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PROBLEMS OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN LHUENTSE AND MONGAR DISTRICTS IN BHUTAN

Submitted by

Ugyen Penjor
Masters of Education Student ID: Y13MED2038

Under the Supervision of

Dr. D. Saroja
M.A (Psy.), M.ED, PhD, Cert- (coun.) Professor

Department of Education
Acharya Nagarjuna University Nagarjuna Nagar 522510 Guntur, Andra Pradesh, India

Research Proposal

SUBMITTED UNDER PART II OF M.ED DEGREE EXAMINATION ACHARYA NAGARJUNA UNIVERSITY 2012 - 2013 CONTENTS PAGE 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Statement of the problem 1.2 Significance of the study. 1.3 The objectives of the study. 1.4 Hypotheses/Research question(s). 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research design. 3.4 Population 3.4.1 School Level wise estimated Population 3.5 Sample 3.5.1 Method of Sampling to be used 3.6 Definitions of key terms, concepts and variables. 3.6.1 Stress 3.6.2 Secondary School 3.6.3 Social Science Teachers: 3.6.4 Variables: 3.7 Data analysis and interpretation. 4. Probable Outcomes or Educational Implications 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

INTRODUCTION

The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines problem as, a thing that is difficult to deal with or to understand (2010, p.1208
1.1 Statement of the problem

While it is wonderful that Bhutan is experiencing rapid growth in the number of students attending school, a major concern is that this growth has not been matched by an increase in teachers. This problem is further aggravated in rural schools with no graduate teachers opting to serve in these schools. Usually the teachers who end up staying in remote schools are, not by choice but by circumstances, who are always in the hunt to get out of this difficult situation at the earliest possible time. One major problem with rural schools thus is acute shortage of teachers. Many teachers in rural schools have to take multi-grade classes to make

up the teacher shortage and in extreme cases there is teacher and section ratio of 1:5. (i.e., teacher in a multi-grade school has to simultaneously handle more than one section of class at a single time)

Two essential variables with teachers and rural schools are lack of basic facilities, and distance from the urban centre. Many teachers do not want to stay in rural areas because of isolation, whether it is social or professional. In addition, teachers in rural areas face many challenges such as low or absence of allowances, lack of access to professional opportunities, and the responsibility to take on multiple duties. Because of rural community being illiterate the teachers get very little support from the parents in the academic uplifting of the students, most of the time students come without doing their home work because they are given no or very little time to do self study, instead they are always bogged down with household chores. Teachers have to create zero periods to give time for the students to do self study; students study is thus confined in the school where as their counterparts in the urban centres get support from their literate parents and are even sent for tuitions. Hence teachers are more stressed with variety of problems. Therefore there is every need to study the problems of primary school teachers in Bhutan.
1.2 Significance of the study. The study will be significant particularly in finding out the problems faced by the rural school teachers, especially in the service delivery 1.3 The objectives of the study.

1. To find out the problems of rural primary school teachers. 2. To find out the problems of rural primary school teachers with respect to the following aspects: a) Classroom management b) Preparation of the lesson c) Social problems d) Emotional problems e) Academic problems 3. To find out the influence of following variables on the problems of rural primary school teachers:

a) Experience b) Gender c) Strength of the teachers 4. To find out the difference between the problems of single teacher school, school with two teachers, and school with more than two teachers.
1.4 Hypotheses/Research question(s).

1. There would be a significant difference between the problems of less experienced and more experienced teachers. 2. Significant difference would occur between the problems of woman teachers and man teachers. 3. There would be a significant difference between the problems of teachers in: a) A single teacher school b) school with two teachers c) School with more than two teachers.

2. Literature Review Review of the related literature, besides allowing the researcher to acquaint himself with the current knowledge in the field or area which he is going to conduct his research, serves the following purposes: 1. It enables the researcher to define the limits of his field. 2. The researcher can avoid unfruitful and useless problem areas. 3. The researcher can avoid unintentional duplication of well established findings. 4. It gives the understanding of the research methodology, tools and instruments which proved to be useful and promising in the previous studies. 5. Know the recommendations of previous researchers for further research. 2.1. Related studies 2.1.1. A study of the operational problems of secondary school teachers in Bihar.

Researcher: Kumar, A. (1985) The objective of the study were: To construct a problem check list covering major areas of operational problems, Viz. Methods and curriculum, working conditions of the teachers, students and discipline, persons in authority, peers and staff, the community, personal, social, and professional role. The findings are: Financial, administrative and personal problems stood in forefront.

2.1.2. Topic: Teachers in the school of backward areas of Rajasthan: Shortage and Supply. Researcher: Sharma, V.S. (1976) The objective of the study was: Finding out the teacher-pupil ratio in the backward areas of Rajasthan. Finding out the numbers of teachers teaching science and mathematics in the schools of backward areas of Rajasthan. Making the education department, Rajasthan aware of the number of teachers needed in the backward areas of Rajasthan. The findings are: The teacher-pupil ratio was less than the one prescribed by the Education Department of Rajasthan. The shortage of first grade teachers was negligible. The percentage of vacant post of second grade teachers ranged from 4.68 to 6.87. In 44 to 51 percent of the institutions, one or two post was vacant. There were problems like lack of means of travel, housing facilities, and illness of teachers and their availing of maternity leave. 2.1.3. Topic: A study of the outstanding problems of teachers of standards V to VII of the Marathi Language Side of Municipal Primary schools of Bombay.

The objectives of the study were: To find out the personal problems of teachers and whether these affected their class teaching. To identify the problem areas in the class teaching. To obtain information on the parents understanding of the needs of their children attending municipal primary schools. To suggest guidelines for formulating a minimum programme of redressing the grievances of teachers and thereby achieving maximum utilization of municipal resources for the educational growth of children of greater Bombay. To assess the attitude of teachers to the home background of children who attended municipal primary school. The findings were: Personal, domestic, family and social problems of the teachers were relatively fewer. The problems regarding classroom situation, teaching aids, the use of class library and educational guidance ranked from fifth to tenth. The problem of transport was ranked second. The problem of accommodation and money were ranked second and third respectively by the male teachers. The problem of looking after ones own children at home was ranked fifth by the female teachers. Nearly sixty percent of the teachers admitted that they did not like the practicing school. The problems of teachers had significant relation with sex, educational background, the tenure of service and family size. The teachers had positive attitudes towards the children attending the school. There was no difference in the attitude of the male and female teachers, and of the city and suburban teachers towards the children.

2.1.4.

Topic: A study of the problems of primary teachers in Pune Municipal area regarding time, energy and money they have to spend for going to school and returning home.

The findings were: 43.71 percent teachers went to school on foot, 30.99 percent by bus, 10.73 percent on bicycle, 11.85 percent occasionally by auto rickshaws, 1.29 percent by private vehicles, 0.26 percent by auto rickshaws regularly, and 0.99 percent by train. 48.88 percent teachers required up to 15 minutes to go to school, 24.82 percent up to 30 minutes, 19.32 percent up to an hour, and required the same time to return. 47.36 percent teachers did not require to spend on travel, 10.56 percent required up to Rs.10/month, 7.31 percent required up to Rs.15/month, 7.95 percent required up to Rs.20/month, 10.62 percent required up to Rs.30/month, 5.58 percent required up to Rs.40/month, 5.43 percent required up to Rs.50/month and 5.19 percent required more than Rs.50/month.
3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research design. Questionnaire Survey Method will be used as research tool for collection of data. Given the limited time frame at hand the researcher has decided to use this method as it will permit wider coverage at minimum expenses. It is economical both for the researcher and the respondent in time, effort and cost. 3.4 Population 4. In statistics, population refers to any collection of specified group of human beings or of non-human entities, such as objects, educational institutions, and geographical areas. The estimated population of the rural teachers of the two districts are stated below: Name of District Number of teachers Male Lhuentse Mongar Total 62 28 Female 50 90 140 TOTAL

3.5 Sample A sample is a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis. It is a collection consisting of a part or subset of the objects or individuals of population which is selected for representing the population. The researcher has decided to take 103 samples of teachers working in rural schools in Lhuentse and Mongar districts of Bhutan, from the population of 140 teachers, which has been worked out following the formula of Taro Yamane (1967), which is shown below:

n=
When n = size of sample group N = size of population e = the miss adjusting rate in random sampling at level 0.05 Therefore n

= = =

= 103.15

3.5.1 Method of Sampling to be used Stratified random sampling will be used as the geographic distribution of the schools are scattered and wide, it will not be possible for the researcher to study the whole population. 3.6 Definitions of key terms, concepts and variables. 3.6.1. Multi-grade class
It refers to the class in which, more than two or more grades are put together in a classroom and taught by the single teacher. Most of the rural schools in Bhutan have multi-grade classes mainly due to

teacher shortage and also due to very less number of students in a class. There are as low as just one or two students in a class.

3.6.3. Rural schools There are many different and potentially conflicting definitions of rural, using criteria of population density, economic factors, socio-cultural characteristics and location or remoteness from larger cities.Schools in Bhutan are categorized into urban, semi remote, remote, very
remote, and difficult school, depending upon the facilities the schools has in terms of road connection, power supply, hospitals and the distance from the urban centre. For this research work, schools in remote and very remote areas have been taken as rural schools.

3.6.4 Variables: Independent Variable Experience Gender <5 years male <10 years <15 years female >15 years Categories Dependent Variables Emotional problems, social problems, Strength of the 1 teachers teacher per section Less than 1 More than 1 teacher per academic teacher section per section problems, classroom management

Data collection techniques The required data for this research will be collected through questionnaire which will be sent through mail due to researchers lack of time to administer personally, more so as the respondents are geographically scattered. It is also because this method is found convenient for the respondent to complete the questionnaire at a time convenient for him. The questionnaire used will be in closed form or restricted type. Procedures for treating data The data gathered will be interpreted by using the mean, SD,