 ) 6 0 7 0 5 , 6 0 7 0 6 .

N o te to S u b d ivisio n (c) . C o m p a re [fo rm e r] E q u ity R u le 3 3 (T e stin g S u fficie n cy o f D e fe n se ); N .Y .R .C .P . (1 9 3 7 ) R u le s 1 1 1 a n d 1 1 2 . N o te to S u b d ivisio n s (e ) a n d (f). C o m p a re [fo rm e r] E q u ity R u le s 2 0 (F u rth e r a n d P a rticu la r S ta te m e n t in P le a d in g M a y Be R e q u ire d ) a n d 2 1 (S ca n d a l a n d Im p e rtin e n ce ); E n g lish R u le s U n d e r th e Ju d ica tu re A ct (T h e A n n u a l P ra ctice , 1 9 3 7 ) O . 1 9 , r.r. 7 , 7 a , 7 b , 8 ; 4 M o n t.R e v.C o d e s A n n . (1 9 3 5 ) 9 1 6 6 , 9 1 6 7 ; N .Y .C .P .A . (1 9 3 7 ) 2 4 7 ; N .Y .R .C .P . (1 9 3 7 ) R u le s 1 0 3 , 1 1 5 , 1 1 6 , 1 1 7 ; W yo .R e v.S ta t.A n n . (C o u rtrig h t, 1 9 3 1 ) 8 9 1 0 3 3 , 8 9 1 0 3 4 . N o te to S u b d ivisio n (g ) . C o m p a re R u le s o f th e D istrict C o u rt o f th e U n ite d S ta te s fo r th e D istrict o f C o lu m b ia (1 9 3 7 ), E q u ity R u le 1 1 ; N .M . R u le s o f P le a d in g , P ra ctice a n d P ro ce d u re , 3 8 N .M .R e p . vii [1 0 5 4 0 8 ] (1 9 3 4 ); W a sh .G e n .R u le s o f th e S u p e rio r C o u rts, 1 W a sh .R e v.S ta t.A n n . (R e m in g to n , 1 9 3 2 ) p . 1 6 0 , R u le V I (e ) a n d (f). N o te to S u b d ivisio n (h ) . C o m p a re C a lif.C o d e C iv.P ro c. (D e e rin g , 1 9 3 7 ) 4 3 4 ; 2 M in n .S ta t. (M a so n , 1 9 2 7 ) 9 2 5 2 ; N .Y .C .P .A . (1 9 3 7 ) 2 7 8 a n d 2 7 9 ; W a sh .G e n .R u le s o f th e S u p e rio r C o u rts, 1 W a sh .R e v.S ta t.A n n . (R e m in g to n , 1 9 3 2 ) p . 1 6 0 , R u le V I (e ). T h is ru le co n tin u e s U .S .C ., T itle 2 8 , 8 0 [n o w 1 3 5 9 , 1 4 4 7 , 1 9 1 9 ] (D ism issa l o r re m a n d ) (o f a ctio n o ve r w h ich d istrict co u rt la cks ju risd ictio n ), w h ile U .S .C ., T itle 2 8 , 3 9 9 [n o w 1 6 5 3 ] (A m e n d m e n ts to sh o w d ive rse citiz e n sh ip ) is co n tin u e d b y R u le 1 5 .
N O TES O F A DV ISO RY C O M M ITTEE O N R U LES 1 9 4 6 A M ENDM ENT

S u b d ivisio n (a ) . V a rio u s m in o r a lte ra tio n s in la n g u a g e h a ve b e e n m a d e to im p ro ve th e sta te m e n t o f th e ru le . A ll re fe re n ce s to b ills o f p a rticu la rs h a ve b e e n stricke n in a cco rd a n ce w ith ch a n g e s m a d e in su b d ivisio n (e ). S u b d ivisio n (b ) . T h e a d d itio n o f d e fe n se (7 ), fa ilu re to jo in a n in d isp e n sa b le p a rty, cu re s a n o m issio n in th e ru le s, w h ich a re sile n t a s to th e m o d e o f ra isin g su ch fa ilu re . S e e C o m m e n ta ry, M a n n e r o f R a isin g O b je ctio n o f N o n -Jo in d e r o f In d isp e n sa b le P a rty (1 9 4 0 ) 2 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 6 5 8 a n d (1 9 4 2 ) 5 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 8 2 0 . In o n e ca se , U n ite d S ta te s v. M e tro p o lita n Life In s. C o . (E .D .P a . 1 9 4 1 ) 3 6 F .S u p p . 3 9 9 , th e fa ilu re to jo in a n in d isp e n sa b le p a rty w a s ra ise d u n d e r R u le 1 2 (c).
R u le 1 2 (b )(6 ), p e rm ittin g a m o tio n to d ism iss fo r fa ilu re o f th e co m p la in t to sta te a cla im o n w h ich re lie f ca n b e g ra n te d , is su b sta n tia lly th e sa m e a s th e o ld d e m u rre r fo r fa ilu re o f a p le a d in g to sta te a ca u se o f a ctio n . S o m e co u rts h a ve h e ld th a t a s th e ru le b y its te rm s re fe rs to sta te m e n ts in th e co m p la in t, e x tra n e o u s m a tte r o n a ffid a vits, d e p o sitio n s o r o th e rw ise , m a y n o t b e in tro d u ce d in su p p o rt o f th e m o tio n , o r to re sist it. O n th e o th e r h a n d , in m a n y ca se s th e d istrict co u rts h a ve p e rm itte d th e in tro d u ctio n o f su ch m a te ria l. W h e n th e se ca se s h a ve re a ch e d circu it co u rts o f a p p e a ls in situ a tio n s w h e re th e e x tra n e o u s m a te ria l so re ce ive d sh o w s th a t th e re is n o g e n u in e issu e a s to a n y m a te ria l q u e stio n o f fa ct a n d th a t o n th e u n d isp u te d fa cts a s d isclo se d b y th e a ffid a vits o r d e p o sitio n s, o n e p a rty o r th e o th e r is e n title d to ju d g m e n t a s a m a tte r o f la w , th e circu it co u rts, p ro p e rly e n o u g h , h a ve b e e n re lu cta n t to d isp o se o f th e ca se m e re ly o n th e fa ce o f th e p le a d in g , a n d in th e in te re st o f p ro m p t d isp o sitio n o f th e a ctio n h a ve m a d e a fin a l d isp o sitio n o f it. In d e a lin g w ith su ch situ a tio n s th e S e co n d C ircu it h a s m a d e th e so u n d su g g e stio n th a t w h a te ve r its la b e l o r o rig in a l b a sis, th e m o tio n m a y b e tre a te d a s a m o tio n fo r su m m a ry ju d g m e n t a n d d isp o se d o f a s su ch . S a m a ra v. U n ite d S ta te s (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 9 F .(2 d ) 5 9 4 , ce rt. d e n . (1 9 4 2 ) 3 1 7 U .S . 6 8 6 ; Bo ro H a ll C o rp . v. G e n e ra l M o to rs C o rp . (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 4 F .(2 d ) 8 2 2 , ce rt. d e n . (1 9 4 3 ) 3 1 7 U .S . 6 9 5 . S e e a lso K ith ca rt v. M e tro p o lita n Life In s. C o . (C .C .A .8 th , 1 9 4 5 ) 1 5 0 F .(2 d ) 9 9 7 , a ff'g 6 2 F .S u p p . 9 3 . It h a s a lso b e e n su g g e ste d th a t th is p ra ctice co u ld b e ju stifie d o n th e g ro u n d th a t th e fe d e ra l ru le s p e rm it sp e a kin g m o tio n s. T h e C o m m itte e e n te rta in s th e vie w th a t o n m o tio n u n d e r R u le 1 2 (b )(6 ) to d ism iss fo r fa ilu re o f th e co m p la in t to sta te a g o o d cla im , th e tria l co u rt sh o u ld h a ve a u th o rity to p e rm it th e in tro d u ctio n o f e x tra n e o u s m a tte r, su ch a s m a y b e o ffe re d o n a m o tio n fo r su m m a ry ju d g m e n t, a n d if it d o e s n o t e x clu d e su ch m a tte r th e m o tio n sh o u ld th e n b e tre a te d a s a m o tio n fo r su m m a ry ju d g m e n t a n d d isp o se d o f in th e m a n n e r a n d o n th e co n d itio n s sta te d in R u le 5 6 re la tin g to su m m a ry ju d g m e n ts, a n d , o f co u rse , in su ch a situ a tio n , w h e n th e ca se re a ch e s th e circu it co u rt o f
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a p p e a ls, th a t co u rt sh o u ld tre a t th e m o tio n in th e sa m e w a y. T h e C o m m itte e b e lie ve s th a t su ch p ra ctice , h o w e ve r, sh o u ld b e tie d to th e su m m a ry ju d g m e n t ru le . T h e te rm sp e a kin g m o tio n is n o t m e n tio n e d in th e ru le s, a n d if th e re is su ch a th in g its lim ita tio n s a re u n d e fin e d . W h e re e x tra n e o u s m a tte r is re ce ive d , b y tyin g fu rth e r p ro ce e d in g s to th e su m m a ry ju d g m e n t ru le th e co u rts h a ve a d e fin ite b a sis in th e ru le s fo r d isp o sin g o f th e m o tio n . T h e C o m m itte e e m p h a siz e s p a rticu la rly th e fa ct th a t th e su m m a ry ju d g m e n t ru le d o e s n o t p e rm it a ca se to b e d isp o se d o f b y ju d g m e n t o n th e m e rits o n a ffid a vits, w h ich d isclo se a co n flict o n a m a te ria l issu e o f fa ct, a n d u n le ss th is p ra ctice is tie d to th e su m m a ry ju d g m e n t ru le , th e e x te n t to w h ich a co u rt, o n th e in tro d u ctio n o f su ch e x tra n e o u s m a tte r, m a y re so lve q u e stio n s o f fa ct o n co n flictin g p ro o f w o u ld b e le ft u n ce rta in . T h e d e cisio n s d e a lin g w ith th is g e n e ra l situ a tio n m a y b e g e n e ra lly g ro u p e d a s fo llo w s: (1 ) ca se s d e a lin g w ith th e u se o f a ffid a vits a n d o th e r e x tra n e o u s m a te ria l o n m o tio n s; (2 ) ca se s re ve rsin g ju d g m e n ts to p re ve n t fin a l d e te rm in a tio n o n m e re p le a d in g a lle g a tio n s a lo n e . U n d e r g ro u p (1 ) a re : Bo ro H a ll C o rp . v. G e n e ra l M o to rs C o rp . (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 4 F .(2 d ) 8 2 2 , ce rt. d e n . (1 9 4 3 ) 3 1 7 U .S . 6 9 5 ; G a llu p v. C a ld w e ll (C .C .A .3 d , 1 9 4 1 ) 1 2 0 F .(2 d ) 9 0 ; C e n tra l M e x ico Lig h t & P o w e r C o . v. M u n ch (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 0 ) 1 1 6 F .(2 d ) 8 5 ; N a tio n a l La b o r R e la tio n s Bo a rd v. M o n tg o m e ry W a rd & C o . (A p p .D .C . 1 9 4 4 ) 1 4 4 F .(2 d ) 5 2 8 , ce rt. d e n . (1 9 4 4 ) 6 5 S .C t. 1 3 4 ; U rq u h a rt v. A m e rica n -La F ra n ce F o a m ite C o rp . (A p p .D .C . 1 9 4 4 ) 1 4 4 F .(2 d ) 5 4 2 ; S a m a ra v. U n ite d S ta te s (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 9 F .(2 d ) 5 9 4 ; C o h e n v. A m e rica n W in d o w G la ss C o . (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 6 F .(2 d ) 1 1 1 ; S p e rry P ro d u cts In c. v. A sso cia tio n o f A m e rica n R a ilro a d s (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 3 2 F .(2 d ) 4 0 8 ; Jo in t C o u n cil D in in g C a r E m p lo ye e s Lo ca l 3 7 0 v. D e la w a re , La cka w a n n a a n d W e ste rn R . C o . (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 6 ) 1 5 7 F .(2 d ) 4 1 7 ; W e e ks v. Ba re co O il C o . (C .C .A .7 th , 1 9 4 1 ) 1 2 5 F .(2 d ) 8 4 ; C a rro ll v. M o rriso n H o te l C o rp . (C .C .A .7 th , 1 9 4 5 ) 1 4 9 F .(2 d ) 4 0 4 ; V icto ry v. M a n n in g (C .C .A .3 rd , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 8 F .(2 d ) 4 1 5 ; Lo ca ls N o . 1 4 7 0 , N o . 1 4 6 9 , a n d 1 5 1 2 o f In te rn a tio n a l Lo n g sh o re m e n 's A sso cia tio n v. S o u th e rn P a cific C o . (C .C .A .5 th , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 3 1 F .(2 d ) 6 0 5 ; Lu ckin g v. D e la n o (C .C .A .6 th , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 9 F .(2 d ) 2 8 3 ; S a n F ra n cisco Lo d g e N o . 6 8 o f In te rn a tio n a l A sso cia tio n o f M a ch in ists v. F o rre sta l (N .D .C a l. 1 9 4 4 ) 5 8 F .S u p p . 4 6 6 ; Be n so n v. E x p o rt E q u ip m e n t C o rp . (N . M e x . 1 9 4 5 ) 1 6 4 P .2 d 3 8 0 (co n stru in g N e w M e x ico ru le id e n tica l w ith R u le 1 2 (b )(6 ); F . E . M ye rs & Bro s. C o . v. G o u ld P u m p s, In c . (W .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 6 ) 9 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 b .3 3 , C a se 2 , 5 F .R .D . 1 3 2 . C f. K o h le r v. Ja co b s (C .C .A .5 th , 1 9 4 3 ) 1 3 8 F .(2 d ) 4 4 0 ; C o h e n v. U n ite d S ta te s (C .C .A .8 th , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 9 F .(2 d ) 7 3 3 . U n d e r g ro u p (2 ) a re : S p a rks v. E n g la n d (C .C .A .8 th , 1 9 4 0 ) 1 1 3 F .(2 d ) 5 7 9 ; C o n tin e n ta l C o llie rie s, In c. v. S h o b e r (C .C .A .3 d , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 3 0 F .(2 d ) 6 3 1 ; D o w n e y v. P a lm e r (C .C .A .2 d 1 9 4 0 ) 1 1 4 F .(2 d ) 1 1 6 ; D e Lo a ch v. C ro w le y's In c . (C .C .A .5 th , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 2 8 F .(2 d ) 3 7 8 ; Le im e r v. S ta te M u tu a l Life A ssu ra n ce C o . o f W o rce ste r, M a ss . (C .C .A .8 th , 1 9 4 0 ) 1 0 8 F .(2 d ) 3 0 2 ; R o ssite r v. V o g e l (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 3 ) 1 3 4 F .(2 d ) 9 0 8 , co m p a re s. c. (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 5 ) 1 4 8 F .(2 d ) 2 9 2 ; K a rl K ie fe r M a ch in e C o . v. U n ite d S ta te s Bo ttle rs M a ch in e ry C o . (C .C .A .7 th , 1 9 4 0 ) 1 1 3 F .(2 d ) 3 5 6 ; C h ica g o M e ta llic M fg . C o . v. E d w a rd K a tzin g e r C o . (C .C .A .7 th , 1 9 4 1 ) 1 2 3 F .(2 d ) 5 1 8 ; Lo u isia n a F a rm e rs P ro te ctive U n io n , In c. v. G re a t A tla n tic & P a cific T e a C o . o f A m e rica , In c . (C .C .A .8 th , 1 9 4 2 ) 1 3 1 F .(2 d ) 4 1 9 ; P u b licity Bld g . R e a lty C o rp . v. H a n n e g a n (C .C .A .8 th , 1 9 4 3 ) 1 3 9 F .(2 d ) 5 8 3 ; D io g u a rd i v. D u rn in g (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 4 ) 1 3 9 F .(2 d ) 7 7 4 ; P a cka g e C lo su re C o rp . v. S e a lrig h t C o ., In c . (C .C .A .2 d , 1 9 4 4 ) 1 4 1 F .(2 d ) 9 7 2 ; T a h ir E rk v. G le n n L. M a rtin C o . (C .C .A .4 th , 1 9 4 1 ) 1 1 6 F .(2 d ) 8 6 5 ; Be ll v. P re fe rre d Life A ssu ra n ce S o cie ty o f M o n tg o m e ry, A la . (1 9 4 3 ) 3 2 0 U .S . 2 3 8 . T h e a d d itio n a t th e e n d o f su b d ivisio n (b ) m a ke s it cle a r th a t o n a m o tio n u n d e r R u le 1 2 (b )(6 ) e x tra n e o u s m a te ria l m a y n o t b e co n sid e re d if th e co u rt e x clu d e s it, b u t th a t if th e co u rt d o e s n o t e x clu d e su ch m a te ria l th e m o tio n sh a ll b e tre a te d a s a m o tio n fo r su m m a ry ju d g m e n t a n d d isp o se d o f a s p ro vid e d in R u le 5 6 . It w ill a lso b e o b se rve d th a t if a m o tio n u n d e r R u le 1 2 (b )(6 ) is th u s co n ve rte d in to a su m m a ry ju d g m e n t m o tio n , th e a m e n d m e n t in su re s th a t b o th p a rtie s sh a ll b e g ive n a re a so n a b le o p p o rtu n ity to su b m it a ffid a vits a n d e x tra n e o u s p ro o fs to a vo id ta kin g a p a rty b y su rp rise th ro u g h th e co n ve rsio n o f th e m o tio n in to a m o tio n fo r su m m a ry ju d g m e n t. In th is m a n n e r a n d to th is e x te n t th e a m e n d m e n t re g u la riz e s th e p ra ctice a b o ve d e scrib e d . A s th e co u rts a re a lre a d y d e a lin g w ith ca se s in th is w a y, th e e ffe ct o f th is a m e n d m e n t is re a lly o n ly to d e fin e th e p ra ctice ca re fu lly a n d a p p ly th e re q u ire m e n ts o f th e su m m a ry ju d g m e n t ru le in th e d isp o sitio n o f th e m o tio n .
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S u b d ivisio n (c) . T h e se n te n ce a p p e n d e d to su b d ivisio n (c) p e rfo rm s th e sa m e fu n ctio n a n d is g ro u n d e d o n th e sa m e re a so n s a s th e co rre sp o n d in g se n te n ce a d d e d in su b d ivisio n (b ). S u b d ivisio n (d ) . T h e ch a n g e h e re w a s m a d e n e ce ssa ry b e ca u se o f th e a d d itio n o f d e fe n se (7 ) in su b d ivisio n (b ). S u b d ivisio n (e ) . R e fe re n ce s in th is su b d ivisio n to a b ill o f p a rticu la rs h a ve b e e n d e le te d , a n d th e m o tio n p ro vid e d fo r is co n fin e d to o n e fo r a m o re d e fin ite sta te m e n t, to b e o b ta in e d o n ly in ca se s w h e re th e m o va n t ca n n o t re a so n a b ly b e re q u ire d to fra m e a n a n sw e r o r o th e r re sp o n sive p le a d in g to th e p le a d in g in q u e stio n . W ith re sp e ct to p re p a ra tio n s fo r tria l, th e p a rty is p ro p e rly re le g a te d to th e va rio u s m e th o d s o f e x a m in a tio n a n d d isco ve ry p ro vid e d in th e ru le s fo r th a t p u rp o se . S lu sh e r v. Jo n e s (E .D .K y. 1 9 4 3 ) 7 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 5 , 3 F .R .D . 1 6 8 ; Be st F o o d s, In c. v. G e n e ra l M ills, In c . (D .D e l. 1 9 4 3 ) 7 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 7 , 3 F .R .D . 2 7 5 ; Bra d e n v. C a lla w a y (E .D .T e n n . 1 9 4 3 ) 8 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 1 (. . . m o st co u rts . . . co n clu d e th a t th e d e fin ite n e ss re q u ire d is o n ly su ch a s w ill b e su fficie n t fo r th e p a rty to p re p a re re sp o n sive p le a d in g s). A cco rd in g ly, th e re fe re n ce to th e 2 0 d a y tim e lim it h a s a lso b e e n e lim in a te d , sin ce th e p u rp o se o f th is p re se n t p ro visio n is to sta te a tim e p e rio d w h e re th e m o tio n fo r a b ill is m a d e fo r th e p u rp o se o f p re p a rin g fo r tria l.
R u le 1 2 (e ) a s o rig in a lly d ra w n h a s b e e n th e su b je ct o f m o re ju d icia l ru lin g s th a n a n y o th e r p a rt o f th e ru le s, a n d h a s b e e n m u ch criticiz e d b y co m m e n ta to rs, ju d g e s a n d m e m b e rs o f th e b a r. S e e g e n e ra l d iscu ssio n a n d ca se s cite d in 1 M o o re 's F e d e ra l P ra ctice (1 9 3 8 ), C u m .S u p p le m e n t 1 2 .0 7 , u n d e r P a g e 6 5 7 ; a lso , H o ltz o ff, N e w F e d e ra l P ro ce d u re a n d th e C o u rts (1 9 4 0 ) 3 5 4 1 . A n d co m p a re vo te o f S e co n d C ircu it C o n fe re n ce o f C ircu it a n d D istrict Ju d g e s (Ju n e 1 9 4 0 ) re co m m e n d in g th e a b o litio n o f th e b ill o f p a rticu la rs; S u n V a lle y M fg . C o . v. M ylish (E .D .P a . 1 9 4 4 ) 8 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 6 (O u r e x p e rie n ce . . . h a s d e m o n stra te d n o t o n ly th a t th e o ffice o f th e b ill o f p a rticu la rs is fa st b e co m in g o b so le te . . . b u t th a t in vie w o f th e a d e q u a te d isco ve ry p ro ce d u re a va ila b le u n d e r th e R u le s, m o tio n s fo r b ills o f p a rticu la rs sh o u ld b e a b o lish e d a lto g e th e r.); W a llin g v. A m e rica n S te a m sh ip C o . (W .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 5 ) 4 F .R .D . 3 5 5 , 8 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 4 4 , C a se 8 (. . . th e a d o p tio n o f th e ru le w a s ill a d vise d . It h a s le d to co n fu sio n , d u p lica tio n a n d d e la y.) T h e te n d e n cy o f so m e co u rts fre e ly to g ra n t e x te n d e d b ills o f p a rticu la rs h a s se rve d to n e u tra liz e a n y h e lp fu l b e n e fits d e rive d fro m R u le 8 , a n d h a s o ve rlo o ke d th e in te n d e d u se o f th e ru le s o n d e p o sitio n s a n d d isco ve ry. T h e w o rd s o r to p re p a re fo r tria l e lim in a te d b y th e p ro p o se d a m e n d m e n t h a ve so m e tim e s b e e n se iz e d u p o n a s g ro u n d s fo r co m p u lso ry sta te m e n t in th e o p p o sin g p le a d in g o f a ll th e d e ta ils w h ich th e m o va n t w o u ld h a ve to m e e t a t th e tria l. O n th e o th e r h a n d , m a n y co u rts h a ve in e ffe ct re a d th e se w o rd s o u t o f th e ru le . S e e W a llin g v. A la b a m a P ip e C o . (W .D .M o . 1 9 4 2 ) 6 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 4 4 , C a se 7 ; F le m in g v. M a so n & D ix o n Lin e s, In c . (E .D .T e n n . 1 9 4 1 ) 4 2 F .S u p p . 2 3 0 ; K e llo g g C o . v. N a tio n a l Biscu it C o . (D .N .J. 1 9 4 1 ) 3 8 F .S u p p . 6 4 3 ; Bro w n v. H . L. G re e n C o . (S .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 3 ) 7 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 6 ; P e d e rse n v. S ta n d a rd A ccid e n t In s. C o . (W .D .M o . 1 9 4 5 ) 8 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 8 ; Bo w le s v. O h se (D .N e b . 1 9 4 5 ) 4 F .R .D . 4 0 3 , 9 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 1 ; K la g e s v. C o h e n (E .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 5 ) 9 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 8 a .2 5 , C a se 4 ; Bo w le s v. La w re n ce (D .M a ss. 1 9 4 5 ) 8 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 1 9 ; M cK in n e y T o o l & M fg . C o . v. H o yt (N .D .O h io 1 9 4 5 ) 9 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 5 , C a se 1 ; Bo w le s v. Ja ck (D .M in n . 1 9 4 5 ) 5 F .R .D . 1 , 9 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 4 4 , C a se 9 . A n d it h a s b e e n u rg e d fro m th e b e n ch th a t th e p h ra se b e stricke n . P o o le v. W h ite (N .D .W .V a . 1 9 4 1 ). 5 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 3 1 , C a se 4 , 2 F .R .D . 4 0 . S e e a lso Bo w le s v. G a b e l (W .D .M o . 1 9 4 6 ) 9 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 e .2 4 4 , C a se 1 0 (T h e co u rts h a ve n e ve r fa vo re d th a t p o rtio n o f th e ru le s w h ich u n d e rto o k to ju stify a m o tio n o f th is kin d fo r th e p u rp o se o f a id in g co u n se l in p re p a rin g h is ca se fo r tria l.).

S u b d ivisio n (f) . T h is a m e n d m e n t a ffo rd s a sp e cific m e th o d o f ra isin g th e in su fficie n cy o f a d e fe n se , a m a tte r w h ich h a s tro u b le d so m e co u rts, a lth o u g h a tta ck h a s b e e n p e rm itte d in o n e w a y o r a n o th e r. S e e D ysa rt v. R e m in g to n -R a n d , In c . (D .C o n n . 1 9 3 9 ) 3 1 F .S u p p . 2 9 6 ; E a stm a n K o d a k C o . v. M cA u le y (S .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 1 ) 4 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 f.2 1 , C a se 8 , 2 F .R .D . 2 1 ; S ch e n le y D istille rs C o rp . v. R e n ke n (E .D .S .C . 1 9 4 0 ) 3 4 F .S u p p . 6 7 8 ; Y a le T ra n sp o rt C o rp . v. Y e llo w T ru ck & C o a ch M fg . C o . (S .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 4 ) 3 F .R .D . 4 4 0 ; U n ite d S ta te s v. T u rn e r M ilk C o . (N .D .Ill. 1 9 4 1 ) 4 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 1 2 b .5 1 , C a se 3 , 1 F .R .D . 6 4 3 ; T e ig e r v. S te p h a n O d e rw a ld , In c . (S .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 0 ) 3 1 F .S u p p . 6 2 6 ; T e p litsky v. P e n n sylva n ia R . C o . (N .D .Ill. 1 9 4 1 ) 3 8 F .S u p p . 5 3 5 ; G a lla g h e r v. C a rro ll (E .D .N .Y . 1 9 3 9 ) 2 7 F .S u p p . 5 6 8 ; U n ite d S ta te s v. P a lm e r (S .D .N .Y . 1 9 3 9 ) 2 8 F .S u p p . 9 3 6 . A n d se e In d e m n ity In s. C o . o f N o rth
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A m e rica v. P a n A m e rica n A irw a ys, In c . (S .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 4 ) 5 8 F .S u p p . 3 3 8 ; C o m m e n ta ry, M o d e s o f A tta ckin g In su fficie n t D e fe n se s in th e A n sw e r (1 9 3 9 ) 1 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 6 6 9 (1 9 4 0 ) 2 F e d .R u le s S e rv. 6 4 0 . S u b d ivisio n (g ) . T h e ch a n g e in title co n fo rm s w ith th e co m p a n io n p ro visio n in su b d ivisio n (h ).
T h e a lte ra tio n o f th e e x ce p t cla u se re q u ire s th a t o th e r th a n p ro vid e d in su b d ivisio n (h ) a p a rty w h o re so rts to a m o tio n to ra ise d e fe n se s sp e cifie d in th e ru le , m u st in clu d e in o n e m o tio n a ll th a t a re th e n a va ila b le to h im . U n d e r th e o rig in a l ru le d e fe n se s w h ich co u ld b e ra ise d b y m o tio n w e re d ivid e d in to tw o g ro u p s w h ich co u ld b e th e su b je cts o f tw o su cce ssive m o tio n s.

S u b d ivisio n (h ) . T h e a d d itio n o f th e p h ra se re la tin g to in d isp e n sa b le p a rtie s is o n e o f n e ce ssity.


N O TES O F A DV ISO RY C O M M ITTEE O N R U LES 1 9 6 3 A M ENDM ENT T h is a m e n d m e n t co n fo rm s to th e a m e n d m e n t o f R u le 4 (e ). S e e a lso th e A d viso ry C o m m itte e 's N o te to a m e n d e d R u le 4 (b ). N O TES O F A DV ISO RY C O M M ITTEE O N R U LES 1 9 6 6 A M ENDM ENT

S u b d ivisio n (b )(7 ) . T h e te rm in o lo g y o f th is su b d ivisio n is ch a n g e d to a cco rd w ith th e a m e n d m e n t o f R u le 1 9 . S e e th e A d viso ry C o m m itte e 's N o te to R u le 1 9 , a s a m e n d e d , e sp e cia lly th e th ird p a ra g ra p h th e re in b e fo re th e ca p tio n S u b d ivisio n (c). S u b d ivisio n (g ) . S u b d ivisio n (g ) h a s fo rb id d e n a d e fe n d a n t w h o m a ke s a p re a n sw e r m o tio n u n d e r th is ru le fro m m a kin g a fu rth e r m o tio n p re se n tin g a n y d e fe n se o r o b je ctio n w h ich w a s a va ila b le to h im a t th e tim e h e m a d e th e first m o tio n a n d w h ich h e co u ld h a ve in clu d e d , b u t d id n o t in fa ct in clu d e th e re in . T h u s if th e d e fe n d a n t m o ve s b e fo re a n sw e r to d ism iss th e co m p la in t fo r fa ilu re to sta te a cla im , h e is b a rre d fro m m a kin g a fu rth e r m o tio n p re se n tin g th e d e fe n se o f im p ro p e r ve n u e , if th a t d e fe n se w a s a va ila b le to h im w h e n h e m a d e h is o rig in a l m o tio n . A m e n d e d su b d ivisio n (g ) is to th e sa m e e ffe ct. T h is re q u ire d co n so lid a tio n o f d e fe n se s a n d o b je ctio n s in a R u le 1 2 m o tio n is sa lu ta ry in th a t it w o rks a g a in st p ie ce m e a l co n sid e ra tio n o f a ca se . F o r e x ce p tio n s to th e re q u ire m e n t o f co n so lid a tio n , se e th e la st cla u se o f su b d ivisio n (g ), re fe rrin g to n e w su b d ivisio n (h )(2 ). S u b d ivisio n (h ) . T h e q u e stio n h a s a rise n w h e th e r a n o m itte d d e fe n se w h ich ca n n o t b e m a d e th e b a sis o f a se co n d m o tio n m a y n e ve rth e le ss b e p le a d e d in th e a n sw e r. S u b d ivisio n (h ) ca lle d fo r w a ive r o f * * * d e fe n se s a n d o b je ctio n s w h ich h e [d e fe n d a n t] d o e s n o t p re se n t * * * b y m o tio n * * * o r, if h e h a s m a d e n o m o tio n , in h is a n sw e r * * * . If th e cla u se if h e h a s m a d e n o m o tio n , w a s re a d lite ra lly, it se e m e d th a t th e o m itte d d e fe n se w a s w a ive d a n d co u ld n o t b e p le a d e d in th e a n sw e r. O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e cla u se m ig h t b e re a d a s a d d in g n o th in g o f su b sta n ce to th e p re ce d in g w o rd s; in th a t e ve n t it a p p e a re d th a t a d e fe n se w a s n o t w a ive d b y re a so n o f b e in g o m itte d fro m th e m o tio n a n d m ig h t b e se t u p in th e a n sw e r. T h e d e cisio n s w e re d ivid e d . F a vo rin g w a ive r, se e K e e fe v. D e ro u n ia n , 6 F .R .D . 1 1 (N .D .Ill. 1 9 4 6 ); E lb in g e r v. P re cisio n M e ta l W o rke rs C o rp ., 1 8 F .R .D . 4 6 7 (E .D .W is. 1 9 5 6 ); se e a lso R e n sin g v. T u rn e r A via tio n C o rp ., 1 6 6 F .S u p p . 7 9 0 (N .D .Ill. 1 9 5 8 ); P . Be ie rsd o rf & C o . v. D u ke La b o ra to rie s, In c ., 1 0 F .R .D . 2 8 2 (S .D .N .Y . 1 9 5 0 ); N e se t v. C h riste n se n , 9 2 F .S u p p . 7 8 (E .D .N .Y . 1 9 5 0 ). O p p o sin g w a ive r, se e P h illip s v. Ba ke r , 1 2 1 F .2 d 7 5 2 (9 th C ir. 1 9 4 1 ); C ru m v. G ra h a m , 3 2 F .R .D . 1 7 3 (D .M o n t. 1 9 6 3 ) (re g re tfu lly fo llo w in g th e P h illip s ca se ); se e a lso Birn b a u m v. Birre ll , 9 F .R .D . 7 2 (S .D .N .Y . 1 9 4 8 ); Jo h n so n v. Jo se p h S ch litz Bre w in g C o ., 3 3 F .S u p p . 1 7 6 (E .D .T e n n . 1 9 4 0 ); cf. C a rte r v. A m e rica n Bu s Lin e s, In c ., 2 2 F .R .D . 3 2 3 (D .N e b . 1 9 5 8 ).
A m e n d e d su b d ivisio n (h )(1 )(A ) e lim in a te s th e a m b ig u ity a n d sta te s th a t ce rta in sp e cifie d d e fe n se s w h ich w e re a va ila b le to a p a rty w h e n h e m a d e a p re a n sw e r m o tio n , b u t w h ich h e o m itte d fro m th e m o tio n , a re w a ive d . T h e sp e cifie d d e fe n se s a re la ck o f ju risd ictio n o ve r th e p e rso n , im p ro p e r ve n u e , in su fficie n cy o f p ro ce ss, a n d in su fficie n cy o f se rvice o f p ro ce ss (se e R u le 1 2 (b )(2 )(5 )). A p a rty w h o b y m o tio n in vite s th e co u rt to p a ss u p o n a th re sh o ld d e fe n se sh o u ld b rin g fo rw a rd a ll th e sp e cifie d d e fe n se s h e th e n h a s a n d th u s a llo w th e co u rt to d o a re a so n a b ly co m p le te jo b . T h e w a ive r re in fo rce s th e p o licy o f su b d ivisio n (g ) fo rb id d in g su cce ssive m o tio n s.

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By a m e n d e d su b d ivisio n (h )(1 )(B), th e sp e cifie d d e fe n se s, e ve n if n o t w a ive d b y th e o p e ra tio n o f (A ), a re w a ive d b y th e fa ilu re to ra ise th e m b y a m o tio n u n d e r R u le 1 2 o r in th e re sp o n sive p le a d in g o r a n y a m e n d m e n t th e re o f to w h ich th e p a rty is e n title d a s a m a tte r o f co u rse . T h e sp e cifie d d e fe n se s a re o f su ch a ch a ra cte r th a t th e y sh o u ld n o t b e d e la ye d a n d b ro u g h t u p fo r th e first tim e b y m e a n s o f a n a p p lica tio n to th e co u rt to a m e n d th e re sp o n sive p le a d in g . S in ce th e la n g u a g e o f th e su b d ivisio n s is m a d e cle a r, th e p a rty is p u t o n fa ir n o tice o f th e e ffe ct o f h is a ctio n s a n d o m issio n s a n d ca n g u a rd h im se lf a g a in st u n in te n d e d w a ive r. It is to b e n o te d th a t w h ile th e d e fe n se s sp e cifie d in su b d ivisio n (h )(1 ) a re su b je ct to w a ive r a s th e re p ro vid e d , th e m o re su b sta n tia l d e fe n se s o f fa ilu re to sta te a cla im u p o n w h ich re lie f ca n b e g ra n te d , fa ilu re to jo in a p a rty in d isp e n sa b le u n d e r R u le 1 9 , a n d fa ilu re to sta te a le g a l d e fe n se to a cla im (se e R u le 1 2 (b )(6 ), (7 ), (f)), a s w e ll a s th e d e fe n se o f la ck o f ju risd ictio n o ve r th e su b je ct m a tte r (se e R u le 1 2 (b )(1 )), a re e x p re ssly p re se rve d a g a in st w a ive r b y a m e n d e d su b d ivisio n (h )(2 ) a n d (3 ). N O TES O F A DV ISO RY C O M M ITTEE O N R U LES 1 9 8 7 A M ENDM ENT T h e a m e n d m e n ts a re te ch n ica l. N o su b sta n tive ch a n g e is in te n d e d . N O TES O F A DV ISO RY C O M M ITTEE O N R U LES 1 9 9 3 A M ENDM ENT S u b d ivisio n (a ) is d ivid e d in to p a ra g ra p h s fo r g re a te r cla rity, a n d p a ra g ra p h (1 )(B) is a d d e d to re fle ct a m e n d m e n ts to R u le 4 . C o n siste n t w ith R u le 4 (d )(3 ), a d e fe n d a n t th a t tim e ly w a ive s se rvice is a llo w e d 6 0 d a ys fro m th e d a te th e re q u e st w a s m a ile d in w h ich to re sp o n d to th e co m p la in t, w ith a n a d d itio n a l 3 0 d a ys a ffo rd e d if th e re q u e st w a s se n t o u t o f th e co u n try. S e rvice is tim e ly w a ive d if th e w a ive r is re tu rn e d w ith in th e tim e sp e cifie d in th e re q u e st (3 0 d a ys a fte r th e re q u e st w a s m a ile d , o r 6 0 d a ys if m a ile d o u t o f th e co u n try) a n d b e fo re b e in g fo rm a lly se rve d w ith p ro ce ss. S o m e tim e s a p la in tiff m a y a tte m p t to se rve a d e fe n d a n t w ith p ro ce ss w h ile a lso se n d in g th e d e fe n d a n t a re q u e st fo r w a ive r o f se rvice ; if th e d e fe n d a n t e x e cu te s th e w a ive r o f se rvice w ith in th e tim e sp e cifie d a n d b e fo re b e in g se rve d w ith p ro ce ss, it sh o u ld h a ve th e lo n g e r tim e to re sp o n d a ffo rd e d b y w a ivin g se rvice . T h e d a te o f se n d in g th e re q u e st is to b e in se rte d b y th e p la in tiff o n th e fa ce o f th e re q u e st fo r w a ive r a n d o n th e w a ive r itse lf. T h is d a te is u se d to m e a su re th e re tu rn d a y fo r th e w a ive r fo rm , so th a t th e p la in tiff ca n kn o w o n a d a y ce rta in w h e th e r fo rm a l se rvice o f p ro ce ss w ill b e n e ce ssa ry; it is a lso a u se fu l d a te to m e a su re th e tim e fo r a n sw e r w h e n se rvice is w a ive d . T h e d e fe n d a n t w h o re tu rn s th e w a ive r is g ive n a d d itio n a l tim e fo r a n sw e r in o rd e r to a ssu re th a t it lo se s n o th in g b y w a ivin g se rvice o f p ro ce ss. C O M M ITTEE N O TES O N R U LES 2 0 0 0 A M ENDM ENT R u le 1 2 (a )(3 )(B) is a d d e d to co m p le m e n t th e a d d itio n o f R u le 4 (i)(2 )(B). T h e p u rp o se s th a t u n d e rlie th e re q u ire m e n t th a t se rvice b e m a d e o n th e U n ite d S ta te s in a n a ctio n th a t a sse rts in d ivid u a l lia b ility o f a U n ite d S ta te s o ffice r o r e m p lo ye e fo r a cts o ccu rrin g in co n n e ctio n w ith th e p e rfo rm a n ce o f d u tie s o n b e h a lf o f th e U n ite d S ta te s a lso re q u ire th a t th e tim e to a n sw e r b e e x te n d e d to 6 0 d a ys. T im e is n e e d e d fo r th e U n ite d S ta te s to d e te rm in e w h e th e r to p ro vid e re p re se n ta tio n to th e d e fe n d a n t o ffice r o r e m p lo ye e . If th e U n ite d S ta te s p ro vid e s re p re se n ta tio n , th e n e e d fo r a n e x te n d e d a n sw e r p e rio d is th e sa m e a s in a ctio n s a g a in st th e U n ite d S ta te s, a U n ite d S ta te s a g e n cy, o r a U n ite d S ta te s o ffice r su e d in a n o fficia l ca p a city. A n a ctio n a g a in st a fo rm e r o ffice r o r e m p lo ye e o f th e U n ite d S ta te s is co ve re d b y su b p a ra g ra p h (3 )(B) in th e sa m e w a y a s a n a ctio n a g a in st a p re se n t o ffice r o r e m p lo ye e . T e rm in a tio n o f th e re la tio n sh ip b e tw e e n th e in d ivid u a l d e fe n d a n t a n d th e U n ite d S ta te s d o e s n o t re d u ce th e n e e d fo r a d d itio n a l tim e to a n sw e r.

G A P R e p o rt . N o ch a n g e s a re re co m m e n d e d fo r R u le 1 2 a s p u b lish e d .
C O M M ITTEE N O TES O N R U LES 2 0 0 7 A M ENDM ENT T h e la n g u a g e o f R u le 1 2 h a s b e e n a m e n d e d a s p a rt o f th e g e n e ra l re stylin g o f th e C ivil R u le s to m a ke th e m m o re e a sily u n d e rsto o d a n d to m a ke style a n d te rm in o lo g y co n siste n t th ro u g h o u t th e ru le s. T h e se ch a n g e s a re in te n d e d to b e stylistic o n ly.

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F o rm e r R u le 1 2 (a )(4 )(A ) re fe rre d to a n o rd e r th a t p o stp o n e s d isp o sitio n o f a m o tio n u n til th e tria l o n th e m e rits. R u le 1 2 (a )(4 ) n o w re fe rs to p o stp o n in g d isp o sitio n u n til tria l. T h e n e w e x p re ssio n a vo id s th e a m b ig u ity th a t in h e re s in tria l o n th e m e rits, w h ich m a y b e co m e co n fu sin g w h e n th e re is a se p a ra te tria l o f a sin g le issu e o r a n o th e r e ve n t d iffe re n t fro m a sin g le a ll-e n co m p a ssin g tria l.

C h a n g e s M a d e A fte r P u b lica tio n a n d C o m m e n t . S e e N o te to R u le 1 , su p ra .


C O M M ITTEE N O TES O N R U LES 2 0 0 9 A M ENDM ENT T h e tim e s se t in th e fo rm e r ru le a t 1 0 o r 2 0 d a ys h a ve b e e n re vise d to 1 4 o r 2 1 d a ys. S e e th e N o te to R u le 6 . R u le 1 1 . S ig n in g P le a d in g s, M o tio n s, a n d O th e r P a p e rs; R e p re se n ta tio n s to th e C o u rt; S a n ctio n s up R u le 1 3 . C o u n te rcla im a n d C ro sscla im

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TheERISALawGroup.com Experienced help with your claim. Denied or terminated? Call today. A B O U T L I I C O N T A C T A D V E R T I S E H E L P U S H E R E T E R M S U S E O F P R I V A C Y

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