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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterised by disordered metabolism and abnormally high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) resulting from low levels of the hormone insulin with or without abnormal resistance to insulins effect. Diabetes is a defect in the bodys ability to convert glucose (sugar) to energy. Glucose is the main source of fuel for our body. When food is digested it is changed into fats, protein, or carbohydrates. Foods that affect blood sugars are called carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, when digested, change to glucose. Examples of some carbohydrates are: bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, corn, fruit, and milk products. Individuals with diabetes should eat carbohydrates but must do so in moderation. Glucose is then transferred to the blood and is used by the cells for energy. In order for glucose to be transferred from the blood into the cells, the hormone - insulin is needed. Insulin is produced by the beta cells in the pancreas (the organ that produces insulin). In individuals with diabetes, this process is impaired. Diabetes develops when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient quantities of insulin. Diabetes is a condition that is related to problems of insulin production or absorption. Insulin is a hormone that is fundamental to transporting glucose from digested food to the bodys cells. When the body cannot produce enough insulin, the glucose cannot be transported to the cells and remains in the blood stream. This causes Type 1 diabetes. When the body produces enough insulin but does not have enough receptor cells to absorb the insulin, Type 2 diabetes develops. 90% of people who have diabetes have Type 2. Its symptoms are the same as Type 1 diabetes.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

History This article was originally published in Diabetes Health in November, 1996.

For 2,000 years diabetes has been recognized as a devastating and deadly disease. In the first century A.D. a Greek, Aretaeus, described the destructive nature of the affliction which he named "diabetes" from the Greek word for "siphon." Eugene J. Leopold in his text Aretaeus the Cappodacian describes Aretaeus' diagnosis: "...For fluids do not remain in the body, but use the body only as a channel through which they may flow out. Life lasts only for a time, but not very long. For they urinate with pain and painful is the emaciation. For no essential part of the drink is absorbed by the body while great masses of the flesh are liquefied into urine." Physicians in ancient times, like Aretaeus, recognized the symptoms of diabetes but were powerless to effectively treat it. Aretaeus recommended oil of roses, dates, raw quinces, and gruel. And as late as the 17th century, doctors prescribed "gelly of viper's flesh, broken red coral, sweet almonds, and fresh flowers of blind nettles."

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Motivation and overview of diabetic research Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that the deaths due to diabeteswill increase all over the world by 80% in some regions, over the next ten years. Among these, India host to the largest diabetes population in the world with an estimated 35 million people, amounting to 8% of the adult population. WHO also predicts that the diabetes currently affects almost two hundred million people worldwide. International Diabetes Federation estimates that this figure will increase to 333 million people by 2025. Only 5% of the diabetes in the world is type 1 (IDDM). The remaining 95% is type 2 (NIDDM).

Diabetes epidemic in India The first national study on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in India was done between 1972 and 1975 by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi) (Ahuja, 1979). Screening was done in about 35,000 individuals above 14 year of age, using 50 g glucose load. Capillary blood glucose level >170 mg/dl was used to diagnose diabetes. The prevalence was 2.1 % in urban population and 1.5% in the rural population while in those above 40 year of age, the prevalence was 5% in urban and 2.8% in rural areas. Subsequent studies showed a rising trend in the prevalence of diabetes across different parts of India. In 1988, a study done in a small township in south India reported a prevalence of 5% (Ramachandran et al., 1988).This study also revealed that the prevalence in the southern part of India to be higher-13.5 % in Chennai, 12.4 % in Bangalore and 16.6 % Hyderabad; compared to eastern India (Kolkatta), 11.7 %; northern India (New Delhi), 11.6 %; and western India (Mumbai) 9.3 % (Mohan et al., 2007).

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


Types of diabetes Diabetes in general, has been classified into three types namely type I, type II, Gestational and other specific types of diabetes. Type I diabetes, which accounts for 5-10% of all cases of diabetes, is affected with various microvascular and macrovascular Complications that leads to the major morbidity and mortality associated with it .Type 1 diabetes can start at any age and the pathogenecity is strongly associated to the Autoimmune problems against the cells of islets of Langerhans that ultimately result in Decreased insulin production.

Diabetes Type 1:

It Was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenileonset diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when the bodys immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults, although disease onset can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes may

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes may include autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors. In type 1, the pancreas stops producing insulin due to autuimmune response or possibly viral attack on pancreas. In absence of insulin, body cells dont get the required glucose for producing ATP (Adenosin Triphosphate) units which results into primary symptom in the form of nausea and vomiting. In later stage, which leads to ketoacidosis, the body starts breaking down the muscle tissue and fat for producing energy hence, causing fast weight loss. Dehydration is also usually observed due to electrolyte disturbance. In advanced stages, coma and death is witnessed.

Diabetes Type 2:

It Was previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes.Type 2 diabetes may account for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.It usually begins as insulin resistance, a disorder in which the cells do not use insulin properly. As the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce insulin.Type 2 diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes,
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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity.African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, and some Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for type 2 diabetes.Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, lifelong disease that is due to insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity, combined with reduced insulin secretion. Insulin is a hormonereleased by the pancreas in response to the increased glucose level in the blood. The abnormality is reduced insulin sensitivity, characterised by reduced level of insulin in the blood.

Gestational Diabetes

A form of glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in some women during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes occurs more frequently among African Americans, and American Indians. It is also more common among obese women and women with a family history of diabetes. During pregnancy, gestational diabetes requires treatment to normalize maternal blood glucose levels to avoid complications in the infant. After pregnancy, 5% to 10% of women with gestational diabetes are found to have type 2 diabetes. The White classification, named after Priscilla White who pioneered in research on the effect of diabetes types on perinatal outcome, is widely used to assess maternal and fetal risk. It distinguishes between gestational diabetes (type A) and diabetes
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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


that existed prior to pregnancy (pregestational diabetes). These two groups are further subdivided according to their associated risks and management. The two subtypes of gestational diabetes (diabetes which began during pregnancy) are: Type A1: abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), but normal blood glucose levels during fasting and two hours after meals; diet modification is sufficient to control glucose levels Type A2: abnormal OGTT compounded by abnormal glucose levels during fasting and/or after meals; additional therapy with insulin or other medications is required

Signs and symptoms

Increased fatigue : Due to inefficiency of the cell to metabolize glucose, reserve fat of body is metabolized to gain energy. When fat is broken down in the body, it uses more energy as compared to glucose, hence body goes in negative calorie effect, which results in fatigue.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


Polydipsia: As the concentration of glucose increases in the blood, brain receives signal for diluting it and, in its counteraction we feel thirsty. Polyuria: Increase in urine production is due to excess glucose present in body. Body gets rid of the extra sugar in the blood by excreting it through urine. This leads to dehydration because along with the sugar, a large amount of water is excreted out of the body. Polyphegia: The hormone insulin is also responsible for stimulating hunger. In order to cope up with high sugar levels in blood, body produces insulin which leads to increased hunger. Weight flactuation: Factors like loss of water (polyuria), glucosuria , metabolism of body fat and protein may lead to weight loss. Few cases may show weight gain due to increased appetite. Blurry vision: Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome is the condition when body fluid is pulled out of tissues including lenses of the eye, which affects its ability to focus, resulting blurry vision. Irritability: It is a sign of high blood sugar because of the inefficient glucose supply to the brain and other body organs, which make us feel tired and uneasy. Infections : The body gives few signals whenever there is fluctuation in blood sugar (due to suppression of immune system) by frequent skin infections like fungal or bacterial or UTI (urinary tract infection). Poor wound healing: High blood sugar resists the flourishing of WBC, (white blood cell) which is responsible for body immune system. When these cells do not function accordingly, wound healing is not at good pace. Secondly, long standing diabetes leads to thickening of blood vessels which affect proper circulation of blood in different body parts.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


Diabetes diagnosis The diagnosis of diabetes is made by a simple blood test measuring blood glucose level and urine test measuring urine sugar level. Usually these tests are repeated on a subsequent day to confirm the diagnosis. A diagnosis of diabetes is a frightening and bewildering experience because there is so much information to take in and the diagnosis may come as a shock. People with Type 2 diabetes may hear their condition described as mild, but Type 2 diabetes is not a mild medical condition. Both forms and all stages of diabetes are serious, with many possible complications, including eye, heart, kidney, and nerve damage.

Diagnostic Range of Blood Sugar Level


Normal Fasting blood sugar Random blood sugar 80-99 mg/dl 80-139 mg/dl Diabetes 126 mg/dl and above 200 mg/dl and above 200 mg/dl and above

2 hour glucose tolerance test 80-139 mg/dl

Treatment for diabetes As yet, there is no cure for either type of diabetes, although there are many ways of keeping diabetes under control. Diabetes treatments are designed to help the body to control the sugar levels in the blood. Studies have shown that good control of blood sugar is the key to avoiding diabetic complications.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


Type 2 diabetes treatment will vary dependent on blood sugar levels. Many patients are counseled to change their lifestyle and lose weight. It is important to work with a diabetes educator and dietitian. Treatment begins with changing certain food choices and beginning an exercise program. Diabetes is a progressive disease, and the treatment may change over time, requiring oral medication.

Allopathic Medication
AGENT
MECHANISM

SITE OF ACTION

ADVANTAG ES

ADVERSE EFFECT

SULPHONYL UREAS

METFORMIN

Stimulating Pancreatic insulin beta cells production by inhibiting the K-ATP channel Decreases liver insulin resistance Reduce insulin resistance by activating glut 4

Effective and inexpensive

Hypoglycemia , weight gain

THIAZOLIDINEDI ONES (TZDs)

Does not cause hypoglycemia, weight loss GI tract Low risk

Nausea and diarrhea.

-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS

Reduces intestinal glucose absorption

Fat, muscle

Decreases postprandi al plasma triglycerid e levels

Increased liver enzymes, weight gain, edema, mild anemia Diarrhea, abdominal pain,

Side effects of allopathic medications vary wildly from mild to severe and there are many. They include insomnia, vomiting, fatigue, dry mouth, diarrhea, constipation, dizziness, suicidal thoughts, hostility and difficulty sitting still, depression, mania,

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seizures, coma, anemia, hair loss, high blood sugar, shoplifting, swelling, impotency, panic attacks, confusion, fainting and death. Problems with modern (Allopathic) drugs: High cost and long time taken in development of new drug Toxicity A new branch of medicine is termed iatrogenic diseases Non-renewable source of basic raw materials. Most synthetic drug utilizes fossil resources like petrochemicals Environmental pollution by the chemical industry. Advantages of plant-based drugs: Long history of use and better patient tolerance as well as public acceptance. Renewable source Cultivation and processing environmental friendly Local availability, especially in developing countries It is often difficult for seniors to keep track of multiple medications which further increase likelihood of side effects due to allopathic medicines. Allopathic medicines prevent the pain and symptoms only not the

problem. Allopathic works fast and people can feel relief but symptoms come back once by stop taking Allopathic medicines. So, in this point of view people again turn back to Traditional Medicines. The use of herbs to treat disease is almost universal among non-industrialized societies, and is often more affordable than purchasing expensive modern pharmaceuticals. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the population of some Asian and African countries presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Studies in the United States and Europe have shown that their use is less common in clinical settings, but has become
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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


increasingly more in recent years as scientific evidence about the effectiveness of herbal medicine has become more widely available. The use of plants as medicines predates written human history. Ethnobotany (the study of traditional human uses of plants) is recognized as an effective way to discover future medicines. In 2001, researchers identified 122 compounds used in modern medicine which were derived from "ethno medical" plant sources; 80% of these have had an ethno medical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant. Many of the pharmaceuticals currently available to physicians have a long history of use as herbal remedies.

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The oldest written evidence for Natural Remedies
The oldest written evidence of medicinal plants usage for preparation of drugs has been found on a Sumerian clay slab from Nagpur, approximately 5000 years old. It comprised 12 recipes for drug preparation referring to over 250 various plants, some of them alkaloid such as poppy, henbane, and mandrake. The Chinese book on roots and grasses Pen TSao, written by Emperor Shen Nung circa 2500 BC, treats 365 drugs (dried parts of medicinal plants), many of which are used even nowadays such as the following: Rhei rhisoma, camphor, Theae folium, Podophyllum, the great yellow gentian, ginseng, jimson weed, cinnamon bark, and ephedra. The Indian holy books Vedas mention treatment with plants, which are abundant in that country. Numerous spice plants used even today originate from India: nutmeg, pepper, clove, etc. The Ebers Papyrus, written circa 1550 BC, represents a collection of 800 proscriptions referring to 700 plant species and drugs used for therapy such as pomegranate, castor oil plant, aloe, senna, garlic, onion, fig, willow, coriander, juniper, common centaury, etc. According to data from the Bible and the holy Jewish book the Talmud, during various rituals accompanying a treatment, aromatic plants were utilized such as myrtle and incense.

Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants In traditional medicine, diabetes mellitus is treated with diet, physical exercise and medicinal plants. Even though, more than 1200 plants were used in the control of diabetes mellitus, approximately 30% of the antidiabetic plants were

pharmacologically and chemically investigated (Alarcon et al., 2002). On the other

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hand, potential hypoglycemic agents have also been detected in more than 100 plants which were used for antidiabetic therapy. Traditional treatments may provide valuable clues for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agents and simple dietary adjuncts. More than 100 medicinal plants were mentioned in the Indian system of medicines including folk medicines for the management of diabetes, which are effective either separately or in combinations (Kar et al., 2003). As per the ethnobotanical literature on traditional phytotherapy of Indian medicinal plants, the species like Asparagus racemosus, Butea monosperma, Cathanranthus roseus, Coccinia indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Syzygium cumini and Momordica charantia are consistently used by the tribal communities for the treatment of diabetes (Rana et al., 1999) as well as in modern medicine. Following Antidiabetic medicinal plants are taken for study purpose: TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (giloy) SWERTIA CHIRAYITA (Chirata) AEGLE MARMELOS (Bael Tree) BAUHINIA VARIEGATA (Orchid Tree) SYZYGIUM CUMINI (Jamun) GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE (Gurmar) MOMORDICA CHARANTIA (Karela) MURRAYA KOENIGII (Curry patta) PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM (Vijaysar) TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM (Methi) MORINGA OLEIFERA (Sargavo) COSTUS IGNEUS (Keukand)
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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Tinospora Cordifolia

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Tinospora : Guduchi : Gado : Amruta

Scientific Classfication Kingdom : Plantae Division : Magnoliophyta Class Order Family Genus : Magnoliopsida : Ranunculales : Menispermaceae : Tinospora

Species : T. cordifolia Parts Used: whole plant

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Geographical Distribution Globally the species is distributed in India, SriLanka and Bangladesh. Within India it is distributed in Arunachal Pradesh and in South India. This species is globally distributed in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Within India, it is found throughout tropical India, ascending to an altitude of 300m. It is often cultivated. Botanical Description Tinospora is a big climber (glabrous) shrub generally climbs on large trees. It is a twining, succulent-stemmed, fast growing with tuberous roots. Its branches are grey-green, up to 40 mm in diameter, becoming brown with age. The leaves are heart-shaped and 100 x 100 mm. Its flowers are tiny creamy-greenish and male and female flowers are formed on different branches. It flowers in spring. The female flowers are followed by oval red fruit up to 10 mm in diameter. These ripen during summer and autumn. Its stems are Fleshy and roots are long thread like, aerial, arise from branches. Bark is thin, greyish or creamy white in color, when peeled fleshy stem is exposed. Its seeds are curved, pea sized. The extract obtained from the root is pure white where as that obtained from the stem may be slightly grayish. The freshly prepared Guduchi extract has a good taste.

Active Antidiabetic constituents

Name: Berberine M. F.: [C20H18NO4] +

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Extraction Method 1
An aliquot of Tinospora cordifolia was fractionated by TLC using silica gel as an adsorbent. The system was sequentially eluted with CHCI3 and MeOH in a polarity gradient fashion, by increasing polarity of MeOH from 0 to 100%. to obtain 36 fractions.Fractions 10-16 were purified by Column chromatography (silica gel) eluting with CHCI3-MeOH (6:1)to obtain compound 1 as yellow needles Fractions 17-31 were subjected to Column chromatography (silica gel), sequentially eluted with CHCl3-MeOH (4:1). After crystallization in MeOH, compound 2 was obtained as orange plates. The alkaline aqueous fraction was acidified with HC1 to pH 3.0 and treated with a solution of picric acid for 24 h, forming a ppt.This ppt. was dissolved in MeOH, treated with activated charcoal and filtered over celite. The methanolic solution was passed through an ion-exchange column, evaporated and further purified by preparative chromatography on silica gel (mobile phase: MeOH: water: NH3 (25%), 15:3:1) to obtain compound Berberin.

Extraction Method 2 Ultra pressure extraction of berberine

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(1: plunger; 2:ultrahigh pressure vessel; 3: pressure-conduction media; 4: sealed plastic bag; 5: plant materials and extraction solvent; 6: valve; 7: pipe; 8: supercharger; 9: lubricator groove; 10: valve).

The Tinospora cordifolia - stem was crushed, with 24 mesh screened. 2.0 g of plant materials was set in a plastic bag and added extraction solvent in proportion, sealed and drained bubbles, increased the pressure to the required pressure to keep pressure for 120 s, then removed the pressure and obtained extracts, filtered, with 0.22 m filter membrane, and then stored at 4C for spare.

Antidiabetic activity
The stem of Tinospora cordifolia is widely used in the therapy of diabetes by regulating the blood glucose in traditional folk medicine of India. It has been reported to mediate its anti-diabetic potential through mitigating oxidative stress (OS), promoting insulin secretion and also by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, thereby regulating blood glucose. Alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids as the major

phytoconstituents of Tinospora cordifolia have been reported to play an antidiabetic role.

The isoquinoline alkaloid rich fraction from stem, including, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine have been reported for insulin-mimicking and insulin-releasing effect both in vitro and in vivo. Oral treatments of root extracts have been reported to regulate blood glucose levels, enhance insulin secretion and suppress OS markers. Initiation and restoration of cellular defence anti-oxidant markers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH), inhibition of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose 1, 6diphosphatase, restoration of glycogen content in liver was reported in in vitro studies.

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The crude stem ethyl acetate, dichloromethane (DCM), chloroforms and hexane extracts of Tinospora cordifolia inhibited the enzyme's salivary and pancreatic amylase and glucosidase thus increasing the post-prandial glucose level and finds potential application in treatment of diabetes mellitus. T. cardifolia root extract (TCE) has been reported to cause an increase in body weight, total hemoglobin and hepatic hexokinase and lowering hepatic glucose-6phosphatase, serum acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in diabetic rats thus having hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effect.

Antidiabetic Medicines made from T.Cordifolia

Other action of Tinospora cordifolia


Astringent Anti Inflammatory Anti allergic Blood purifier

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

swertia chirayita

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Chirata : Chirayita : Kachnar : Kirat tikta

Scientific Classification Kingdom: Plantae Division : Angiosperms Class Order Family Genus Species : Eudicots : Asterids : Gentianaceae : Swertia : S. chirata

Parts Used: Dried whole plant

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Geographical Distribution Himalayas, India, Chin , Nepal, Botanical Description The plant is an erect annual. The stems are robust, branching, cylindrical below and 4-angled upwards, containing a large pith; the leaves are broadly lanceolate, 5nerved and sub-sessile; the flowers occur in large panicles, are lurid greenish yellow, tinged with purple; the capsules are egg-shaped, many-sided, sharppointed; the seeds are smooth and many- angled. The drug (chiretta) is obtained from the dried plant. Active Antidiabetic Constituents

Name M.F.

Swechirin C15H12O6

Other: Xanthones Mangiferin Kairatenol (penta cyclic compound)

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Extraction Method Preparation of the crude sample Whole plants (0.5 kg) were ground into a powder and extracted three times with 75% ethanol. The extraction times were 2 h, 2 h and 1 h, respectively. The extracts were combined and evaporated to dryness by rotary evaporation at vacuum, which yielded 0.11 kg of dry powder. The residues were then suspended in distilled water (3 L) and extracted with light petroleum ether (b.p. 6090 C, 6 L), chloroform (6 L) and n-butanol (6 L). After the chloroform layer was concentrated to dryness, 26 g of extract was obtained. The extract of chloroform (26 g) was subjected to silica gel (1000 g) CC eluted with petroleum ether and increasing proportions of ethyl acetate to give five fractions, and 6.4 g of crude sample was obtained from fraction 4 for HSCCCseparation. 60 C under

HSCCC Separation(High Speed Counter Current Chromatography)

Functionally, the high-speed CCC consists of a helical coil of inert tubing which rotates on its planetary axis and simultaneously rotates eccentrically about another solar axis. (These axes can be made to coincide)The effect is to create zones of mixing and zones of settling which progress along the helical coil at dizzying speed. This produces a highly favorable environment for chromatography.

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Antidiabetic activity

A xanthone was isolated from the hexane fraction of the Swertia chirayita plant and identified as 1,8-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone (swerchirin). It has a very significant blood sugar lowering effect in fasted, fed, glucose loaded, and tolbutamide pretreated albino rat models. The ED50 for 40% blood sugar lowering in CF male albino rats (body weight 140-165 g) is 23.1 mg/kg/oral. The possibility of its application in clinical therapy for diabetes mellitus needs exploration.

Mechanism of blood sugar lowering by the crude/impure swerchirin (SWI) isolated from the hexane fraction of Swertia chirayita was investigated. Single oral administration of SWI (50 mg/kg, body wt) to fed CF rats induced about 60% (max.) fall in blood glucose by 7 hr post-treatment. This was associated with marked depletion of aldehyde-fuchsin stained beta-granules and immunostained insulin in the pancreatic islets. In vitro, glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis by muscle (diaphragm) was significantly enhanced by the serum of SWI-treated rat. At 100, 10 and 1 microM final concentration, SWI greatly enhanced glucose (16.7 mM)-stimulated insulin release from isolated islets. It is therefore concluded that SWI lowers blood glucose level by stimulating insulin release from islets of Langerhans.

Swerichin is known to increase Plasma immune reactive insulin (IRI levels) and shows higher degree of beta cells degranulation.Chiretta (market name) is ingathered in drug industry (Bentley and Trimen, 1880). It is called as elixir and immersion in American and British pharmacopoeias.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Antidiabetic Medicines made from S.Chirayita

Other Action of Swertia chirayita :

Anti-inflammatory anesthetic, anticonvulsant properties hypotensive antipsychotic antimalarial antibacterial properties antihistaminic

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Aegle Marmelos

Vernaculra Information
English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Bael Tree : bilva : Bili : bilva

Scientific Classfication
Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus Species : Magnoliophyta : Magnoliopsida : Sapindales : Rutaceae : Aegle : Aegle marmelos

Parts Used: Roots, bark, Leaves, Ripe- Unripe fruits

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Geographical Distribution India, Bangladesh, Egypt, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand Forests of India, western Himalayas, andaman island. Botanical Descrioption Bael is a medium sized tree, reaching a height of 8 to 10 metres. It has a solid trunk, branches with long straight offshoot. Its leaves are fragrant and sweetscented and greenish-white flowers. The fruit is woody and polished, 5 to 15 cm in diameter. It has abundant seeds that are thickly covered with fibrous hair and are implanted in a fat perfumed pulp. This is generally considered as sacred tree by the Hindus, as its leaves are offered to Lord Shiva during Leaves, worship. According to Hindu mythology, the tree is another form of Lord Kailashnath.fruit, stem and roots of this tree at all stages of maturity are used as ethno medicine against various human ailments. Active Antidiabetic constituents :

Name : Marmelosin M. F. : C16H14O4 M.W.: 270.27 gm/mole Other: Marmesin, Psoralin, umbelliferon

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Extraction Method Extraction by Continuous hot percolation (Soxhlet extraction) The plant material 1st grinded. The powder is passed through mesh No.10.The drug is packed in a paper cylinder made from a filter paper and it is placed in the body of Soxhlet extractor.

Soxhlet Apparatus Seperation of Marmelosin from Extract by Column chromatography

In column chromatography, the mobile phase is a solvent and the stationary phase is Finely divided solid, such as Silica gel. slurry of the silica gel was prepared for column by ethyl acetate, methanol, and hexane as an eluent in (1:1:1.5) ratio and then carefully poured into the column. The eluent was collected in different test tube with a volume of 2 ml in each test tube. The eluent was dried and marmelosin was separated out.

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Antidiabetic Activity The administrations of AM extract significantly decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol in diabetic mice. The levels of serum lipids are usually elevated in diabetes mellitus and such an elevation represents the high risk of coronary heart diseases. The marked hyperlipidemia that characterizes the diabetes status may be regarded as consequences of the uninhibited action of lipolytic hormones on the fat depots. Glycogen is the primary intracellular storage form of glucose and its levels in various tissues, specifically in liver and skeletal muscles, are a direct reflection of insulin activity since it regulates glycogen deposition by stimulating glycogen synthase and inhibiting glycogen phosphorylase. Since streptozotocin causes selective destruction of -cells of islets of Langerhans resulting in marked decrease in insulin levels, it could be predicted that glycogen levels in tissues (muscle and liver) decreases as the influx of glucose in the liver is inhibited in the absence of insulin. However, this alteration in hepatic and muscle glycogen content is normalized by insulin treatment. supplementation of diabetic mice with AM extract resulted in significant elevation in both muscle and hepatic glycogen content. Bael is used as an antidiabetic plant in folklore medicine. The hypoglycemic effect of Bael is similar to insulin. During Diabetes there is increase in protein catabolism, which feeds gluconeogenesis that results in hyper uremia and hypo

proteinemia. So, here Aegle marmelos enhance proteolysis in muscle and other tissus, coupled with lower protein synthesis and give protective effect of the extract on protein catabolism. In hyperglycemia the activity of fructose -1,6-diphosphate is enhanced, which concerned with gluconeogenesis. Aegle marmelos leaf has a corrective influence on these altered enzyme activity.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Antidiabetic Medicines made from A.mamelos

Other Action of Aegle Marmelos: Every part of bale tree-stem, bark, root, leaves and fruit at all stages of maturity have medicinal merits and have been used as remedy for a long time. Fresh half ripe Bael fruit is mildly astringent and used to cure dysentery, diarrhoea, hepatitis, tuberculosis, dyspepsia and good for heart and brain. Roots have antidiarrhoetic, antidote to snake venom, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. Constipation: Ripe bael fruit is regarded the best of all purgatives. It cleanses and strengthens the intestines. Its everyday usage for 2 or 3 months disposes even the old hoarded faecal matter. Diarrhoea and Dysentery: The immature or half-ripe fruit is the most effective remedy for continual diarrhoea and dysentery. The use of dried bael or its powdered form gives the best result. Peptic Ulcer: Bael leaves are considered an effective solution for peptic ulcer. The leaves are doused overnight in water. This water is sieved and taken in the morning.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Bauhinia variegata

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Orchid tree : Kachnar : orchid : Kachnar

Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus Species Parts used : Angiosperms : Eudicots : Fabels : Fabeceae : Bauhinia : Bauhinia Variegata

: leaves, flowers

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Geographical Distribution southern asia, southern china, himalayas, Pakistan, Nepal Botanical Description It is a small to medium-sized tree growing to 1012 m tall, deciduous in the dry season. The leaves are 1020 cm long and broad, rounded, and bilobed at the base and apex. The flowers are conspicuous, bright pink or white, 812 cm diameter, with five petals. The fruit is a pod 1530 cm long, containing several seeds. Active Antidiabetic Constituents Stem bark : Tannins, Roseoside Flower : octacosanol, Beta sitosterol, stigma sterol, myrecetol

Extraction Method Cytochemical immunolocalization Leaves were thoroughly washed, cut into pieces (0.5 x 0.5 cm) and fixed in 50 mm sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.1% glutaraldehyde and 4% paraformaldehyde for 2 hr at room temperature. Samples were washed three times for 10 min with the same buffer and dehydrated in 50% (30 min), 70% (60 min), and 90% methanol (60 min). After dehydration the pieces were embedded in LR Gold resin (50, 70, and 100% resin in methanol) for a total of 6 days. For immunocytochemical localization, sections of approximately 60 nm were cut from the resin blocks and collected on Formvar films. The sections were treated with 50 mm ammonium chloride for 1 hr and with PBS (10 mm sodium phosphate, 150 mm sodium chloride) containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 2 hr. The sections were then incubated with a guinea pig anti-human insulin antibody (1:200) in the above buffer for 2 hr. The sections were then washed six times each for 5 min with PBS plus 1% BSA as blocking buffer and four times (5 min each)

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

with PBS alone. After washing, sections were incubated with a guinea pig anti-IgG antibody conjugated with colloidal gold (10 nm) at 1:350 dilution for 2 h and washed again. The sections were then contrasted with 5% uranyl acetate followed by 1% lead citrate for 1 min. Crystalline inclusions The crystalline inclusions in leaves of B. variegata were analyzed by energydispersive X-ray microanalysis. After fixation with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, 4% paraformaldehyde and 50 mM cacodylate the samples were dehydrated in ethanol and critical point dried in CO2- covered carbon in a Balzer Apparatus. Samples were analyzed. Chloroplast purification Five grams of B. variegata leaves was gently homogenized at 4C in a mortar with two volumes (w/v) of a grinding buffer containing 0.35 M sucrose, 3 mM EDTA, 0.1% (w/v) BSA, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.2, and 10 mM mercaptoethanol. The homogenate was filtered through four layers of cheesecloth and the filtrate was centrifuged at 250 g for 10 min at 4C. The supernatant was then centrifuged at 3000 g for 10 min at the same temperature. The pellet containing chloroplasts was resuspended in 2 mL of grinding buffer and the quality of the preparation was analyzed by phase contrast light microscopy. Extraction of proteins from electrophoresis gels Chloroplast proteins were extracted from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels by the syringe maceration extraction method (15). After electrophoresis (ten gels) the band, with a mass similar to that of bovine insulin, was sliced horizontally into 0.5-cm sections. The gel slices (~1 g of gel material) were placed in a 3-mL syringe and forced through the opening into a second syringe. This procedure was

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

repeated five times. Next, the gel material was collected into a 2-mL Eppendorf tube and 1 mL of water was added. The mixture was vortexed for 30 s and left at room temperature for 5 min. The gel material was pelleted by centrifugation at 12,000 g for 1 min and the supernatant was collected. Ten microliters of the above solution containing the chloroplast insulin-like protein fraction extracted from SDS-PAGE gels was diluted 1:10 in 50% acetonitrile and used for measuring the absorption spectrum from 220 to 900 nm in a Specord M500 spectrophotometer.

Antidiabetic Activity
The hypoglycemic activity of the protein isolated from leaf extracts. The leaves of the many Bauhinia species are used in antidiabetic treatments by many populations of the world. In India, stem bark is used as an antidiabetic in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.In a recent in-vitro study, the ethanolic extract of B. variegata and its major constituent, roseoside, have demonstrated enhanced insulin release from the beta-cell lines . In view of these facts, this work studied the influence of the stem bark of B. variegata on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. There is no medicines available in market as antidiabetic made from B.variegata. Other action of B. variegate Anti T.B. Also used in Asthma, Pilles, Diarrhoea, Goitre, Skin disease

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Syzygium Cumini

Vernacular Information English : Black Plum Hindi : Jamun Gujarati : Jambu Sanskrit : Mahaphala Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus : Magnoliophyta : Magnoliopsida : Myrtales : Myritaceae : Syzygium : Syzygium Cumini

Species

Parts Used : Fruit, Seed Powder

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Geographical Distribution Jambul is native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, thePhilippines, and Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia , Native to Africa, China, Bhutan, India, Botanical Description A fairly fast growing species, it can reach heights of up to 30 m and can live more than 100 years. Its dense foliage provides shade and is grown just for its ornamental value. At the base of the tree, the bark is rough and dark grey, becoming lighter grey and smoother higher up.The leaves which are an aroma similar to turpentine, are pinkish when young, changing to a leathery, glossy dark green with a yellow midrib as they mature. Jambul trees start flowering from March to April. The flowers of jambul are fragrant and small, about 5 mm in diameter. The fruits develop by May or June and resemble largeberries. The fruit is oblong, ovoid, starts green and turns pink to shining crimson black as it matures. A variant of the tree produces white coloured fruit.. Active Antidiabetic Constituent
HO

OH O O

Phytochemical : Ferulic Acid IUPAC Name : (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylic acid M.F. M.W. : C10H10O4 : 290.0 g/mol

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Extraction Method Preparation of plant extract : The jamun fruits are 1st washed and pulp is removed from seeds. Seeds were washed, dried and coarsely powdered. The powder was extracted with hexane to remove lipids. it is then filtered and residue is successively extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol using cold percolation method. Then phytochemical screening give results of extract. Isolation of Active Compound : 5 gm of seed Methanolic extract is mixed with silica gel (60-120 mesh) and loaded in a column packed with silica gel using hexane as a solvent. The column is eluted with increasing order of polarity. The fraction eluted at 100% MeOH, yield of 350mg obtained as pale brown semisolid. It is characterized by spectroscopic techniques.

Antidiabetic activity
Jambu extracts, solutions, and other preparations from plants with a putative antihyperglycemic effect have a worldwide utilization in the treatment of diabetes. Among them, the tea prepared from leaves of jambolan [Syzygium jambos (L.) Alst or Syzyguium cumini (L.) Skeels] is largely used. An antihyperglycemic effect in patients with diabetes, however, could not be ruled out, since its mechanism of action could depend on specific abnormalities of diabetes in humans. tea prepared from leaves of Syzygium cumini (two grams per liter of water, taken as water substitute)Fasting blood glucose levels decreased. Significant blood glucose lowering activity was observed in fasted rats at a single oral dose of 250mg/kg body weight, along with marked degranulation in

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


pancreatic -cells and increase in muscle glycogen store of normal rats. Whole fruit extract was lowered the blood glucose concentration probably by stimulating insulin secretogouge activity and increasing the glycogen store in muscles of normal rats. These observations indicate that the S. cumini whole fruit definitely possess hypoglycemic potential, which has not been reported earlier.

Oral administration of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed significant decrease in blood sugar level. It showed an incerased activity of hexokinase and decreased activity of glucose 6- phosphate in liver.The isolated compound of seed extract at a dose level of 50 mg/kg showed significant decrease in blood sugar level. However leaves of plant does not contain antidiabetic activity.The effect exerted by s.cumini are more potent than that of Glibenclamide.

Antidiabetic medicines made from s.cumini

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Other action of s.cumini


The bark is acrid, sweet, digestive, astringent to the bowels, anthelmintic and used for the treatment of sore throat, bronchitis, asthma, thirst, biliousness, dysentery and ulcers. It is also a good blood purifier. The fruit is acrid, sweet, cooling and astringent to the bowels and removes bad smell form mouth, biliousness, stomachic, astringent, diuretic and antidiabetic. The fruit has a very long history of use for various medicinal purposes and currently has a large market for the treatment of chronic diarrhea and other enteric disorders. The seed is sweet, astringent to the bowels and good for diabetes. The ash of the leaves is used for strengthening the teeth and gums. Vinegar prepared from the juice of the ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic and carminative and used as diuretic and it is also useful in spleen enlargement and an efficient astringent in chronic diarrhea. Juice of tender leaves of this plant, leaves of mango and myrobalan are mixed and administered along with goat's milk and honey to treat dysentery with bloody discharge, whereas juice of tender leaves alone or in combination with carminatives such as cardamom or cinnamon is given in goat's milk to treat diarrhoea in children. Traditional medical healers in Madagascar have been using the seeds of jambolan for generations as the centerpiece of an effective therapy for counteracting the slow debilitating impacts of diabetes. The seed extract is used to treat cold, cough, fever and skin problems such as rashes and the mouth, throat, intestines and genitourinary tract ulcers (infected by Candida albicans) by the villagers of Tamil Nadu. Jambolan fruit can be eaten raw and can be made into tarts, sauces and jams. Good quality jambolan juice is excellent for sherbet, syrup and squash, an Indian drink

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Gymnema sylvestre

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : small indian ipecac : Gurmar : Madhunashini : Meshshringi

Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus Species Parts used: Leaves : Magnoliophyta : Magnoliopsida : Gentianales : Asclepiadaceae : Gymnema : G.sylvestre

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Geographical Distribution G. sylvestre is native to the tropical forests of central and southern India had wider distribution and it grows in the plains fromthe coast, in scrub jungles and in thickets at an altitude ranging from 300 - 700m. The genus Gymnema comprises 40 species distributed from Western Africa to Australia. They are mainly distributed in the Deccan peninsula parts of northern, western India, Tropical Africa, Australia,Vietnam, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.

Botanical Description Gymnema sylvestre (GS) is a slow growing, perennial, woody climbing plant (Asclepiadaceae family), which grows in tropical forests of central and southern India. Leaves are opposite, usually elliptic or ovate (1.252.0 inch 0.51.25 inch); flowers are small, yellow, in umbellate cymes. Active Antidiabetic Constituents

Name : Gymnemagenin M.F. M.W. : C30H50O6. : 506.72gm/mole

Basic structure of Gymnemic Acid

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Extraction Method EXTRACTION OF GYMNEMIC ACID BYHOOPERSS METHOD

Soxhlet apparatus

Step1: Extraction with petroleum ether 1 kg of dry leaf powder was packed into a clean soxhlet extraction unit. Seven liters of petroleum ether (60-800C) was added and extracted for 24-36hours till all the components are soluble in petroleum. Petroleum extract is collected and distilled in a distillation unit. Then a net weight of250 gm of petroleum ether extracts was obtained. Petroleum ether extraction was used for defatting dried leaf power.

Step2: Extraction with 90% methanol The plant material is then extracted with 90% methanol. 90% methanol was added and the extraction was carried out for 24-36 hours till the total methanol soluble extract was obtained. The methanol soluble extract was distilled and finally175gm of the thick paste were obtained.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Step3: Isolation of pure gymnemic acid frommethanol extract 175gm thick paste of methanol soluble extract was dissolved in 1% aqueous KOH solution oncontinuously stirring for 45min to 1 hour. Thesolution is then filtered through filter paper to separate the un-dissolved particles. Diluted HCl was added slowly under constant stirring, during which the gymnemic acids were precipitated. Precipitated solution was filtered under suction and precipitate was dried. The pure gymnemic acid was obtained. Antidiabetic Activity The variety of theorized mechanisms is a based on the fact that the atomic arrangement of gymnemic acid molecules is similar to that of glucose molecules. There are some possible mechanisms by which the leaves extract of GS or gymnemic acid possess their hypoglycemic acid effects. It causes inhibition of glucose absorption from intestine: gymnemic acid molecules fill the receptor location in the absorptive external layers of the intestine thereby preventing the sugar molecules absorption by the intestine, which results in low blood sugar level. Receptor blockade is established quickly and persists for about 5 hours, decreasing sugar absorption of about 50%.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

It increases utilization of glucose as it increase the activities of enzymes responsible for utilization of glucose by insulin-dependent pathways, determines an increase in phosphorylase activity and decrease in gluconeogenic enzymes and sorbitol dehydrogenase; moreover increases cell permeability to insulin. It increases secretion of insulin by stimulating -cells and/or increasing their number (in pancreatectomized animals it has no hypoglycemic effect, indicating that its effect may require some residual -cell function). It promotes regeneration of islet cells, ensuring adequate hormonal support and response. Besides all that, gymnemic acids and gurmarin (another constituent of the leaves) have been shown to block sweet taste in humans: almost certainly gymnemic acid molecules fill the receptor locations on the taste buds thereby preventing its activation by sugar molecules present in the food, thereby curbing the sugar craving. One of the mechanisms responsible for adult onset diabetes mellitus is a form of insulin resistance,which is attributed to the inability of insulin to enter cells via the

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

insulin receptor. Should this effect beproven, Gymnema may prove useful in both adult onset (NIDDM) and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus(IDDM) to help insulin enter cells. The leaves are also noted for lowering serum cholesterol and triglycerides. The primary chemicalconstituents of Gymnema include gymnemic acid, tartaric acid, gurmarin, calcium oxalate, glucose,stigmasterol, betaine, and choline. While the water-soluble acidic fractions reportedly provide thehypoglycemic action, it is not yet clear what specific constituent in the leaves is responsible for thesame. Some researchers have suggested gymnemic acid as one possible candidate, although furtherresearch is needed.

Antidiabetic Medicines made from G.sylvestre

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Other Action of G.sylvestre


Liver tonic Cardiotonic Antioxident Astringent Antimicrobial Antiulcer Hepatoprotective Antioxident Ant fertility

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Momordica Charantia

Vernacular Information
English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Bitter Gourd : Karela : Karela : Karvellak

Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Order Family Genus Species : Magnoliophyta : Cucurbitales : Cucurbetaceae : Momordica : Charantia

Parts Used: Fruits, Seeds, Leaves.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Geographical Distribution parts of South America and the Amazon basin including Brazil, Guyana and the Caribbean, East Africa and Asia including India, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Botanical description This herbaceous, tendril-bearing vine grows to 5 m. It bears

simple, alternate leaves 412 cm across, with three to seven deeply separated lobes. Each plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. In the Northern Hemisphere, flowering occurs during June to July and fruiting during September to November. The fruit has a distinct warty exterior and an oblong shape. It is hollow in crosssection, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large, flat seeds and pith. The fruit is most often eaten green, or as it is beginning to turn yellow. As the fruit ripens, the flesh (rind) becomes tougher, more bitter, and too distasteful to eat. When the fruit is fully ripe, it turns orange and mushy, and splits into segments which curl back dramatically to expose seeds covered in bright red pulp.

Active Antidiabetic constituents

Product Name : Charantin M.F. : C35H58O6

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Extraction Method
Sample preparation The fruits of bitter melon were cleaned and cut into small pieces, and then oven dried at 50 C for a day. The dried sample was then pulverized into fine powder in a grinder,which was then stored at 4 C until use.

Subcritical water Extraction (SCWE) of M.Charantia

Diagram of experimental setup subcritical water extraction. The subcritical water extraction was carried out in a laboratory-built apparatus shown in Figure. The extraction system consisted of two HPLC pumps used to deliver the water and solvent through the system at constant flow rates, a degassing instrument an oven where the extraction vessel was mounted, a pressure gauge, and a back pressure regulator valve. All connections were made with stainless steel capillaries. Water was passed through a degassing degassed water was then delivered to

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Equipment to remove dissolved oxygen, The preheating coil, made from 3 m length stainless steel tubing, installed in the oven, and delivered through to the extraction vessel, which was preloaded with 1.0 g of sample. The back pressure regulator valve placed at the outlet of the extraction system was used to maintain the system pressure to ensure that the water was in liquid state at the temperatures tested. Before starting the extraction, all connections were checked for possible leakage. The second pump was then turned on to deliver ethanol at constant flow rate of 1 ml/min to wash off any residual product in the outlet line behind the extractor. The extract was cooled in a coil immersed in a water bath to prevent possible product degradation, and the extract was collected in fractions in sample collecting vials every 10 minutes in a first hour and every 20 minutes in the second hour. After extraction, the compound remained in the sample residue was extracted repeatedly in 30 ml methanol until the extract was clear. The samples were then evaporated under vacuum to remove the water and methanol until volume of the samples was about 10 ml and stored at 4 C until analysis.

Antidiabetic Activity
M. charantia, its extracts and isolated components are believed to exert their hypoglycaemic effects via different physiological and biochemical processes. These include insulin secretagogue like effect, stimulation of skeletal muscle and peripheral cell glucose utilization, inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake, inhibition of hexokinase activity, suppression of key gluconeogenic enzymes, stimulation of key enzymes, HMP pathway and preservation of pancreatic islet cells and their functions. M. charantia and its various extracts and components have been reported to exert hypoglycemic effects, studies have shown that both the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the fruit of M. charantia can inhibit the activities of fructose 1, 6-

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

diphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase and at the same time stimulating the action of glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase. It was previously reported

that M. charantia and its various extracts can stimulate peripheral cell glucose uptake.

In addition to its insulin-like effects on skeletal muscle cells, daily oral intake of M. charantia fruit juice over a period of 10 weeks significantly reduced the amount of Na+ and K+-dependent 14C-D-glucose absorbed by rat jejunum brush border membrane vesicle compared to vesicles obtained from STZ-induced diabetic rats.Taken together, these results clearly demonstrated that M. charantia and its extracts can directly regulate blood glucose via two mechanisms. Firstly, it can regulate how much glucose is absorbed by the gut into the blood following a meal and secondly, it can stimulate glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells just like insulin. Moreover, it seems to exert its effect via the same intracellular signaling pathways as insulin in regulating glucose metabolism in the body. M. charantia fruit juice may have a role in the renewal of cells in treated diabetic rats or alternatively, the juice may permit the recovery of partially destroyed cells. Physiological experiments have also shown that M. charantia can stimulate insulin secretion from the endocrine pancreas and elicit glucose uptake in the liver. Current evidence therefore indicates that the recovery and subsequent increase in the number of insulin producing cells followed by the release of insulin may be part of the several pathways by which M. charantia exerts its hypoglycemic effects. In addition to the properties mentioned above, M. charantiaand its extracts may possess cell-like proliferation and growth-like properties similar to that of insulin. Nevertheless, further experiment are required, at least at the molecular level, to determine the precise mechanisms whereby M. charantia can either repair damaged cells or prevent their death.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Antidiabetic Medicines made from M.charantia

Other Action of M.charantia


Antimicrobial Antiulcer Hepatoprotective Antioxident Anti fertility Anti bacterial Anti emetic Diuretic Chemopreventive Antioxident

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Murraya koenigii

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Curry tree : Kadhi Patta : Mitho Limdo : Kaidarya

Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus Species Parts used : Angiosperms : Eudicots : Sapindales : Rutaceae : Murraya : M.Koenigii

: leaves

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Geographical distribution Nepal, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Native to Africa, China, Bhutan, India, pakistan. Botanical Description Murraya koenigii or sweet neem is a small tree, growing 46 m (13-20 feet) tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm diameter. The leaves are pinnate, with 11-21 leaflets, each leaflet 24 cm long and 12 cm broad and highly aromatic. The flowers are small, white, and fragrant. The small black shiny berries are edible, but their seeds are poisonous Active Antidiabetic Constituents

Name : Mahanimbine M.F. : C23H25NO Other Curryanin Murrayline

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Extraction Method

Soxhlet Apparatus
Extraction and isolation The dried plant powder of Murraya koenigii leaves were extracted with petroleum ether (60-80C) in a Soxhlet apparatus for 72 h. at room temperature. The total extract was concentrated under reduced pressure and kept at room temperature. A greenish solid was separated out. This was dissolved in petroleum ether (60-80C) and chromatographed using silica gel (60-120 mesh) column and eluted successively with petroleum ether and chloroform mixture. The fractions obtained with 50% petroleum ether (60-80C) in chloroform afforded compound-I (mahanimbine). The compound-I was subjected to preparative TLC gave pure mahanimbine

Antidiabetic Activity
The dose of mahanimbine (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p) once in a week for30 days is given to the alloxan rat. it may be suggested that the mechanism of action of mahanimbine is similar to glibenclamide.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

The possible mechanism by which the mahanimbine decreases blood sugar level may be by potentiating of insulin effect either by increasing the pancreatic secretion of insulin from beta cells of islets of langerhans or by increasing the peripheral glucose uptake. The possible protective effect of M. koenigii leaf extract against cell damage and antioxidant defense system of plasma and pancreas in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was carried out and suggested that M. koenigii treatment exerts a protective effect in diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress and pancreatic Cell damage.

Hypoglycaemic effect of extracts of M. koenigii leafs along with the number of the spices were studied which proved that they can be used as potent antidiabetic diet.The aqueous extract of the M. koenigii leaves has evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rabbits with the effect of a standard hypoglycaemic drug, tolbutamide. Curry leaf extract posseses the property to decrease blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels in diabetic mice and reduces the body weight after its treatment.

There are no medicines available in market as antidiabetic from M.koenigii. Other Action Of M. Koenigii
Murraya koenigii or Sweet neem leaves has been used as medicine for more than 2000 years. The leaves of are also used as a herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Their properties include as an anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-hypercholesterolemic and contain iron.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Eyes: The juice extracted from curry leaves brightens the eyes and delays cataract. Diarrhea: Drinking the juice of 15-20 curry leaves mixed with a teaspoon of honey serves as an efficient curry leaf for diarrhea. Constipation: Take one teaspoon of dried curry leaf powder with a teaspoon of honey in it. Consume this for about two to three times in a day to get rid of constipation. Nausea: Drinking a cup of water mixed with one tablespoon of roasted curry leaves serves as one of the most effective for nausea.

Curry leaf benefits the body by stimulating digestive enzymes, reducing body heat, relieving kidney pain, controlling Diabetes, making the eyes appear brighter, retaining the natural pigmentation of hair,. Curry leaves are known to be good for hair, for keeping them healthy and long.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Pterocarpus marsupium

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Indian kino tree : Beeja : Vijaysar : asana

Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus Species : Angiosperms : Eudicots : Fabels : Fabeceae : Pterocarpus : P.Marsupium

Parts used: bark, wood, Gum

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Geographical Distribution: Native to India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, where it occurs in parts of the Western Ghats in the Karnataka-Kerala region. Botanical Description The tree grows to 10-15 meter in height, smoky Gum is red in color. Leaves and foliage bear wavy margin. Flowers- yellowish. Legumes- contain two seeds. Active Antidiabetic Constituents

Name: 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene; M.F.:C16H16O3 M.W.:256.3gm/mole

Name:(-) Epicatechin M.F.:C15H14O6 M.W.:290.27 gm

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Extraction Method

Extraction Using HPLC The bark sample of P. marsupium was ground to powder. The ground sample was extracted using MeOH as a solvent. The extract (0.2g) was further extracted with 100 ml water. The sample was then centrifuged for 10 min at 16C. The test samples was passed through 0.2 m filter syringe and 20l of test solution was injected to HPLC using C-18 reversed phase column with a reversed phase guard column. The mobile phase consisted of A: B (80:20) in which A was 2.5% aqueous acetic acid and B was acetonitrile .It was degassed and filtered and used for separating the target marker with a flow rate of 1 ml/min.The chromatogram was scanned up to 20 min, which was detected at 280 nm.

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Antidiabetic Activity Pancreatic beta cell regeneration - a novel antidiabetic mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium A flavonoid fraction (XE) extracted from the bark of pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae)was studied for the hypoglycaemic activity normal and alloxanised albino rats. The drug XE did notshow a consistent effect on normal blood sugar levels but it effectively reversed the alloxan-inducedchanges in the blood sugar level and the beta-cell population in the pancreas. It also showed protective effect when it was given prior to alloxan administration. The novel action of drug on the pancreatic beta-cells and absence of acute toxicity may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future.

Hypoglycemie activity of Pterocarpus marsupium wood Feeding of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of an absolute ethanol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood for 5 days significantly lowered blood sugar levels with a corresponding increase in the blood insulin level in alloxan-diabetic rats. A Constituent of Pterocarpus marsupium, (-)-Epicatechin, as a Potential Antidiabetic Agent.

Pterostillbene (phenolic constituent) of the heartwood of P. marsupium significantly lowered the blood glucose level of hyperglycemic rats, and the effect was comparable to that of 1,1 dimethylbiguanide (metformin). An active constituent of P. marsupium, (-)-epicatechin has been reported as a potential antidiabetic agent to reverse hyperglycemia in alloxan diabetic. A flavonoid fraction (XE) extracted from the bark of p. marsupium was studied for the hypoglycaemic activity normal and alloxanised albino rats. it effectively reversed the alloxan-induced changes in the blood sugar level and the beta-cell population in the pancreas.

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An active constituent of Pterocarpus marsupium, (-)-epicatechin (1), has been reported to reverse Hyperglycemia in alloxan diabetic rats when given before or within 24 hr after the dose of alloxan. However, when doses of (-)-epicatechin are begun 92 hr after alloxan, there is no significant difference in blood glucose levels between control and (-)-epicatechin treated rats. These data suggest that, although (-)-epicatechin may protect against alloxan toxicity under certain conditions, the usefulness of (-)epicatechin appears minimal in the treatment of already established diabetic states.

Effect of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. An aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood was screened for hypoglycemic Activity on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. During both acute and sub-acute tests, the water extract, at an oral dose of 250 mg/kg, showed statistically significant hypoglycemic activity. Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and Phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of PM led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 38 and 60% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment.

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicines made from P.Marsupium

Other Action of P.Marsupium Rejuvenator Anti polyurea Cooling In skin diseases Astringent Antibacterial Anthelmintic Analgesics Carminative Digestive

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Trigonella foenum-graecum

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Fenugreek seed : Methi : Methi : Methika

Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus Species : Angiosperms : Eudicots : Fabels : Fabeceae : Trigonella : T. foenum-graecum

Parts Used: leaves, seeds

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Geographical Distribution This plant is native to India, Middle East and Mediterranean countries, northern Africa and the United States. Botanical Description Annual erecct herb containing light green leaves, pod 5-7cm, each pod contains 10-20 small hard yellowish brown cylindrical seeds. Active Antidiabetic Constituents

Name : 4- Hydroxy isoleucin M.F. : C6H13N03 M.W. : 147.17gm/mole

Name : Trigonelline M.F. : C7H8NO M.W. : 132.0 gm/mol

The seeds are rich in leucine, valine, lysine and phenylalanine. Manganese, magnesium, zinc and copper contents.

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Extraction Method 1
Extraction of Trigonelline and 4-Hydroxyisoleucine 100 g of both the Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and cultured cells (control & treated) were separately homogenized in 10 M HCl, filtered, and the acid aqueous solution was then stirred with zinc dust overnight, filtered with CH2Cl2 to yield the total alkaloids. The residues were re-dissolved in 10 ml acidulated methanol for phytochemical study and HPLC analysis. Isolation and Identification of Trigonelline and 4-Hydroxyisoleucine A preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out using thin-layer

chromatography (TLC) for detecting the presence of trigonelline and 4hydroxyisoleucine. The two major spots related to Trigonelline and 4Hydroxyisoleucine were separated by preparative TLC using CH2Cl2 - MeOH 25% NH4OH (85: 15: 2 v/v) as a solving system. Furthermore, co-chromatography (TLC & HPLC) with reference compounds was performed. Extraction Method 2 General procedure for preparation of Fenugreek extract Fenugreek seeds were air dried and ground in a grinder so that the powder could pass through a 0.8 mm mesh sieve. Fenugreek powder is then defatted with hexane at 40C for 2 h under stirring and filtered through a Whatman filter paper and dried. Defatted Fenugreek seeds are stirred with extracting solvent at 55-60 C for 1 h and filtered over Whatman filter paper Selection of solvent for defatted Fenugreek powder With water Fenugreek seeds swells and it is difficult to filter. Therefore extraction was tried with increasing methanol concentration in water. The extracts were subjected for colour development with ninhydrin and absorbance was measured.

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Antidiabetic Activity The hypoglycemic activity of a fenugreek seed extract (FSE) was studied in alloxan (AXN)-induced diabetic mice and found to be comparable to that of insulin. The mechanism by which FSE attenuated hyperglycemia was investigated in vitro. FSE stimulated glucose uptake in cells in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was shown to be mediated by the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) from the intracellular space to the plasma membrane. These effects of FSE on GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake were inhibited by (PI3-K) inhibitor.

Fenugreek is a dietary supplement that may hold promise in this regard. Insulin stimulates cellular glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissues by inducing the translocation of glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane. In the diabetic state, because of deficiency of insulin, Glut-4 translocation does not take place efficiently and Glut-4 transporters remain inside, where they are not functional. This results in decreased uptake of glucose by muscle cells, which contribute significantly to the elevated blood glucose levels. Therefore, restoration of Glut-4 will achieve norm glycaemia. In humans, fenugreek seeds exert hypoglycaemic effect by stimulating glucosedependent insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, as well as by inhibiting the activities of -amylase and sucrose. Fenugreek seeds also lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). These effects may be due to sapogenins, which increase biliary cholesterol excretion in liver, leading to lowered serum cholesterol level. The effectiveness of the antidiabetic compounds vanadate and Trigonella have been successfully used to reverse the diabetes effect on the Glut-4 transporter to normal levels in experimental diabetes.

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicines made from T.Foenum- Graceum

Other Action of Fenugreek seeds Fenugreek or Methi seeds are used in colic flatulence, dysentery, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, chronic cough and enlargement of liver and spleen, rickets, gout and diabetes. It is also used as a carminative, tonic, and aphrodisiac.

Fenugreek oil is used in the manufacture of hair tonics. Diabetes or hypoglycemia: Fenugreek reduces blood glucose levels, and in the few studies using it as a hypoglycemic, also reduces blood cholesterol. Fenugreek is often cited as a natural remedy for asthma,

Migraines. Fenugreek herb has been known to help reduce fever when taken with lemon and honey, since it nourishes the body during an illness.

Heartburn and Acid Reflux: Fenugreek seeds contain a lot of mucilage, which helps sooth gastrointestinal inflammation by coating the lining of the stomach and intestine.

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Moringa oleifera (Miracle tree)

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Drumstick tree : Sahajan : Sargavo : surajana

Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus Species : Angiosperms : Eudicots : Fabels : Moringaceae : Moringa : Moringa Oleifera

Parts Used: Leaves, Fruits

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Geographical Distribution It had spread to most part of Asia, nearly the whole of Africa, South America, southern part of North America and some pockets in Europe. Botanical Description A medium sized delicate tree with 20 25 feet height; leaves tripinnate compound; leaflets small; ovate flowers white in panicle, seeds winged white papery fruits long capsule. Active Antidiabetic Constituents

Name : Cryptochlorogenic acid M.F. : C16H18O9 M.W. : 354.30gm/mole

Name : Isoquercetin M.F. : C21H20O12 M.W. : 464.38gm/mole

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Extraction Method

Soxhlet Apparatus Methanol extract of Moringa leaves was prepared by Soxhlet method with 50 gm powder + 300 ml methanol. Leaves of Moringa oleifera were shade dried. The extract was stored in desicator for use in subsequent experiment. TLC was carried out on precoated silica gel GF254 sheets. Pure compounds, isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid, isolated and identified. Antidiabetic Activity Moringa oleifera leaves have been shown to have glucose lowering effect in studies on normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats.study showed hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rabbits respectively Such a phenomenon of less hypoglycemic response at higher doses is common with indigenous plants and has already been observed in Psidium guajava , Trichosanthes dioica , Cynodon dactylon and Cinnamomum tamala.. Phytochemical screening of Moringa oleifera extract revealed the presence of flavinoids, tannin, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides alkaloids, triterpenoids,

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

saponins, and reducing sugars. A number of investigators have shown that coumarin, flavonoid, terpenoid and a host of other secondary plant metabolites including arginine and glutamic acids posses hypoglycemic effects in various experimental animals model. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of the leaves of Moringa oleifera may be probably due to the presence of terpenoids, which appears to be involved in the stimulation of the -cells and the subsequent secretion of preformed insulin. One or more of the other chemical constituents of the plant especially flavonoid is also likely to have played a crucial role in the hypoglycemic action of the plant extract. Further studies are required to isolate and characterized the active components of the extract of this plant.

Antidiabetic Medicines made from M. Oleifera

Other Action of Moringa oleifera Appitizer Anthlemintic Hypotensive Cardiac tonic Anti ulcer

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Costus Igneus (Insulin plant)

Vernacular Information English Hindi Gujarati Sanskrit : Fiery costus : Keukand : pakarmula : pushkarmula

Scientific Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Class Order Family Genus Species : Angiosperms : Eudicots : Fabels : Costaceae : Costus : Costus igneus

Parts used : leaves, flowers

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Geographical Distribution Insulin plant is native to Southeast Asia, America specially on the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is a relatively new entrant to Kerala and India. Botanical Description The large, smooth, dark green leaves of this tropical evergreen plant have light purple undersides and are spirally arranged around stems, forming attractive, arching clumps, arising from underground root stocks (Fig .1.1). Plants reach to about two feet tall, with the tallest stems falling over and lying on the ground. Beautiful, 1.5 inch diameter, orange flowers are produced in the warm months, appearing on cone-like heads at the tip of branches. Active Antidiabetic Constituents

Name : Quercetin M.F. : C15H10O7 M.W : 302.23 gm/mole Other Beta-carotene, flavonoids, insulin precursors.

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


Extraction Method 1

The vacuum dried,concentrated EtOH extract of C.igneus was treated by acid hydrolysis to determine if any glycosides were present. The concentrates were spotted on activated TLC plates. To elute quercetin, the plates were developed with toluene : ethyl acetate : acetic acid : MeOH (2 : 7.5 : 0.25 : 0.25). The developes plates were air dried, sprayed with 20% SbCl2 in CHCl3 and dried in a chromatographic oven at 105c for 10 min. Rf value were calculated. Extraction Method 2 Solvent extraction Leaf, stem and rhizome of Costus igneus were cleaned and shade-dried. The dried each part of Costus igneus were pulverized by a mechanical grinder and passed through a 20-mesh sieve. A powdered samples (500g) were separately extracted with petroleum ether, hexane, methanol and ethanol using a soxhlet apparatus. The

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants


extraction was carried out for 24h at room temperature with mild shaking. The extracts were filtered and concentrated at 35C and it is used for further analysis.

Preparation of crude sapogenin extract Freshly harvested leaf and rhizome each weighing 50g were chopped and refluxed with 3.5M HCl (115ml) for 3h. The solution was filtered, the residue washed with water to neutrality and the filter and the residue were dried at 65-70C for overnight. The dried residue was then extracted with petroleum ether in a soxhlet apparatus for 6h and the petroleum ether extract was concentrated. The resulting solid which precipitated was filtered and dried to give the crude sapogenin extract. Antidiabetic Activity The leaves of insulin plant reduced the fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, bringing them down towards normal. Reduction in the fasting and the postprandial blood sugar levels with leaves of insulin plant was comparable with that obtained with Glibenclamide 500 g/kg at 250 mg/kg/day and 500 mg/kg/day of powdered leaves of the insulin plant. The hypoglycemic action can be due to release of insulin, insulin-sensitizing action or a combination of both. Hence further studies need to be undertaken to determine the mechanism of action by measurement of either insulin or 'C' peptide level.

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicines made from Costus igneus

Other Action Of Costus Igneus Antiviral Blood purifier

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Refrences

Dept.of Chemistry, K.S.K.V.Kachchh University

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