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A PROJECT REPORT ON ANDROID OPERATING SYSTEM AT MOBILE BASED SEARCH ENGINE (2007-2011)

Chapter-1 1.1 Introduction


Android is an software platform and operating system for mobile devices. It is based on the Linux kernel. It was developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA). It allows writing managed code in the Java language. Due to Android here is the possibility to write applications in other languages and compiling it to ARM native code. Unveiling of the Android platform was announced on 5 November 2007 with the founding of OHA. It's a consortium of several companies

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ANDROID OS MOBILE BASED SEARCH ENGINE

1.1.1 Introduction to Project Environment


OPERATING SYSTEM: An operating system (OS) is software consisting of programs and data that runs on computers and manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it.

Operating systems

Common Features:

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Process management Interrupts Memory management File system Device drivers Networking (TCP/IP, UDP) Security (Process/Memory I/o protection)

Types of Operating Systems:

Real-time Operating System:


It is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature ofbehaviour. The main object of realtime operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They either have an event-driven or a time-sharing design. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.

Multi-user and Single-user Operating Systems:


The operating systems of this type allow a multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Singleuser operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to have multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a Unix-like operatingsystem, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system.

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Multi-tasking and Single-tasking Operating Systems:


When a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under a single-tasking system, while in case the operating system allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multitasking can be of two types namely, pre-emptive or co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. MS Windows prior to Windows 95 used to support cooperative multitasking.

Distributed Operating System:


An operating system that manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer is known as a distributed operating system. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other, gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.

Embedded System:
The operating systems designed for being used in embedded computer systems are known as embedded operating systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.

Batch Processing Operating System:

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In a batch processing operating system interaction between the user and processor is limited or there is no interaction at all during the execution of work. Data and programs that need to be processed are bundled and collected as a batch and executed together.

Batch processing operating systems are ideal in situations where:


- There are large amounts of data to be processed. - Similar data needs to be processed. - Similar processing is involved when executing the data. The system is capable of identifying times when the processor is idle at which time batches Maybe processed. Processing is all performed automatically without any user intervention.

History:
In the early 1950s, a computer could execute only one program at a time. Each user had sole use of the computer and would arrive at a scheduled time with program and data on punched paper cards and tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, and the machine would be set to work until the program completed or crashed. Programs could generally be debugged via a front panel using toggle switches and panel lights. It is said thatAlan Turing was a master of this on the early Manchester Mark 1

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machine, and he was already deriving the primitive conception of an operating system from the principles of the Universal Turing machine.

Mainframes:
Through the 1950s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating systems, including batch processing, multitasking,spooling, runtime libraries, linkloading, and programs for sorting records in files. These features were included or not included in application software at the option of application programmers, rather than in a separate operating system used by all applications. In 1959 the SHARE Operating System was released as an integrated utility for the IBM 704, and later in the 709 and 7090 mainframes.

During the 1960s, IBM's OS/360 introduced the concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line, which was crucial for the success of the System/360 machines. IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system and applications written for OS/360 can still be run on modern machines. In the mid-'70s, MVS, a descendant of OS/360, offered the first implementation of using RAM as a transparent cache for data. In the late 1960s through the late 1970s, several hardware capabilities evolved that allowed similar or ported software to run on more than one system. Early systems had utilized microprogramming to implement features on their systems in order to permit different underlying architecture to appear to be the same as others in a series. In fact most 360's after the 360/40 (except the 360/165 and 360/168) were micro programmed implementations. But soon other means of achieving application compatibility were proven to be more significant. The enormous investment in software for these systems made since 1960s caused most of the original computer manufacturers to continue to develop compatible operating systems along with the hardware. The notable supported mainframe operating systems include:

Burroughs MCP B5000, 1961 to Unisys Clear path/MCP, present. IBM OS/360 IBM System/360, 1966 to IBM z/OS, present.

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IBM CP-67 IBM System/360, 1967 to IBM z/VM, present. UNIVAC EXEC 8 UNIVAC 1108, 1967, to OS 2200 Unisys Clear path Dorado, present.

Microcomputers:

PC-DOS was an early personal computer OS that featured a command line interface.

The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis; minimalistic operating systems were developed, often loaded from ROM and known as Monitors. One notable early disk-based operating system was CP/M, which was supported on many early microcomputers and was closely imitated in MS-DOS, which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's version of it was called IBM DOS or PC DOS), its successors making Microsoft.

Examples of operating systems:


Microsoft Windows

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Windows 7, shown here, is the newest release of Windows.

Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems most commonly used on personal computers. It is the most common family of operating systems for the personal computer, with about 90% of the market share. Currently, the most widely used version of the Windows family is Windows XP, released on October 25, 2001. The newest version is Windows 7 for personal computers and Windows Server 2008 R2 for servers. Windows is also used on servers, supporting applications such as web servers and database servers. In recent years, Microsoft has spent significant marketing and research & development money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application, which has resulted in consistent price/performance records (see the TPC) and significant acceptance in the enterprise market.

Android:

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Android uses Linux for its device drivers, memory management, process management, and networking. The next level up contains the Android native libraries. They are all written in C/C++ internally, but youll be calling them through Java interfaces. In this layer you can find the Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics, Media codecs, the SQL database (SQLite), and a native web browser engine (WebKit). Dalvik Virtual Machine.Dalvik runs dex files, which are coverted at compile time from standard class and jar files.

Advantages :
There are a host of advantages that Googles Android will derive from being an open

Source software:
Some of the advantages include: The ability for anyone to customize the Google Android platform The consumer will benefit from having a wide range of mobile applications to choose from since the monopoly will be broken by Google Android Men will be able to customize a mobile phones using Google Android platform like never before Features like weather details, opening screen, live RSS feeds and even the icons on the opening screen will be able to be customized As a result of many mobile phones carrying Google Android, companies will come up with such innovative products like the location In addition the entertainment functionalities will be taken a notch higher by Google Android being able to offer online real time multiplayer games

1.1.2Introduction to Databases
Database

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A database is a system intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. It consists of an organized collection of data for one or more uses, typically in digital form. One way of classifying databases involves the type of their contents, for example: bibliographic, document-text, statistical. Digital databases are managed using database management systems, which store database contents, allowing data creation and maintenance, and search and other access.

Architecture:
Database architecture consists of three levels, external, conceptual and internal. Clearly separating the three levels was a major feature of the relational database model that dominates 21st century databases. The external level defines how users understand the organization of the data. A single database can have any number of views at the external level. The internal level defines how the data is physically stored and processed by the computing system. Internal architecture is concerned with cost, performance, scalability and other operational matters. The conceptual is a level of indirection between internal and external. It provides a common view of the database that is uncomplicated by details of how the data is stored or managed, and that can unify the various external views into a coherent whole.

Database management systems:


A database management system (DBMS) consists of software that operates databases, providing storage, access, security, backup and other facilities. Database management systems can be categorized according to the database model that they support, such as relational or XML, the type(s) of computer they support, such as a server cluster or a mobile phone, the query language(s) that access the database, such as SQL or XQuery, performance trade-offs, such as maximum scale or maximum speed or others. Some DBMS cover more than one entry in these categories, e.g., supporting multiple query languages. Examples of some commonly used DBMS are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft Access, SQLServer, FileMaker, Oracle, Sybase, dBase, Clipper, FoxPro etc. Almost every database software comes with an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver that allows the database to integrate with other databases.
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Components of DBMS:
Most DBMS as of 2009 implement a relational model. Other DBMS systems, such as Object DBMS, offer specific features for more specialized requirements. Their components are similar, but not identical.

RDBMScomponents:

Sublanguages Relational

DBMS (RDBMS)

include Data

Definition

Language (DDL) for defining the structure of the database, Data Control Language (DCL) for defining security/access controls, and Data Manipulation Language (DML) for querying and updating data.

Interface drivers:-These drivers are code libraries that provide methods to prepare statements,execute statements, fetch results, etc. Examples

include ODBC, JDBC, MySQL/PHP, FireBird/Python.

SQL

engine:-This

component

interprets

and

executes

the DDL, DCL,

and DML statements. It includes three major components (compiler, optimizer, and executor).

Transaction engine:-Ensures that multiple SQL statements either succeed or fail as a group, according to application dictates.

Relational engine:-Relational objects such as Table, Index, and Referential integrity constraints are implemented in this component.

Storage engine:-This component stores and retrieves data from secondary storage, as well as managing transaction commit and rollback, backup and recovery, etc.

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ODBMScomponents:
Object DBMS (ODBMS) has transaction and storage components that are analogous to those in an RDBMS. Some DBMS handle DDL, DML and update tasks differently. Instead of using sublanguages, they provide APIs for these purposes. They typically include a sublanguage and accompanying engine for processing queries with interpretive statements analogous to but not the same as SQL. Example object query languages are OQL, LINQ, JDOQL, JPAQL and others. The query engine returns collections of objects instead of relational rows.

Types:
Operational database:
These databases store detailed data about the operations of an organization. They are typically organized by subject matter, process relatively high volumes of updates using transactions. Essentially every major organization on earth uses such databases. Examples include customer databases that record contact, credit, and demographic information about a business' customers, personnel databases that hold information such as salary, benefits, skills data about employees, Enterprise resource planning that record details about product components, parts inventory, and financial databases that keep track of the organization's money, accounting and financial dealings.

Data warehouse:
Data warehouses archive modern data from operational databases and often from external sources such as market research firms. Often operational data undergoes transformation on its way into the warehouse, getting summarized, anonymized, reclassified, etc. The warehouse becomes the central source of data for use by managers and other end-users who may not have access to operational data. For example, sales data might be aggregated to weekly totals and converted from internal product codes to

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use UPC codes so that it can be compared with ACNielsen data.Some basic and essential components of data warehousing include retrieving and analyzing data, transforming,loading and managing data so as to make it available for further use. Operations in a data warehouse are typically concerned with bulk data manipulation, and as such, it is unusual and inefficient to target individual rows for update, insert or delete. Bulk native loaders for input data and bulk SQL passes for aggregation are the norm.

Analytical database:
Analysts may do their work directly against a data warehouse or create a separate analytic database for Online Analytical Processing. For example, a company might extract sales records for analyzing the effectiveness of advertising and other sales promotions at an aggregate level.

Distributed database:
These are databases of local work-groups and departments at regional offices, branch offices, manufacturing plants and other work sites. These databases can include segments of both common operational and common user databases, as well as data generated and used only at a users own site.

End-user database:
These databases consist of data developed by individual end-users. Examples of these are collections of documents in spreadsheets, word processing and downloaded files, even managing their personal baseball card collection.

External database:
These databases contain data collected for use across multiple organizations, either freely or via subscription. The Internet Movie Database is one example.

Hypermedia databases:
The World Wide Web can be thought of as a database, albeit one spread across millions of independent computing systems. Web browsers "process" this data one page at a time, while web crawlers and other software provide the equivalent of database indexes to support search and other activities.
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Models:
Post-relational database models:
Products offering a more general data model than the relational model are sometimes classified as post-relational Alternate terms include "hybrid database", "Object-enhanced RDBMS" and others. The data model in such products incorporates relations but is not constrained by E.F. Codd's Information Principle, which requires that all information in the database must be cast explicitly in terms of values in relations and in no other way some of these extensions to the relational model integrate concepts from technologies that pre-date the relational model. For example, they allow representation of a directed graph with trees on the nodes. Some post-relational products extend relational systems with non-relational features. Others arrived in much the same place by adding relational features to prerelational systems. Paradoxically, this allows products that are historically prerelational, such as PICK and MUMPS, to make a plausible claim to be post-relational.

Database Developer:
Our Database Programmers are skilled at software designing applications and developing with relational

databases. MS SQL Server, MySQL and Oracle is our specialisation. Our Database Specialists have worked in diverse fields like e-commerce applications, internet banking portals, large community website with role based access, social networking applications with multi-server deployment and software architecture designed to support high loads.We design dynamic websites, e-commerce sites, and a wide

variety of web applications and Internet database solutions for a wide range of businesses. We take pride in offering quick, effective and inexpensive ecommerce
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database solutions. Our Technical Database Developer team has vast experience in Database Application Development, setting up and using different databases, from small and fast MySQL, used for small projects, to huge and efficient Oracle database servers with complex structure. Our team with strong database management background and PL SQL programming experience is able to work for your business projects & ongoing maintenance / development requirements. We provide skilled resources working offsite, with a variety of experience in Oracle Solutions.

Our skilled team have confident hands & expertise on:

Oracle MS SQL Server My SQL MS Access

Object database models:


In recent years, the object-oriented paradigm has been applied in areas such as engineering and spatial databases, telecommunications and in various scientific domains. The conglomeration of object oriented programming and database technology led to this new kind of database. These databases attempt to bring the database world and the application-programming world closer together, in particular by ensuring that the database uses the same type system as the application program. This aims to avoid the overhead (sometimes referred to as the impedance mismatch) of converting information between its representation in the database (for example as rows in tables) and its representation in the application program (typically as objects). At the same time, object databases attempt to introduce key ideas of object programming, such as encapsulation and polymorphism, into the world of databases. A variety of these ways have been triedfor storing objects in a database. Some products have approached the problem from the application-programming side, by making the objects manipulated by the program persistent. This also typically requires the addition of some kind of query language, since conventional programming languages do not provide language-level functionality for finding objects based on their
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information content. Othershave attacked the problem from the database end, by defining an object-oriented data model for the database, and defining a database programming language that allows full programming capabilities as well as traditional query facilities.

Storage structures:
Databases may store relational tables/indexes in memory or on hard disk in one of many forms:

ordered/unordered flat files ISAM heaps hash buckets logically-blocked files Fractal Tree indexes B+ trees

The most commonly usedare B+ trees and ISAM. Object databases use a range of storage mechanisms. Some use virtual memorymapped files to make the native language (C++, Java etc.) objects persistent. This can be highly efficient but it can make multi-language access more difficult. Others disassemble objects into fixed- and varying-length components that are then clustered in fixed sized blocks on disk and reassembled into the appropriate format on either the client or server address space. Another popular technique involves storing the objects in

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tuples (much like a relational database) which the database server then reassembles into objects for the client. Other techniques include clustering by category (such as grouping data by month, or location), storing pre-computed query results, known as materialized views, partitioning data by range (e.g., a data range) or by hash. Memory management and storage topology can be important design choices for database designers as well. Just as normalization is used to reduce storage requirements and improve database designs, conversely renormalizations are often used to reduce join complexity and reduce query execution time.

Indexing:
Indexing is a technique for improving database performance. The many types of index share the common property that they eliminate the need to examine every entry when running a query. In large databases, this can reduce query time/cost by orders of magnitude. The simplest form of index is a sorted list of values that can be searched using a binary search with an adjacent reference to the location of the entry, analogous to the index in the back of a book. The same data can have multiple indexes (an employee database could be indexed by last name and hire date.) Indexes affect performance, but not results. Database designers can add or remove indexes without changing application logic, reducing maintenance costs as the database grows and database usage evolves.

CHAPTER 2 SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS


The selection of hardware is very important in the existence and proper working of any software. When selecting hardware, the size and requirements are also important.

2.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

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Processor RAM Hard Disk Drive Mobile

: : : :

INTEL Pentium 4 512MB 40GB Android Mobile

2.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS


Operating system Web Browser Front- End Back- End : WindowsXp or any latest version of windows : Mozilla Firefox or any browser : PHP, Flex : MS SQL SERVER 2008 EXPRESS

Project will be done in PHP,Flex as front end and MySQL as back end. Php is a Hypertext Preprocessor (a recursive acronym, originally personal home page) is a general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. As a general-purpose programming language, PHP code is processed by an interpreter application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as a graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web servers and as a standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms. Flex is used to show the front-end screens on the mobile based on the inputs provided by PHP

CHAPTER-3

3 Literature Survey/Review of Literature 3.1 Introduction to Technologies


Technology is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or serve some purpose. The

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word technology comes from the Greek technological tchn an "art", "skill" or "craft" and -logia the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology. 3.1.1 JAVA: Java technology is an object-oriented, platform-independent, multithreaded programming environment. Java technology is both a programming language and a platform. The Java programming language is a high-level language that can be characterized by all of the following buzzwords: Java is Simple Object oriented Distributed Multithreaded Dynamic Architecture neutral Portable High performance Robust Secure developed by James Gosling at Sun

a programming

language originally

Microsystems (which is now a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-

level facilities. Java applications are typically compiled tobytecode (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere". Java is currently one of the most popular programming languages in use, and is widely used from application software to web applications.

Automatic memory management:


Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. The programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use. Once no references to an

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object remain, the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by the garbage collector. Something similar to a memory leak may still occur if a programmer's code holds a reference to an object that is no longer needed, typically when objects that are no longer needed are stored in containers that are still in use. If methods for a nonexistent object are called, a "null pointer exception" is thrown.

Syntax:
The syntax of Java is largely derived from C++. Unlike C++, which combines the syntax for structured, generic, and object-oriented programming, Java was built almost exclusively as an object-oriented language. All code is written inside a class, and everything is an object, with the exception of the primitive data types (integers, floating-point numbers, boolean values, and characters), which are not classes for performance reasons. Java uses similar commenting methods to C++. There are three different styles of comment: a single line style marked with two slashes (//), a multiple line style opened with a slash asterisk (/*) and closed with an asterisk slash (*/), and theJavadoc commenting style opened with a slash and two asterisks (/**) and closed with an asterisk slash (*/). The Javadoc style of commenting allows the user to run the Javadoc executable to compile documentation for the program. Example: publicclassHelloWorld { publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Hello, world!"); } }

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Editions:
Sun has defined and supports four editions of Java targeting different application environments and segmented many of its APIs so that they belong to one of the platforms. The platforms are:

Java Card for smartcards. Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) targeting environments with limited resources. Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) targeting workstation environments. Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) targeting large distributed enterprise or Internet environment.

3.1.2 XML:

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications, all gratis open standards.

XML's design goals emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the world. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example in web services.

Key terminology:

The material in this section is based on the XML Specification. This is not an exhaustive list of all the constructs which appear in XML; it provides an introduction to the key constructs most often encountered in day-to-day use.

Character:

By definition, an XML document is a string of characters. Almost every legal Unicode character may appear in an XML document.

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Processor and Application:


The processor analyzes the markup and passes structured information to an application. The specification places requirements on what an XML processor must do and not do, but the application is outside its scope. The processor (as the specification calls it) is often referred to colloquially as an XML parser.

Markup and Content:


The characters which make up an XML document are divided into markup and content. Markup and content may be distinguished by the application of simple syntactic rules. All strings which constitute markup either begin with the character "<" and end with a ">", or begin with the character "&" and end with a ";". Strings of characters which are not markup are content.

Tag:
A markup construct that begins with "<" and ends with ">". Tags come in three flavors: start-tags, for example <section>, end-tags, for example </section>, and empty-element tags, for example <line-break />.

Element:
A logical component of a document which either begins with a start-tag and ends with a matching end-tag, or consists only of an empty-element tag. The characters between the start- and end-tags, if any, are theelement's content, and may contain markup, including other elements, which are called child elements. An example for child elemen is <Greeting>Hello, world.</Greeting> Another is <line-break />.

Attribute:
A markup construct consisting of a name/value pair that exists within a start-tag or empty-tag element tag.In the example (belowthe element img has two attributes, src and alt:<img src="madonna.jpg" alt='Foligno Madonna, by Raphael' />. Another example would be <step number="3">Connect A to B.</step> where the name

of the attribute is "number" and the value is "3".

XML Declaration:
XML documents may begin by declaring some information about themselves, as in the following example.

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<? xmlversion="1.0"encoding="UTF-8"?> 3.1.3 HTML: HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. HTML is the basic building-blocks of webpages.

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language A markup language is a set of markup tags HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages

The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visual or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page. HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used tocreate interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML webpages. Web browsers can also refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicitly presentational HTML markup consists of a series of short codes typed into a text-file by the site author these are the tags. The text is then saved as a html file, and viewed through a browser, like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. This browser reads the file and translates the text into a visible form, hopefully rendering the page as the author had intended. Writing your own HTML entails using tags correctly to create your vision. You can use anything from a rudimentary texteditor to a powerful graphical editor to create HTML pages.

HTML Tags:
HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags

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HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html> HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags

Markup:
HTML markup consists of several key components, including elements (and their attributes), character-based data types, character references and entity references. Another important component is the document type declaration, which

triggers standards mode rendering. <! doctype html> <html> <head> <title>Hello HTML</title> </head> <body> <p>Hello World!</p> </body></html>

Elements
HTML documents are composed entirely of HTML elements that, in their most general form have three components: a pair of element tags, a "start tag" and "end tag"; some element attributes within the start tag; and finally, any textual and

graphical content between the start and end tags. The HTML element is everything between and including the tags. Each tag is enclosed in angle brackets. The general form of an HTML element is therefore: <tag attribute1="value1"
attribute2="value2">content to be rendered</tag>

3.1.4 MySQL:

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Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Preview release Written in Operating system Available in Type License

MySQL AB (A subsidiary of Oracle) May 23, 1995 5.5.9 (February 7, 2011; 33 days ago) [+/]
[+/]

C, C++ Cross-platform English RDBMS GNUGeneral License Public

MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. It is named after developer Michael Widenius' daughter, my. The SQL phrase stands for Structured Query Language. The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation. Free-software projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL. For commercial use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality. Some free software project examples: Joomla, WordPress, MyBB, phpBB, Drupal and other software built on the LAMP software stack. MySQL

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is also used in many high-profile, large-scale World Wide Web products, including Wikipedia, Google and Face book.

Uses:
MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central component of the widely used LAMP web application software stackLAMP is an acronym for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python". MySQL is used in some of the most frequently visited web sites on the Internet, including Flicker,Nokia.com, YouTube and as previously mentioned; Wikipedia, Google and Face book.

Platforms and interfaces:


MySQL is written in C and C++. Its SQL parser is written in yacc, and a homebrewed lexical analyzer named sql_lex.cc. MySQL works on many different system platforms, including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, eComStation, i5/OS, IRIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, OS/2 Warp, QNX, Solaris, Symbian, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare, Sanos and Tru64. A port of MySQL to OpenVMS also exists. Many programming languages with language-specific APIs include libraries for accessing MySQL databases. These include MySQL Connector/Net for integration with Microsoft's Visual Studio (languages such as C# and VB are most commonly used) and the ODBC driver for Java. In addition, an ODBC interface called MyODBC allows additional programming languages that support the ODBC interface to communicate with a MySQL database, such as ASP or ColdFusion. The HTSQL - URL based query method also ships with a MySQL adapter, allowing direct interaction between a MySQL database and any web client via structured URLs. The MySQL server and official libraries are mostly implemented in ANSI C/ANSI C++.

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Features:

For storing historical data in little space) Transactions with the InnoDB, BDB and Cluster storage engines; save points with InnoDBSSL support As of April 2009, MySQL offered MySQL 5.1 in two different variants: the open source MySQL Community Server and the commercial Enterprise Server. MySQL 5.5 is offered under the same licences. They have a common code base and include the following features:

A broad subset of ANSI SQL 99, as well as extensions Cross-platform support Stored procedures Triggers Cursors Updatable Views True Varchar support Information schema Strict mode X/Open XAdistributed transaction processing (DTP) support; two phase commit as part of this, using Oracle's InnoDB engine

Independent storage engines (MyISAM for read speed, InnoDB for transactions and referential integrity, MySQL Archive

Query caching Sub-SELECTs (i.e. nested SELECTs) Replication support (i.e. Master-Master Replication & Master-Slave

Replication) with one master per slave, many slaves per master, no automatic support for multiple masters per slave.

Full-text indexing and searching using MyISAM engine Embedded database library

3.1.5 PHP:
Hypertext Pre-processor (a recursive acronym, originally personal home page) is a general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web

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development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. As a general-purpose programming language, PHP code is processed byan interpreter application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as a graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web servers and as a standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms.

Usage:
</body> </html> PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to serversideweb development where PHP generally runs on a web server. Any PHP code in a requested file is executed by the PHP runtime, usually to create dynamic web pagecontent. It can also be used for command-line scripting and clientsideGUIapplications. PHP can be deployed on most web servers, many operating systems and platforms, and can be used with many relational database management systems (RDBMS). It is available free of charge, and the PHP Group provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their own use. Originally designed to create dynamic web pages, PHP now focuses mainly on server-side scripting, and it is similar to other server-side scripting languages that provide dynamic content from a web server to a client, such as Microsoft's Asp.net, Sun Microsystems' Java Server Pages, and mod_perl. PHP has also attracted the development of many frameworks that provide building blocks and a design structure to promote rapid application development (RAD).

Syntax : Main article: PHP syntax and semantics

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<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta charset="utf-8" /> <title>PHP Test</title> </head> <body> <?php echo 'Hello World'; ?

3.1.6Adobe Flex

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Adobe Flex is a software development kit (SDK) released by Adobe Systems for the development and deployment of cross-platform rich Internet applications based on the Adobe Flash platform. Flex applications can be written using Adobe Flash Builder or by using the freely available Flex compiler from Adobe. The release in March 2004 by Macromedia included an SDK, an integrated development environment (IDE), and a Java EE integration application known as Flex Data Services. Since Adobe purchased Macromedia in 2005, subsequent releases of Flex no longer require a license for Flex Data Services, which has become a separate product rebranded as Lifecycle Data Services. Adobe Flash Builder offers built-in code editors for MXML and Action Script and a WYSIWYG editor for modifying MXML applications. Adobe Flash Builder includes an interactive debugger allowing developers to step through code execution while inspecting variables and watching expressions. Flex Builder 3 added support for performanceanalysis. The profiling view displays statistical information about memory use in addition to function call execution time.

Application Development Process


Define an application interface using a set of pre-defined components (forms, buttons, and so on) Arrange components into a user interface design Use styles and themes to define the visual design Add dynamic behavior (one part of the application interacting with another, for example) Define and connect to data services as needed

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Chapter-4 Software Requirement Analysis


4.1 DEFINITION:
System Analysis is the detailed study of the various operations performed by the system and their relationships within and outside the system. Analysis is the process of breaking something into its parts so that the whole may be understood. System analysis is concerned with becoming aware of the problem, identifying the relevant and most decisional variables, analysing and synthesizing the various factors and determining an optimal or at least a satisfactory solution. During this a problem is identified, alternate system solutions are studied and recommendations are made about committing the resources used to design the system.

4.1.1 CurrentSystem:

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Traditional studies on the reliability of software focus on functional failures, and do not emphasize the time-related behaviour of systems that can also cause the software to fail. The ability to meet deadlines and time constraints is critical to embedded systems software (as in automotive or robotic applications) that mandate response to stimuli within respecified real-time design specifications, and reliability considerations require a detailed evaluation of the ability of the system to meet these specifications.

4.1.2 Proposed system


If there is one area of certain growth in these troubled economic times, it is the mobile communications sector. And with significant improvements having emerged over the last few years in vital areas such as data transfer speed, screens and content, mobile devices are starting to challenge the PC as an Internet access device of choice. This in turn has raised a key issue in the Mobile Internet space: that of the optimization of sites for mobile devices and search engines. It's all very well delivering a repackaged version of a standard web site to mobile devices, and most of the presentational challenges this raises have been addressed one way or another. But the fact remains that mobile Internet usage diverges from traditional usage in a number of important ways. The failure of content publishers to understand the implications of these differences for content can only lead to substandard mobile sites that run the risk of providing irrelevant material and poor usability. This in turn results in an impoverished mobile Internet experience for users, which impacts take-up and slows down the whole cycle.

It is clearly very much in the interests of content publishers to optimize their sites not just for the mobile user, but also the mobile search engine. This is particularly important when the site contains information of particular relevance to the mobile sector. Mobile Searching is different The first thing developers need to bear in mind is that there are real differences in the way mobile users tend to search compared with standard desktop-based searching. For example, there are differences in the type of content that mobile users tend to seek out. This content is far more likely to involve an area that fulfills some immediate

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requirement, such as music or a ringtone, a navigational query, or an entertainmentrelated question.

In fact, research has suggested that around 50% of search queries from mobile phones tend to fall into just seven key categories: the above three, plus sports, local knowledge, shopping, and reference. Clearly any publisher who deals in one or more of these kinds of data - probably most of them - needs to consider the likelihood that a significant proportion of the site's potential audience could be mobile-based and optimize accordingly. Another limiting factor that developers should consider is the impact of the form factor of a typical mobile device on how it is used. This can express itself in any number of ways; for example, it is common knowledge that few users navigate beyond the first couple of pages of search results for any given query. If they haven't found what they are looking for by the end of page two they will tend to rephrase the query and start over.

In a standard desktop search environment, which typically returns ten or so results per page, this means that while a front page search ranking is preferable, a top twenty ranking is generally regarded as satisfactory. On a mobile device with its tiny screen, two pages might only include eight search results. This puts an additional premium on search engine ranking for which webmasters need to account.

A third point to consider is that mobile search queries tend to be extremely short, containing fewer keywords on average than their desktop-based counterparts. Data provided by Massachusetts-based mobile search solution provider JumpTap suggests that the average desktop search contains something between two and three keywords, whereas less than 15% of all searches carried out from mobile devices contain more than two keywords. The onus is on publishers to take account of this by ensuring their content is highly focused, relevant, and preferably identifiable by a single keyword.

4.1.3 Feasibility studies:


A feasibility study describes whether or not the proposed system is worthwhile
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A short focused study that checks If the system contributes to organizational objectives. If the system can be engineered using technology and within budget. If the system can be integrated with other systems that are used.

Facts considered in the feasibility analysis were. Technical Feasibility Economic Feasibility Behavioural Feasibility

Technology and system feasibility


The assessment is based on an outline design of system requirements in terms of Input, Processes, Output, Fields, Programs, and Procedures. This can be quantified in terms of volumes of data, trends, frequency of updating, etc. in order to estimate whether the new system will perform adequately or not. Considering our project if is technically feasible. Mobile based search Engine App using Android which is a latest idea and the mobile applications here are developed in the Adobe flash builder burrito which contains all SDKs of the Android OS and supports android applications. This software is technically well and high in performance. It has got many features like buttons, layouts, designs etc.,

Economic feasibility:
Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a new system. More commonly known as cost/benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs. If benefits outweigh costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system. Considering our project the android is one of the best operating system in mobile phones used to develop the applications which runs on the mobile platform, which serves people a good scope of development in the software field and also it attracts the users. Android mobiles weigh low cost then i-Phones and other mobile operating system. Low cost easy access to the internet with sear ch engine Apps and fast fetching results now within your mobile.

Operational feasibility
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Operational feasibility is a measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems, and takes advantage of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it satisfies the requirements identified in the requirements analysis phase of system development. Proposed system here is being developed in the Adobe Flash Builder Burrito which is the latest version of Adobe which supports android applications. Adobe Flash Builder (previously known as Adobe Flex Builder) is an integrated development environment (IDE) built on the Eclipse platform and speeds development of rich Internet applications (RIAs) and platform desktop, particularly for the Adobe Flash platform. Adobe Flash Builder offers built-in code editors for MXML and Action Script and a WYSIWYG editor for modifying MXML applications. Adobe Flash Builder includes an interactive debugger allowing developers to step through code execution while inspecting variables and watching expressions. Flex Builder 3 added support for performance analysis.

4.1.4 MODULES
USER MODULE This module will maintain all the users using this application. Generally there are two types of user. Users Administrator

SEARCH MODULE a. Integrate global (web) search into your application. b. Enable your application c. Tie into the quick search box

DATABASE MODULES

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This module maintains the list of files uploaded by the user. Administrator can remove any file that on complain from any user.

4.2.1 Search Engine:


A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web and FTP servers. The search results are generally presented in a list of results and are often called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.

Crawler Architecture:

High-level architecture of a standard Web crawler

A Web crawler is a computer program that browses the World Wide Web in a methodical, automated manner or in an orderly fashion. Other terms for Web crawlers

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are ants, automatic indexers, bots, Web spiders, Web robots, orespecially in the FOAF communityWeb scutters. This process is called Web crawling or spidering. Many sites, in particular search engines, use spidering as a means of providing up-to-date data. Web crawlers are mainly usedto create a copy of all the visited pages for later processing by a search engine that will index the downloaded pages to provide fast searches. Crawlers can also be used for automating maintenance tasks on a Web site, such as checking links or validating HTML code.

Focused crawling:
The importance of a page for a crawler can also be expressed as a function of the similarity of a page to a given query. Web crawlers that attempt to download pages that are similar to each other are called focused crawler or topical crawlers. The concepts of topical and focused crawling were first introduced by Menczer and by Chakrabarti. The main problem in focused crawling is that in the context of a Web crawler, we would like to be able to predict the similarity of the text of a given page to the query before actually downloading the page. A possible predictor is the anchor text of links; this was the approach taken by Pinkerton in a crawler developed in the early days of the Web. Propose to use the complete content of the pages already visited to infer the similarity between the driving query and the pages that have not been visited yet. The performance of a focused crawling depends mostly on the richness of links in the specific topic being searched, and a focused crawling usually relies on a general Web search engine for providing starting points.

URL normalization
Crawlers usually perform some type of URL normalization in order to avoid crawling the same resource more than once. The term URL normalization, also called URL canonicalization, refers to the process of modifying and standardizing a URL in a consistent manner. There are several types of normalization that may be performed including conversion of URLs to lowercase, removal of "." and ".." segments, and adding trailing slashes to the non-empty path component.

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Parallelization policy
A parallel crawler is a crawler that runs multiple processes in parallel. The goal is to maximize the download rate while minimizing the overhead from parallelization and to avoid repeated downloads of the same page. To avoid downloading the same page more than once, the crawling system requires a policy for assigning the new URLs discovered during the crawling process, as the same URL can be found by two different crawling processes.

4.3Search Engine Optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or Un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. In general, the earlier (or higher on the page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. This gives a website web presence. As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for, the actual search terms typed into search engines and
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which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic. The initialism "SEO" can refer to "search engine optimizers," a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients, and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content, SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design.

4.4 Mobile Search Engine Mobile search is an evolving branch of information retrieval services that is centered on the convergence of mobile platforms and mobile phones and other mobile devices. Web search engine ability in a mobile form allows users to find mobile content on websites which are available to mobile devices on mobile networks.

FIG 4.4

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As this happens mobile content shows a media shift toward mobile multimedia. Simply put, mobile search is not just a spatial shift of PC web search to mobile equipment, but is witnessing more of treelike branching into specialized segments of mobile broadband and mobile content, both of which show a fastpaced evolution.

4.4.1 Types of mobile search


Mobile optimized search engines - Most major search engines have implemented a mobile optimized version of their products that take into consideration bandwidth and form factor limitations of the mobile platform. Mobile question and answer services - These services allow a user to text a question to a central database and receive a reply using text. A usage example would be a user that wants to know the answer to a very specific question but is not in front of his/her computer. Mobile navigation services - These services provide the indexing structure to the portals provided by mobile operators. They index the content already on the operators' portal but alsoprovideusers access to mobile specific content that is available outside the confines of the portal.

Mobile directory search - This service is known by different names dependent on country and operator. It can also be known as 'Find My Nearest' or 'Mobile Yellow Pages' services. The basics of the services allow users to find local services in the vicinity of their current location.

Dynamic Mobile Selection Interface Services - A new category of mobile search tool that is emerging is one in which a pre-selected set of possible search content is downloaded in advance by a mobile user and then allows for a final internet search step.

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FIG 4.4.1

4.4.2 Top 5 mobile search engines:


Google Mobile:
It starts out a bit confusing: When you first come to Google Mobile, you find no search box. Instead, Google pushes apps and a huge number of services. Click Web for web search. The search results are based on the principle of universal search: You get images, news, maps and more, depending on your query.

Taptu:
Taptu is not as advanced as Google, but in most cases, it will provide just what you need. This is a service that is tailored specifically for touch screens and it does a great job at simplifying web search on touch phones.

Yahoo! Mobile:
Yahoo! Mobile offers much of the tools Google Mobile does (there is no speech search, though). In addition, there is a list of hot topics on the front page and easy access to turn on and off safe search.

Bing Mobile:
Bing Mobile has a smart design which makes searching easy: There are quick links to directions, maps, weather and movies on the front page. The search results are not universal (like Google and Taptu), but tabs provide easy access to results in the categories videos, images and news.

Ask Mobile:

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I am generally a big fan of Ask, but Ask Mobile is not too impressive. The front page has convenient quick links to web, images, news, local and maps & directions. The search results are easy to navigate.

CHAPTER-5

5.1 E-R Schema

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FIG 5.1

Here is the backend schema, which contains the tables which we are using in the database. The data will be added in the data and will be arranged in the tables. Here we are using PHPMYADMIN to create our database. This usually gives access from Xamppwhich acts as a server in the local host. Our database name here is mobilesearchengine.

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FIG 5.1.1

Here the admin has HAS A relation with the users, organization, jobs. These tables contain their respective fields.

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5.2 UML diagrams


5.2.1 USE CASE DIAGRAM
Use case diagrams are central to modeling the behavior of a system, a sub-system, or a class. Each one shows a set of use cases, actors and their relationships. In the below diagram we there are two actors (user and administrator) and 8 use case. The relationship between actor and the case is association. Here the user is associated with 7 cases and the administrator is associated with 5 cases.

FIG:5.2.1 USE CASE DIAGRAM

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FIG 5.2.1 USE CASE DIAGRAM

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5.2.2 CLASS DIAGRAM


A class diagram shows a set of classes, interfaces, collaborations and their relationships. In this application there are 5 main classes (application, user, administrator and services). All the classes specify their attributes and operations and their relationship with other classes. Application class has association relationship with user and administrator, this mean user and administrator are related to application class because they use it. Services class is part of application class so they relationship is aggregation (has-a).

FIG 5.2.2 CLASS DIAGRAM

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5.2.3OBJECT DIAGRAM
An Object diagram focuses on some particular set of object instances and attributes, and the links between the instances. Here there are four objects application, services, user and administrator. Services are a part of application so users who are connected to application are finally using the services. Therefore user and administrator are connected to the services object.

FIG .5.2.3 OBJECT DIAGRAM

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5.2.4 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM


A sequence diagram emphasizes the time ordering of the messages. In the below diagram it is shown that any new user has to register/ login with the website, then only they can use services (like SMS, upload, download) of the website. They have to register for alerts at the website and then the administrator can send alerts to them regularly. They can contact the admin and can expect a reply to their message. On the other had the admin can view users delete them, monitor the files being uploaded, basically the admin has full access to the website. After using the services provided by the website, the user can logout.

FIG 5.2.4 SEQUENTIAL DIAGRAM

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5.2.5COLLABORATION DIAGRAM A collaboration diagram describes interactions among objects in terms of sequenced messages. Here collaboration diagram is another representation of sequence diagram. In the below diagram arrows represent the functions provided by one object to another.

FIG 5.2.5 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM

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5.2.6 CONTROL FLOW DIAGRAM


Activity diagrams are graphical representations of workflows of stepwise activities and actions with support for choice, iteration and concurrency. In this system user first registers/log in but this will be validated by the application. Before display any profile to the user the application will check the credentials once again. User has to user the application to send messages to mobile phones. The user has to subscribe for alerts for receiving alerts from the website (which will be sent from the admin of the website). Any changes in user data will be processed by the application and finally the user can Logout from the page

FIG 5.2.6 CONTROL FLOW DIAGRAM

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5.3 TABLE SPECIFICATION


Table Name: Admin Field name Username Password Data type Varchar Varchar Size 50 10

Table Name: Users Field Name User_id Name Email_id password Gender Qualification Experience Salary Current_organization Current_location Image Data type Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Size 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

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Table Name: jobs Field Name Job_id Job_title Job_description Company_id Location salary experience Shift gender Data Type Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar varchar varchar varchar Size 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

Table Name: Organization Field Name org_name Varchar org_imag Varchar location Varchar strength 50 50 50 Data Type Varchar Size 50

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CHAPTER 6 6.1 Coding /Code Templates


Searching a Job <form action="orgsearch.php" method="post" accept-charset="utf-8"> <fieldset> <legend align="center"><span><h3>Admin Login</h3></span></legend> <br><br><br> <table border="0" width="100%" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"> <tr> <td width="45%" align="right">Search</td> <td width="2%" align="center">:</td> <td width="53%"><input value="" type="text" name="keyword"></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="3" align="center"><br> <input value="Go" type="submit"> </td> </tr> </table> <br><br><br> </fieldset> </form>

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Adding Jobs
<form action="componentdb.php" method="post" name="f7" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <fieldset> <strong><center> <u>COMPONENT DETAILS</u></center></strong><br /> <center> <strong>Component Type:</strong> <select name="ct1"> <option value="0">Image</option> <option value="1">video</option> </select><br /><br /> <strong>Component Name:</strong> <select name="cn1"> <option value="0">2Dimage</option> <option value="1">3Dimage</option> </select><br /><br /> <strong>Upload File:</strong><input type="file" name="f1" /><br /><br />

<strong>Component properties:</strong> Imageformat:<select name="cpp1"> <option value="0"></option> <option value="1">JPEG</option> <option value="2">gif</option> <option value="2">png</option> <option value="4">pjpeg</option> </select><br /><br /> Dimensions:<select name="cpp2"> <option value="0"></option> <option value="1">640*480</option> <option value="2">1024*768</option> <option value="3">1275*1024</option>

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<option value="4">1600*900</option> </select><br /><br /> video format:<select name="cpp3"> <option value="0"></option> <option value="1">.avi</option> <option value="2">.mp4</option> <option value="3">.mkv</option> <option value="4">.wmv</option> </select><br /><br />

<strong>component description:</strong> <textarea rows="2" cols="20" name="cd1"> this is image/video </textarea><br /><br /> <br /><br /> <input type="submit" value="Submit" /></center> </fieldset> </form>

Inserting values into the database


<?php include '../lib/db.php'; $_FILES['f1']['type']; if ((($_FILES["f1"]["type"] == "image/gif") || ($_FILES["f1"]["type"] == "image/jpeg") || ($_FILES["f1"]["type"] == "image/pjpeg"))) { move_uploaded_file($_FILES['f1']['tmp_name'],'../uploads/components/'.$_FIL ES['f1']['name']); $name=$_POST['cn1']; $type=$_POST['ct1']; $image=$_FILES['f1']['name']; $imageformat=$_POST['cpp1'];

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$dimensions=$_POST['cpp2']; $videoformat=$_POST['cpp3']; $description=$_POST['cd1']; $e="insert into component

values('','$type','$name','$image','$imageformat','$dimensions','$videoformat','$d escription')"; mysql_query($e); header('location:component.php'); } else { echo "Invalid file extension";}?>

View Jobs
<table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0> <trcolspan=2> <td><input type="checkbox" name="r2" /></td> <td width="200"><strong>Componenttype</strong></td> <td width="200"><strong>Componentname</strong></td> <td width="200"><strong>Image</strong></td> <td width="200"><strong>Properties</strong></td> <td width="200"><strong>Description</strong></td> </tr> <?php include '../lib/db.php'; $sql="select * from component;"; $x=mysql_query($sql); while($row=mysql_fetch_array($x)) { ?> <trcolspan=2> <td width="200"><input type="checkbox" name="r1" /></td> <td width="200"><?php echo $row['type']?></td>

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<td width="200"><?php echo $row['name']?></td> <td width="200"><?php echo $row['image']?></td> <td width="200"><?php echo $row['imageformat']?></td> <td width="200"><?php echo $row['dimensions']?></td> <td width="200"><?php echo $row['videoformat']?></td> <td width="200"><?php echo $row['description']?></td>

<td width="200"><a href="editcomponent.php?id=<?php echo $row['id']; ?>"> <imgsrc="site/edit.jpg" alt="edit" /></a> <a href="deletecomponent.php?id=<?php echo $row['id']; ?>" onclick="return deletecomponent()"> <imgsrc="site/cancel.jpg" alt="cancel"></a></td></tr><?php } ?> </table>.

Editing Job
<?php include '../lib/db.php'; $quer="select * from component where id=".$_REQUEST['id']; $r=mysql_query($quer); $result=mysql_fetch_array($r); ?> <html> <body> <form action="updatecomponent.php" method="post" name="f8" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <feildset> <center> Component type<input type="text" name="ct1" value="<?php echo $result['type'];?>" /><br /> Component name<input type="text" name="cn1" value="<?php echo $result['name'];?>" /><br /> Changefile<input type="file" name="f1" /><a href="../uploads/components/<?php echo $result['image'];?>"></a><br />

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Image format<input type="text" name="cpp1" value="<?php echo $result['imageformat'];?>" /><br /> Dimensions<input type="text" name="cpp2" value="<?php echo $result['dimensions'];?>" /><br /> video format<input type="text" name="cpp3" value="<?php echo $result['videoformat'];?>" /><br /> Description<input type="text" name="cd1" value="<?php echo $result['description'];?>" /><br />

<input type="hidden" name="id" value="<?php echo $result['id'];?>" /> <input type="submit" value="Submit" /> </center></feildset></form></body></html>

Deleting Jobs
<?php include '../lib/db.php'; $s="delete from component where id=".$_REQUEST['id']; mysql_query($s); header('location:viewcomponent.php'); ?>

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6.1.1 Back-End code analysis


In the Back-end we have the following modules: LOGIN: The admin is the lone user of the back-end login. Once the admin logs in with the username and password, then the authentication is invoked. If the authentication is successful then the admin is allowed to proceed to the next pages.

Admin
DataBase

Login:

Admin

Connect to home page Homepage

Enter user name &Pwd

Code:
<?php session_start(); //For every login a new session will be generated and the session

terminates once the user logs out.

include'../lib/db.php'; //This includes the db file which connects to the database $sql="select * from admin where user_name='".$_REQUEST['username']."'AND password='".$_REQUEST['password']."'"; //This query checks whether the entered the database table $result=mysql_query($sql); //Executes the query $y=mysql_fetch_row($result);//Fetches the records in array format username and password are present in

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if(is_array($y)) { session_register('id');//If the array is built we register the session with a new id

$_SESSION['id']=$y[0];//Here we are assigning admin name to the sessionvariable

header("Location:index1.php");//If the username and password is valid the admin is redirected to the home page } else { header("Location:index.php");//If the username and password is not valid then admin is redirected to the login page }?>

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ADD:

Once the admin logs in he can add the user details(name, user name, password, school and class), school details(school name), curriculum details(curriculum name, image and the school name), class details(class, image, curriculum name), subject details(name, image, grade), chapter details(chapter name, image, subject id), content details(title, description, chapter) to the database.

<?php include("../lib/db.php"); function add() { $sql="insert into users(name, user_name, password, school_id, class_id) //includes the db file which connects to the database

values('".$_POST['name']."','".$_POST['uname']."','".$_POST['pwd']."','".$_POST['se']. "','".$_POST['class']."')"; //inserts the values into the database table

mysql_query($sql); }?>

//executes the query

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EDIT:

If any modifications are to be done to the existing data present in the database then the admin can edit the existing data and update in the database.

<?php function edit() { $query="Update curriculum SET curr_name='".$_POST['cuname']."',school_id='".$_POST['se']."',image='".$_FILES['im g'] ['name']."' wherecurr_id=".$_REQUEST['id'];//Updates the the fields in the database withnew values mysql_query($query);//executes the query } ?>

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DELETE Admin can delete the data from the table in the database based on the condition given.

<?php include("../lib/db.php"); the function delete() { database

//includes the db file which connects to

$sql="delete from subjects where sub_id=".$_REQUEST['id']; the data from the table based on the condition given mysql_query($sql); } ?> //executes the query

//deletes

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6.1.2 Front End Code analysis


Source:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <s:MobileApplicationxmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009" xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark" firstView="views.mobileSearchEngineHome"> <fx:Declarations> <!-- Place non-visual elements (e.g., services, value objects) here --> </fx:Declarations> </s:MobileApplication>

Mobilesearch:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <s:Viewxmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009" xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark" actionBarVisible="false" > <fx:Declarations> <!-- Place non-visual elements (e.g., services, value objects) here --> <s:HTTPService method="POST" url="http://localhost/mobisearch/login.php" id="http" result="http_resultHandler(event)" fault="http_faultHandler(event)"> <s:requestxmlns=""> <uname> {username.text}
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</uname> <password> {password.text} </password> </s:request> </s:HTTPService> </fx:Declarations>

<fx:Script> <![CDATA[ importmx.rpc.events.FaultEvent; importmx.rpc.events.ResultEvent; protectedfunction button1_clickHandler(event:MouseEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub username.text=""; password.text=""; } protectedfunction button2_clickHandler(event:MouseEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub trace("sending.."); http.send(); }

publicvarsuc:Search = new Search(); protectedfunctionhttp_resultHandler(event:ResultEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub if(event.result=="success"){

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this.removeAllElements() this.addElement(suc); } else{ Error.text = "Incorrect credentials.." } } protectedfunctionhttp_faultHandler(event:FaultEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub trace("failed"+event.fault); Error.text = "Connection failed" }

protectedfunctiontxt_username_focusInHandler(event:FocusEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub if(Error.text != ""){ Error.text = ""; }

]]> </fx:Script>

<s:Image width="100%" height="100%" scaleX="100" scaleY="102" scaleZ="1" source="@Embed(source='images/1.jpg')"/>

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<s:VGroup width="100%" height="100%" gap="10" horizontalAlign="center" verticalAlign="middle" > <s:HGroup width="100%" horizontalAlign="center"> <s:Label text="username"/> <s:TextInput id="username" color="#000000"

focusIn="txt_username_focusInHandler(event)"

/> </s:HGroup> <s:HGroup width="100%" horizontalAlign="center"> <s:Label text="password"/> <s:TextInput id="password" displayAsPassword="true" color="#000000"

focusIn="txt_username_focusInHandler(event)" /> </s:HGroup> <s:Label id="Error" color="#F70B0B"/> <s:HGroup width="100%" horizontalAlign="center"> <s:Image source="@Embed(source='images/2.png')" click="button2_clickHandler(event)" buttonMode="true" mouseChildren="false" /> <s:Image source="@Embed(source='images/7.png')" click="button1_clickHandler(event)" buttonMode="true" mouseChildren="false" />

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</s:HGroup>

</s:VGroup> </s:View>

Search.mxml:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <s:Viewxmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009" xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark" width="100%" height="100%" contentBackgroundColor="#ffffff" > <fx:Script> <![CDATA[ importmx.collections.ArrayCollection; importmx.rpc.events.FaultEvent; importmx.rpc.events.ResultEvent;

[Bindable] publicvarxmls:ArrayCollection;

protectedfunctionbtnSrch_clickHandler(event:MouseEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub if(txtSrch.text != ""){ http.url "http://localhost/mobisearch/search.php"; =

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http.send(); } } protectedfunctionhttp_resultHandler(event:ResultEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub httpXmlService.url = event.result.toString();

httpXmlService.send(); trace(event.result);

protectedfunctionhttp_faultHandler(event:FaultEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub error.text = "error connecting to server ";

protectedfunctionhttpXmlService_resultHandler(event:ResultEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub xmls event.result.companies.companyasArrayCollection; =

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protectedfunctionhttpXmlService_faultHandler(event:FaultEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub trace("error"); }

protectedfunctionlblLogout_clickHandler(event:MouseEvent):void { // TODO Auto-generated method stub NativeApplication.nativeApplication.exit(); }

]]> </fx:Script> <fx:Declarations> <!-- Place non-visual elements (e.g., services, value objects) here --> <s:HTTPService id="http" result="http_resultHandler(event)" fault="http_faultHandler(event)">

<s:requestxmlns=""> <keyword> {txtSrch.text} </keyword> </s:request>

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</s:HTTPService> <s:HTTPService id="httpXmlService"

result="httpXmlService_resultHandler(event)" fault="httpXmlService_faultHandler(event)"> </s:HTTPService> </fx:Declarations>

<s:VGroup width="100%" height="100%" gap="0"> <s:HGroup width="100%" horizontalAlign="right" paddingRight="10"> <s:Label id="error" maxWidth="350"/> <s:Label text="Logout" id="lblLogout" click="lblLogout_clickHandler(event)" buttonMode="true" mouseChildren="false" /> </s:HGroup> <s:HGroup width="100%" maintainProjectionCenter="true"> <s:TextInputcolor="#000000" width="90%"

id="txtSrch"/> <s:Image click="btnSrch_clickHandler(event)" width="71" height="67"

source="@Embed(source='images/search_2.png')"/> </s:HGroup> <s:ListdataProvider="{xmls}" color="#000000" itemRenderer="renderers.tile" width="100%" height="100%"/>

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</s:VGroup>

</s:View>

Login
<?php

$host = "localhost"; $user = "root"; $pwd = ""; $db = "mobilesearch"; mysql_connect($host,$user,$pwd) or die (" connection error"); mysql_select_db($db) or die("db could not slectd");

//$query ="select * from manage_users where user_name=".$_POST['uname']."; $query ="select * from users where name='".$_REQUEST['uname']."' and

password='".$_REQUEST['password']."'"; $y=mysql_query($query); $x=mysql_fetch_array($y); if(is_array($x)) { /*$file_name=$x['userid'].".xml"; $xml_file=fopen($file_name,'w'); $data='<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>'; $data.='<list>'; $data.='<user><userdetails>'; $data.='<name>'.$x['user_name'].'</name>'; $data.='<sessid>'.$x['userid'].'</sessid></userdetails></user>'; $data.='<buddies>'; $query1 ="select manage_users.user_name,friends.friend_id where friends.user_id=".$x['userid']." from AND

friends,manage_users

friends.friend_id=manage_users.userid";

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$f=mysql_query($query1); while($f_array=mysql_fetch_array($f)) {

$data.='<userdetails><name>'.$f_array['user_name'].'</name><sessid>'.$f_array ['friend_id'].'</sessid></userdetails>'; } $data.='</buddies></list>'; fwrite($xml_file,$data);*/ echo "success"; } else { print "failed"; } ?>

Search.mxml:
<?php mysql_connect('localhost','root',''); mysql_select_db('mobilesearch'); $sql="select *from jobs where job_title LIKE '%".$_REQUEST['keyword']."%'"; $x=mysql_query($sql); $xml='<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>'; $xml.='<companies>';

while($row=mysql_fetch_array($x)) { $xml.='<company>'; $xml.='<id>'.$row['job_id'].'</id>'; $xml.='<name>'.$row['job_title'].'</name>'; $xml.='</company>'; } $xml.='<company>'; $xml.='<id></id>';

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$xml.='<name></name>'; $xml.='</company>'; $xml.='</companies>'; $files=fopen('search.xml','w'); fwrite($files,$xml); echo 'http://localhost/mobisearch/search.xml'; ?>

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CHAPTER 7 TESTING
Testing is a process to show the correctness of the program. Testing is needed to show completeness, t improve the quality of the software and to provide the maintenance aid. Some testing standards are therefore necessary reduce the testing costs and operation time. Testing software extends throughout the coding phase and it represents the ultimate review of configurations, design and coding. Based on the way the software reacts to these testing, we can decide whether the configuration that has been built is study or not. All components of an application are tested, as the failure to do so many results in a series of bugs after the software is put to use.

7.1 BLACKBOX TESTING


Blackbox testing also called behavioral testing, focuses on the functional requirements of software. This testing approach enables the software engineer to derive the input conditions that will fully exercise all requirements for a program. Blackbox testing attempts to find the errors like Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structures or external database access Behavior or performance errors Initialization and termination errors

In Blackbox testing software is exercised over a full range of inputs and outputs are observed for correctness.

7.2 WHITEBOX TESTING


Whitebox testing is also called Glassbox testing is a test case design control; structure of the procedural design to derive test cases using Whitebox testing method, the software engineer can derive the test cases that guarantee that all independent paths within the module have been exercised at least once. Exercise all logic decisions on their true or false sides. Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds. Exercise internal data structure to ensure their validity.

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7.3SOFTWARE TESTING STRATEGIES


Testing involves Unit testing Integration testing Acceptance testing

The first level of test is unit testing. The purpose of unit testing is to ensure that each program is fully tested. The second step is integration testing. In this individual program units or programs are integrated and tested as a complete system to ensure that the software requirements are met. Acceptance Testing involves planning and the execution of various types of tests in order to demonstrate that the implemented software system satisfies the requirements. Finally our project meets the requirements after going through all the levels of testing.

7.4 TESTING THE APPLICATION


Application should be thoroughly tested before releasing it into the market. Testing will show if the application is delivering the expected results. In this case we have given some wrong values to the application so that we can counter the errors produced by the application in such a case. Next topic is test cases, where 10 test cases are considered and checked if the test results are positive or not. 7.4.1 TEST CASES (FRONT END) Test case no 1 Test case name Login Input Actual value Expected value Provide Username and password Search in Database and return results Test result No error

Search

Username and password is blank Search for a Job in the database

Provide Username and password Enter search query

No error

Table 7.4.1.1

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7.4.2 TEST CASES(BACK END) Test case no 1 Test case name Admin Login Input Actual value Expected value Provide name and password Test result No error

Username and password is blank

Provide name and password

Add users

The user fields are left blank Filled user fields are displayed User records The Job fields are left blank

Edit users

4 5

Delete users Add Job

User details are being provided Edit the required fields Delete the user record Job details are being provided Edit the required fields Delete the Job from the database Based on the Organization we add classes Edit the Organization based on the requirement Delete the Organization

Edit Job

Filled Job fields are displayed Job details of the users The Organization field is left blank Organization details are displayed Organization details

Delete Job

Add Organization

Edit Organization

10

Delete Organization

User details are being provided Edit the required fields Delete the user record Curriculum details are being provided Edit the required fields Delete the Job from the database Based on the Organization we add classes Edit the Organization based on the requirement Delete the Organization

No error

No error

No error No error

No error

No error

No error

No error

No error

Table 7.4.2

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CHAPTER-8 8.1 Application screen shots


8.1.1 Back End application screen shots

LOGIN PAGE

FIG 8.1.1 Here the admin enters the username and password. This directly connects to the database in the users tables look up in the table if the entered username and password is correct then the page is linked to another page

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8.1.2 View Page

FIG 8.1.2 After login the page which is displayed is View user where the information of the users can be viewed i.e the users who logged into the database.

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8.1.3 Add user page

FIG 8.1.3

This page used to add the users in the database and align the values in their particular table fields. To view the users who all logged in see view user.

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8.1.4 Add Job page

FIG 8.1.4

This page is used to add jobs in the database. The jobs contains the fields where a user specify his/her requirements.

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8.1.5 View Jobs page

FIG 8.1.5

Admin can view can jobs to which the user had applied all the time. These records are maintained in the database.

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8.1.6 Edit job page

FIG 8.1.6 User can edit the jobs giving the details in the particular fields.

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8.1.7 Delete Users page

FIG 8.1.7 The admin can view and delete the job details to which a user had applied.

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8.1.8 Log out page

FIG 8.1.8

When we log out the page return back to the login page.

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8.2.1 Front end application screen shots


Login page in Mobile

FIG 8.2.1

When we debug the application code the code starts executing. Here is the display of the application in the mobile.

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8.2.2 Action Page

FIG 8.2.2

Entering the username and password in the mobile app, this will connect to the database of the sql from where it retrieves the data from it and executes the operation.

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8.2.3 Search Page in the Mobile

FIG 8.2.3 After successful sigin the page is displayed like this. This page contains a search image and text input where the user enters the keywords in the text box.

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8.2.4 Search field

FIG 8.2.4

Enter the keyword with you want to search the Jobs, The jobs which are starting with letter h are displayed first following others.

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CHAPTER 9 9.1 Conclusion


By this project, a unique search engine was presented for effective searching Of information through mobile interface. The engine adopts three methods for retrieval: two autonomousand one combinational. The ontology-based method makes use of the semantic mark-up metadata accompanying each collection where an illustrative user interface is used for graphical query formulation. The content-based method makes use of the low-level visual characteristics of the multimedia material while the hybrid method, which is the main contribution of this work, makes a combined use of the previous two methods for offering a more complete result set to the user. Easy access and portability of the system also helps to increase the performance of the system in a better manner. Future work includes the extension of the hybrid search engine and the integration of additional cultural content. Finally we are investigating the addition of a semantic recommendation engine to be able to make additional query suggestions to the user in an automatic manner

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CHAPTER 10

10.1 Future Enhancements


Google Android Sales to Overtake iPhone in 2012 . The OHA is committed to make their vision a reality: to deploy the Android platform for every mobile operator, handset manufacturers and developers to build innovative devices.Intel doesnt want to lose ownership of the netbook market, so they need to prepare for anything, including Android . Fujitsu launched an initiative to offer consulting and engineering expertise to help run Android on embedded hardware, which aside from cellphones, mobile internet devices, and portable media players, could include GPS devices, thin-client computers and set-top boxes. More Android devices are coming and some will push the envelope even further .

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Bibilography
HTML: Website:www.w3schools.com

Text Book: WebTechnologies Author: Patrick Naughton and Herbert Schildt


PHP:

Website: www.w3schools.com
Text Book: Web Technologies Author: Patrick Naughton

and Herbert Schildt

MYSQL:

Website: www.google.com, Wikipedia Ref: Beaulieu, Alan (April 2009). Mary E Treseler. ed. Learning SQL Sebastopol, OReilly.

Adobe Flash builder Burrito Website: www.google.com , Wikipedia , Learn Builder ,

Android

Website: http://www.google.com"Open Handset Alliance". Open Handset Alliance. http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/. Wikipedia, Youtube

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REFERENCES
[1] James E. White. Mobile agents. In J. Bradshaw, editor, Software Agents, chapter 18, pages 437472. AAAI/MIT Press, Menlo Park, CA, 1997.

[2] Volker Roth and MehrdadJalali. Concepts and architecture of a security-centric mobile agent server. In Proc. Fifth International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems (ISADS 2001), pages 435442, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A., March 2001. IEEE Computer Society. ISBN 0-7695-1065-5.

[3] Walter Binder and Volker Roth. Secure mobile agent systems using Java where are we heading? In Proc. 17th ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Special Track on Agents, Interactions, Mobility, and Systems (SAC/AIMS), Madrid, Spain, March 2002. ACM.

[4] S. G. Belmon and B. S. Yee. Mobile agents and intellectual property protection. In Rothermel and Hohl [22], pages 172182.

[5] C. Arora, P. Nirankari, H. Ghosh, and S. Chaudhury. Content based image retrieval using mobile agents. In Third International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications (ICCIMA 99), pages 248252, 1999.

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