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The use of performance enhancing drugs is mostly done to improve athletic performance

There are eight classes of drugs that are prohibited for used by athletes by the World Anti Doping Agency. These are listed below: 1. Stimulants 2. Narcotic analgesics 3. Cannabinoids 4. Anabolic agents 5. Peptide hormones 6. Beta-2 agonists 7. Masking agents 8. Glucocorticosteroids

The use of alcohol (ethanol) is banned in selected sports only during actual competition.

Stimulants are also called psycho stimulants and are drugs that increase the activity of the central and peripheral nervous system and produce a sense of ecstasy. They increases the heart and breathing rates and allows the brain to work faster thus boosting alertness and motivation. They stimulate physical performance by increasing endurance and as such it gives other athletes unfair advantage .Stimulants also reduces fatigue and maintains aggressiveness. Possible side effects of using stimulants include nervousness, shaking, irregular heartbeats, high blood pressure, convulsions and even sudden death. They are only banned for use during completion. Popular stimulants include, adrafinil, cocaine, modafinil, pemoline, selegiline.

Narcotic analgesics are an analgesic which acts on the central nervous system to help in the relief of severe pain. They help to reduce or eliminate the pain from a nagging injury, allowing athletes to continue training without much signs of injury which can lead to more serious injury. As a result, athletes may have a false sense of security, and by continuing to train and compete, risking further health problems. They may also reduce anxiety, which may artificially enhance an athlete's performance. Common narcotic analgesics includes buprenorphine, dextromoramide, heroin, morphine, pethidine.

. Cannabinoids are chemicals extracted from the cannabis plant which causes a feeling of euphoria. Cannaboids increase the recovery time of athletes after exercise, increases their heart rate and reduces their inhibitions.. Marijuana is normally not considered performance enhancing, however it is damaging the image of sports since it is an illegal substance. Examples of cannabinoids are hashish, hashish oil, marijuana

Anabolic agents are steroids which impersonate the male hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. There are basically two types of anabolic agents namely; exogenous steroids which are not produced by the body naturally and endogenous steroids which are produced by the body naturally. They are used by athletes to increase muscle size and strength. They also reduce the amount of time required to recover from exercise and as such allows athletes to train harder and for a longer period of time.

When an athlete is tested positive for anabolic agents, his/her sample is further tested to find out if the amount of prohibited substance is in a greater concentration in the sample than the amount normally found in humans. The sample will be ruled out to not contain a prohibited substance when the athlete proves with evidence that the excess concentration of the endogenous substance in the sample is linked with a pathological or physiological condition. Anabolic agents are banned from use both in and out of competition.

Peptide hormones Peptide hormones are substances that are produced by glands and secreted into the blood stream and upon circulating through the body can affect other organs and tissues to change bodily functions. Peptide hormones includes human chorionic gonadotrophin), erythropoietin human growth hormone. They stimulate the production of naturally occurring hormones, thus increasing muscle growth and strength. A peptide hormone also increases the rate at which red blood cells are produced hence improving the blood's ability to carry oxygen.

Beta-2 agonists These are a class of drugs used to treat asthma and other pulmonary diseases. by relaxing the muscles that surround the airway and opening up the air passages. They act in the same way as stimulants and anabolic agents therby increasing muscle size, reducing body fat and increasing the rate of performance. Examples of are bambuterol hydrochloride, reproterol hydrochloride, tulobuterol hydrochloride.

Masking agents Masking agents are products that can potentially mask the existence of a prohibited substance in urine or other samples allowing them to cover up their use and gain an unfair competitive edge. Common masking agents includes epitestosterone, dextran, diuretics, probenecid and are banned in and out of competition.

Glucocorticosteroids Glucocorticosteroids are used mainly as anti-inflammatory drugs and to relieve pain. They are frequently used to treat asthma, hay fever, tissue inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. When administered systemically (into the blood) glucocorticosteroids can produce a feeling of euphoria, potentially giving athletes an unfair advantage. They also mask pain felt from injury and illness allowing athletes to continue training without feeling of fatigue.

Methods of doping

There are three methods of doping that are prohibited by the WADA namely, gene doping, enhancement of oxygen transfer and chemical and physical manipulation. In 2002, World Anti Doping Agency bought together researcher in the feild of genetics and sporting officials to investigate gene doping. Based on the results of this research, a conclusion was drawn and gene doping was added to the list of prohibited substances and methods of World Anti Doping Agency. Gene doping as the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic

elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to enhance athletic performance, is prohibited.