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-I

-1
v u A B C u = AB . v = AC
) ( P A B . C
v u AB AC ) ( P u v


-2
v u A B C
u = AB . v = AC
* v 0 u 0 u v = AB AC cos BAC
u v = 0

* u = 0 v = 0
* u 0 ' u v = AB AC = AB AC
' C C )(AB
1
= u v
* AB 2 + AC 2 BC 2
2

-3
u A B

u = AB

u u u u 2 = AB 2
u 2

u u = u 2


2
* u = u2
*

v 0u 0

-4

3
3

) (

u v = u v cos u ; v

(u ,v ,w ) V

u v = v u
*
* u (v + w ) = u v + u w
* (v + w ) u = v u + w u
* ) u v = u v = (u v
-5 :

v u .V3

v u

u v = 0

0 V3

ABCDEFGH a
AE.BG AE.AG AG.EB

(u + v ) = u + v + 2u v
2
(u v ) = u 2 + v 2 2u v
(u + v )(u v ) = u 2 v 2

u v

-II
-1

i j k V3 O .
) (i ; j ;k V3

) (i ; j ;k ) ) (O ; i ; j ; k( i j k
.
) (i ; j ;k ) ) (O ; i ; j ; k (

i j k i = j = k = 1
-2
-
.. ) (O ; i ; j ; k

;u x ) ' v ( x'; y'; z


( y; z

' u v = xx '+ yy '+ zz

) u( x; y; z .. ) (O ; i ; j ; k

u i = x
; uj =y
; u k = z
-
* - ) u( x; y; z .. ) (o;i ; j ;k u = x 2 + y 2 + z 2
* - ) A ( x A ; y A ; z A ) B ( xB ; yB ; z B .. ) (o;i ; j ;k

( xB x A ) 2 + ( y B y A ) 2 + ( z B z A ) 2

A 1;1; 2 2; 2;0

= AB

C 1; 1; 2

ABC
-3 M u.MA = k
) u ( a;b;c ) A ( x A ; y A ; z A
) M ( x; y; z

u.MA = k ........ ax + by + cz + d = 0

) u ( a;b;c A
M u.MA = k ax + by + cz + d = 0 d

) u ( 2; 1;1 ) A (1; 1; 2
M u.MA = 1
-III
-1
-
) (D1 ) (D2 u 1 u 2
( D1 ) ( D 2 ) u 1 u 2 = 0

) (P u 1 u 2 ) (D u 3
u2 u3

( D ) ( P ) u1 u 3
2

-
* u ) (D ) (P ).( P
* u ) (P v u )(P
* u ) (P v )' (P u v ) (P)'( P

2
* ) ( A ; B ) ( P u ) (P u AB

.(O ; i ; j ; k ) .
) (D ) A(-1; 2 0 ) (P
) u(1;1;1 )v(2;1;1

. (O ; i ; j ; k ) .
) (P ax-2y+z-2=0 ) (D

t IR

x= 2t

y =1+ 3 t
z = 2 + bt

-1 )(P
-2 a b ) (D )(P
-
.

) (P )' (P u v
) (P')(P u v

-2
.a

u A
* A u M AM u = 0
* M AM u = 0 A u
.b

* ) (P ) u(a;b;c ax + by + cz + d = 0
* ax + by + cz + d = 0 ) ( a; b ; c ) ( 0;0;0 ) (P

) u(a;b;c

-1
-2
-3
-4

x+y-2z+1=0
(P) : 2x-y+3z+1=0
(D):
x-y+z-2=0
u ) (P .
) A (2;0;3 ) n(1,2,1 .
) A' (2;0;3 )(D
) A (2;0;3 )(P

-3
-1
.. ) (o;i ; j ;k
A ) (P AH
H A) (P
AB u
= d ( A; ( P ) ) = AH
u
) B (P u )(P
-2
) (P ax + by + cz + d = 0

ax 0 + by 0 + cz 0 + d
a2 + b 2 + c 2

) (P ) B ( 2;1;3 u 1; 1; 2

)) d ( A ; ( P

) A ( x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0

= )) d ( A ; ( P
)A (1;2;0

1
.
) A(1;-1;1 ) B(3;1;-1 ) (P 2x-3y+2z=0 ) (D
x = 3t


x = 2 3t t
z = 2 + 4t

-1 ) (Q A )(D
) (Q A B )(P
-2 )) d(A;(P ))d(A;(D
-3 ) (Q B )(P
2
.
) (P 3x+2y-z-5=0 ) (D
x 2 y + z 3 = 0

x yz+2=0
-1 )(D
) (P ) (D )(P
-IV

) (O ; i ; j ; k

-1


*+

r) S(;r

) (a;b;c ) (E
r
) M(x;y;z )(E
)(x-a)2+(y-b)2+(z-c)2=r2 M=r M S(;r


. o;i ; j ;k
) S(;r ) (a;b;c r
(x-a)2+(y-b)2+(z-c)2=r2


* A B ) S(;r ] [A;B ] [A;B
* ] [A;B ] [A;B r = AB
* ) S(;r x+y+z +x+y+z+=0
.
* ) S(O; r O x+y+z=r
) S(;r ) (a;b;c r
*
) B(;r ) (a;b;c r )M(x;y;z
(x-a)2+(y-b)2+(z-c)2r2
-2
S ][A;B
[AMB] M S M=A AM BM = 0 M=B

A B
M AM BM = 0 ][A;B

) A(xA;yA;zA ) B(xB;yB;zB ][A;B


(x -xA)(x-xB)+(y-yA)(y-yB)+(z-zA)(z-zB)=0

O ; i ; j ; k ) (1;2;-1 ) A(2;1;2 )B(4;1;2

-1 S A
-2 S ][A;B
-3 (1): x+y+z-2ax-2by-2cz+d=0
E ) M(x;y;z )(1
(x-a)2+(y-b)2+(z-c)2=a+b+c-d
M E
)(a;b;c
* - a+b+c-d <0E =
* - a+b+c-d =0 } . E={
a+b+c-d = r
* - a+b+c-d >0 ) E=S(;r

a b c d
) M(x;y;z x+y+z-2ax-2by-2cz+d=0
a+b+c-d 0
E ) M(x;y;z x+y+z+4x-2y -6z+5=0
E
) A(2;0;-1 )B(-1;1;-1
M 2MA+3MB=16
II
) S(;r )(P
-1
E ) S(;r ) (P H )(P
d ( ; ( P ) ) = H = d
r

d=r

dr


) (P S r H )(P
) (P : S
* H ) ) r 2 d 2 ( ; ( P d(;(P))< r

* d(;(P))= r ) (P S H
* d(;(P))>r
-2

A )S(;r
) (P S A ) (P ) (A A

A )S(;r
) M(P
A AM = 0

) (P ) S(;r A

O ; i ; j ; k S1

x+y+z-4x+2y-2z-3=0 S2 2 , 2 ) (P
) (P . 2x-y-2z-1=0
x-2y+z+1=0
-1 ) (P S1 .
-2 ) (P . S2
-3 S1 )A(1;1; 3
--3
E ) S(;r ) ( H ) (

d ( ; ( ) ) = H = d
r

) ( S

dr

) ( S

) ( S
H

S : x+y+z-2y +4z+4=0

x = 1 + 2t
( D1 ) : y = 1 + t
z = 3 + t

x = 3t
( D 2 ) : y = 2
z = 2 + t

S ) (D1 ) (D2 )(D3

x = 2 + 2t

1
( D 3 ) : y = + 3 t
3

z = 2

) (O ; i ; j ; k

) A(1;0;1 ) B(0;0;1 ) C(0;-1;1 ) (D C )u(1;2;1


-1 M MA=MB=MC
-2 ) (P ) (D C
-3 S A B ) (D C
2

O ; i ; j ; k ) A(0;3;-5 ) B(0;7;-3 )C(1;5;-3

-1 )(ABC
-2 ) (Q A ) u(1;2;1
-3 ) (P x+y+z=0
- )(P ) (ABC )(D
- )(D

) (C x 2 + z 2 +10z +9=0

y =0

-4

- S ) (C )(ABC
S )(AC
3
) A(1;-1;1 ) B(3;1;-1 ) (P
(D) 2x-3y+2z=0

x = 3t

x = 2 3t t
z = 2 + 4t

-1 ) (Q A B )(D
-2 ) (Q A B )(P
-3 )) d(A;(P ))d(A;(D
-4 ) (Q B )(P
4
) (P 3x+2y-z-5=0
) (D

x 2 y + z 3 = 0

x yz+2=0

-1 )(D
-2 ) (P ) (D ).(P
5
) (P x+y+z+1=0
) (Q 2x-2y-5=0
) (S ) M(x;y;z x+y+z-2x+4y+6z+11=0
-1 ) (S
-2 ) (P
-3 ) (D ) A(0;1;2 )(P
-4 ) ( P ) ( Q )(D ) (P)(Q
6
)A(-2;3;4
) (P (S) x+2y-2z+15=0 ) M(x;y;z
x+y+z-2x+6y+10z-26=0 ) (C
-1
-2
-3

-4

) (S
) (P ) (S )' (C
) (S )(P
)' (S A )(C

x2 + y 2 2 x 8 = 0

z =0



-1
E

) (O ; i ; j ; k

I K OI = i

OK = k

OJ = j

O ; i ; j ; k K O

I
, J .

) (O ; i ; j ; k

) (O ; i ; j ; k

) (O ; i ; j ; k
(O ; i ; j ; k ) * : J
* ) (O ; i ; j ; k J
) (O ; i ; j ; k
*
)

. I K OI = i

(O ; j ; i ; k

(O ; j ; k ; i

(O ; i ; j ; k

ABCDEFGH 1
**
A; AB; AD ; AE
; B; BC ; BA; BF

)
) ( E ; EA ; EF ; EH

OJ = j

OK = k

) ( A ; AD ; AB ; AE

-2
, V3

) ( i ; j ; k

) ( o; i ; j ; k.. . O


-3
) (P k ) , (P O )(P
O ; i ; j.. )(P

O ; i ; j ; k E
8

)
) (O ; i ; j ; k

O ; i ; j ) (P

* ) (P .
) (P )(P
*
II
-1
u = OA
u v V3 A B E v = OB
u v , u v
:
. u v = o
* u v
u v :
* u v
u v u v
) ( u ; v ; u v .v sin -

u v = u

(O ; i ; j ; k

AOB

i i = j j = k k =0
k i = j
i k =j

j k =i
k j = i

i j =k
j i = k

* u v ) ( u ; v ; u v .

u v [ ]0;

(u; v ) =

u v = 5

v =2

u =5

-2
-
A B C AB AC ).(ABC
A B C
)(AB

HC = AC sin

AB AC = AB. AC.sin
AB AC = AB HC

ABC AB AC

ABDC AB AC
-
u v
u v u v
* ) (-
*

H , CAB C

u v =0 u v
u v sin = 0
sin = 0
sont lis

uetv

v =0

v =0

u =0

u = 0

A B C AB AC = 0

- )(

(u + v ) w = u w + v w
) ( u ) v = ( u v
) u v = (v u

( u ; v ; w ) V33

u u = 0u = u 0 = 0

) ( o; i ; j ; k .

( i + 2k ) j

i 3j

; a b = c d

( i + j 2k ) k

) ( 2i j ) ( 3i + 4 j

ac =b d

a d b c
-3 .. .
) ( o; i ; j ; k

) u ( x; y; z

)' v ( x '; y '; z

( )

u v = xi + yj + zk x ' i + y ' j + z ' k

= ( yz ' zy ') i + ( zx ' xz ') j + ( xy ' yx ') k

E ) (O ; i ; j ; k ) u ( x; y; z )' v ( x(; y '; z


V3

u v ) ( i ; j ; k ) (X;Y;Z

' Z = xy ' yx

' X = yz ' zy

' Y = zx ' xz

)v ( 2; 1;1

u v
III

) u (1; 2;0

)A (1; 2;1

) B ( 0; 3; 2

)(ABC

10

)C (1; 2;1

-1

A B C
M ( ABC ) AB AC AM

)(ABC

) A(1;2;3 ) B(1;-1;1 )C(2;1;2


-2

(P) : ax+by+cz+d=0
(P) : ax+by+cz+d=0
) n ( a; b; c ) (P )' n ' ( a '; b '; c )(P

* ) (P) (P ) (D ) (P) (P ' n n


* n n ' 0 ) (P) (P ' n n

(P): x+2y-2z+3=0 (P): 4x-4y+2z-5=0

-3
) (D A M , u H )(D
AM u = AH + HM u = HM u
AHetu
lis

= HM . u

AM u = HM u = HM . u sin
AM u
u

= HM

) (D A M , u .
M ) (D

AM u
u

= )) d ( M ; ( D

)A(3;2;-1

x = 2t
( D ) : y = 2t
z = 1+ t

? = ) ) d ( A; ( D

)A(1;2;1 ) B(-2;1;3 ) (D
x 2y + z 3 = 0

2 x + 3 y z 1 = 0
-1 OA OB )(OAB
-2 ))d(A;(D
-3 )(S A )(D

11