Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 111

Y 2011 ~gz

3
5
13
21
31
35
38
42
47
49
52
54
60
72
80
88
91
94

100
102
105
109

tg Z Z
ZzZp
R
5Z
`z***
:[NZ
wD ZRZ e
+i Z Z e
vZ x Z Z e
?i
y{
gzuZ o
+ Z h
; +Z <g Z e
+
$ @+
$ ( g ) 9
+Z ` Zu1Z

YZgZ i q
Z
0Z x Z

Y Z hg:
/

C
/c kZ -1
?VYk
,
/**

x!
~p -2
( ) x ~g Z
Z -3
( : YZ ) VZ e -4
sZz w -5
x z *Z -6
iuZz yZd Z -7
Vc*
g Z)f +ZzgzZ a :Z -8
!\ |z -9
Z ZgzZ0*
J(,-10
] !*
?u **
] -11
**
Z yZgzZ y%]| -12
( wD Z)) Coz C}% !*
M -13
Z c c -14
a]|Z -15
yD
g V -16
'!*
~ -17
' Zz Y ' -18
:a V -19
gzuZ o
` 9N*
(i)
AZ

+z (ii)

]Zg q
-Z b/]| (iii)
Mg x)
,-20
7~gzt Z }g Z Z ]Vzg y*:^

Y 2011 ~gz

m]]

Y Zhg:
/

C
/c kZ

gzZ Z R,Zz  ~ g ]g \ ~ ua 8
-'
g ~g 27
VCV Z z Vz
/c kZ gzZ k- e g
/c O%Z
VrZ [ x~h
eL
q
-Z s:
/cvg X c*

g Z
k- e g X Z e g ~h KZ yZ gzZ q
-Z
X 1 Z V-
z y
KZ gzZ yeg Zz R,
gz
a F ]Zg Zz Y gzZ
**
Zg y k
,
iz [1Zg VZ e ~ q LZ kZ I
/c O%Z
dZz g Z O%Z X Z e yZ w> B 7] +Z I vZ Y z
7_C~ 1
e Zz
W:
K VC g IZ O%Z L
L I
7
g ]g \ k- e g X g D ~/Zz ~ )v{z
{z H[ g Z ]Zg Zz ~
/c kZ i Z0
+Z TY 7g +
g Z
V kZ gzZ Z Q Z e A>
/Z V M'
,h
+'
X Y z&
+C

VYyZ q
-Z D ~igz s } z yz VrZ ]gz H
%gzZN{z VY ~ ~h
}uz c*
Z O g ]g \ {z d
lg !*
VC6,yZ Z e
/Z A>V M'
,h
+'
X g xVYaZ
Z e ua +F,
sz^ua 8
-'
X ce **
Y c*
Zzg
/i 7Z O
X g"
$U*

/c V%Z 'xp ce N y
K ]ZgZz
]g Vzgz jgzZ Vzm,
z O%ZVzfZ
/c ~ yZgz )
O%Z ~g
/XD77]g  ]o k
H" {k
H" X 7
U ]!*
kZ ]]_ O%Z gzZ y8 '5 x 0*
Vzg ]g\
ZVzZe yZx y 0*
gzZ  g

{6,:  g3
X M6,Vvv^gzZ ZbZ **
M6,VvxZakZ
rg 7
7 :7 s kZa kZ
/c {z 7x Ok-e g
VZzgg ~
/c Zz ~g X}) M * ZgzZ M Z M

Y 2011 ~gz

~ VzW
nM%Z 17b Xce **
Y Y7 kZ ~ }g !*
C**

^gzZ jB Z e X @*
Y Hi+
M
KZ 6,VgzZ &Zp { k
H"
` ugz ,
M ~
/c c_ Zg ZX  BV kZ Z
i M 6,kZ "wx {z gzZ Y H v~ W
n
Z a
x ZgzZ V Z+(z BX  D Y i M 6,VF~ VzW
nO%Z N Y
c*
Zg Z
c*
HH ;g

/c kZ
/Z j ce b Zz6,V Zx
M%Z X 6,V Zx Zz Zg Z
)l ~
/c [zZ Zz M
D Y 5 Zgg Z
]zZ ~ [zZ ce
8aV Zxx
ZBvZ Z e ~ yj
jZ @*
u|zB V7 ogzZ 
g gzZ ,0
+
zg 7 V 0*
y LZ { M%Z yZx yZ X
nf] f] ] ^n ^ X ,)l ~
/c6,k-e

x **
y 0*
IZ x  wD Z

Z  ~ + ~
Z d
Z 1 Zzg V.6, hg
Z M L M L C
L t
Z U Y: [ w  t 0
+
i
Z Z ~ * t Z
#
7 c*
g z gzZ ~ c*
g `
:

/ ]g Y>
: Z V Za Z
: Y L + IZ
: Za Z c* Y 0 !**0*
Zu c*
? *'
,zu Y

w2 g zC
g { Zg
i d Z}
.**
!*
/]g H !*p
! x  ~y
M Z}
. ~ i

Z F, M @ zf Z D
g
? Z KZ
] ZuZ C1 } 0
+
i
t
z ~(, Za kS }Q
I ~ F,!*z'
,M
7 I *g

# ~ # Zz yi
/Z c*

5 gl ~ u {
V M Q 6,@ 
Z ! V;
c* c ~ m kS
Mg Z " ~ m VY
N B
bg {g Zz M [ ! { M
H V Y60
+Z Z F,w
C
vZ ) 
{ } 7
-Y 0 >
x c*
Z Ys M C
 ! "

Y 2011 ~gz

ZzZp

? VYk
,
/**

x ~p

X Zz J
-w LO7} z M M : g L L
( ]Z)Z )
G!OZw/
^w
D Z)
VC
] <
L t 8Z Z
/Z ~ @ M h

+ zf 
IG
$E

/{g C

N g c*0*L L ~ g

( Zg 8
-!*
)
X g ~gY J
-$
+Z gzZ ~gY wi Z^ ]
KZ zg M

y
KZ B i M !LZ wi Z zg ] L{
GE
4O]KZ {zgzZ c*
qz
X ;g} z M M Z ._

* kZ kZ X ;g g
/ iZ% KZ y
KZ ~ q )
kZ6,kZ X 6U*>
K kZ V ~ ]y
H Zg Z g
V w{z}
. kZ X * 1 ~
q Z ( bzg )

g {0
+
iJ
- !*H Z$
+Z gzZ : ~g F u0*
c*
C
{z 1
XX]n v]ZZ M
]y
H Zg Z X g a 0
+
iZ KZgzZ
0
+
i ~ ]y
H Zg Z ~ V/}uz X y 0
+
i L L T H
X : ]
L{&
Aq
-Z X V{ za 0
+
i y
KZ ~ ]n v]
g Vzg gt X H uQV\ M 7Z >
]
0
+
i Z KZB 
z ] Ol!gzZ EZ v ~ y kZ X y
Vz0
+
i 2~ y x
z spZz 0
+
i V 3 > M Zuz X ,
X : ]V;z1 , ]{z X ~ Vz%: V~

Y 2011 ~gz

V; LZ kZ kZ ~ 3c*
~
A 0
+
iZ KZ y
KZ

X *
*yZgz x g gzZ 0
+
i ~z* { k Qt gzZ ~
-dNvZ
z g KZ kZ ~ Zi M [NZg (Z z { Zg ZgzZ zy
KZ \z ZE
! CE
} wEZ c*
9 kZ {za kZ <z 6,g $ Z 6, g
{
M F,
gzZ { yJZ kZ *t 6, ~ Zi M kZ }
uz X g Z &O p

4X3g {z gzZ
tqz [8gzZ dZ L q [S CZ \vZ v X yJZ E
LG
4G
G3!*
p
V g Z,
A {z
, wqZ @~ * kZ D EG
._ ]ZpKZh ]xz ]c*
Z@ gzZ 2Z z x Z \vZ v
X 3: 1 yQ
, 0
+
i
E
0
+
i% w !*
{z c*
bkZ ]&L y
KS L

8{za kZ X Ynz c*
x Z 0
+
ic*
gzx Z :gzZ Y7
7N$LX y46,g
g k
,
/**

a g Z
/0
+
i [vgzZ
g E
E
Zc6,XN YKz wZgzZ j
Z * L^v

LZwqZ @{z ~ T M xwj {z yQgzZ B yjz


A \ M
a 3
Z+F,
Z kZ X ( Qualify) 3 Zc a
x M ]| H qz sz kz Dg Z g
KS ] L{
E
"
.-G3F
M z WZ LE
qz x?Zm
t kZ X Z 6,y M
gzZ ay
LegzZ ( 14 :85 `z_Z ) @*
h
+ g 
C&LZ *LO g
E
]Z f KZ6,]xz ]c*
Z@ k Qg 
t $Lq z L ) Zi M

gzZ }3 Zca
A \ M LZ }q yZg z [
\vZ }
V;z 0
+
i KZ Z ] V~ [ )Z k Q Z @*
^6, Z
0
+
iy
KZ !*
$z .w k Qa wkZ X}
M LZ c*
C ` u+ 4
c*
2*
*6,k QgzZ kZ6,a9~y
# k Q
:c*

gzZ Hx ( isZ 0
+
i ) xsS E
LG
kn oj n k i]* m  k ]* n ]

Y 2011 ~gz

]
D3V^]E o^m 

xsS ) X c*
+ a }g v ~ ` M ( ! Zz yZZ ) L L
KZ6,?gzZ ( c*
q{ ]xz ]c*
Z@ gzZ x Z z 2Z
# 1I a }g v2 ~ S Vz
X xsS E
LG
# ( System or way of life) 0
+
i : +
xsS E
LG
&~ X x + gzZ ~ * {z
x ~g Z tu LE
( Socialism) S CgzZ ( Communism) K ZS ( Capitalism)
t p
|*Oh!Nq
-Zt X  x ( Man made) M
z y iC
{z 7q x Zz m t s: y
KZ
GG
GErLt X $
"O Z ~ szz wZjZ nC
gzZ yk
: gzZ 7$Lq

# Z c*
\ hgzZ qY Z \ h
LG
: hE
L #G xsZ E
m ] o `n v] m  p` ^e ] p$ ] a
D28Vxj]E o]n `6 # ^e oF
M z WZ9) wg LZ T zL L
M
)e
$Z@ ( a y
x }uz Zg ~ V
KZ Q @*
5B h+ gzZ (
X ] \vZ6,(CZz) kS yYX}
6,V

~ kZ X
rg V q
-Z g0
+Z LZ h L L~ b S M

G
$ ( p0Z gzu ) ( ] Z!*
e
) x Zz ]m ( })
L ) CZ f
y i ) ( ~i !*
Zg )

Z ( g ;! ) e
$ Z ( q e
$)

k5
,
+p( g S
w dZ ) w ( } M 6,g szz G
w ZjGZ gzZ y k z
gL gL
Yz gzZ ( 1 z 2 g g J1 q)
X 
G
E
+

LG3C 7h] M
kZ ( 3:16Z ) /!*
~ ] \vZ B
bggzmB hp7h pZ &
+
yM
X c*
kZ +'
!*
x k Q 7~g z ~g Y

Y 2011 ~gz

q ]x !*
{g tO X hE
L #G sZ

X Y:gzZ ~ * + + kZ \ hX
# ce 6g7 |t
]Z f KZ x Z c*
+Z xsZ E
LG
x Zc 6,kZ zz X Z
M 1g k Q +t Z rZ :g ~

Zc 6,T x {zt 6,Vz


C =rg X C
M 1g
C

gzZ ( ~{ +F,
ui **
Z @*
l
/byptu
~
Ck
,
/**

a 0
+
i
q
-Z } @*
[Z bkZ +
~^ `
M F,
z 0*
yk Z uZgp }Y Z ]c*
gz
)Y Z yZ g c*X Lg 7% w {)z {)z sz Z ]1
M
{z : gzZ Y 7 0
+
i b V
KZ y
KZ q
-Z ~ 

^6,sk Q +
,
M
KZ Zc b~g7 6,]xz ]c*
Z@ gzZ 2Z z x Z
[g VY C g D M |t kZ X g [g  Y
X c*
f + g ZG 0*
z kZ D q g Z M S V g
X @*

gS
] ]* ^$ ] ]i@ $ ] ] ^ ]* * ] o a ^ $ $ $ 7 m $ !
D41Vsv]E o . ] f ^ # ] ]` ^e
z#
~ }iu yQ 4 ( @*
t { V Zz yZZ F L L

E
&L) {z  g ZMS
5.Z 4gzZ szH E
L& %Z > 2i > [ (@*E
x Z kZ ) k0*
vZ x Z gZ !g c*
X  Dx

X +4 G
n
pgZg ~ : M z!*
pg wxgzZ KZ KZ }g Z Z Vzg et
get X 8
-Z ^I Z c*
Z b
Z xsZ D x Z q
-Z g

X CgZ2Z ]gq}sZ6,X ,
C
yZ gzZ *
* Vzg Z Z g e yZ 4Z }g7 }g7 ~ xsZ
._ yQ *
* **
S Z ~ kZ *
* z y} sZ 6,Vz
C

Y 2011 ~gz

X b g Z
/0
+
i +Z{Z
ZvgzZ *
*0
+
i Z z ~ ZS

;g ~ T @*M ~z c{ (Z q
-Z x Vzg Z S Vzg e yZ
w M @*
 D i lp b) CgzZ ~ OZ V k
,
+
5
~ * yJZ Zc 6,]xz ]c*
Z@ gzZ 2Z z x Z M
B

A \ M LZgzZ}q ! x
 n ( Qualify) 3 Zca 7Z >
! x yZ x y
KZt z M
X ]c*
Z e
$
KZ
X >
e g LO ggzZ

H
4
5
G+ gzZ hg+ kZ
*
*6,k QgzZ **
CZ {)z {)z xcxE5F
&**
X x`
LE
 ut Z L vs:
: @*

gZ
F ] o a f m% ^ m  ] n jf m
D85V]  E om F]
# T !g c*
LL
[z g (Z + gzZ {z xsZ E
LG

( Z L vx C
k Q a kZ ) Y H: wJ k Q
M gzZ
X ( Bankrupt)DZ- {z ~ ]y
a J
-#
zz q ]!*
{g gzZ hxsZ E
L #G
E
M $E
MgzZ z 0
}g7 2 $/
+
i V {Zp]q ~ iC

sz Zx CZ kZ X
Hc*
a F,~sz ~ {z
: q
-Z so XC
x **
kZ 6
l]F_ ] fj$ i $ $ ] o ] ] ] @ m $ ] ^ ` m% ^* m5
D208Vf]E on f% ' $ 7 _6 n O$ ]
y- !g c*
Y 4Z }g7 }g7 ~ + sz Z ! L L

X Zg v{z : 6,x
0
+
i KZ Z ]gzZ U [x * yJZ  ` x
GLE
38E
6,]xz ]c*
Z@ gzZ 2Z z x Z y M
a ~ 7Z > Z

Y 2011 ~gz

10

E
%ZgzZ > 2i z > [ xia kZgzZ k
,
/**

**
Zc
5.Z 4z szH!*

kZ X Y 76,]c*
Z@ M
% kZY Y H{sZ6,Vz
C
@ g ga x xsZ + VY Cg D M |t
: c*


g ZgzZ c*
n
6,yC
*
* B
m ] o n q ^ ^f jq] a  ^` q $ u # ] o ] a^q
D78V sv]E ot u
xsZ h 6z ~ { Zg vZ ( ! ) L L
G
'N
X xi6, *
*@ )gzYZ B @a x
+ t !g c*
X 1 k Q a x kZ ( a kZ )
X 7VZ
/
!*
a }g v

z"
$kZ X ~g Z**
c*
4z "
$~g F u**

}
]!*
'gz0*
~jc*
]c*
OS L8X g7 Kg 0*
( *
*gz~g Z**

h 0*
M
16,~g F kZx ZgzZ #
Zc6,T sZ t X 7
4G
G3Z h V
KZ X 
B + LZ a 9LZ g LO ga EG
6,kZ BN v @*
,6,kZgzZ ,**
kZ {z 5~ * kZ
tzg /]|>ZZ X ;g 7bz z
q
-Z }

zg
H% u ^ ~ ~ Vzuu
sS L L {L]g @*
X ;g~i |S b 7 >ZZ Z b
z [
: 6,Vz
C0*
]g qsS
*s ZuZ: **

z z w ( 2)yZ z w ( 1)
X **
~g tu% ( 3) *
KZ C
gzZ ~izgz {z xi6,{
qC
( 4)
GL uLq
]c*
gz
KS ~
CyZ ( 5) X })
*
* J (,: **
L: *
*{f yQ **
: ~9^zg ~ w Y Z
X*
* V6,Cost price h
+y
7 7Z
Z Zg
Cg D M |t Y Hg6,( Capitalism) x ~g Ztu

Y 2011 ~gz

11

G
Vv0*
!*
{g x sZ f
e x g L tf S
L: Zg Ztu6,uE
L V2
: sfzgqy2 - {z y]gqx E$E

V ( 4) X *
*~g tu ~ ( 3)X *
*
z z w ( 2)X wS z ( 1)
)gf wS gzZ ^NsK z 6,g CZ f%gzZ **
Luq
8q
z z w

z gzZ **
6,Y Z ]c*
gz ~
CsL( 5) X
X xg D J (,gzZ **
J (,yQa w
gM%Z X V-~ * ~g7 y 0*
s: x Ct
} Luq V
KZ [g Zb * ._ ^g7g ZN*
!g

X ~g Y x t gzZ [Y ~ sAVDRgzZ VP ( 90%)


zz i g S buX  ! V- x x V|DRgzZ Jt

o kS izg z
{zgzZ ~l V- vg { 
V *
gzZ H
/YZ|kZ k'
, w
D Z)X  sz^~ F,
o
^c*

~ y : ~ ZY : Zz ~ F,
E
~ 0E
@-#FVY g 8
-

( )

yc*
Z x }uz sZ + LZ {z y t t Z
gzZ ~ D yQ }g
/: VY g Z **
HW{ Zp g
6,
gkZ Cgzp L
Y X  ~S Zz Z
z
^ c*
~q
-Zwq
E
L t Vs  ~ L S
} gi E$E
Y : M x {z 0
+
i x 

t zz X  9g S ' * y 0*
{z zz T
c*
M ~ z c Y c*
M sZ  o sS uZz y 0*

I
GL3.q ~ o ^L M M kZ gzZ
gzZ \vZ dZ G
C

Y 2011 ~gz

12

G
T 7N Zg z ~}g !*
kZ X ._<
L gzZ M Ny
HG
45y {z
8{ xE5F
H **
x sS ~ o sS gzZ c*
y 0*
y

N M 6,x o k Q }uz Y y
IF
4& |Z X y
^c*


w
D Z)L G

)
Z
Z| 7,Q $
#
Z * x Y 1
( xsZ )

\vZgzZ Y Zz ]~g x {g kZ !
g LO g M , ZgxsZ {z @*
M x ~uz( ~g
7 a f x sZgzZ VzyLZ LZ 
,4z OE
LZ ._ }z k QgzZ B}g ZZgzZ e
$
X Vgz[x~
D9V] E o ^ n ] m # ] $ ]
X @*
7s }z L\vZ !g c*
LL
( This is His unalterable law)

D233 V f]E on ^ n u $  ] m lF ]]
X N |z wz V LZ N gzZ L L

wZz V Vg Zp

Z
# @*
Y c*
VY V Z|z Q 1 V; V
KZ /

? c*
g@*
Z~ VZY V ~g|z Za ~g [g}g
*
*: Zj V $ Zt V
$ Z V |z ~ VZY V /

A ~ V V q
-Z >%$ HgzZ 7$ H ( **
:|z )
? $

Y 2011 ~gz

13

) Zz

x ~g Z
Z

~ Y
 ; p6,
Z L L q
-Z !*
M ~ X Y 1990 y 21 ` M
[ w2 ~y
M ^ LZ `g Zg ; y x 
X V
V V ~
z kZ V V ;g a~ gzZ qu6,Qgz X
 Vz ~ Zi M `gg 0*
kZ ~ k
B 6,) ] g e s
gzZ V p ;g [ze J
- Q yp VzL q~
-" gzZ ]z H skS ~ k
B t
~ qu V;z
`g Z @*
q~ } kZ h J g ^R^ X  \~ 0
+
i
*
@Y [ze ?qugzZ 8 D
k gzZ V1~J
g V;
%f V;
W zy yZ gzZ h1 a ~z Vg 0*
kZ 8
-uw.!*

X  D Z
yp LZ `g I ze a Zz M gzZ  g
,Z yZ ~ e
$wZzg Zz { q y 0*
gzZ xsZ
LZ
# gzZ 0gl yZ l
g N*
Z n
W zy g !*
-Z 
q
Zz qgzZ `g I ze X c*
g Z + T 7Z V Zz y LZ
=) x uF,{g7 ze V L#
$ w=t }~: xg kZ
u
a! 23 t X  o Z tzg (
sZ ~ Y 1985 yZ k0*
gzZ ]
C xsZ Z [ ~
z dZ1Z X 
~ u ~S
Zz
g V }g L#
$ w= I yZ X W,
O ]h
{
ZX m 7]5 L yZ X ~ {z el ~ Z
#p
,{h
+I ~{z zz X g ~ ~ Zz i Zz M 5
: D y*Z KZ oZ tzgX}I
k Z(,q
-Z }g 6, '
,L#
$ w=~ Y 1985

Y 2011 ~gz

14

gz
a .
a }C
{g7 wZkt X 
vZ
+Zi gZD
k ~ T

C8
-],
Z 6,Y k:7 ]g ~ yZgz kZ X
HJ
- {h Z
TZx*V {hZ Z
# Xg 5'
, 6Z gzZ g 4'
,V1X g
VvgzZ .
$
c_Lzzi
+ZgZ g sZ
) )

X
H l7zg~p
H1g
/VZx }g6,3ZzX H[
V Z }g '
,~uz #
$ w=Y 1986 ~gz
10
D zZ X Z X Z V yZ g Z eZg&
+q
-Z +@Z x
X
H1g
/

X
Hc*
;g pg V;z y z gzZ ~ a x uF,
g
/{z
:7 X k6,'
,~#
$ w=~ Y 1987 QX ~g
/~t
X
Hv ~gzZ ^I 6,~{g Z eZq
-Z ZX H Z6,
~ Zi M x- y 0*
( ` | (, b ]g Z
# ) Y 1988 ~Z 11
Cg sC
Y 7 { Zg p sz^~ ~g o
-Z X ` M yZ X Za PO }P Vz0
q
+
g
X c*
Zsg .
$
c_z V= gzZ M { i ZzuZy}7
-e Z y
X c*
qz *
*x a .
$
~ kZ
h
+zYgzZ o c*
B yZ L Zzt Z k0*
}Y 1988 m 5

vEu 6,g ~g ~ Z t ~ yZgz ]5 q


-Z gzZ M
-Z ]Zg 7
q
-eZ [ ~g Y~u~ Z
# m 7 y z X V Y
X VZ v Y g Z c*
~
z kZ X c*
w1 ZzJ 6,y}g :7 W

~ }g !*
} VrZ Y7 ~ }g!*
}gzZ c*
Zz } :7
t w2 !*
y~ X N M C
!*
{Zz ~~ Y z Z Z X Hg Z d
{z kZ X c*
qz :{Zz ~ :7 X ;gN

= X Z Z9 Y yxg :7 JgzZ Z b ~ D
wgzZ
gzZ c*
5B; r
# Zz Hxs{Zz X Z !*
yZ b
6,V\ M ~ y Z {z X ;g ~ a x uF,
]Zg X c*
^B :7

Y 2011 ~gz
15
I4Y
zZ * * ~ { h Z V yZ X { h Z = |0
+!*
kZ X
HH W
n EjG
Y
I
4

j
X ~h Y1 ] ZZ6, ~W
n EGzZ
? qR,
Y ~ y 0*
? /
? Z ? y 0* /

? D x PZ ]g /
? ]5 ( L) Zzt Z ? /
g Z ~ i Z0
+Z } 7 } 7 6Z gzZ ] ZZ t B ~g7 ~

B g Z- q
-Z #gzZ Z V !*
= 3 q
-Z 6,g Z }X c*

Bg Z- #gzZ @*
V !*
= @*M  X ^t QgzZ Zg }
]Zg X q a 3: gzZ
Hc*
0*
: = p
Hg
/y Zg7 q
-Z X Z

{0
+
g { h Z Z
# W z ]Zg X Y} 96,
zZB; 5
~ } ( @*
Y H c*
x **
[Zg @*
&) x 3 y
E
G3E
"Z ) !*

M xsZ z C t ? gzZ ]!*


3,
B} kZ X M

9zggZD
k V ( L) Zz t ZgzZ H } ~ ( v**
W J M {z X ;g @*
g Z ~ gzZ ;g @*
g \ e L L{z J
- X Y c*
x Z
zh M yZ zg 7
-eZ X wq Z'
,Z ugzZ k\ X
H` hg= d
$

Z Z ]vZ D 3zh M ~ X Z 7,|g (Z " 6,xkZ ~ qz '


,
X  g N 3 y} 9C
!*
}zh M t { i Z0
+Z = X ;g
Raw Zg L LZ x **
+ ]g Zg
$
/
| M Z X
H~ D 3zh MO

wZ~ }g !*
q
M F,
gzZ Y y 0*
VrZ X M
1 5 = ~g7 Z
# X c*
qz *
*g Z ~ gzZ b qz
} &
+e }0
+
g !*
X ~ g @*
Z h M 1~ 3 q
-Z c*
H~ X zg @*
Z
~pIS~X c*
y$
+Zg g VgzZ } 9
s s kZ X M [Zg @*
szHZ x g Z&
+e L LX HwzN
Y 7(Z Vz C
~{ 3s HX V **
3z C

Y 2011 ~gz

16

g Z D Z
kZ ~ i Z0
+Z}]g gzZ e~ w w ~

kZ X VZ 1 {z X 7,{ ( x g }n kZ X Zg } 6, kZ Zh
Z}g qX c*
^!*
= g @*
Z} !*
} V3
ui **
}gzZ N Zj Z z kZ X c*
M : i !*
]wKZ {z p
H wq Z'
,

1 VAZ X c*
Z9= Zz6,
zZB; gzZ , \
d|0
+!*
B Y
IZ
? g H Zg vB y 0*
C [Z L L Z h J [Zg @*
X M ~ u **
yY ~
g {zgzZ g Zg a q
-Z q
-Z V;z X o CZ Zg y 0*
~
y*zy #Y
/
Q {z X q
-Z y M
q
-Z q
-ZZg X vZ wgvZ Z[Z
: ~ ? VY ~g^ Z y 0*
Dy 0*
gzZ D 3
w TV y~ X @*
7te
$KZ ~ y*zy ~ !g

ge N ~8 {h
+ ~{z X tZ y 0*

L L{zgzZ !*
**
Z
VAZ zO [pJ
-nkZ 3 }uz kZ X
H
@*
3^a ~ X qz **
'
,} &
+egzZU 6, 3zBB1

X D: Za ~ VzyV{z lX Dg gzZ D VZQ {z @*


/

gzZ
-Z X ~g sg vZ v y M d
q
$

z [f
)
, ) S~s~uz gzZ g 3ZfZ }z svZ s
Cg
z[fiXgo V c (gJQzz g 7zz
V3 D M kZ c*
M ~ }o
8 XZ X ~e (CIK) Z
} C
^ CZ t X z }ZgzZZ ? HVY ^Z Ze

u= o
~ wq Z'
,Z u
z kZ '
e gzZ U Z(,q
-Z kZO ' Z
HV V C ~Q
~ 8 Z ~ee'8 e c*
3U yj}g7 ~ Zj

?' V ? C d
WL L: V[Z s
V3gzZ t Z kZ ]!*
kZ ' Z
H~u~L L : ~
Dge Dg e VrZ %Z D h H {z 4N*
' Z e h 4N*
kZ c*

Y 2011 ~gz

17

y 0*
3 h$
+p = } &
+e t Xb qz **
'
,} &
+e
X .0 ~ y$
+} {z V1 Vo) ZgzZ +@W
Z @ Y 1988 m 4 = wEZ "w bZ J
-y b
~ X ~ l
g N*
Zz ~ U ~ug Zz **
{x Z Z g Za

:{"
$.t + }~~u {x Z Z Z Z ~ * V 7
H ?t 7VY SZz Z ]Zg y l
g N*
kZ ?@*M 7VY
? }gzZ0
+Zt
b
A X )Y ~ D Y ~ l
g N*
: ix **
+kZg Zz**
$

c*
#
$ 8 X Z X ~ e X ~{S 6,zi !*
gzZ n w
c*
N ~ 0
+Z gzZ }$ b =O z N ~ Z

,.0
+Z 4V- ;g M 7= O g@*
gkZ ~ X
H
= gzZ 4Z g0
+Z w{ i Zzg 3 z V W k ]Zg X V Z
/~
H
4
&
4hGg ' Dg {z X c*
qz B Vzg Z-
wZ {z X g CZ G
X gZ%H t}gz J
-V ';g @*
gZ ~gzZ D
q
-g @*
kZ VrZ 6, M l = X Z 7,
/ l " ~ gzZ {z
z [ M ~g7 KZ `g Z {i Z0
+Z M V X ~ }uz q
-ZgzZ

X [
M z { ygzZ ;g B[@*
b qzwZzQ gzZ M k0*
}z 8 Z ~ e gzZ #
$ 8 Z ~ e
}g gzZ A ~ = z 8 Z ~ e X g Z
'
,g Z Z
OZ } (,7Z ~ ? q VR,
z C Z 'b
3 z VrZ 6,kZ 'z: g !*
g !*
t ?'~: ce =

O X Z e h 3Z w!*
}g kZ c*
gzZ BZ e Vc*
~ V; }
w!*
-Z y
q
KZ Z
# X Z e a w!*
J
g gzZuVs~ VrZ
X M x { i Z0
+Z kZ ? Cg
/H6,k Q Y
Z c*
kZ ;g C 7t ^g7gz 8 Z ~ e M

Y 2011 ~gz

18

I4Y
zZ kZ ~C

V ; z = X #
c l
g N*
kZ ~C
X g W
n EjG

( Zz g @*
Z w3 T )IwZz w3 ZuzgzZIy3z
6,J
g } kZ ;a ~B; kZ c*
M t }IyX |
3g g V !*
} 9Z J
g X ~g P 6,
zZ g ;a
 b qz]Zz V3Vz yZ X c*
qzg a 6,J
g
[ q
-Z 7
-e Z X y  z [Z ZgzZ gYi7 y
gzZ
H Z9t } {z X g X ^1 Y kZ X Z 4Z ~ } # l7

;a X ~g ] 6,J
g } kZ B :gz gzZ ':gz z C s s :
0*
6,} 3 c*
M l= Z
# X
H l " ~ gzZ Z
/Yn P
?: ~ X Vz :gz z C s s L L :Z h J 8 Z ~ e X gg :

g (Z " c*
M **
3 L La }~:kZ '7D q = z: v
} &
+e {z X } 7,~ wZgzZ e
$g } Q~ wze X M }
3X 3P ~g7 @ M ~ ]Z u} 9

Z c*
Z<

HH7 q
-Z X M {Z L L 7]!*
t Z
y*zy ~ T )q
-Z ~ x uF,
kZ Dg e Dg e kZ X
-Z X
q
Hw}g g e h
+
( J 7,Z  ) Z !*
X ~ V1

qZ X xL L Q s ~gzZ c*
. C
!*
} i Zzg { Z 3
wjX Zg Z%5Z Zg L L k
,
~hX
Hc*

g Z9~ }uz
ZZ ~ X m o ~ Zg egzZ {( Z ^}0
+
g kZ X > z

ZgzZ Y skZ| 7,XXn^] k o] ^vf k] ] ]


kZ  "
$U*
[Z {z ] ZZ 6,? L L : X
Hg a Zzgg
~9zg| l,
e ? L L'w^ CZ kZ ':gz g Z
Z y!*
i KZ ?a

c yZ -i
*
+gN6,g eg!*
y 0*
l ~gvQ X Y ]
~]!*
kZ X g M q
M F,
y 0*
? L
L Y
=: gvZ J
-Z
# B gzi Ka ~ l,
Zt e = X

Y 2011 ~gz

19

q
-Z |0
+!*
B; }gzZ VZ {z X m 7Z ~'Y7g

y~ } {z ]Zg X g 6,}n gzZ ~ wZ e ~ }


~ q
-Z t T ~ gzZ q
-Z w X g
;g Y H6,*aZ 7 i> c_ Z ~ Zz t kZ
VrZ o tzg B}gvgzZ y 0*
?
Ht Z
# yZ X
Xg D g D :
K 7Z gzZ D M 3 X h
+ F, kZ
t } a kZ
H{g 1 6,g6f p 5 yj K= J
-] g e

~ ] g e X ;g Y H1 yYt h
+
X ;g 6, q
-Z }
@*
wZ Z q
-ZC
X
Hc*
7t yZ= gzZ M 20 X M ~g !*
M k+ izgC
gzZ ug Zzgg J
-y &X
H [Z ~ gzZ

Q = Z: q 7Z y &X D ZC
jZwZ z M
I4Y
zZ kZ ~C

tzg } > ]5 ~ VV X
Hc*
W
n EjG
-Z J
q
-y z ~ X g
Z'
, V Y:  g
# X c*
,j = VrZ X ;gB yZ ~ } #
ex Z/{z Z
z Z r
# g tzg = y z X @*
Y
/ Z D ]uZz
} }Q X Zzgg Vz&
+e VM
Hc*
Zj V3

qz Z = f
$r ?Z gzZ , Z V3 yz gzZ }g @*
Z
~ ]Zg kZ X  6,y$
+} ` M ]**
K u**

$f Z kZ X c*
e

X : wq y6, ?@*
c*
X hgB M c*

zg Z c*
zg
T
Hc*
Y J
-,.u +pkZ l
gN*
= y Y 1988
( ~ 0*
Zz yp ) ~ ,. J
/kZ X h w V el
L L
s b= Mz M z {z X ~ 0*
u ZX
Hc*
\
d tZ=
x kZ ~ [ M Z Z ~ Z
# {z t gzZ D ]ZgzZ
R,
V;z ~gzZ
Hy 0*
~ c*
C 7Z ~ X
H0 x ~g Z
ZL L
7Z c*
g Z
Z kZ }X 7x= R,
( p q

Y 2011 ~gz

20

X
Hq C
LL
TV X
Hc*
~uwW
nw l
g N*
= Y 1988 c 17
X gZe Z 7 QZ g&
+ +@Z [x
V;z
H3g = ~ } #
X
Hw LZ~' DtZ {z 3glpV-{
VrZ
-Z 0
q
+
i ~ VV X
Hc*
vV Z = Y 1989~g 2
w ~R,
=sZ
) ) ]5 ~ V X 4Z ~ h6
g \ \!*
= yZ .Zz X 1g
CCZ = VM
Z sZ [

# w=B }g X c*
$
qz **
J 7,u 0*
yM
=
Z sZ [ X 5
uZ#
$ g Z ( ;g ~ RGg ~  ) #
$ x L
X tzg *gzZZk
,
+ ZzZ x~`
2
x~

= {z X : .6,Zg f= ~ r
#
Z sZ ~ Z
X n
pg wg7 ZgzZ D sB LZ D **
3B LZ
~ Z]
. r
#
Z sZ ~ c*
M ;g ~Y 1989 14
4'
,
i VrZ D MC
!*
gzZ g = {z X zg ^Y ^Y
b ~ y LZ d
W
Z L L : w Z e ~
A ~9zg &
A yZk
,
zdX $
+* c*
M y:ZzX : L={z' Y

gzZ d
$+ *zy *zy g0
+Z }X {g 0
+
i X }P }
/
+@W ~ a ZQv M kZ X g uv M s x
X 1ga pQgzZ {C 7Z @*
VZ y yZX HZg
H| ~ ~ 
~ Y 89~
Vz0
+
g Cg Y 1989~g 26X
y[Za}pn: l= {z X
Hg0
+Z kv~XZg 0*
Y6,y
BVZz sZ
) )g
CLL: r
# ZzO X
H
~
x
/
ugzZ 1 h **
.
$
c_ ~ X Yq
-~ VZzY
BxkZ
HM y 0*
gVzh N l7 s'
,Y 1990 s6,
Z 11 X
H
XCY 7$
yxg}g pt J
-Z
# VzJ
-
z kZ

Y 2011 ~gz

21

xj% 5Z

VZ e

Z-Z Z 
~ g ZL L~ Y 1996  : YZt xj% 5Z
FX M ~
w:7 ~fzZg a VF6,x Zg
a ~g
/VFgzZ Vg Z 5: r Zu VFJ
-{
~ quY Z k\Z6,qZ :7 gzZ M X
Zpg
bzg: YZt X gxj% ~g tzg
z kZ X : YZt Z

{z {g ig kZ ~g tzg g a Z Zz Zi
( gZ k
,
) X wt
YZgzZ |
jW izg g Z Z q
-Z  3Y g Z
# ~ ~gz

yZ q
-Z 
9 |
# g w @} H v q
-Z }g ) ~0
+
|
# g V C c*
iz
KZ X l y
KZ q
-Zt X 0*
l
X ;g v
X ~ 7,
6,kZ Zzl
q
-Z D Y s j
7ZxE LZgzZ c*
uzg Y s |
# g kZ V-KZ kZ

1N V;zZ spZ X
H` s~uz7
-; ~ ~
Z 3 q
-Z :7 X Y H 7 gzZ
'
,
i ~(,~
b J (,xs M i Z0
+Z Y } b kZ X M V;z

k
,
~hgzZ O gzigzi kZ c*
M w HZ x**
-eZQ p
7
c*
. n LZ n Tx**
{z ~ xW Vz { ZggzZ V3
D y
/ kZ 
z g X ~ 7,S0
+
zZ6,CY }i
X
H0
/Z gzZ M .
ZC
!*
@ M
gzZ w
q
-Z ag N*
-Z X Z 7,R Z N*
q
gq
-Z } l k0*
|
# g

Y 2011 ~gz

22

: Z 6,[C
P

y I$e:Z *Z eX Z Z}
.gi L L
6, X Z 3g 6,gVc*
q
-Z 6,V1 g 6,
zZ Z
3g V- Z Zzpg X
HHwEZ6,g f
$z& Z 7,Zq
-Z

'i Zg kZ& gzZ ~J


g kZ i Zg Zg eZ }g kZ
gZ
/w RZ 0
+
i kZ gzZ VY {zB |
# g kZ
YJZh Z CZC
kZ HVYt 7
-eZ

]6,l ykZ gzZ 7, yEZ o Z kZ {z


0 kZ g Y 6,cg T 0
+
i d O % Z e
X I cg Z H }
c VZ {6, 6, ~g T c*
*
M {z
~B; :7
l gzZ M ~ ]Zg Z q
-Z p kZ sX Z 7 
{z p
X ~ ~ }i Gg
7

Zz Y ug Zg f k0*
z Y
z kZ 3 Zz M 6,
x **
g o LZ B |
# g kZ c*
{z  { Zg
~ zg Z M ! LZ 3X ~C
o kZ # Tp

:t {z c*
ug ug 
! [
g \
dB z |
# g \ M LZ ~ H ~

0
+
iq
-Z6,J
g \!*
}gzZ V }[Z 0
+
i ~ a kZ Vz
YgzZ N Y w= yP zg {z V Y%~ X g**

pX  M Y{z a kZ } q
- 4,
yZ t Z
f ~

hZz ]g:  a
yZ gzZ a yZ ~ Vg {0
+
i
/Z
X V Vu N VZ V
_Z s~vX V [Z @*
Q V
76 C!*
.~ ] V- ]X H a
_
t~

Y 2011 ~gz

23

kZ Z 7B; ~ kZgzZ Ht w }Q ~ X

X  g { Z'
,
u\ M Tx kZ c*
Z9 ` , Zg 6,TJ e}g
V Z x KZ \ M p kZgzZ  g Zu} (,
o kZ \ M
} h
+
X V g # \!*
CZ \ M ~ X  ( \!*
a
bZ yp gzZ ])~ Vg \ M i Z0
+Z kZ #
z'
,M " g Zi !*
u` KZ kZ xt Z Z
# ce \!*
-Z bT
q
\ M ~ X : gzZ : ]Z f \ M = X
Hc*

eq
-Z\ M t a kZgzZ V Y wg7} (,
o kZ
~ @*
V g g (Z a kZ ~ wt X V g w
6,J
g \ M 6,Z \ M r Z Zg z
f ~g gzZ C" ~g

VrZ 0*
Z e ~ y LZ \ M Z
# a kZ Vc*
6,` @*
\ M gzZA
Xb qz% Z eB; 6,]V@ KZ \ M
0*

X c*
ZI{Z]KZ ~6,
ZT%
g {z ~[Z

Za ~ V R
q
-Zy w~ Hgi x **
yZ
gzZ B
bg 7 C ~ { c*
i k ZX y{ Z Z}
.x **
\!*
}X
X {z q H + Yt ~}g !*
kZ %f ~Q

k0*
) ) , X CY: L~ VEBgzZ ~

X Z ~(,ZgzZ Z~ T g ~ wj , Z ~ J
-
p
rg: s zZ : ZgZg ~C
p
/Z gzZ Zg zZ p : Z y Zg

n~ T ~g7 ~g7 ~ kZ Z Zzg b Z yyx q


-Z
ZgzZ C lp] kZgzZ ~gz Z'
,gzZ x Z $Z kZgzZ
X Cg Z
/x c*
Z ZZ LZ ~ wj ,Z C
o}g t w

u " J 7,J
- = 7Z gzZ 6,( zZ ~ kzu ~TZz }
= M V X
Hc*
Z 4Z ~ ]ZgZ'
, f
$zZ = O t
=6,bzg ~I/ 0 ~ r z w } '!*

Y 2011 ~gz

24

Z kC7
-eZ M ~ kZ VY= gzZ Z ~g w{Z

~g t X
H{g **
6,} k] ZgzZ
H
Z [ Zg Zi !*
u
X g y.6,J
-V~gzZ kC ~ ~ kZ VY{
yZ c*
{i Z0
+Z ~ ~ V z yZ X Z s Z V!*
6,

V;zg Z @*
Y c*
hY h bkZJ e t ZB ! ~ V
]vZ X N p Z p" g ZZ Z xq
- 4,
yZ Re
]!*
gzZt X : W,
O { c*
izz ~ M gzZ KZ wj kZ ~
X H: wJZ ~p c*
~ wj ,Z= ]!*
wz
{z [ ~ '*
!  gzZA ~o Y ~ 9 t zz kZ
g IY O pgpKZ ~ wj ,Z \!*
q])q
-Z +Z
X}I { c*
izgg ZD
b ZC
g qY [
ZZpg Vp \!*
}X : ~
/e VY f
$zZ
-} Z X ! f
J
$zZ VY HwEZ cg z W,
Z X XlX BZ e }

X H: D6,0*
m
'ZzN L LKZ YpY c*

X Y c*
Z4Z ~ V o = H V Zz y}
, H ~ yL L:c*
Z X C HpZ'
~

X YZg f7,
X 4Z ~ IL LQgzZ
X VH&gzZA~ k ]X
HM ~ y c*
g Y * c*
m

gzZ L sVzg e X wj {zp


Hc*
~ Z q
-Z p
/Z
9
G-E
F
5
} i Zz M X ' kC g6,Vzn b Vzg Z@ M
g Z p mq
-Z J
-Wz6,X : zJ
- V'!*
t Q X '!*
pzf

M ~ J
-V FgzZ zg [p~ M :Zz yizg X D
c*
~ wj kZ X : q
-Z ~~ t gzZ F, V Zz ypg C
V!*
X K w3 ~ M M X CkCk]" \ M LZ ~

Y 2011 ~gz

25

g : x p
$
[ =
6izg V '!*
{z C kC= g

m~ VM" " X **
\ M LZ **
g x a kZ
HkC ~ X @*
Y
Z F,
: zz" : a ]!*
gzZ D Y ;
*
X ~ 7,Vc*
A P M V +Z ~g

: gzZ g0 c*
/x

/Z c*
{ i Z0
+Zt ~ yZgz kZ ~
X *
@Y kZQ Y 2~ n% p]g
X x c*
Z t X  x wJ e ggzZ l M %Z

X V C3 !Z 0
+
i KZ\ M ~ [Z
]5 VrZgzZ  g F {z X c*
M gz? yY!{ c*
C Z V6,
} (,X V M xe
$ Ygz? ~ c*
= Z X c*
a
E
G
4
45G
~X
rg G
z^~uz KZ N*
ggzZ : zz xi 5

V gzZ +Zz ;g !*
~gz? pg 5p
/Z X g a Ygz?
X ^ t Z %Z V; !{B

r6,u} X : ZzgPz P gzZ R Z N*


g~
g OZ ] z6,ZgzZ CY M ~fzZg {z : Zzg6,~h TX g
z = X S~h ~uz g OZ ] z = [Z X Q~h ~uz
-]
~ q
-Z VZ y CZ ~ X *
*g OZ ~h gz? 2 xg P J
X "7, w [ q
-Z g k0*
Z gzZ M 6,l K
x
[Z X
H { Vz
) ~h Zz M xg P Zg ~ k
,
~h

6 xg P q
,
-Z } wg i Zg gz y V- ~ X W V
CgzZ _
gzZ Vc*
{g OZ Z Z X gkCPq
-Z ~ w LZ
X ;g r~ csVzg e}6 Zg " q
-Z

~9gzZ M d
$
}]g (,q
-Z Z
# Zy7 =
~ X VZ Zg f gzZ Zg B; Z kZ Q X g Z }
X Z Zt V Z c*
C ZgzZ skZ Z

Y 2011 ~gz

26

kZ X
H k0*
}Z Z X (Z ZX } Z L L

X
X 3,Zg f ~ X Z t X 7 Z \ M =L L
X K6,kZ [ZgzZ VZ Z} ~g Z L L

X m (,
3 :7 !*
gzZ Tl7 Cq
-Z ~ ZgzZ
X Z Z9 M k0*
}g
: kZ ? ]!*
H! ~(, H L L
X r1 G,
G,
M $ 1yT ~ [Z X VZ Z ZtL L
X
HM ~ k]C,z gzZ q
-Z ~ ZX B@ M (,

k0*
}g vk
,
~h ~ X @*M Z Zg vt V;L L
t H kC ~ X ~i V 0*
}'X VrZ X

X V A ~ : M

~h Zz Ygz? V M y~ X ZR^t ! r
# L L
[v}g7 B w P ~ X . \ M X g OZ
~hQgzZ 1 VZ R^~ m (,6,kZ X c*
[Z ~ i Z0
+Z {gzZ

X
HM V;z 3 ~gz!*
-Zzg~k
q
,

Z Zt X c*
Zl
7R^ ~ X **
Y gz? = ! r
# L L
X ~
# Z<
~X } Z Zv\ M X

X YY 76,~h Zh Z R^ V Y @ ~h Zz ~h L L
V-h l$
+t X  } R ,Z X Y x
~
X 3 X i *t X  CVc*
ga ~

IZz Z : V;z ZX ug M ~ } M X zg~


X ~ = VV {z X Z Z=
= V`P gzZ :
Vsu +pg0
+Z
n Ht a x }g VY L L

Y 2011 ~gz

27

X Y7 u
/ g Z7 Zz

X ~ i Z0
+Z& p x X R * q
-Zt gL L
X kZ X N Y .

XO ZR6 kZ L L
-ZQgzZ = g kZ X c*
q
t gZ7= (,gzZ

X ~ i Z0
+Z ]k~ X H{g 
Z
6,t B ?
Z@ M -Q s ~ g Z7 ? _ Zl
Z J
- [Z CL L
X Kz q
-Z ~ i Z0
+Z kZ X D

t V M yV g Ygz? [ V Z ypq
-Z ~L L
X ~ b
~ X  T e b =li ~ : M v
x
Z X @*
7B X  CY /i
V L L

X Y6,K- e ?x Xk
,
~hZg f X V
gzZ
D z X c*
qz r qu6, r
# g Z7 X
H` x gzZ
X gY} h Z kZj} [ZCZ

c Zl
*
7 ~ X V ~ 6 ~ X n Ht vZ c*
LL
4 {gG s~ M ~h ~X  g # J M [Z X V V ~ X
X g y
-gzZ g ~ w LZ ~ X HQ ~h ~X  !*

,
k
~h~ } M'
, v f
$rr
# l7 CVz {z ~ Z
X C
!*
gzZ _Z a3(,QgzZ C
!*
Qg D'!*
7 ~ X V { k
H" ~ H
g ]!*
~a Z}
.r
# g Z7L L
~g7 ~ X Y = \ M X ~h ~X c*
Zl

X ~
#
t zIL LX _Z ,
$~ X s~QX c*
hu4- r
# g Z7

{ z k
,
~hX i Zz M "} i Zzgq Z ~ X
H } # {z
X
HM ~} #
X Hx **
Zg v C YZ L L

Y 2011 ~gz

28

X C, Z x YZ x **
L L: c*
C ~

$e:Z ~ X x ZZ N*
.

t 7~ga ~L L : ~
X , Y
z kZ X  M
hb7 ~ }\ M X V
X q gzZ 7Z ~ga

X g kC1 Y c} #= X t Nz ~ X 7q L L
-Z g Z7 t }gzZ ~
q
/Z b V } s 9
kZ X
HM d
$
} {z 7
-eZQ X Z9a 6,}n ?
Zi gzZ {z(?f
X kCk0*
V !*
uLZ ~
X YY 7 x`
CZ X z C s sd L L
~ VN*
~gzZ g ,
$~ X c*
Z9B; Z kZt gzZ

ZX 
x ZX ;gN s~ @ M b {z X ;g: x
X m: m ~pV ;e Y
X Y c*
**
Y V ? ~h Xg D ?` M d L L
X x B; } Zg f @ M gzZ $Z ~ i Z0
+Z - kZ
X 6, li ~g
-eZ p ;e \ gzi ~ X m ~ ?f VL L
7

gzi q
-ZQ X Z9y!*
i ~X M b} h6M 6,}B; kZ
X W**
}g @*
t V\ M ~gzZ H kC6,}n LZ ~8
X Z H 7x=QgzZ ~ 7,[h
+q
-Z6,y
/~Q

~ ? M Z
# ~Xg Dg } h6,J
g }[Zpu +p
'gzZ {zgzZgzZ { i Zzg q
-Z T {# q
-Z X ~ 7,6,_ q
-Z
6,} ~ A
$X } 7,6,wt } }gzZ Z Z
w }rZ rZ ]uZz X M 1kZj} M M X k] Zuz
0
+
i ~gzZ {n~
~ ` = A
$gzZ W**
~ r z
X
H^I C 0*
~

Y 2011 ~gz

29

y - { z X
HM t Z @*
Zy- {z } #}uz gzZ { i Zzg 7
-eZ

HM t } {0
+
g \ M {z Zz gZ e {z l!*
zZ {z [Z {z {z c*
{z
X n ?
Z~n
}X ~ pV Y%p c*
Vzg Z Vz7,>
6,kZ ;e Y Z

X V Y 9 ~ }i ;e Yt sZg: O kZj
~ Vz}c*
~B; } VZ Z Z kZ X c*
Md
$
}{z
:gzZ ~ ~ (~
LZ
# X }Y = ^ ^ ~fzZg X V{ e
$ x **Zgi d L L
$' M 7~ }X :: { d
e
$Z M ~fzZg
X Y [Z Z X b x **
V{

g Z }g @*
6,y, M Z
# }0
+ZgzZ { i Zzg kZ t
X : w2t }[ZgzZ X c*
C
!*
} i Zzg zi !*
=
}O]
.X : e**
YB kZ6,y, M gzZ : y Z6,}i

X g gzZ g ~ JZ x
yX }Y y= ~ * kZ [Z X V Y V~ p 7q hZ p
y HX
Hw$
+7
-eZ a } XX Y : ~ X }T
7Z B s~Z
# {z X V Y 0g**
Z$ q
-Z6,J
g V @*
V Y
{n Z yZ ~gzZ 
/~
/}n {z kZ
VZg V HV Y 0q xq
-Z6, \!*
H:
Vz HX VzQ C;30 l CQ q
-Z HVz Zh Z u VgzZ
~ kZ Vz0
+
g X Vg ~ kZ VZ e V YO
?V Hy
M [Z ~ X V V
: V e : V : [Z ~ V X V

tZ
# V; vZ 7[Z gzZ 7 \ M p~ D \ M ! Zz [
VX H Zj VZ e x xKZ \ M Vg7 A
$ Z9)l
X ww~ zi Z F,
g Z MZ LZ Nz'
,M yZgzZ X Zj Vzga '

Y 2011 ~gz

30

~gzZ Zz X V 3:\!*
V gzZ V [Z 1< ~

`g0
+
i {z [Z Zg 0*
Y bZ e ]Zg q
-Z6,0
+
i T 1<
x9 \!*
}  C M x V `g= XA : y
]Zgt X } H {z 1N {0
+
i ~ wq kZ= VrZ
/Z X 6,}n

'
,KZ ~ ~ zg Vg `g M { ] O g @*
KZ
/Z
X Y {g y ZQ [ze
/Z}g @*
t X V
\ M HX e \ M H V 7 t s \ M ~ ! Zz [
T~ VZ e kZ G Zg f
/Z X V X
\ M } M \ M Y
yZ
/ZgzZ  p {z  \ M g Zu
Hni z'
,M { i Z0
+Z\ M A
$X yp X ,
$6,J
g
}0
+
g \ M  nit p 3g !*
g !*
nig Z \!*
}X @*
Z$
Za kZ X :Y {z kZ C
!*

Z'
,yZt c*
yZ
y, M : gzZ VZ e gzZ u 0*
**
{z }i: [Z: 1

} HwGkZ sX 7V~J
-V;zgzZ  a }2
$ kZ
wGt yZ = gzZ V g t ~ n T |
# g
X } Zg gz0
+
iqg q
-Z  @ ,Q1
$ g " T|
# g

g vZ {g!*
z )lt Z
# a y kZ V C y*Z KZ ~ [Z
Cg OZ " y kZ ;zi !*
LZ ~ Y Wz ]~ 7
~gig ~g v! }g\ }gzZ !*
Z m,
} Z ~g \ ~ q Z Z X Vg

\ M @*
Y l7zg a ~ O g @*
I
3 `g
X q Z Z Xn 0: r Z $
+6,Z { 0*
( Z Z}
.gi )
~ y*GZ6, Gg
7 l gigzZ e V: LJ
-DZ [t
X
H[ze {g *q
-Z y, M X ~ + ~ x Z
) Zz <
L IZ Z

Y 2011 ~gz

31

s Z z w

g
) ,]lvZ0 q
-X ;g kZ
Z~
;g g0
+Zq
-Z q
-Z ~g!*
~g!*
y!*
g 7ZgzZ xW )lIZC
!*

ZX
y yZ r
# X D7n CZ Dq ~
Z
X
]gq
-ZX ._ wz hgzZ D yY VD yZ f
e
X ;g M s }n kZ gzZ F,
zX ~9~xWkZ
{z X
H` @*
F,
sg OZ X g Y M vX Z } 9} 9]g
= : iZ gzZ Hz+
$Y KZ y!*
g i Zz7 gz kZ y
M X ga
# X c*
r
g0
+Z Z y!*
g X Y ~ ]i YZ 7 ~
Z
:7 gzZ Z e6,kZq
-Z
?n H Zg v! ! L L
X V M c*
k0*

\ M ~L L
?H 6,?
X }0.Z L L
? R >ZZ ? g H L L
V; YL L
? Hr C ,L L
LZ = t X H qz I ]gX r !*
gL Z}g ) ]Z
c*
g
{ yZgzZ LZ ~ HZ V }X 5 ~ Pgz \!*
X 1gq
-Za wNgzZ lgz6,z r !*
gzZ g Z- yxg
6,{ }gzZ 1 h
+y
r !*
{ V } }0 .Z ]
Z y q
-Z X c*
gZ ~ 1z
@r !*
CZ ?: gzZ , h , : w

Y 2011 ~gz

32

tX y ~ c*
} J eg Z- kZgzZ c*
M ByZ P
! } ZX V Y { M 6,& r !*
~ t X Izu r !*
Z
CZ V CyZt \ M gzZ V M h
e h CZ ~ #
}
.\ M ~ [Z
X V:
/
B; Z r !*
C
!x :~ i Zz MQgzZ c*
quax q
-
X Vq [L L
X e q
-Z L L
X [ tL L

:} xgzZ $KZ6,kZ 1 e
X M B LZgzZ z et Z Y V; }0.Z L L
}g Z X H Zj kZ { ~g Y q
-gzZ 6,Z x

6,L~ z ,'QVc*
g V\ M
H HwV
:c*
gzZ c*
fZ eg ~ e !*
LZQ 4
= J Q L@*
Y
!*
]gq
-Z X M ? s~ Y k0*
q
-
~
Z KZ a Z9lz$
+lz kZ= [ZgzZ 1 y ? N*

Xg
X gzZ ( ~VgZp ~ x(Z L L
X Y Z Y ? 4g e kZ H
X c*
x  ZgzZ Zq~
Zq
-fZ eg
!xL L:
[ YL L
X z wZ e ~ gzZkZ L L
X Y7 fZ eg ? {= \ M H L L

X Vs ~L L V;L L
X T e *
*< ? M k0*
}Zzx ^
,Y**
-Z ? L L
q

Y 2011 ~gz

33

# q CZ X
Z
H| m
gzZ {g 0*
kZ c*
fZ eg BZ

c*
M x  s fZ eg {z :Y7 Q id kZ X 5~
Z q
-
?c*
^~ Z \ M Hg] kZ
kZ Z
# q kZ L L : Z q {z X ~ i Zz M q
- !xL L
X z{B
z
c*
`y
M X ;g g OZ " e
$. Z
# qZ X ` y
q
-~ T ~id} (,} (, kZ X ZgD M |

N Y k0*
v\ M L L:gzZ c*
r Zg7Z XK [xZ
z
VpZ 7 M x ~ X ~ VrZ N C gzZ }xs Z7Z
X c*
x ZgzZ V; yZ [xZq
- X VzQ ~q~

QgzZ c*
[Z X 7h T M ]!*
+Z= v ?
? v X ~ i Zz M x Z}
.
z X z VyZ : X D hz yZ P

N M 7 qg " bkZ r
# : t 7Z X {g l x
? Hx`
Zg :1 X
g 0 ^zg ~ f <2Z gzZ 3Z'
~ { Zg hv ? L L
X $
{ Zw ~g v
? zg
/Zz H L L
X : x  { M @*
V;L L

gzZ c*
Z[{ i Zzg X
HV{ 3 g Z{ CZ ` }0 .Z
~> q
-}k
,
izg Z X H{ c*
hgV-{
yZ
Zzg ~g kZ H  .Z gzZ Zqzg Z
X z Z0 y Z : xgzZ yX } 9J Q Ug q
-X
? T e b hg
Z[ H L L
4}g 4'
,
i x t p VrZ 7 yZ t Z{L L

Y 2011 ~gz

34

X ,7 Z ~ x
Z {z ~ $JgzZ c*

Z X c*
/
Z<
Z (, g Y Z0 gzZ c*
} jZ r
# BZ
gzZ 1B eg ~ e !*
Ug H ~ y*Z y{xkZ VrZ
M } \ M **
!vZ1Z X ~
# , gzZ 1Y ~ 5 Zgr
#
M x  k0*
}{z X c*
wZ e ~ z{7Z ~ V; Xb wZ e ~{
X H6,]g" q
-Z gzZ
7 p=:Zz \ M
/F
e \ M V @*
~ X Z Z Z
LZgzZ G

~ X N Y 7 { :Zz v x J
-Z
# :1 X
I4E
N
58E
X Vz7E
6,1 ~ VrZ1  gzZ V Y ~g !*
g ~u>ZZ ~:gzL L

ntua .Z X Vzg ~ #
}
.yZg @*
ZZ 3g
[Z X Hk8 r
# c*
Z{V
yZ X : g {g e Z
t }Z gzZ z x ~g Z Z : 2z LZ r
#
q
-X Kq~
Z .Z X zX zq~
Z
X Se I q U*
&
! !L L:gzZ H Z9BZ]gx
X V [q ~ X , ;g V yZ \ M
pLL
Z Q gzZ r
# X Y c*
;g 7Z [Z V; X .Z
? w H0 kZ X H y{ kZ :Y7
X 9stL L

Ug g Z- 5 + Z
/g Z-  gzZ :Zz Z 1 \ M w 
X zL LX Z
\ M \vZ 7L LX Y7 r
# ?g 7 !*
$D ! ! L L
e

X } Z b
\ M gzZ}
'
,~ w z yY
X
H {@*
z zggzZ q
-Z ~ g @*
wsZgzZ ]g
( `z***
:[NZ )

Y 2011 ~gz

35

wD ZRZ e

x z *Z

, g Zgf ' x g z *Z L
L F
F6,p Z &yZ
/Z
@*

M F,~ i Z0
+Z kZ yZ gzZ @*

/LZ V Z
q
-Z
~ T Lg [x ~ { (Z q
C
-Z gzZ < c*
{
}uz 7k\ KZ X F,
u}uz 7uKZ Zuz
% }uz Y g %6,ni LZ gzZ &n
u k\
X E
kZ X ]Z f
q
-Z ]!*
@*
x ,t kZ
/Z
gzZ k(, M {z DwEZ X D ]gzZg Z ]c*
m{

g Z z ]Zz Y 0*
g0
+Z kZ Ct kZ
kZ X @*
g ]zgZ V { q
-g @*
| ~ f z [ kZgzZ
YG
E
5" z 6f
5E
sp~ z V E
kZ V G3rpgzZ ]tyZ X @*
@*
c*
g s: V6&~X @*
Z  C Z
ncD* @*
@*
Jm
yZz6,V6& ~WyZgzZ @*
g h
+'
7Z
XnY c*
~z
Z!*

kZ g kZ ]gzZ gZ ]c*
m{
t
@*
2 z c*
{ Z 96,x !Z { gzZ @*
Y x ~ c*
{g 
g Z kZ  D c*
x **
*Z &
]Zg Z z ]t X

@*
UC
q Oz w LZ y!*
c*
c*
g ,Z !*
t
~
Cq
-Z pX @*
iu6,7,]gzgzZ @*
X ~zg {Zg " gzZ
] { sq
-Z X yZgzZ y
KZ {z ~ q O q
-Z zC


y
KZ   {z  y
KZ & +F,
aZ ~ ] % @g 
x

Y 2011 ~gz

36

q ~ Z}
.q
-Z QgzZ sp~ y M Z X Z(,
C

s _(, M y!*
gzZbgkZ X *Z q
-Z ]Zf Zz
gzZ C!*
.z C;Z z qzg kZ
_
rg 7w Vgz~g z K kZ
^ )F
,
]gzp H*Z wDZX
rg w ]c*
gz C

]g q uZ *
/

KZ bzg T
t kZ X Z} *Z Zzg g Z *Z ~ gz ` M
(Human tu
KZ ` M   y
KZ {0
+
i 7
/
Vc*
C

tu V
KZ h
+zY {0
+
i LZ x Z Z ` M X  D Y Y 6,g Capital)
6,~g 4 { E
+ ZgzZ  g ay

6,x Z Z gzZ  g w$
+~ (Capital)
sp~tu
KZ LZ ~ Vs 9{ E
+ Z ^ M  ) ,
Vs
g gzZ V Zz ywgzZ V n
pg
A &
X g x gUQ:gz X ,I Bx g z~

s@ kZ X s@ Zg w2 0
+Zp b (Critical Literacy)
| (, M M s s@ Z avZ  _q x Z Z
}g ` M pX V s ?Z
#  CY y M B2gzZ s Z@Z X  g
b H ]gzKU kZ
x g z  *Z
| (, Vzi 0*
Z% ~ { c*
i
? i b)x }g 0
+Zp
 g gzc 7,s H ]gzK]!*
kZ *Z

gzZ ?N M } 9g a Zc Zl
z ya 6,] Z
c*
g
V } ]1~
C V X V Zz u 6,]!*
V Zx
C
: e a * wZ e ~ u V ~ 6
r
7Z gzZ N Y 0z c*
z yZ { x ZgzZ g D V0*
: \
gzZ s X N Y 0: ZzKWx Z (Z 'gzZ Bg CZ} ^zz
cg q
-Zk
,
X N YgD s 5Z'gzZ : & ~ !*
z h^

Y 2011 ~gz

37

s  v {0
+Zp ~W,Z *Z ` M X 7
/

C
/
(Z N Y 0Zz
C

x Z Zz Zz B xZz F,
6,^
[_
.g0
+Z LZ '!*
hZ x Z Z ~uz Zz 6,g ZZ KZ Zz
Zz 6 ]!*

5C
: Zz
pg/_
. (Sacrifice) !*

X *
*g {)z Zz F,
Z6,]Z f KZ Zz
/_
. a (Social Change) ~pY,g0
+Z kZ x g z  *Z
wEZa ~pY,{z& g {z k0*
*Z X ~gz **
gzZ

H 0*
,[zZ ~ } T Y ] {z g0
'
+Z LZ X Y
}  ;# ( N e o - l i b e r a l i s m ) xi Z w_ E *Z X YY
Y, {z g Z =]gzpx T 7
/

C
/
(Salesman)
C
gzZ *
* 0*
,=g &
'
+[zZ& (Social Change Agent) Z ~p
X b x Zu9
#
Z i
^ ]gzp H w
DZ
# Z i LZ  M
h
zc  i LZ r G {z
]c*
Zzg n z tX **
~g [6,] g {
& {z *Z
^ wD Z)wY bg<
g
/~ Vz ]c*
Zzg *
z z K
- V Zz Xg H Xg H

g ZZ KZ ~ OZ p (
]c*
Zzg /_
. a ~p~ T *Z z
]c*
Zzg g Z z dZ KZ gzZ VJZ gzZ
z
z !
/_
.
} {z v ]gz g Z, Bx g z h
+ g ZZ
X gzZ \G,:gzZ/_
.: ~p~ T
xq
-Z 6Vg F 6fv
D c*

Z ~ ]h k KZ jZ t Z e x H *Z
)
(N
56,104!*

Y 2011 ~gz

38

+i Z Z e

Z iuZz yZd Z

gzZ yZ0gi y 0*
sz^Z
+Zi w 20 ~ 
+i Z Z e ' Y Z L L[ AzZ Zz Y 6,`
'
z wz4,
]c*
M Z

` M 1 Z (Barley)  ~ Zwg
VY Z Z Z ag H7g6,kZ J
' B LZ ~ Zwg Z ~
V-gF d
$
100 ~ Z  3n \vZ ag
' '
,
Z'
,
: a^g6,kZ~ y 0*
10e
$Z  ' V `

gzZ |z y
KZ ~ Za fZ ]s V- g F bC

z c*
~ Zz b & Z KZ gzZ J (,~&gi Z
# 7~ BZ f lp
' gn ` 'i Zzg
y M **
Kzg L M  6,Rwy c*
g n  Hull-less
Z  ~ e
$~ ]g w gzZ
/
b6, nZ%Z X Y

X "
$U*
+ F,
hB Kzg L M kZzz c*
M 7LyZd Z~ ]Y
X wEZ Kzg

q z xn V a kZ '
,
Z'
, : wEZ Kzg h~ [
wEZ Kzg L M BB Kzg xn V
/Z Sg Ck
,
+
5
X YY J
-u yZd Z , qz

Tg}Q~ V
/} # h
~ Vz# 5 3 ~h `
} #w Zuz gzZ $
Y Y { **
Z gzZ ,],
Z T

Y 2011 ~gz

39

X Sg C M px
vx
v

 ) Z  Y @7k\ uy 3 ~HB Kzg 


~ i Z0
+Z kZ iZ Z ~gz 8 x x ]g ~ ( 2gzZ D  Kzg
Z K
M F,
t iZ ZgzZ Y **
Z g7 T  g} K
M F,
+
@ 7~ ZgzZ {z
3 Z  ag zz h
X F,
Z ~%{izg au 0*
@*M ~ e
$Zzg N
m 0Z gzZ
K
y YY V- ~ p Z}uz Z c*
D c*

l"
$ 2

z ~g 8Z a g ~gz$ Zz Za ~ {izg
@*M ~
/t X
I 2 c*
~ F,
l2 ag

8 3:y t g 8Z V 2{ izg1~ ugzZ


e G ms [Z X Lg @*
Z ~ ]ug0
+Z
{ izg 8 3 : y : VY ]'
,Q c*
gzZ ~u c*

/

zg0
+Z kZ y$
+
ce **
[Z X @*
Y {i wj zg0
+Z y$
+~
q
x
/x
/6, .1Y H [z}Q
z g 8Z ]u
@*
H qz *
*
/kZ y$
+ 3 c*
Vzh+

[Zy
zz Vzizg r
# Z e  D Y qz 56 V; VzZ e
X {)z {)zg Yg 7} izg ;g7x i{n
H
]c*
M A Z y M
Z
# YY c*
]!*
-Z Z { i Z0
q
+Z Z 
z kZ g wi **

/ZgzZ gL { Z_ ag ~ Zwg
zz h
+
X @*
Y Zg  ZZ {z q ~
` V-g F d
$
100 ~ Z  3n \vZ ag
V-g F
KZ
/Z ` M X V
y 40 , qz S x **
~gF $ $ ` M yZZgzZ t ZX  D Y x **
V-g F
kZ ._ y
y
ay.f : VY ~g F c*
yk
,

Y 2011 ~gz

40

g0
+Z Z ~ pg
$u VY ~ Z `

Zg ; y  D Ygz , Z } gzZ Z7


X @*
gz
/}n LZ D 0x 
{
9 t
a K Y ( i yZd Z
54X 790
.G
z kZ X .

 Kg H y 0*
 79.61) H
E
X
4
1
H

5
54X
G

.
.G
G
 23) 230 ~Kg kZ X ~gZcy 0*
6,Kg Z
/
( H
54X
.G
& gzZ  g Y

Zg { Z'
,D **
g
KZ 6,Kg ( H
54X 85 s ~g kZ X  Cropped Area
54X 8.5) H
.G
.G
( H
54X 145 C
.G
7Z X gY 7
6,Kg H
xn6,
g ~g J
$
-V i {z ~ yZ X  Waste CulturableL L
X
54
54X 6) H
.G
.G
60 Zg {z
{iggzZ`Z }i {zt XKg ( H
X 6,VJg
X
54 85 
.G
 8.5) H
k
,
i xngzZ $
7
xn6,VJg yZ [Z
54X
.G
%Z kZ ]gz Z ;g Urbanization Zg {zKg ( H
54X 6) H
54X 60 ZzKZ
.G
.G
~g  gzZ ,i%6,b & Z Kg ( H
60 zz Baren gzZ Sailnity, Alkalinity t 1 ~ g
54X
54X 6) H
.G
.G
kZ p q
-Z  ;g M 7x
) ZgigzZ Z 7,yZk
,
zKg ( H
zz ~g F gzZ ~gzm KZ  (Z
/Z [Z X ;g g1 q
-Z 6,CO
b & Z kZ YY H7g1 6,u ykZ Z 7,rg ~ y
54X 60 ,Z !*
.G
C7,*
*z z K
- gzZ Mg Z gzZ
 6) H
54X
.G
Mg gzZ b & Z kZ YY H7g1 6,u 0*
Kg ( H

$%]Z W,
A
Z s: 6,u VZ {Z
+ kZ @*
ce b y s

XnY Z z ! l yZd Z ~gY ~ o Y G


`q fZ ]
'
,
i +Zt
Ht 6,` Barley
{ig _Z i {zm{ YY H
7 6,}i bC
Z

Y 2011 ~gz

41

Xk
-=g f b & Z V i yZ `t  ~ 7,yZk
,
z c*

X
X
4
4
5 60 B \ M [Z
5  6) H
.G
.G
V ; z
/Z ;g M 7
k
,
iKg {z ( H
yZ 1 6,CO kZ it q
-Z (Z Y
` 6,
50 c*
 Z 20 i Z g ZzZa  Zuz F Mg 0=g f b & Z
54X
.G
{ i Z0
+Z g ZzZa Zt gzZ $
Za J
-H 150 [ H

g ZzZa  M  Z 40 c*
 Z 30 g ZzZa 
/ZgzZ '
B [ZX Bp{i Z0
+Z
gzZ s@ H 23 Vg ZzZa xny 0*
 6,}i ~ 7,yZk
,
zgzZ ~ y~ VJg`Zzgz
H 150 V
Q 6,: xn Shortage {z L M gZzZa Z J
Baren yZ $
~g7 zz ! c*
L M

6,V i c*
VJg {iggzZ `ZyZ
 V;z g 7
xn V
kZ Least Demanding Crop t QgzZ $
Y q {Z ({ZpuZgp
X Cg7y M Lg py

B 3 0*
a
`

`kZ  g VZ {Z
+=" ` Cc*
F,
gzZ 7y
KZ T `uZz * `  X Z 3g 1 : 6,g
]s V- g F bC
 $
VZ {Z
+ g7 kZ i p ]Z &
+

~ J(,gZlgzZ BZ f lp
gzZ |z y
KZ ~ Za fZ
` i Zz gz c*
~ Zz b & Z KZ gzZ J (,~&gi 7
7 yZd Zizg M ~ o $
Y ]!*
t Z gn
6,`kZ ~ y 0*
Y ]gz+F,
+
h
z x 
{g Z Z L L
X '
,
Z'
, : a^g
x {z ~ ,
c ]g
[ LZ V i C
 C
( wD Z )

Y 2011 ~gz

42

vZ x Z Z e

Vc*
g Z)f +ZzgzZ a :Z

hg, q gzZ ]c*


Zzg hZ ~g ~ J0
+Z [fsq
-Z
}g
CX ]Z6, s~uz Z
#
*
* F,
gzZ xg {0
+
iZ Le { Zg
/Z X  ]Z W,
Z: Zzy 6,}
q O {@ L LX { Zg xsZ  CZ {Zg wZZ
(w
g g
$u) X 0*
V Z {z
V; }g YY c*
]!*
kZ { i Z0
+Z q$
+~g ~ A
-Z
o Cc*
F,
-Z b Z
q
# g ZD
65 ]ZZ bV/ wq
w N V
~ V x zz ~(,
kZ X g ZD
10 ~
V N S+Zz ]!*
kZ ]gzX **
: D
o~ }g !*

gzZ w N ( ~g F V2 ~ V) wZ bZ
Z
oa
\ M eX , S kZ Vzuz gzZ , pwEZ {!*
V7
X Y $ yY a 6,}gt

( y M Z ) X 1X+
M
KZ ~g c*
kZ c*
XyY q
-Z TgzZ L L
V 6,gx ~ V +F,yRgzZ ~ ] SV; }g
o**
LL
**
a a Zt ~ Vpq X CY ~ Malnutrition Z
X @*
7,W,
Z Z'
,6,z K V~ Vpq yZ X C (Undernutrition)
}7 {%9,q
-Z wV yZ X CY7,Ng g "(, yZ
X $
V Z KZ ~g F gzZ  M
h M ?Z`
6,T CY

^
/Z X B; y Y^ ] z Z
) !*
: fZ
o
Z
# X @*
Y
z ~ / zg A
$ Y $ FZ
oq
-Z
p b)yZ J
-u^ Zz q (Wellnourished) Z

Y 2011 ~gz

43

M !*
S0
+M c*
ylg *
!  } 7 qq
-Z wVT Lg
X Y

**
N zzz Z
o**

X YY H~gZz Z &a M KZ~zg N z~ V


X { 12 ( 3)X J
-{ 12 Za ( 2) X Za ( 1)

Za

V}uz b %~ kZ x Z
/ 2.5 6,Za yiz a T
V nq ~/ V V; }g ~ ];z kZ X C { c*
i }
X **
( yp ) @Z c*
c*
U KJwEZ Z **
c*
o**

ZS V Vz% SgzZ Vg ]gz~ }g !*


kZ
X Y c*
Zkzg
gzZ
~ TX}wEZ Z yi Z{z ~gza ]gnq
oX Y H wEZ {!*

Z gzZ y],M X Y ~ z6,V-! { i @*


)f) \!*
~ }g !*
kZ X Y H6, KJgzZ Y Hx Zg M
X ~gz *
*[!*
TX k- ~ V Z yd
$6,gm{tzg: ZgZ

-{ 12 Za
J

 **
Z qz|z V q ~gz
a a Ug Za
|z J
-w z a ~ xsZ X
Hc*
gZ
Z a Vz V gzZ a
~ V Y ._ VZ bh
+]
.m,
?t X
HH m,
?

g g: w z a Zg7 Z C ~ yZgz y],M 


Za 9z ~ Za a wEZ |z V ~ * ~}uz X @*

qz|z L
1 ]!*
kZ ]gza kZ X=g f +F,W,

,j
c*
qz **
|z CZV LZ V 50 [fX Y (
CZV LZ N 90 ~} Z t 6,
C gzZ
Lh
+
p, c*
|z
?N Y w 50 V; }g L t

Y 2011 ~gz

44

s V-g F a gzZ Zq
-Z a a ~ { b |z V

t g Z ay

gzZ @*
Y { wZa X @*
fZ Cg
 6, |z ja ]!*
kZ ]gzXi+F,l
X Y c*
6, 4uZgpV {z @*M ay

zZ kZ gzZ ce b |zi g0
+Z ] q
-Z Za a
X Y ~ : uZgpgzZ ~ Y z Z kZ X Y c*
|z sVz ] &
g / g D WZ ~}g !*
kZ V
/Z X Y Xzgu wEZ a
wEZ|z L
1 Y 1]!*
kZ X g k3,
c*
y{
X { c*
i } V}uz ]ZZ bV Zz

**
Y |z

~(,
kZ X 7 FZ a a **
Y |z V
C Z
# z J
- V- !*
M ~Xt
H X C;zz
: YY H{ .Z x ZZ sfzgq~ ]g+Z X @*
7(Z ~ V- !*
M
X
A & |z a ~ kZ Y c*
yEZV :1
|z CY ~uz Q CY q
-Z ] 4X 3 C
a :2
X 4 10 X 5 6Zgz TY
X YY c*
|z ?gzZ
~ ]g **
|z
m,
ggzZ ]~ kZgzZ
ouZgp V Y ]!*
kZ :3
( Z **
Z Zz Za ~ ~g ) X g Zl
X YY H qg Z e M :|z6, (Z y &z
/Z :4

wEZ Y Z {z|z

6 z kZ Y ZwEZ: Z {z|z a J
,
-/ { 8
/Z
Z Z'
,
qzwEZ V Z ~uz q
-Z q
-Z a ~ / { 6X 4 X Y7,W,
Xi q
-Z ~ y { &
+Z Z Z| M c*
YY c*
E
X @*
Y c*
Z
YY HZ Zq
-Z ~ kZ zC
X N Y ~i z ,qt z

Y 2011 ~gz

45

t }9z { q
-Z ~ ]g **
X  
{)z ~7gzZ 1 ~ X
Zz wEZ ~ y~ / w q
-Z a M M X $
Y ZC
w
gzZ a% cu g w ~ }g !*
kZ X YY c*
Zz wEZ ~g F,}Y Z
~g )gzZ a% ,z gzZ 3 tZ^ @*
g wEZ V )
X
) !*
J
g gzZ 1 ~ !*
M 50

{ 12

o) c*

{ |z V Za a }uz / w q
-Z
^ a ~ /kZ X Y M t
.
~ z K a ~ uZgp

Za fZ ~!s yZ q ?Z`
V}uz {z @*
Y
6,  M
h7,} Q~ ]zZ jZ X @*
qz *
*
a t X  Cg6 6,3a LZ N X  s Z e W,
Z Z'
,

Y g ~g Y bkZ
/Z X zz ~(,
gZ 3uZgp
iW,
v VzQX
8g (Z ^ ~g F C;q
-Ztzg g Z a
w @*
Y H m,
?~ o }g X **
bhZ V; 3

a 0a y &i z ~ y Y ~ Zz VzQ Vi q
-Z ~
{ M wEZ { c*
iYce **
~ g Zl wEZ ~ uZgp
}g
(
/
) c*
f zz kZ X
C
) !*
I ~ 0
+
i
X { c*
i [fgzZ ;g Y k(,~}
{ c*
i wEZ V Zzi gzZ ce D
bg ~g Y Z~ ]g ~g F V
Z g M zZ L L ce *
*: 0*
a ~ ]g wZ SX Y c*

u**
  wEZ 0*
a1zg
N X Y HwEZ
CY ua ~ ]g ~g F ce D
bg ~ f qt V X
] Z ZX CY| (,8
- Za Lg 7
gL ; gzZ

c*
0*
wEZ {!*
N*
z RL L~ VX Y H : Y H: gz a 6,
X YY c*
: Zizg~g Zl{ m,
?kZX
H

Y 2011 ~gz

46

@*
6,f
$g;1g gzZ (Fat) ]l
(Proteins) ]z Z (, uZgp

/ ~g 9 x Z
/ ~g 4 K
M n*
!
[ x Z
/ ~g 4 gzZ x Z

( ]l
gzZ ]) wEZ z ~ V Z yd
$ X  D Z
**
Z

c*
gzZ ^8
-BZ ~ uZgp VX @*
zz

w EZ
9 z Z Z
Z ) X  C Z
w  l ]7Z wEZ
!l
gzZ %~ V Z
+Zi w q
-Z X , { .Z Vzq yZ {z :

X=g f bZ
m,
gZ
+Zi VwEZ

Kzg wze h M X Y 3g qzwEZ Y Z

M 7Z: I { c*
i Kzg VXX  D f
$g;1g{z

Z M ~ %~ y }X N Y Z wEZ ,q
X  D 3 ta gzZ   4{ c*
i~

X ` kZgzZ zgHwEZ Vzq Zz (Fiber) 8g { c*


i

~gz *
*wEZ L M { % ~ {%izg X g| (,~ * x ~g F t

}y ]X Y HwEZ Kzg .
e y Z'
,O Kzg .
e x gzZ

X Y c*
uF,
wEZ Vzq

uZgpX Y H: wEZ q ~0
+
gzZ **
BZ f $
+g Z 1$
+

Hg j{ Z Y X: gzZ  { c*
i
X 4 *
*wEZ ~ gzZ wEZ: )gzZ a% X Y

: } QVgg @*
OgQeuZgp{z V: eg k0*
VX
X Y c*
{g !*
z Vzq g { c*
i ] zC
!*
X

gzZ 6f K yZ {z  M
h } q 4
V LZ
/Z +Zz

: Y Hs6,Vzq yZ M X
M F,
gzZ
Z qzg

X Y ~ Z h Z6,y0*
$rc*
f
x)7
-N*

Y 2011 ~gz

47

?i

!\ |z

w q
-Z F z
/X kZ x **
T q
-Z kZ X z
/q
-Z 
Y} ~ ! V xd : kZ kZ izg q
-ZQ X ~ kZ
X Y ~
c*
g V # ?X , ` Zg 'h
+'
[ Z X ~ } { z
` Zg '
c*
g ? VV ; z X Zz ~ Z Vz h N ~ i
c*
gt
kZ , { z  Q 5a gz Z z xs Zg 7Z X C
X z6,
V~
c*
g ~ q
-Z { z X ; g wa gz Z H cg i kZ
7Z kZ X c*
uzg Z V !*
g 6,} i Zzg ` Zg 'p
H
p 5a ~q ~ #
}
. ` Zg ' Z z
/
C ] !*
~g
X c*
: Yg0
+Z Z V !*
g
D M ~g Z ` Zg ' { z X ; g Z 7, g Z- ` Zg ' kZ q
-Z
V~ rk~ k]t'
,tgiB D g Z6,} h ` Zg 'X ; g 8 D Y
X @*
Y7,~ akZ N
z y 
` Zg 'X Cg
* X y Zx
c*
g ~ (,Z ` Zg 't ? c*
V = - z
/

e a #
}
.X Lg ~
z y 
X q Z C

izg q
-Z X } H= t X Z ~ ~g Z * b ~'
,t X 
X Z Z 7,kZ V ~g
/ { kZ g Z- ~g Z ` Zg ' t Z

Z V~ r X
H Z9 uzg 3 Zg kZ N ~g Z ` Zg '
w1 M 0*
: Y7 ~ V ` Zg 'X ~ g ` Zg 'gz Z 1
~#
}
. \ M - z
/! ` Zg ' : 1 ~ w k
,
i kZ ? VY
wt
X 5

Y 2011 ~gz

48

} vq
-Z V ; z X Y ~ Z :1 w$
+Z: ] !*
` Zg '

t @*
Og { 6,kZ gz Z Og w
W 3 kZ  z g #
}
.X g ~

X , m,?ZwpX , p l kZ X Y: v

g#
}
.a ~g7 ]gzC
kZ X ; g }g0
+Z kZq
-Z

gz Z u~ w X I 0
+
a[ @ M kZ N zg0
+Z X 
V Zl
~} g X ; g.d
.d
X ] Zg g Zqizg q
-Z X }Z

~q ` Zg ' kZ M g #
}
.
z ] Zg S M X ; g

Zg X ] Zg g Zq ` M d : 1 ` Zg ' Z q kZ X c*
d

X z ?  T e X  g((~X ; g .

X Zg gz Z YB} g vg #
}
.

t X zx q
-Z Zg V x :1 X ~ i Zz M ` Zg ' Y kZ Z
#

!\ t |z :1 X c*
~ B; kZ !\ Z Z
] q
-Z ` Zg '
` Zg 'Q X }
/:n |z {q
-Z \ kZg ZX g V Z

u kZ ? }
/ \ {q
-Z |z
/Z X YB y Z ?:1 X c*

X 5 kZQ ` Zg 'izg Z X b

?B zg H H ?A H H~] Zg C V x : Y7
|z z ~g ~ ? 8 gz Z zg ` Zg ' : 1 h B; kZ

Zg kZ : 1 Z` Zg 'X g Z 6,ugz Z i%6, \

c*
gz Z X c*
!\ |z ~ V; } g z
/} g X w q

g y pd
z y 
~z * X e^ 0*
` Zg
c*
gY

kZ t |
# vg )
,
; g~ ! V ; X }
/: 6,} i { |z

~ **
. c*
6,g Z M Z { z e X @*
!\ q
-Z |z ~ V;
X Sg i%6, \ |zzF,
x kZ X Z 7,1
$

Y 2011 ~gz

49

y{

Z Zgz Z 0*
J(,

Z
Z {g /p ? mH kZ M {g/ vt h
+
\M
] Z Z ZgzZ #y Zgt +C

X$
0
) !*
] 
^gB; Z @*
Y| m
{g 0*
\ M  Sg C M '!*
+Z F: Zizg
g| (,7 M g  y.6,a kZ \ M gzZ g 6,g:Z @*
Y
3 Zg Zz Sl,
g X ;g } 7zug eg M *gzZ  Zg eg M *\ M X
Y
/HX @*
hg7yY \ M MX
87x **

0 gzZ Z9zg
X ;g M u\ M gzZ  g Y1 '
,
Z'
, !*
vZ
kZ D 7z J
- ]!*
.s } } ZgzZ V
_
Z X Y ( sZ ~ e Z ) wz YZgzZ Y| (,( sZ ~ e sZ ) wz
[ZgzZ f
$r V X @*
YZ ~ [
+Ze ZR,=
u **
b
(,b6, t W,
Z $
+q
-Z X Y u **
{ c*
igzZ ]!*

a M h1 q
-Z X { n% Z ~ g Vzh
X 7]!*
~ yZ

YY H } gzZV

X Z (, x tp
/Z YY H } gzZV t ]!*
p
z eg i
+gI],
Z e gzZWz6,W
npz ;gE- u- e
8zPBg**
g e

$
+ ` Z'
X $
B
z p7]!*
tL L :
X ~p~ ]; $Z e ]

LZ ~
z } gzZV ~ Bt t ]!*

Y 2011 ~gz

50

X Vzg(Z e ZgzZQgzZ z L LVz

IF,kZ gzZ ]6,]!*


kZ z eg i
+gC
];\ M
g Zp \ M [Z X }wJkZ \ M gzZ f \ M X @*
W,
Z Zz
X %$
+* \ M , c*

ziZ B w$
+sz^KZ v]!*

[{g l{

Z LZ gzZ  D 2~ R
p h1 Z  z eg i
+g Z e

X B7 OZ .
kZ c*
B7 M Z(,gzZ
\ M LZa kZ OZ .
gzZ
C**
Z  v gzZ 7 s~ * kZ
kZ X H
g ]!*
yZ gzZ gV M d
$
gzZ g66,
g l{

X Yg \ M
g l{ s%1 b

, Vzuz

]!*
yZ \ M  vgzZ}~ *\ M B y t \ M
/Z

@VZ1 ~g Zf gzZ
*
/Z X 7\ M s~g Z)f qC
X B y
xg l{ \ M X , kCyj\ M bkZ X , VZ Z \ M
t X ~pg Zpq
-Z ~ 0
+
i \ M b }uz gzZ
7]!*
}uz

XzG  }'
, }uz '

Z*
*
Z'
,Vzuz

h ]!*
kZC
gzZ  $
Z]Z gzZ ]Z
+A C
*
Z'

, M }uz \ M
/Z X ,
Z'
,gzZ ,thkZ yZ X

X M 7\ M ,
~pg Zp OZ b!*
t gzZ ,
Z'
,\ M {z ,
Z'
,yZ \ M
X

, A g
/
g

kZ gzZ ,s kZ ~ w w LZ 1 |g \ M
/Z

Y 2011 ~gz

51

t Z'
,t gzZ 7]!*
,7s \ M
/Z X N Y w]!*
X g6,u \ M

,q
z LZ

7 \ M q w%Zt X k
- mgzZ OZ ` Z'
4z hZ

,
k
gzZ @*
W,
Z kZ X % `gzZ Zz g
z YZ X M
h 7h
+y

Z6,
X Lg J
-

, c*
L6,tKZ

6 ZgzZV {Z({ZpX 7Z V!y


KZ  z Ze
X N Y bZi]ZW,
ZxV kZX , 1gZgzi~! Z L6,

~y
Mt t

]!*
hZ O z6,V X B0*
] !*
\ M bkZ
+ !
/
% aKZ
X Og pdZgzZ dZ X N

,z6,Z

~ Z V X ._ " q
-Z ;gE- ug c*
E uz'
,:Z
C; ZkZ X Zz !*
gzZ Z{z { c*
i 5
K
%gzZ =

 ]!*
];C
yQt X ( {Z
+ V c*
gzZ C q
]Z| Zz gzZ SgzZ ]Z|J
-s X
X {Z
+ \ M 6,yZ Z ;gZz

(w
DZ)

~ ] Z F, zi !*
~
Z F, xsZ
^ {z
{0
+
i T w
^ * {z  g ' ~ T

Y 2011 ~gz

52

3,
g

gzuZ o

]Z@xz ]!*
?u **
]

]Zg X ~ y
z q
-Z { Z_ V2z P ~ ]!*
Y 1977 t
Z AC
!*
X
q ~'
, X qz
gzZ VZgh
+~
w 0*
i \ kZ ` V
z }X **
Y wha kZ
X qz Y
q ~ 4P X
H8 ~ X j} (,g e &X 5
W,
Z ! Zz Z "
$U*
Z s: 0*
i \ ~ X [ ~ J
gzZ V [ i M 0*
i \ 6, Z
Z Vg vgzZ V y~ Vz&
/X c*
3
X H7k- kZ L!%
~ }g !*
V ~ WyZgz X M Y = vg)
,q
-Z Iw {g
Hk

( Zz g c*
C Z e VX g h
+ $Z =L L :c*
C VrZ
-Z X Z y.6,Z (,~ X $
q
Zz ] kZ gzZ Y
~ VrZ X M M } Y7 N {`= X M Y
z

= VrZ kZ X Za Zz n%C
\vZY ,: gzZ
*
0  ~Og6,$Z Z #,} z kZ B V q
-Z
\ M &z vZ Y 
yZ X , (Zg !*
&z ~ y X N Y wC
!*
Z Z

]gzZ H wEZt ~ Zg  I ze L LX Y gz 1
{g !*
z gzZA $Z kZ
Hk0*
Z e y P X M t }u **
X [ [c*
~Y
H{g yZ Z e Zz
{gG ~ {zg X g V F
/| h Z ==
V ~: VY e ~ X Sg XX Lg c yp kZ y
] \vZ X
H ypgzZ g ~ y z c*
i M ~ X V i M #gzZ
VzhzZ
# #gzZ V X H7y.6,= kZ w k
/

Y 2011 ~gz

53

+ Y P } X @*
Y Ug g
) !*
X
_ 0*

kZ VrZgzZ c*
C 7Z ~ Hf 1 kZ KZ Z
# V Zz
+ h
$Z }g X Z 7,*
* o W,
Z tq
-Z = X ~ }
Z ` kZ X
H a }
C0*
x gzZ k

X Z "
$U*
W,
Zzi tX H t L Lt r
#
wa
a 0*
g e = ~g 19 X V !% b6, gzZ c*
f~
yX Z 7,
~ 1 X I M ~ i (Cramps) V9V1H gzZ V 0*
M V X
H y.6,h
+
# X g 7 Cramps gzZ **
E
-4C ]
4b 0*6,g u **
] \ k q
-Z EGE ~ B
X Cramps
y 7 u **
H g kZ x i 4,
= Iw ]b
~gF 1 [Zz ~ c6,M X c6,M Z eC
ENT X
g Z X Vz H y.6,J~ X Z: Zg f a kZ M ^
: VrZ Hf yZ .6,KZ ~ X  r
# g Zgi
Q , 7Z }\ M a kZ S7,wZ \ M L L
g Zh
+'
X c*
C VrZ kZ X B i M Z /g V~

u**
s: X }u**
] kZ X : `w~ i M a kZ
\ M Xbgz kZ ]Z W,
Z tF c*
fX
H ZP y
c*
f \ M
/Z X l 0*
| M 6 0*
-Z ~
q
/x Z !*
| M X B| 7,

lX Yg Zh
+'
h
+'
kZ X  M
hwEZ ~^ 7!%
6gzZ lX ,wEZ Za kZ Q~n
c*
x
X BdVX B ^O Z
/VZ !*
gzZ B Z
/
M M Z ~X N 3? } (,&& c*
z z x 
Pz
Vz Vz \ M p Y T
$ g0
+Zg0
+Z y {gG k ~g F X
X ~ u6,gm{Og ~g Y wEZ kZ

Y 2011 ~gz

54

+ Z h

**
Z z yZgzZ y%]|

7
z z w gzZ ]gz ^~g v\vZ L L : 
g Z a] M
X 8 VpgzZ V }g v 8
@*M  DzgZ
# ~ zg ugI 
g Z kZg
7w ~hq
-Z ~ ~0
+
zZ}
.{ g !*
v]zW,
# gzZ z @
r
g Z **
zd
$^$
+]g$
+ @'
, kZ  yzg gzZ 1Z 6 n
pg
g zz
2z ggzZ
M 8KZ ~ ~0
+
zZ}
.{ g !*
{z  D ,Z v
 }g
/~ LZuZ vg )
,q
-Z ~ V ,Z X  D Y 05
gzZ u**
.
$ L  x 8
-g { ( \ M @*
Y y%L L
X Zz x
I V gzZ ~ig I y3F,
\ M I

gzZ !*
g \ M ]uZz X Zzl
\ M
\ M gzZ x\ M t ]!*
ZX  g r !*

X V 6,kZ c*
6,x T M T ZX Tg s$
+ M

z vZ \ M y
KZ z ( q
-Z \ M ._ w >
**
Z z \ M X
**
Z z \ M \ v Z X 7
\ M ~ y M
X
H0 z b
x **
\ M L Lgz Z iZ [

V T M P \ M ~ T  y %{g L L >gq
-Z x x **
+Am ~uz gz Z ~ Xd
Z
W L Z \ M  f
X
B vZ VY **
ZI: q
-B vZ g
CL
L t
X x**
ZIq
-

Y 2011 ~gz

55

~ { Zp{zQ '
,
Z'
,: Z Zg q p
/Z g
CL
L t ~uz

-g !*
q
Z(,\vZ " }q \vZZ ~ }i c*
~ V , M c*

X g ZgzZ

yZgzZ }i z y, M Y 3g NZ ]!*
kZ t q kZ

kZ 6,
gzZ Wz gzZ D \vZ 6,{g f q
-Z q
-Z kZ  g0
+Z
q bZ $
M: ~ Vzx  Kg Xq ]g

z D \vZ ~ Vz6,gzZ Vz0


+Z q bZ i Zg gz X

X Yq e V e Z
# T{zgzZ $
7

X J 7,i g
CL
L t {zgzZ b & Z m~

D V iZ L L t {z gzZ b & Z m a

t y *
*6,kZ M 6,? gzZ xg D I V }'
,xg

X ~ V ~(,

LZ t V L L t {z gzZ ] [Z M m , v0*

Zz \vZ " X ^:
/Z Z F,
Z 6,}i gzZ \: g g

g - i Zz M KZ gzZ g (Z ~zg : x~ g g KZ gzZ @*



7I Zz

X i Zz M ~'
,
~ Vzi Zz M " ( :/Zg)

X  g ~ V1 '!*
g " **
Z z \ M {z kZ
4$ 0 <
[Z1Z Z
+Zi g ZD
k \ M ~  E
z ]|
0E

'!*
M \ M k M) Z bzgr
# X  7,
X  gV '!*
{ z 9
L o X 
f

'!*
~g \ ~g \ y
%]|

ce N X  ` tv ~ T g Z$ q
-Z * ! g
C :1
y!*
!*
T yZZ Z T KZ ~gkZ *
X$
7]:gz Y $ kZ ~ ]gkZ evZ Z

Y 2011 ~gz

56

 C s \vZ kZ Zz kZ p T :2

Z ~ ] kZ \vZ @*
s Z V~}g !*
LZp
d
$
vZ y
KZ **
Y ?f zz ~gZ
\vZ X
( gz vZ {z ) ]zz
**
/

X Z e 3~ k ,Z **
g ( a
M F,
kZ )a LZ Zz
X
) !*
]ZggzZ
f y
Y $ h
e
g
C
Z kZgzZ}: ~`
6,
**
kZ N {z |0
+!*
yZ Z \vZ g
C
X} : k- g kZ N {z g e
 D}'
,t Z T CY zg {n kZ m1 ^
y M { c*
i bv( yZ V " @*
h { c*
i Z

:3
:4
:5
:6

X **
/
q = p1VZ 1 q ~g ~g C
gzZ ; y" ~ g
C :7
1 Hq ~z
/ ~z
/ ~ z7,}'
,
A 7~g Z1

* Z N
*
/Z : CZ IY g
CX H7q ~z
/YZ
#
c*
t Y $ ^X Y 0 p CZ A : M
m
mZ e w!*
Z ( zz
/) Zz 3 LZ p [%

]y
M N } i Y c*
Y: ~ V- 
H
~ Vzi g
CX
kZ ) Z 3: 6,} g
CX N g * Vc*

gzZ N c*
Y 0: Z g
CX 4 3 kZ b wZ e Kzg (
z

X Y c*
N 0: Z
/ ZgzZ Y 1
X {g @*
{gt Y f~nC
LZgzZ N 3vg 6,**
3 Z :8
6,Vzq yZ J
-Z
# 7> } Y 7& ~Iq kZ } :9
, Z w V M , ZY } Y : Zc
Y M b
VZ kZQ V yZ `V c*

VZ V- ) V q
-ZB kZ  z!*
kZ p ( n : ^)

Y 2011 ~gz

57

X 5gzZ ( a

N Z kZ L e *
* ~
/Z g
C :10
E
- } s Z B } ~
q z k Z { z
/Z
, Z :gz E
X $

( {h
+I) [8{ c*
i kZ ~ V { {n ZgzZ hZW~ :11
X @*
z V

~T b kZ t
z LZ \ M LZ g
C :12
V :  Y b kZ X ]gz kZ N p: ]gz

p~ ]gkZ
8wZ'
, yZ: gzZ @*
V;Zp pKZ

X C s
# Zg kZVp @*

Z'
,t

# J
g
-Z
# Y 
} Y ug V!*
yZ g
C :13
Xq {Z
+ N T]!*
+Z%Z g #
s g

( Z bzg )
~ ], g @*
]uZz M gzZ 0Z ] y%

X  D YK `g ]uZzP X  } )

7 zgy!*
iz w

kZ gzZ z %f ~q
-Z a } y% M y%%q
-Z
w kZgzZ %f ~ \ M X k0*
}
} %gzZ +4z
4{ c*
i VzVz yZ ~ ~ H Y7 M X k0*
M y!*
igzZ
gzZ z %f ~~uz \ M M Q Xg g
# \ M X 7gzZ Z
y!*
igzZ w Q gzZ %f ~ \ M X {z V } gzZ + F,
+ kZ
$
} +4
~ ? ~ zz HkZ M X
c
*
\ M X Vz ?A
$f +F,
+Z
$
# gzZ y!*
iz w ? f
t
/Z gzZ Y 7- 4 yZ g hZ y!*
iz w
/Z M }

Y 2011 ~gz

58

X Y 7-F,
+ yZ N Y
$

~~z
/

:H& w' ce
8$ kZ X ~~ r !*
-Z y%]|
q
yZ Zq
-Z lZ F,
gzZ N | Vc*
yZgzZ c*
M ~ r !*
y q
-Zce '
t  g 3 }'
} (,t Nt kZ Xg D 3" X c*

u Ug C
i ~z
/{z g ~ LZ lq
-Z j
+ e
$. ~t
t g 3 }'
} (,~kZ ? ! y%} Z :Y7 Q X c*
gzZ ~
X ~z
/
t 7VY ?Q :Y7 X ~z
/V; Y :X C
i ~z
/
B; kZ
/Z 3 i Vzg ZD
B; T Z wt = H ~ :
?V 6, HkZ Bq ~z
/
i q
-Z ~/~g

u| YZB V Zz Z j
+ZgzZ 7

yZ y%]|L L : D
k
,
kr
# Zi Z Z **
]|[ Z *

a kZ
Ch Z6,\ M M VrZ ;e **
|
# z
M
M X VzI ~ & , |
# z
B; Z= \ M lg Z
/~
Dc*
g kZ \ M @*
M O X g (Z N kZ
Xa !*
g } i Zzg LZ q
-Z X T e **
+y
h
= a x

7,i ~ r { i Zzg \ M ]Zg Z


# h
+y
L L :c*

\M

X c*
{ i Zzg M VrZ X g c*
VYkZ X ~ qz

y!*
6,?\!*

V }L L :c*

\ M X } w {i Zzg y%L L : VY

ZgzZ Zg \ M 6,%: { i Zzg VY X Zh


+y
7a kZ= Zz }g v

X ~:Zz ]ZgZz yZ \ M Z
# X c*
Z| Z Zg
]Zg ~X ~:Zz yZ Q \ M X H,ZQ VrZ ]Zg ~uz

kZ vZ :' ~ : M VH{z ~ 7Q \ M X H ,ZQ

g 0*
z ( +Z VH{z I ~zZg X c*
74 0 kZ x

Y 2011 ~gz

59

X : 4 yZ ~ LZuZ N

Z :
L H Y **
Zy%]|

V ~ >q
-Z izg q
-Z y%]| L L : D
k 0 z/]|

} 7z ? H L L : gzZ c*
M q
-Z g '!*
**
Z z

kZ X V z ~ V; c*

\ M X D c*
Zl
Vc*
~ k V#B
]}g vgzZ CW~g vt Z q x t ?Q Y7
: x z }zz kZ L L:c*

\ M X C gzgz aG
g

X *
*[AZ V!*
w ( 2) 1 s ( 1)

kZ = VM , Z x PL L :c*

\ M ~ e
$Zzg ~uz q
-Z
t x {z X Yqx zzg ?x {z
/Z c*
6,x
{ xKZ ( 4) **
3w'tig ( 3) gzgy!*
i ( 2) g - { KZ ( 1)
*x ZZ y ( 7) *
* Zg7 ( 6) *
* ]!*
E ( 5) **

z7,( 8) *
*
X b hgV wgzZ V!*
w ( 9) *


p\ M g Z ]|

g gi \ M p=k0*
g Z \ M ~z%

]| ; e \ M ( c*
x3,b a \ M \vZ ) 
w Z\ M **
Z z p, g Z ~ } g !*
yZ g Z
gzZ z Z {gi g Z ]|Z
# Xg l{ \ M Z c*
uzg
p **
Z xg g
# L L1 y %]| X k] YZ g Z L L :c*

**
Y 3g
L Lx **
Zg vL L :c*

g Z ]| X  Zz CZ Z
X s gzZ h

Y 2011 ~gz

60

zgzZ ,:wD Z)

; +Z <g Z e

Coz C}% !*
M

z 6fX Zg
/~ V-l{z {Zp^(* [ wD Z
$**
( VZi Z) wjua egzZ *Zg izg 0EE
,Z gz ZZ
J&
gzZ VE! Z z ~g V,Z~ [ L ZzZX Z ~ wj (m
&g MWz6,m<!*
{E
+ Z g
`V,ZQgzZ Hd .Z HE

yZ pH ~
.Z V cgz6,y zg v'
,w; gzZ wj d
**
Z]
.Z z!*
M yZBB Vzq
yZ ~ yz ,
X ;gl
/~ Vg wD Z yp X 4 ]Z W,
Z V
D 1D
.6X'
]Z f idgzZ zZ
Vzy a'
,gzZ c 
q
-Z V 3E
,
z4

e w !*

!*
q
-Z ~ kZ Vz4X z4 Z]
.Z z !*
M wD ZX CY
5_zX gz { xsZ J

) Zgi V,Z6,g l 0G

y{ Z y b yZ M ~ xsZ {],
ZX 3gg (Z&
6V 0*
gzZ @ M !*
!*
X : iZ ] yQ ~ 1 ( 1) Z
(+Zk t9 ~ izg q
-ZX C 6,yZ LL~

7w y Eg !*

ya ~ X
H ^ eZ Y C
*
4
E
LG$iu7 gzZg!*
yX } 9J Qh Z gzZ h Y hg
X H a
g
/
Hz x 
X g CQ a ~ V iu bZ J
-w A !*
!*
YZ'
M
5_
X ;g ~g Y VZzg LG
z X D sp~ V gzZ ~ V y
Xbg Z
/~ s
# (zw A Y !*
!*
wD Z
:Zz k'
,{g !*
X sg !*
vZ
M e !*
!*
e
$Zzg

Y 2011 ~gz

61

)X ] oF] q m o % : ]
C
KZ X **
M ^X M

( X C M :Zz sZ KZ q
gO B
g Zz Za kZQX C nm{q
-Z ~ z
____ g Zi y Z*i V;z gzZ E!ugzZ
-
J
X @*M c*
7 H e w !*
!*
:Zz Zg ypgzZ , c*
y0
+ :p X Dg Z
/k!*
0
* 0
+
i ( w AX Zq
-Z {z [Z1 M :Zz e w !*
!*
X c*

9E
gzZ ]!*
V iu bZ}@x y
|@*
vZ
M L | (,
G
E
0
+
i w{z H E3! (ZgzZ 0*
gzZ +Zf z yQ

!*
!*
t X 6,B; +Z !*
!*
O Zg s
: i ;z( e wXg x **
-Z z +Zg *Z *vg )
q
,szc

wD ZXb ~ gzZ #
}
. +Z !*
!*
x c*
Z !*
0
+
i h
7M(t
q Z { g szcZ * Zz ~ pg Zl
( e w !*
!*
) QE
( 2)X  u { M ~g Z% LZ~
Z e w !*
!*
i M e
$Zzg T sgzZ 7zgz g~ wD Z Z0
+{
C M V; Z *vg)
,q
-Z y Z0
+{ Ze
$Zzgt V_P
5 ~ Pgz tz tzf ( e w !*
!*
Z * ( 3)X Z Z 7, wD Z 

Z *X ~ ]Z % yQX y
KZ (gzZg 6,
sq
-Z {zX
Z * ~ Z KZ V,Z H W,
O Z % g 0*
gzZ "
$ Z0
+{
gHdY yZ Z * ]r
# Z
# QX ~ } ~( 4)X 7
) / E
L _Z d
W r
# Y
(q
-Z p wD Z ?VY 6,kZX zZ VzcwD Z }g c*

sgzZ +
M qzg ~ wD Z ( 5) X c Z Z 7,c*
Z ZZz }g L
L

X W,
Z yp Vg )
,-Zh
+
iz [_
.gzZ y~s
n
A z LZQ c*
gZ
/~ s
# ( z:q
-Z Zhgz e w !*
!*
E
G
IgzZ H^ [g !*
F Z *X J0
+!*
^
L 8g zZ yZ [Z M ^

Y 2011 ~gz

62

a ~ s sZ wD Z . _ ] c*
Zzg Xg}~ V q
-Z ^(

B yQ &X M ^(]=g *~ 1
~ ^( =g asVZ [ }uzX
[pgz Zz e
$.gzZ vg )
, xg L L{z ( 6)X w y ~i Z )
,
X C7,E e
$ yZ }n Vg gzZ z
w{ z}
.gzZ ]g
gzZ g F ( [) 7,
zg k0* x d
W LZ {z g !*
-Z ( 7)
q
V;z gzZ !*
M g
c*
gvZd
Wq
-Z =g *X ]z

X hZz
) Zgic !*
M a L Z
=g *{zX +Z w) vg)
, Zz ] ~ ]c*
Zzg
X Z Z wD Z=g *XZz

D 2D
f t +Z w) *Zz yZ c*
=g *]
% i V~ i kZX }} ~, Z
Z e w X 4LG
+zY
+ g @* ;#
L<XL Lt :wD Z h
L<X! 27 LZ X gz +F,$
#
-Z ~ z {0
q
+
i Xg D bC
g Z "~ ( Y 1846- Y 1819)
Bg Y7y
KZ V-
HH y Zg@z ' m,
Z
9zg! ; Q O~
/Z ~ #
z yZ X
9zgg e @*
zy {z
/Z yZ0
+{ w>~ kZX @*
7,*
* Z Z: `
J
-9zg
b ( gzZ q
-Z i Z X D Y b 9zg z Z @*
yw>
/ZX

%f y
/ZX ] Zw f e
$Zzg v'
,yy
c*
{0
+
i c*
@*
Y c*
\
d6,M QgzZ @*
Y ~ V-~uQ @*
Y Z @*

[c) ] M Cg LL!*
{z byZ V8X @*
Y
: @*
7,*
*o ( {)z Vi
 x M   V  i
( 9)  x c*
Z Z t t

Y 2011 ~gz

63

@*
c*
:
K 0z V m{ Vp
/Z g w

]H:}) V Z0
+{ VzyX y.6,a V)wj
z F, ~ i Z ( Z]
.Z z4g
@
ugzZ z1 w C
Z
wD Z kZ D gzZ VE.6,
T
$r z b) y MX H

( 10)X c*
g66, ]Vg )
,
~ yZ t Z 1 Za d
W k }v P V; =g *
Xg :
H3g kZ x **
X Z O g
CVZg
H~ Y 1837 X X : {0
+
i
F { c*
,
i Z yX {gz gz ~ NZ gzZ
46, ~ }
6,g I X B
bg 6,} o m,
gzZ JI I ]Zg
Z
] @*
~ w Z e
L L Kgq
-Z ~ kZ u**
g
kZ X ~B; ]gzZ 0
+
i@*
W,
Z H IkZX Y T

Za wD Z EuN k QgzZ 0*
/sg {0
+
ig
CVZg
H

kZ V;X 3 3 Zg ~qwD Z +
M
KZ L ~g7 sZIs: 
11)X
H7,Z*sgzz
LL
D 3D
J 7,gzp y M
V,ZX
Z y& ]g Zsg *

M I gzZ f {zX n q : {!*


~ g 1
sw6, p gzZ Z 'X w tz tzf q gzZ "(,
"7,]g zg Z } }Cg Cg gzZ J
-w2 ]g

( 12)X f
e| 7, g VZi ZX
X J B; yZ ~g !*
zg ZzX ~Z JgzZ g !*
'
,
` Z'
{ { z
5! t Z yZ kZ {z @*M 7n yZ T
=g *X @*
W,MG
H.-\~ 
E
Z y ~q
-Z ^( Iwc*
gd
W D Z LZ
*X h
ez z{ c*
i ~ ]g VgzZ V iOg[ZX ~~

+'
h
Z gzZ KZ gzZ 1 w eg!*
zg gX ` h1 =g

Y 2011 ~gz

64

{3 V \ IX g V\ IV'
,
B ]g V iO X ~ F,
/d } 6,y yZ ._ e
$ Zzg q
-ZX N w=
gzZ D Y G

V\ IgzZ ~ig P V,ZX | V,Z s


~ ^(
g
g Z $c*
gzZ ( q
-Z p {z ( 13) Xa g xi 5 V; LZ vg Zz J
~ g !*
zg Z}
.a kZ @*
Y H )gzZ zx s6,y yZX
X 4
q Z ygzZ ~
'
,
u
t Z LZ
g * zz L gzZ Vp V **
Y VxL LZ ~ ~g Z'
,gzZ yZ0
+{ X @*Y x Z $z ]
Uz Zx Z $Zg )
,
B Y VxL L~ } [X Dg
~g!*
zg yZ0
+{ LZ s: g *X  hZz ]Zg .n gzZ

zZ Z vZ ~ /w 25 X n
pg x m{ q
-Z ~gzZ V
H3g x **
3,
8
-bZ h ( Y 1940-Y 1859) *X
F,{ c*
i wD Z ~ \g- gzZ gX ~g Z
/0
+
i g7 q
-ZgzZ Hq e

Xg D
Z'
,z ]YZy
Z
& U gzZ q
+
M qzg yZ m T f LE
-Z ,g *
E
gzZ
L Z S]Z u 0*
xzX ` Z'
{ 0*
gzZ
u( {z X
GL!}
F, * z + L L]zvZ xB
.X n
pg z
( 14 ) X zZ KZN @*
yZX B:
L
+ q :) ? ! 0Z +Z [ *!ZjgzZ q
-Z p yZ s
Tg q
-~ c z b! 0Z]x{zX ( v ]
gzZ
{zgzZ *
@Y ~ W 1z fVVZ/_
.gzZ tzf yz DL LX
y c*
yk yZ t DL X3Z LLX D H { .Z '
,
Z'
, Vgy Z

C g Z s M ] : g z ] : W yZX C 3 Zg M 6,
v ( 15) X Dg | 7,yZ L LZ OX
( 16)X D H qg yZa ]s

Y 2011 ~gz

65

yZ1 ( 17) X ]uZz0 .z Z: 5gzZ +


M qzg g *

g Z Z eX Z]
.!*
Vhg Zzg s8
-g sgzZ +
M qzg
~ V wz]
.z Z!*
VAyZg *X L L jZ
( 18) X tzf { y M
0_ZX  D Y m" y M

GL!}
4z]
.z a w' E
.Zz $c*
0
+
i g *
L igzZ

Z}
.wX ; g yZ6,g /
zg c*
/ w La ~izg/~g X C M ]g
( 19)X Tg ~ x B;s

X 0*
: iz w' ig 3g w V,Z ~ z z K
- ~z*
y M L L #
i 5 kZXg xi 5 V; Zk
,
iz e {z: e
$Zzg
{z g *O ( 20) X @*M 7~gsZ w' E
L i (Zz

X ~uF,
#
i5
gzZ ^z {z gzZ ZB .x **
Ut +
M qzg yZ
\
wD Z)X : b S WZ L Z c*
fz m{ gzZ gz V
\
Y7 ~ }g !*
WZ L Z L L yY Z Z ~g!*
-Z  ~zZgZi Z *
q
\
_7, kZ 7xWZ L Z 6JII>
az Y=L L:c*

a kZ  CY y M \vZ V; X Y
\
X ]hZ \vZ c*
M ~y M
: c*

QX WZ L Z
~ 0
+
i g *0 +
M qzg ( 21) X e N kZ )g f
*
*yZz q
-Z sV Ds ]X  X ]uZz
X
z Wz q
-Z [Zpq
-Z V,Z Z
# k'
,:e n / yZ
;g h Q F,
C c*
{0
+
6,]g[pq
-Z ~cX  v ~ yZy!
L@*
F,
Zn L{0
+
6,
X  g4z]
. Qg Zz: Z- JQJ Q vX
~ ggzZ Z F,
Z c x q
-Z {0
+
6,w) 0*
Zu {z y
MX @*
Y h Q s y, M
kZt Z Za ^ q
-Z V ; g * izgPX  D F [Zp 22X Z
/M

Y 2011 ~gz

66

gzZ g @*
9 y[ZpX ~qwD Z ;[ZpX [ZpF

X
H3g wD ZL L6,g O x **
kZY 1877
D 4D
H.-\m ! x Z {Zz wD Z
E
{z X Z y ~q
-Z ^( Iwc*
E
L j8 .n yQ1| 7,yZ !*
X y{g Z + gzZg Dw ( q
-Z
g- i LZ 'g]zZ X {h
+z
/ yZD Zg Z7 zz #
}
.0E
!_
.gzZ u|
E
Z c*
@*
Y s %Z ~ V Z y ~g Z'
,c*
X 'Yg SG
5" Z k0*
yZ

g B ! |Z lp kZ {z gzZ @*
Y H qg s Y " @*
Z9J Q
$Z gzZ V ZgzZ V' Y " ( 23) X D Y t
'
G
< z/_
. )
L !}
.gzZ ~gz6,d
$Z ]gX gg a

{z tiq
-Z ZZX ' H &Zp { {zX H
gzZ ' M yLZ V(g e &w {g!*
k V Z yp1d
$ ~g Z'
,
Y " B kZgzZ 'J B; ~ ` x yV(
X '
y Z
Y " X Y**
z6,#gzZ **
**
37,rzg Z ~gzi u0*
yM

{ yZ lg
o ]X 'lgz6, yZ b V KZ
{z
M F,( 24)X V g g V@ KZ 6 @*
kCV-X t

YC
!*
y VX g )a ~ ekZ gzZ' ~g Z )f e
$.
i Z * w X g ~
/6,
V {z {z 5 Y {Z R
gzZ
( 25)X : % M q
-Z {z ~A
M F,
:Z
Zz { gzZ q wD Z a Zz 0*
lgz6,~
M F,g Z {Zz +Z
: **

Z Z G4$M ~
M F,

( 26) Z ] u Z]
.Z }% y
D5 D
gzZ {gz6, V ( & yZwD Z ___ gzZ ! x Zg *

Y 2011 ~gz

67

Zz V'
, ~ !*
M [Z Z ]|uZ y
x wD ZX Cc*
M F,

h:Vp ~ , wD Z ]!*
9e
$.~ k Q % wD Z
yQ t :
L ~
C yZ {)z 5 ~g Zpc zfp lp
:
/{
M F,
; -Z ~ ]Z f wD ZgzZg Z'
,
Z L L+Zz
N Za Vp  ~ wD Z |
N Z i yZ  , x
c zf t lp t M ht
$ t
5!* )g Zp 4z LG

g Z'
,
Z +Zz yZ  @
kZ
.!*
g ZuZ E
L 8 w L 3XZ Z}

F,; t -Z ~ yZ
M
/{

3
( 27)
2 LE t r !*kZ x
Vg V
gzZ {ga
M F, d
W qwD Z LZg *

: Y Y c*
]uZz q
-Z z { i Z0
+Z kZ
:Zz yj
jZ^ Y 1934
wD Zf T {z Zz q
-Z
E
~i * k
,
+VZi ZX H ~z0
2
+y^ LG3ggzZ
z m,
LZ D M
4
y M
k7,~ ^( G$MZ
# c*
Zz
gzZ D M y K rg `z ZgzZ LZ r
# ZzX wZ]z
-ZX D Y ~ } # LZN @*
]z=
w E
L i8 izg q

~ B
L: c*

X }g
/ k0*
} r
# Zz sz^~ ]z
~X k0*
} M K bZ ]X V C ]!*
-Z "
q
6,wZkZ yZ =? g| 7,H ?:
{zX
Hug D D ]z

;g ]z y M
~ x Z Y w5 gzZ Z
_7,  ?: X y M
: c*
[Z [ Z } (, ~ wqX V
gzZ l{ r
# Zz X V
8 :7VY : ? BZ

Y 2011 ~gz

68

4$XM ~} # LZJZ
? H [Z wZkZ :;g G
]z~ wE
X g
/yP
L i8X izg Zz kZX M ]!*
LZ gzZ c*
= ]z ~ Z
# gzZ M Kr
# Zz ;g
wz4, kZ 6,T Y{z y M
!d
W: 3,~(, k0*
G
'
vZ w
g ;g F,
Z bZ 6,}g + y M
:t ?J
-Z
# X
7b~g7 y M
?gzZ7{'
]z Z wi **
6,kZ
x ?pvZ ;g wi **
6,?t z bkZ ]z ?
/ZX M
h
G
'
X Ye
$Zu~9 z vg ~g +t
wy M
C M ~]!*
t V!*
r
# Zz  wD Z
( 28)X @*
4Z ~g
KZ 5 Zg
: @*
c*
Zz Zt ( 78m )s !*
[ z4, : J
-Z
# ? ;} F,
/
s E
L 8 : ~i Zg : {

H ~ ~p" g wD Z f Zz gzZ q
-Z
M F,
Z0
+Z g *
E
!
8 , Z L- g L L: yZ { ~X
L j
[ Z E
& [ MG
& i Z G
0O$ E
Z M g Z z ] E
t
L j8 sZ I ~ s
# z y*kZ
Zt

X ~ q nS
~g q
-Z i zg q
-Z X [ i M : i Z  D C )
{z ; e ~ X ` ~i Z z M zZ zZgzZ c*M 6,} i Z zg y}g
T
: } '
,iZ ~ ] !*
. gzZ
_
H M=X ; g @*
Z {z 1 Y
4$MX g
 8
- O ZO Z kQ X ~g } _ q
-Z6,u kZ G
gNt r
# Z z X
H
/6,} i k Q {z H

yZ X Y fZ6,yZgzZ
H% { n {g i M u"
wkZ ~
6,V M q
-Z 6}g *X VZ \ G,
~J
g w gzZ h{ M iq
-Z Vb
kZ K ZX 1 JZ z ~ #
Z0
+J= Nt X
H
/gzZ

Y 2011 ~gz

69

GL! Q : ]

. Z z ~ Z ( ? [Z ) Z g Z
" 6,
w

V v 6C
~ yZ X t zm-vZ w g M LZ 0
G
qg kZ6,kZ X g gzZ @Z i
O !Z'
, Z Zg
$u ~i :
O X ( C c*
i yZ q
-Z } c*
{z) Z

/Z
: V#zmvZ -*
!
4 !*+h Z h
{
i Z 9

: V M g q
-, Z i Z
( 29) : x M L mZ V M
p}
M F,
z 9Z H4}yZ y q
-Z \ h )

kZ N
g
X Hq: $ { [ Z ~ yZ  kZ
( X e : M q
-Z e} : x Z x y M
J ~ 1V g %x3,~ #
5 kZ g 8 Mp
/Z c*

Z z

Zg f ! g
C: #=Q X Vgg
/~ zyZgzZ V { qgzZ
gzZ d Sh Z Ct ~Q ~ g #
Z vZ w
ggzZa
: ~: Zqg kZ Xg~ { } i zyZ }
d i **  ,Z g
d Z g Zg {


iZ ~ Z

3 '
+
,
IF
4
L G&
r

g
!* i Z

/h
+!* 1 z 8
- g l g iZ
E
( 30)
/h
+ !*zQ L 7 i Z

X **
: Z g x t M gzZ z :
i **
t 6,\!*
LZ ! g
Cd )
-Go$E
\
M N X Y 0 w Y ( g L g Xrq
-Z 

E
M NgzZc e q1 z 8
-gg
( Xc e q nZ xL 7 \

Y 2011 ~gz

70

], I Z z ~$ + Z yw D Z  gzZ ] ;  z
GL!}
*Z z wD Z pgzZ
M F,
) Q;
.0E
!_
. wD Z Zz ~0*
Z z {z ~ Z Zgp {)z ~g 6,gzZ e( ` Z'
qzg g
Hg Z gz k Z [Z ~ ]y
M ~ f z wD Z T

yZ ) g f zG gzZW: ZqggzZiw KZ Zz ( y QgzZ


gzZ gz M @q
-Z
@t ~ ,gzZ ~ 
wD Z X c*
1
@ w
g~ w
X Zg Z %0 |
# g
rZ z Vp 
#[p~ s ZZgzZ !*
z
X V zg ] uZ zgzZ bZ ~ wD Z e

ZjgzZZj

26mz {0
+
i
+
iX 4mY 1973'
,
ZwzZwD Z
28-26mz {0
76mwD Z z
7 mwD Z z!Zft

X1
X2
X3
X4

29 mz {0
+
i X5
31 mz {0
+
i!ZfZ Z g @* X 6
sZ X7

bV~ zg ]c*
Zzg h
+'
~z {0
+
i X 34mz {0
+
i : !Zf X 8
X ~ ,h
+'

YE
230m Zg L & !* X 9
+
i X 10
35-34mz {0
32mz {0
+
i X 17 m' VZzgx X 22mwD Z x X 11
40mz {0
+
i X 12
40mz {0
+
iX 32m wD Z c*
Zzg X 13
40mz {0
+
i X 14

Y 2011 ~gz

71

12mwD Z z X 15
8 m wD ZLf X 16
{)z 170169 mgwD Z X 17
40mz {0
+
i ;14mwD Z z X 18
11mwD Z z
17mwD Z z!Zf
128- 127 mxzMizg
10mwD Z Lf

X 19
X 20
X 21

X 22
39 mwD Z x X 23
+
i X 24
41- 40mwD Z xX 40mz {0
40m wD Z x X 25
229mZg8
-!*X 26
24-23mxzMizg X 27
88 mz {0
+
iX 61- 60mgwD Z X 28
131 migzg ZuZ X 29
sZ X 30

D 7 5 Zg

X D 7 gpzgzZ  M
h 5 Zg x

gp{z X  f
e w 5 Zg x n LZ ~ ]gC
vx 6,gzZq,j
X  D MQO Z [zeO ZgzZ  D Y [zV;z qV X 
6,y!*
i  f
e 1e V
_Z ~ w yp{z CY fq Oz b
/Z yZ

 D Y b yZ
gzZ @*
y w g iIq
-Z q
-Z @$
( xsZ *)
X CY 0 y!*
i ~V M

Y 2011 ~gz

72

$
+ @$
+ ( g ) 9

Zc c

z yjgzZ q yEZ z yjq +ZC


gzZ  p{3 ]
gm{ o **
OgzZ kZja kCpX
) !*
yEZ
zg Zu m ] bZ X Za : ]zZ pgzZ: )
X q6,

2X @*
Z
yjz Z 7ZgzZ }T Z
Z x KZ {z  x Kg
z
) Z gzZg (Z z ] yEZ z yj s x KZ g x

gzZ g zg {Zg   x !*
z sZ X C q ~g Z

yEZgzZ yj Z ~ Vsx cnZ X @*


"
$U*
g ~}@x
**
Y VJ
-q Z 1 ] zg U*M q X
) !*
"
$
gzZ Z
#
X @*
Bc
T |
# ]],
vZ :  p T c
2~
D z gzZ sp5 V
KZ }uz gzZ \ M LZ y
KZ q
-Z zz
p c*
cX Lg i * " gzZ: [ LZ% T 2X Lg
KZ s:
@*
(Self-recognition)kZ zg ]Z f 7 OKZy
s: 6,y
KZ cX @*
Y F,m,
x PZ z D ]Z f KZZ
V
KZ v gzZB ]Z f KZBvZ {z Sg ~g
D z z sp
X Qs
# ZggzZ w yEZ yj c
rg @*
, V [ B
'
g Z Q O
D z +
M
KZgzZ Q
D z g Zz
X YH
[S LZ \ M LZ s: % ( c) p

q "
$
qzgzZ c
/Z X CYZa (Indifference) WgzZ ]],
2KZ y
KZz!*
q m i z kgzZ Kz 8 xi :

Y 2011 ~gz

73

X Ygz V c
g 
gS
:(58:12 - ) X n ] X !*
Z {z p 1 yT 7Z kZ X M k0*
( -) kZ - yZg Z'
,
LL
t M }uz q
-Z 6,g8z K kZ gzZ P^- X 0*
: |
#

kZ V yZ pX g 8
- ]z ]Z kZ gzZ t
kZ {z
@& yZ 7 ^m,
- t : yT ]!*
/$
+gzZ
) z sp kZ6,yZzz cZ X` q Zg

gz U : {z @*
D mZ LZ - 7Z
/Z X ~g
X Tg t
z w {z c wZ kZg ZcL L : Z
/
gZ a\ M
tu
KZ t X @*
x u~ F,
gzZ ]g qzg
z
: nz cX Y ] { c*
i { c*
i a LZ { z
z$
+ T
^ D
w
D Z) 0 cX S cgzZ c
0
+
i Zu Y 0* [ze ~ LZ
0 CZ 0 :
C 7 Z
/Z
( s !*
)

tti Zg z { CZ\vZX 7ec% Z c bS


(Z X @*
Z
pi Z
vZX $
q
c
zugzZ y
**
y
KZ
W LZgzZ cy
KZ (19:59 Z ) @*

IY z {z X @*
Y 0 Z (,CZ p {z / V7 }uz LZ zz
gzZ M z Ds{z T gzZ ~(,
kQ
c*
X
"Lc
5E
z x PZZgzZ Y]Z f KZ Y $ ]**
vLZ 6,E
wqZ kZ Z C )gzZ ~ u ZugzZ a yZ **
X Y}
X  D w=)gzZ q
- 4,
v Z
d B +
M y
KZ X zg*u c

Y 2011 ~gz

74

6,KZ s w {)z ]tz ]c*


z d ]Zmz ]c*

] kZ 6,kZ V6&~ ]Z f KZ Q }zg


bkZ X @*
D g g z[ S LZgzZ ]Z @*

E
GLc
c
wsf zgqbZ]|X C q S
1yTLZ T) (e$ ( X
X  xzFz xi Z
c c*
X ( 1yTg LZ k Q
cgzZ
GG
"OKZ ~ y
KZ c
y Z
M 1g z : Q \vZgzZ
" u Zuy
5F
~ kZ : kS X @*
Y 0 g z tLG
KZ ~ kZ X @*
Y

gzZ (Civil-military bureaucracy )+


M ; (Dictatorship) +
M

Mzg
[S CZ gzZ Z \vZ {z : gzZ C Za ( Evil capitalism)+
( q _z qgzZ z [[8z q)
KZ { z Z
# , i Z {z X &c*@*
~ x yZ ~ w kZ
8c*
g V6& {< z ~ ]Z f
E
S LG3 X @*
Y x
/
ua% J e~ Z {zgzZ C Za zig M

X CY 0 ! x ~zy
Qz ~z* k Q
0
6, {z gzZ CY ] 46,"
$ z uy
KZ Z
c
s: 6,y
KZ }@x wz w) kZ X Yz \vZ X @*
Y

q
-Z QX @*
Za tzf C1) ~ kZ
C gD M |
QG

-E
4 ] (Ugliness,evilness) {z Z CY
V ~ sg X CYg Z f~zgzZ Fz ~ k Q }uz

Za t h
e Za g0
+Z LZ ]yZ ~ kZ f(,yT Z V
8,KZ Z sg

z$
+tzf z tkZ X @*
Y @*

88
-g ~ ( vZ () Z 8
-g 0
+
i KZ { z X
4 vZ >gzZ L L
-g
! \vZ gzZ
KZ z e
$ + ( 138:2 {Z ) X 8
Xtu
KZ c G X
{z X Z Zz y4 mgzZ n{zY w gzZ Q b!*
` Z'
y
KZ

Y 2011 ~gz

75

Y x OZ 0
+
i]c*
gzKZ Z {z: gzZ Y{g:% w ~ : M
7N~ k Q  a Z x M Q X

gzZ g
g E

X YB7y
KZ y
KZ% z Q c*
X Q y
KZ L

GLG
" g f ) b Zzg Z
KZ ~ !*
L \vZ ._ M

KZ ( x M
( ?V 7g Zgv~ H ) ?e e k ] : Y7 @
g z Z f

q Y Y Ho ^Zt |kZ ( V;) oFe X c*


[Z V,ZgzZ
PZ gzZ:{ +
M
KZ X  k }uz q
-Z 2 \vZ n y
KZ

X Og Q k Q }uz Le t gzZ Le *
* ny
KZ X
& xsZ
X gZb
KZ arg LG
vZ ~ ]y
KZ "
$U*
| M
oFe k ] izg L L

k Q y
KZgzZ I w) gzZ M Z &
+\vZ X V gz D g z WS LZ
yxg qgzZ c*
X
rg [z zig M \vZ m{z XI gzZ
V * x Vz LZ vZ Xz qgzZX
!g g

LZ y
KZ e
$ Z @*
Vc*
0*
" { c*
ik
H,
kZ y
KZ q
-Z [z zig M t X} {C
b Q L{
Z ZgZ Z Z (,~pg y'
6,Zg 0
+
iZ }uzgzZpg 6,e
$

X C
: V- n yZ K  0 y
KZ M

G
45 Z 64:40
) c*
@ g ~sz ~gy
KZ \vZ
4:95 EG
E
-CO
X ( 78:23 y>Z 78:16 Z ) 'gzZ -Z ( 7:32 {Z
8:3 yZ/ M ) .
i q
Z ~ [ Z Nz { k
HgzZz Fz {z
z$
+
E
-CO
KZ
34 36:17 Y ZuZ 9356:16 Z ) X Z { [Z wqZ LZgzZ ( 3:76 y
1Z 34:37 ]Z
Hc*
x Hz x(y
KZ ( 8:102 W,G
{zgzZ ( 70:17 Y ZuZ ) X
-o!
Dy
KZ \vZ ( 50:18 l Z 61:17 Y ZuZ 11:7 s ZZ ) 5 BE
2 r gzZ y
Z\vZ yY y
KZ ( 4:96 |Z 4 2:55 Z ) c*

Y 2011 ~gz

76

N
y
KZ \vZ ( 32:5 {Z
+Z ) '
,
Z'
, O
KZ O
q
-Z m,

i z ]kZ6,
yZZ ( 62:23 y>Z 52:6 x Z ) mZ e 71 { c*
7 a
yZ6,
V Zz 4 z OE
KZ gzZ b #z b & Z 2 yZ z w/!*
kZ y
KZ sggzZg !*
42:7 s ZZ ) M 71 { c*
i
Z'
,z ]

C
Y mZ e 76,}uz 1 { k
Hz x`
\vZ X (  @
|
y
KZ ]t ( 18:35 ;15:17 Y ZuZ 164:6 x Z ) g Z %O wqZ LZ
y
KZ ~ ] LvkZ a kZ ] z ]gzZ a
wqZ @ k Q K 7 zg y
KZ X} {C
b wqZ +F,@
2:67 <Z )  sg Z k Q wqZ b #z b & Z 2 yZ z wgzZ 
Vc*
A k Q % C M w]!*
t y
KZ ( 155:2 {Z 7:11

g 6, (Z \vZgzZ (ZqX Y H{0


+
i {g!*
zZ N Yv
G
G
KZ ( 3:75 )gZ :67 66:19 *%)
ZX E
E8L4Mh!N k ]g Ny
E
E
G}O 7:]Z 97 96:16 C-OZ ) } (z } 6
~ * {z
/Z ( 27:41
J0
+Z {z ~ ]y
M @*
gZ
/0
+
i b V0
+ZgzZ
87x z =
x0
+
i ~$
+Z
A Z z {z
/Z bZ ( 72:17 Y ZuZ ) `Q
yZ/ M 28:29 ]Z 23:11 ) xg ~ c iz Q v gz ; M
4Z 12:3
( 93 97 55:4 Y hE
Z Za ~ }i S {z ( 28:31y%)  b {uZz y
KZ x
(55:20 WW ) N Y VQ {0
+
i {g !*
z Z QgzZ N Y N*
~

X 7t
~ yQgzZ  '
,
Z'
,
{z p ] z ]gzZ +@z
E
E
GG
GG3ON 7
7L z t
bD z [
~g Z'
,x \ X t

z 8
-g \ x X a |
# gzZ yT st
]0*
]Z f c*
} Z {

sg *z ]X 7q ] c*
E ~ F,
,6,}uz 6,
'
( 13:49 ]ZZ )
vZ ) 8LZ {z i e
$gzZ ~ ] KZ y
KZ

Y 2011 ~gz

77

qLZ y
KZ X ( 11:18 l Z 163:2 >Z ) } ( \

C Za ~ 0
+
i kZ zig Mt X < z zig M \vZ
!*
n ]Zp ^KZ Z y
KZ X a kZ ~{za gzZ
bZ1 CY {'Nb} i zig Mt X Y7+Zp

y
KZ a kZ Lg ykZ Y Z zig M kQa X $
{0
+
i
N k Qzz Z X Lg ykZ T
G

L .g9 gzZ Lg /,6,


$@*
E
G
E
E
GgzZ zG ZX Sg &L34$/z Z
gzZ g ZS w4S ~ Vz
( 103 uZ )X 7N Zgz 0 Z x Zz z ]m
E
@] kZ bZ t@vZ SG7Lz n bTy
KZ
8LC1) ~ kZ t kZ X wZZ z yi Z ~ m!*
kZ
(Aesthetic sense)
V>gzZ VYZ Vp x n {z ZX CY 0*
]z 2 X @*
] Vk
HgzZ V-g { ( VZ'
,x gzZ @*

z+
M 8X @*
h yE:Nz spZ ] G
5O_ zFgzZ Q]z +
M 8Z
w5 z yx
~ ~g { ( gzZ BuQw ] Ol!
Eg!N
" 6:104 { Z ) @*
3E
Y bz
KZ ]t ( E
@*
?Q gzZ Za a y
E
Vz]gzZ }]Z f $NLZ }C
b wqZ +F,
@y
KZ
G-!N
G
G
E

.
3
O
54h!NgzZ
ykz y i L y
KZ X ( {M Z1 24:7 s ZZ 36:2{Z ) G
Eg!
D X <z Z ZS T Y ?O ] D
gzZ % J e~ ZS (Knowledge, Science and Techonology)
sz kzgzZ  <z 'z -Z \vZa z kZ
g Z+ F,
Z ~ KkZ {!*
gzZe ~KZjX ~ e
$Z@=g f
E
-O
E
G
=g f Z
L c D ( 78:23 y>Z 36:17 Y ZuZ 78:16 C Z )  C Z Z

X ( M
[Z ) Z *u T
z [ 7t Z y
KZt X g LO gVZ Y q
- 4,
xsZ
bzg L L k QY 7+y
KZ X Y0 g vZ {z

Y 2011 ~gz

78

v ~ kZ Z ( 72:38 m29:15 Z ) Z z ]Z 
] z ] EZ {z Z
yZ/ M 255:2 {Z )  CY 0*
OZ ) ~$ a kZ ]X ( 2:3
~ * Z  ( 4:39 %E
.(z ;g
yZ gzZ wqZD zg X ~ c i'
, { E
OE
G
4G3O!gzZ Y c*
?&N
A ~$
+Zz EG
7
- ; ~ 3bVw}E
~
(86-85:19 *%) Y

L LQ {2 ]Z W,
Z z yZ Z ]{  0
+
i +Z
E
g Z kZ X  mZp gz =gzZ x Zzz ]mgzuz ] OEg $Nz Ej8XN 

] L ~z* ] @'
, kZ X |~ugzZ ] )+ Z ]

-]z

L L@'
, L LZ ]a X ( 2:67 <Z ) zJ
CY xzna } x Zunz CZ gzZ Sg ~ + {z Z
bz ~ C
a kZ Cuh z c*
a ] ( 56:44 y{ OZ )
@'
, Vz z Cx**
v pX Lg `{ gzZ VZ m,
/n kZ y

KZ
E
E

Q
$
KZ z]X =g
KS L ]
] 4NX L w ] ^N**L
vZ gzZ h
+ WLS LZ Q V;z X x -Z kZ  C v~
u j,Znzt CZ ],i Z {z X M x
g z V2z
E
Q$E
G
KS L x Z
kZ S!N V-g ZgzZ VG^u" kZ
E
Q$E
I
7
KZ L ]X @*
6,gg g ^Nz l kZ M HZ f LZ

X @*
Y D M^z ykz y igzZ g EQ]
& **
K
Z'
,LE
 M
h v {z {i Z0
+Z kZ g z @X]
"Of Z qz z
3G
Y
a yZ ]~ kZ X V T e *
*q Zg V G
G
"O
45G
& **
LE
gzZ
bz g kZ G
f Z 0
+
i VO > M c iz X C g

:yZ ) f N a kZ gzZ F,Y]Y y


KZ V
Z'
,
N N

3MBM
L Y g66, ~ zig M kZgzZ ( 14:25
7]~ yZ GZ L
( 13:87 dZ 74:20 WW ) X

Y 2011 ~gz

79

yQ T ? %

ce kZ ~yZ **
(
)
X qNz x Zwpa kZ $ Z gZ
/z @q
-Z \vZ 0
+
i
GLqa iz0
xixg kZjz l
+Z 0
+
i
I
N
g pwEZ yZa kZ  C W,
Ogz l ,q gz M c*
]Z
X x Zwa kZ ^q
-Z
E
GLcZ @*
T ] Z f KZ y
KZ : Z b
q
-Z^t
Z
g 9 ]z ]Z f k Q {z Z
# q cX q
kZgzZ 4z z g gz [
LWS gzZ g z * OL g LZ {z QX n

kZX }[z [a gzZ zig M yZgzZ Y Z z ~


] i ZgzZ && 'x Z \vZ a Z% z ! x ~
gZ wqZ +F,@ y
KZ ~ wqC
\vZ X  K <z
&?
u z
wqZ + F,@gzZ p {z X ( 2:67 <Z )
qzig M wqZ + F,
@gzZ yZZ y
KZg 
C1) z !LZ {z X
X KyT kZ wqZ Zz iu y
KZ X
yZ gzZ g z ~ y
KZ kZ L LX /!*
gzZ @C
vZ
]z ]gzZ yk z y i V z X Z H <z Z
y
KZ wqZ @F
F6, z X  ]z + Z z X 
gzZ Y^6,
Zg Zg Zz Y
A 0 { 42X Y]Z f KZ
[Z LZ
gZz gzZ E
0J4)! Gz E
L 8X Yq yZg z [
YE
*
* +'
]Z f KZ 8
-g kZ X Gz L &g 8
-g vZ X @*

A
$ ]z +
( 138:2 {Z ) Z !gzZ e

Y 2011 ~gz

g = V^$ ~Q Vqi

80

15 m

YE
( E5Hg ) +Z ` Zu1Z

g [

V Zz wJxsZ 6 b [ X g@*
g @*
Vk
HgzZ V% : M L L
E
_ X 1 7x I Dy x KZ ~ V/yZ
: "
$U*
&z!*
k
B : Xz ZgzZ a kZ k
B b!*

& Z z *n , kZ : gzZ X
zz sX Zg Z%{@f LE
Z VggzZ V9 : M ] sq
-Z X ZM6, Z6,g
~ !*
,kZ X M
'
h Y A s gU*M ~ !*
,z n 5 w
'
7Z c*
b 6,akZ Z
Z I wZZ Vh
Vz g U*M D
 bZ ~ : M VX( `g k

gzZ kzZ ) yZ ]gzg Zu,Z6,g


Zuz X kZ ~ Zg
yZgzZ X c*

n
V;z t X ~ h ! Z 0 vZv y4kZ X : i
 \QDq X g a0 { 
!*
Z vgzZ ~ Z
Z {u
G
4 kZ
5E
V M LZ x 
Z 17z~ k
B s kzZ 0G
kzZF c*
M 60
+Z %Z kZgzZ
q
-Z `g k

F {z Q X 1 :Zz
LZ yZ m T  M
h } ~ {
!*
,Z q
-Z \ M LZ v
X\ O \
g a G
g kZ  c*
kZC
x  CZ Vb yZ `g k

vZ
M e 0*
~ yZ w 621 ~{
HM
/ ZuzQ X
X kzZFm z ~ X M gzZ ]B yZ X H { Z
GL L kZ X 6,ug I
a vZ wg V {g !*
yZ6,x

L L :H ~ p Z yZ f kZ q
-Z ~ yZ X @*
Y H c*
x **
\zZ

Y 2011 ~gz

81

:q
- vZ : 6,B; wgvZ
\zZ G V

: gzZ ,[g Z ~g kZw<i): gzZ , ~ga : X N


t gzZ , Z F,
yc s }uz q
-Z: 1CX ,O zZ {GZiKZ
?
/Z L L:c*

VrZ X }:
**
szc yZ ~

? {k
H ~ Vk
HyZ
/Z gzZ X
A ? g 6, kZ
a yZ Zw {z ZwyZ ~ * kZ
/Z ~ lZ 0*
x`
kZgzZ H[g Z
g vZt Q 3g J
- - x`
kZ ?
/ZgzZ zg /

C2 X } s c*
} Zw
#
X c*
B yZ E{! vZ wg Y :Zz [ vt Z
[ \ M X ` M :Zzl |L $
z kZgzZ gZZFE{!
nz ;g KZ \ M X b ]c*
Z@ 0 +gzZ y M
yZ Y
s xsZ w
/ ~ b yZt X H V; {gZg 0Z
Z
z!*
M xsZY x Z Z
#
Z ~ i E{!X

X : y M *
*wJE c*
'}uz ~ `g k
c*
kzZ
Z
Z bDVz! ,Z !*
X Z6, "
$g zZ V
~ g q
-Z ,Z X ~g Y Vg ~ 
Z
Zi!{ f 0Z
q
-Z\ kzZ
Z y!*
Yg k

E{!
# Z X g
J<
*t Z gzZ ~ Vzg ZuFkzZ f E
LE

Z Zi!{ kZ .6,t [Z ~}g !*

kZZX I**
~(, Z
Z\ ~ r !*
\ kZ y q
-Z VP E{!gzZ

D a { i Zzg V
/
u +Z {z X W"
mZ z yZ Zg f L L: Z X
Hk0*
ZgZu% LZ

6 s z " V }g gzZ  M g ~ }g  Y k0*


,
3
C [  ;g M w k
c*
S xj% LZ
z kZ Z X 

wyZ Y gzZ YL LX  6,] avZ wg VM

Y 2011 ~gz

82

@*
: Zi!{ Z
/Z
Z X N M : ~ }g { M z Zz6,yZ X zC
!*

kZ ~ gzZ g
C {Zz ~ {z t p : it ~
X Y VZ 7x s
u kZ } .
}n Z96,u yZ Y gzZ c*
VZ ~B; { 2 Z
4X3 J
4E
5G
}g a kZ H ? M VY V Vz ? L L: Y0 {z A c*
u E
5G
-

3Y KZ
/Z ?j s V**
E{! X Y gz  m,
p=V \ M : VY L L : ~zg x3,~(,gzZ Z e ]ZZ q
-Z 6,kZ

{g ):gz BwJ M I \ M
/Z ?V iz0
+Z W~g gzZ Og
L L:1 Z X N Y
, avZ wgZ X s Z ]!*
E{! {z D h 6,}i } 2 LZX iZ & ggzZ { {n
6,{n Z X u0*
zgzZ W6,xsZ E{!X
H k0*
#
Hw$
+8
-ggzZ g U*M
kZ g xsZ >E
L Gq X
tL LX C
U y!*
i kZ 3, kZgzZ W,
Z kZ gzZ
H V6,}n
0*
x CZ E{! X H~ yZ gzZ  g Zz dZ p Z
HZ **
4Z ~ <
kZ
/Z L L :1 Z
E{! ?ce **
L Z Z t gz Z YC
{ z @*
ce *
*< 0*
-V 0*
J
u Z

6,V vt X 7,i u 0*
Vz x
y !*
igz ZKC
} L Z H< Z X V Z.q
-Z ~ r !*
V ; z
f v ] ] ]] F ] ] ]ZZ H Z Z ] 0*
}L L: gz Z Z Z i VrZ ~ i 7Z E{! XX!
~ xs Z
C
\ kZ V Zl
Va % ~zc ~g v M gz Z q
-Z
X Y 4Z

1 {@xV d
$
yZgzZ ~ V Zz\ LZ
Z
G
yZ ~ c*
[Z
Z ?H H $NtL L :1 X _ < c*
yZ
t 7Z ~ X M : Z'
,~ yZ = vZz gzZ W Vz

Y 2011 ~gz

83

t ~L L:1 X , (z T e ? 6 VrZgzZ

^s r !*
~B; LZ {2t X 7 x ? V ;gN
Z ~g Zg kZ
Z kZ X yEZ v {z V Z 7,
]!*
gzZ Hx bZ b
Z E{!p c*
VZ {Z
+
X 1wJxsZ gzZ z b X 1{ M 6,G
g
~ q Z \ LZB V}uz gzZ
Z {z ` Z Z i
Z
#
\ M ? % H Z yxg V ? L L :gzZ H [ yZ
X
&gzZg Zu}g
 {z \ M ~ gzZ L LX c*
[Z VyZ 
) Z LE

:
X 4 ~ h}g ~g Zu \ M gzZ @*
+4 X
kZ Vg~g vgzZ Vz%}g v~ Zt V H ?~ A
$L L

X M : yZZ6,wg kZgzZvZ v ? J
-Z
# Vz7xJ
-
z
X c*
M : yZZ : (Z ~\J
- ]Zg
xsZ V ~:kZ X ;g { {g
HV;
Z x E{!
vZ wg @*
M :Zzl E{!
HM d
$
e kZ X 1 wJ

x yxg bD `g k
z kzZF VrZ , ~p a
X c*
x Zux H

[p 0*
~
@Vzg z Vz { ( ~ Da vZ wg
p {z g!*
kZ D7Z X [ {z @ ~ [Zp \
M }i  [Z
DXz Z {z 6,X {g v P [Z ~l X V ~ + `
'
t a vZ wg X ~ k R yZ {zX6,Z x Z U KZ A
E
7 yZ Q 7xsZ L 7Zp
/Z k R yZ
VrZ : X
Hx ~g Zi Zg 7Z , ]Zi Zg L: gzZ ,

y4g ZzgZ kZp yZ Y ' Y [ 7Z c*


C Vz yZ
t kX M 6, e T 6,z kZ Zz M
]5 Z
ZzgzZ N YBLZ {z  Bn
CZ {z

Y 2011 ~gz

84

X Ht Z yZ a vZ wgX Vq
-~W yZ
yZ gzZ E{! bT : M [ E{!
: Zzg a vZ
M e v P ~ V [ [ 0*
yxg
yZ avZ wg yZ 7Z X &Zpz gzZ % ( 73) yt X

~ x c*
Z BzZ ^X Y Z'
,g Zu Yg k
~ VZ'
,
u yZ X , ]5
 ~: { v
Z
M V  g^+
$Y l v {z ;g6,yZ wq
-Z
i z e E
L%x
[Z >k
,

b

p= avZ wg ~l Z X ]g c*

yZ +
$Y ZgzZ Z y M
z4,
~6l Z  g Y {zg X 
wt ~ ]g+Z H X  g Y M M ~ q `zzg
$Y x 
+
L $ wgzZ B " KZ +
$Y l M
z i Z
#

0
+
i Y Z'
,
VY kZ { c*
i } wt eX B cg
M: ~ }g !*
wV Zz d
$
]gzZ !*
:
yZ X H { M w LZ V LZ  w Z VrZ
CY
-V t V
x 
{z w a vZ wg  Y {z J
7*
* m,
/ ~zc yZ {z a kZ  D Z Z i ~ 6zk

,
^}g QgzZ X Vzs ~ cg CZ ~ i ~L L : Y Z'
,X T e

7Z Vv X Z Z i cg +
$Y ~ VrZ yZgz
u~ w Y Z'
, Vl {z Z
# pZ: W,
Z kZ6,Y Z'
,p
#Z

q
-Z yZ0
+{ LZ VrZ gzZ c*
VZu
~ / yZ E
LE


4 } Vzuz ~ ~
 ~ PyZ [ gzZ
+
i
}L L
c*
g yZ gzZ ~ #
}
. avZ wg M 0
bzg ~ zz # V ?^ ZgzY X H H ^Zgz ,

X ~ ]2z
-[Z VrZ
wg q
-Zl a kZ : avZ wg J
R yZ ? H L L : kZ ? V {z Y7 ~ }g !*
a vZ

Y 2011 ~gz

85

[ Z k VY  Y k c*
[Z VrZ ? Y k

c C Zz q :Z X IZz ! l yZ v [ gzZ X @*
*
Z {gz
vZ wg z B k M  4Z ~K ?Z
# L
L
:c*

\
M X H7 wZ CZ gzZ M ~ #
}
. a vZ wg vt X 

cg CZ ~ i Q%q
-Z Y Z'
, X Tg 6,Z xi Z 5 cg q
-Z ? L L
yZq X  D a vZ wg 6} (z @*c*
s6zk
,
X M
h
_{ c*
i q
-Z kZ 5 [Z  avZ wg
 
+],
Zi,Z ~ T ZB yZzg q
-Z^ l V yZ
X 1wJxsZ ~ Zz q
-Z ~ yZ X: ugzZ D Y7 V @*
-
#Z v
Z'
,
Y1Z Z
/ **
`g k

Ft
z W,
Z gzZ { Z'
,
u  z/ E
LE

vZ wg ~gZi Zg ~(,b {z c*
0*
~ : M X q cg
MM a
X ,]5 ~ kZ M ]Zg ~uz  e !Z ~ E
0G
B V LZ
kZ L L:t p Z kZ c*
y  q
-Z ~ yZ

Dv g
/]Zg q
-Z Z
# J
-V l!*
~ yZzg

]5 {gH avZ wggzZ


ug ~ yxg V
vZ wg g OZ V;z X ~ ~ Zz B o Z ~(,a

6<
,
LZ J
-A
$kX M p=~ k R LZ a
&{z V }z  Zp yZ p
vZ wg Z
# X Vg Z LE
}g v! `g k
L L:
k
6,(KZ a
VyZ b gzZ ]z H
q
- 4,
}g ~ D
#
sz p{z gzZ g g z yZ ~ yZ0
+{ yZ Z 3g p
\ M LZ gzZ N Y ~ V ?t 1 VrZ [Z pX g

gzZg 6,kZg ?{z Bv ?


/ZX BB}g v
? ~g Z)f gzZ1 Z (,t j o #C
a yZ ?
S{z K yZ ? y (Z ~ w }g v
/Z X g wJp

Y 2011 ~gz

86

L L:c*
[Z VrZ X z hg
z Z 7Z ?
z [Z 0*
7
_
N

CZ WZz [g LZgzZ LZ \ M w
gvZ } Z p \ M  1 E
X

vZ wg} ] xsZgzZ D svZ ]z y M

? T ~g Z
{z V @*
6,okZ {@t V ?~L L :c*

a
?bT bZ zDZg7 Zg7 Z ? } 0*
kZ {z z
GL^ a vZ wg gzZ } 9 Y Z'
, X D D zZ gzZ VgKZ

\ M 5 wgB h\ M T n kZ L L : ug I
L<X }g \ M X  D VggzZ V LZ , +z

yxg V}uz gzZ yxg }g w


gvZ } Z pN
wJ~g Z z

s] yZ gzZ L LX ] V- yZ X 
\ M vZ gzZ ,g
/ (Z
/Z ykZ (Z H1X  Zg 6,
a vZ wg ?N Y :Zz ~ V LZ hgV \ M }

z k
B ? T
} ?gz Z V Zg v~ ! 7
/C
L L : gz Z c*

+
B *z Z kZ ~ z *? TX Vz k
B ~ kZ
X Vg
x KZ Z
Z {u,Z {g !*
LZ ? L L:c*

a vZ wg kZ
7 Z
Z {u {g !*
VrZ X V n
pg q Z M'
,{ ] 5
Z
Z j!*
~ V Zz e Y
kz Z &gz Z `g k
Z
Z X

gz Z
Z ~ V Z'
,
u `g k
X M {g
Hs kz Z `g k

{ C Z f 0Z

Z ~ Z
Z & kz Z X 
Y Z'
,
X 5
zT
`g k

~ {g !*
yZ Zz a vZ wg vt
I }g 
Z V w
/ VM M q
-Z
 ? M kZ g ]!*
kZ H `g k
L L : # yZ

Y 2011 ~gz

87

VrZ p Y {z
? H kZg Y

c V}g * yZ v ? L L: D: Zz6,[Z kZ
*
?Z
# w (Z ~ w }g v
/Z 4CXg wZ

4 z hgyZ ? } 7,**
VZ yv yY E
\ Z
# c*
yv u5Z

r Z
f ~ * kZ gZS
n ~
/ZY Yg ZS
n Z
B; yZ g 6,LZ ?
/Z pX ~ y ZgzZ
c*
[Z
X ~ ]y
M gzZ +4~ * kZB yZvZz x

vZ } Z gzZ  B yZ z!*

h s ZZ gzZ n wZZ LZ L L
a vZ wg ?} F
,
Z Zg7 ~ LZ
/Z A H (Z w
g
GL^ CZ a vZ wg X J (,B; CZ VrZ X ,'
,z
L L :c*

t 6,Ka y- X 6,B; \
M
gzZ *
c J (, M ug I
m i Zz M e :
Z'
,h
+'
kZ Z
# X ;g gzZ N

&O
~ [Z \
M X c*
{t Y a vZ wg gzZ L L

X Vz 7
uN ~ vZ} Z L L c*

Vl^vmi ] ]u (1]u


0Z X 2X {g 
Z+
$Y Y {0
+
i zZ [)~ V- z$
+ [X 1

X%x kZ X 457: "ZX 3289 : rZ


X 7f ~g Z)f k
B ~ kZ ;g *
@Y a kZ Vg

0
+Z  ` M X
? zg z { o %Z x
/z wp
wZ 0 x ~ kZ ` M
e w  ` M V gzZ
~ V Z kZ ` M ^ 1
~ V Z kZ ` M i s 8
-g

Y 2011 ~gz

ZC
i { m,
{ :k
,

88

20 m

*:~zZg

a 7a ^jm ^

V M ` D ZgzZf Z ]|

gzZ **
Y =
z Z ~ izg q
-Z~ e
$

B\ M
/Z Z
H x ~h gZg e
z kZ t Z

7x OZ g 0*
~ X Z Z9JZBgzZ ; ~ X N M

zuzg ~h N(
o}~
g @*
Zt H
2Z R,
X V {g!*
z Z t Q gzZ Vzg OZ 4 {gG k

._
KZ Y 7tO X @*
Mg 6,yZgzZ J

~ gzZ
HF,
Z t ._ x Z
/
z6,X ~9 ~h ;e Y V
-Z Y M t Z X ( n ug 0*
q
gzZ ~ J (, M ~h

gzZ ~9 ~h 6,V;z ~ X }i { 4- X 7g Zi !*
V (

M ~h q
-Z ^g6 ~h ~ 4 {gG k X g OZ

{7 3 eg C.I.A = gzZ c*
M s~ M q
-Z ~ kZ X g

gzZ
H~ Z c*
C Z ~ ? ~9VY ~h 6,V

Z gzZ ~9 V ~h ~ n kZ 7( g0*
k0*

X Y : {ztX V ;g Yh
e

g M ~h z ~ g% qz ` ~h KZ ~
~ M X 7Zz6,= n kZ 3g7x a X
Hg Z Mzg ~h
uzg ~h M Zz C.I.A. z ~ z Z Z p
{z kZ X  8L LV;z eg ! X
H M s ~g gzZ Z F,
Z
BgzZ n ^i yZ kZ 3 i eg ! Vz X 3

Y 2011 ~gz

89

X Y QX 1^ ~h
= X ~v M g0
+Z } b`
gzZ )kZ p~ ` ~h ~
? ;g ) x`
Zz C.I.A. ? H H ;g Y *kZ
Y
ANb 7 VY
X
H M ~ gzZ Z ?zg VY ?
HF

~8 {z X c*
M 0*
kq
-Z {z X 0*
xi 5X Y6,KZg0
+Z ~
X v M g2$
+g0
+Z p 1 8 {z ~ c*
M 0*
gzZ {z18
-gzZ
] kZ g gzZ
H qzg ~ J
g B1 Z 7,t
Zg f 0*
= c*
C y Ug Z ~ gzZ c*
M w = X
H w
8J
-
7D X qwh ~V kZ X ;gg h
+~J
g
{g !*
k Z @*
Zge ~h AjgzZ ~(,p~ X 7gZg e

7 Z J
-V;z X
HVwh~ 4] 0*
,
= n kZ [ t Z Y w h kZ X Vj Z c 6, g
Z e z V ; z X
Hs} # kZ J~ X 
~ } # Z e

q ~

H { i Z0
+Zt D 4Z g0
+Z }7Z 7xX 
q
-Z X c*
tQgz Z c*
Zg V zi !*
= Ug VrZ X 7
Z ~ ? Z Z Y7 k
,
Zg f gz Z gn y !*
i ~

= ? Z 7,t
Y7 Q gz Z c*
bZ q
-Z Ug VrZ X Z 7
+~ V zi !*
h
gz Z V+ g M g2$
+ X Z 7kCt

X g

= V M U
$N*
z&
+z yZ k~ xg p- c*
Z/ V M z VrZ6,kZ
X ;g Y c*
Y ~ whgzZ = [Z X ~ x M Z e ~ =Z VZ
e ~ X ;g
;gN ~ l ~1 n }1

~ D kZt ?
HM
z ~y
M H ? 1 w = H
#= {z ''
H M t w iz&
+ L LVz X c*
qz 7,
~ X : = @*
I }g 
Z 7Z ~gzZ D

Y 2011 ~gz

90

~y
M &  D v ;g Z w X sz^~ "7,
Z !vZ c*
X @*
lp Z (,q
] X {z Y ~
z
X V ;g c*
NX V ;g| 7,
z ~y
M ~ x H
~ kZ X 6,
gzZ ]!*
.]X 7 ] sp ~ w
_

X
H qz ` X Z f Z ^g; gzZ = iZ e X Vwh
`O Y:
z ~y
M L L{z X g
/y q
-Z q
-Z X 6,3
VZz
BgzZ ;e *
* `g Ce= iZ e q
-Z X Fzg ~gzZ
H
-Z 6,
q
z @*
Y **
3X {3 x whX N @*
x Zg M q
-Z
O ZY
~(,a }t X CY Zz A~ P C M k3,
]gzp
: VY e ~ X @*
7,*
* p
Zz
C**
3 Z ~ ~ y
iZ e ~ X ]5 Vzm,

gzZ Y x Zg M V Y ` y 0*
} ~ X *
*7^7 VrZ V ;g { e **
Y y 0*
~ c*
C
V {g h
+'
~ wh~
/Z X} ~g Z g % ~ 7 6,y
\ M 7t g gzZ ~ 7,| {z Z e ~7 V;z ?'
JF
4&
N 3 ,x ,Q ~
y\ M X g g
e(q
-Z
\ Mt G45G
X
H`y~gzZ = t X 4n
~y
M L L{z X e 7w= **
M ]~ =Z SgzZ ~g F t ~
} Z V @*
t ~ [Z gzZ **
M L: LZ c*
0*M 7
z kZ 
z
k0*
}
i Z0
+Z t
x Zg M ;g | 7,~ ~g F kZ ~ bT !vZ
G
c*
k\Z ]~ w }A
$ M
z {z SG
5 Zz Z
# [Z g M
D Z~ gzZ f Z6,

m,
_ ]!*
. ~gZ
_
/
]~ w X: sp
! } M M} M X V M ` k0*
}

Y 2011 ~gz

91

( 8 Z Z e],
g ) YZgZ i q
Z

wZ& ~g 0*
|

-8E~<%Z g !*
E,G
-Z ~<%Z vZ Y z **
q
]|+Z Kg
~g 0*
**

' ;g"
$U*
CvZ g}]| k
g

b B V
~ 
vZ C t \ M : **
6,kZ

:c*

**
6,kZ X
H{g G ~g 0*
]Zt ? y{ Z c*
J 7,

X  D Z h Q t Z []|wgF vZ VY\ M

|X6,] kZ: yZZ 6,q


- {uz Z}
. \ M : t ]!*
h

H t~ ]!*
Z \ M
/Z gzZ e [Z ]Z& ~g 0*
X V Y y

t q~ V k Vx 
kZ |
# g
A ? : 1 ]
? eVY

wq X CY V(C
zg kZ gzZ kZ (q
-Z `g : [
X ?

X 7~
# q : {0*
[%
OkZgzZ [ 3C
M:2]

X C 7~
# q : {0*
Z1 QZZ Lg~ V^ : [

VYt 0*
[Z|z X ,1Zng e kZgzZ q
-Z :3 ]
? e

q 0*
gzZg Z 1$
+0*
u**
M 0*
M Zz
/0*
y : [
X r Vzg e

X
H y~g 0*
]!*
Z 
gzZ: t

Y 2011 ~gz

92

:'!*
pg c*

X 70
+
i k0*
kZ 7q'x k0*
T &
"(, M uP " V ,j  D [x v z ~ * &
X
X z
) 6,hZz LZ X zx % Q V X z z6,KZ &
~ VC lpXg6,]**
kZ w{ c*
i VzZ
+ wq
X zg(Z ~I |O
X Y 1x Z x Z a h
e x Z &
X 7zhghX 7zg h &
X1 Q &
X$
Y 7yV $
Y kZ g &
Xce Y ]!*
Z : c*
: c*
&
X  D y Lgg " ~ 0
+
i V M } (, &
X CY s
fy
KZ 0*
3z &
CgzZ
yZZ 6,C76,\ M LZ 0
+
i M
h l &
X Cg g KZa

~ F,
]Z gzZ ]gzxI &
X s
E
-{$+Z Zp : g u &
Zp ( V
KZ x ) ' + X @G
:c*

X -
z gZ ~g Z g % *
*xs**
**
3X ]g
X Vzt Z
H5a kZ=L L
G
D z:gz q Z yZZ6,vZgzZ ~g Zpi Z0
+Z ~g^
KZ &
X  x Zz Y ~ 3 gzZ x Z

?V yyZx

GE
z) f ~g1i gzZ (F,
) : 
g Z ~ u 0*
yM
&
(

Y 2011 ~gz

93

} ( gZ r
# gzZ
A & !*
) }_g Zz }i c*

X V
D]!*
~ Z >gX Z y 'y ._ u 0*
yM

gzZ , > [{z , g ZMZ ~ o 7Z


/Z  v {ztL L :c*


gZ]gzZ Xzg V}'
,gzZ , ViZgzZ , Z Z > 2i
( 41:22 :Z ) X ~B; \vZ x Z

t yZxq
-ZgzZ =r q
-Z

 { c*
i k d
$
]!*
gzZt X ]!*
! p ~(,**
k n
&
Xn
pg { c*
i ]Z f KZgzZ n
a kZ

V Zz .
$zZ X gyZxgzZ yZ/0 Q k n
~ b Z ` M ) Ka z Ug ( ) Q X H],
Z
'gzZ b ~q \ 6,
z Q X Hg ( ^g ; g ZZg
>ZZ X Z 7)lX 7~
Z ^V: ;
%6,{gH
z y
~y
M X b`
X N ' Xg } 9~ } b VFx
| (,p
z Z
{'
,
Z X s g>ZZ
Z7 ? }`
Z kZ vZ y ?:1 gzZ M k0*
r
#
t Vz Hp~g v~ X
z q x H: w Zgf ]!*
kZgzZ c*

X zwJjg s~ Zg ZD
k

3 #
" ~

yZ g ez g ~ ]g Hq
-Z ?Z
# ! Zz yZZ } Z L L
(Z6,g we m t S ~"6,,Z TX z:" ~
kZ X Y y~ vZ {z n Y Y ` ~uz c*
,
15 :wZ ) X i !*
Y ~'
, {zgzZ 3: 1
( 16@*

Y 2011 ~gz

94
0Z x Z

ZzB; N ZgzZZz Y '

]4zvZ Y 1zZ

e^]ZZ } [HvZ Zz Y ' ]4zvZ Y 1zZ


[ KZ \vZX XXnn] h^v]ZZ vzg: x ZzB; N ZgzZ XXe]
~ { ~y
M gzZ ZZZz g }X Hf ]4yZ 6,] ~
X {E
+ yZ ~ ggzZ a
Z gY
Kg

VC
#
zg ]4Vzt

]ggzZ c*

f #
~ { ZZ Zz g \vZ

: @*

\vZ ~ Y ZZZz gX #
~y
M
- {z X 7^ ~ Zz T Y #
Z
# LL
Y ~ h B i }i Z
# X Zz gzZ Zz
N Y g {n Z6,{z Q X N Y b { m,
g { m,
g !*
h N gzZ
N Z  iZ ZzB; N Z : X Y ~ Vo) & ?gzZ
 gzZ V ZzB; N !*
wq ( Z'
,) H ZzB; N !*
gzZ X ZzB;
X  v [H X  Zz Y ' {z  Zg dZ
} hgzZ ~ V {z
/Z(, ~ yZ X  ~ Vk{ x Zg M
( 41:Z Z ) X V ~ V

x y
M z wZ \vZ Z
# C
6, #
 {zt Z
X t 6,] ~ y M
\vZ X
Z+
M
KZ

] Z ~ ]y
M avZ Y 1zZ

: @*


g Z \vZ ~y
MZz g

Y 2011 ~gz

95

kZ X DgN
z kZ ?gzZ CY VJ
-}y

3,bzg Z
# :L L

?
/Z : X M
h N 7?1 D d
$
{ c*
i ~g v
 : X N*
bzg kZ Zg f F ~ wkZ gzZ 7y
k
,
i
Zz x Zg M gzZ  N ZgzZ s
# Zg a kZ ~ V [H

a } s ~ V ZzB; N Z  gzZ
A
( 91@*
83:Z Z ) X ~ V ZzB; N Z
: \ ~g !*

g Z ~C
g

T * q
-Zt X g C T x Y {z v ( :L L
( eO]
.) N Y w ,1 kZ ( gzZ ) } vZ
T Dg e y kZ gzZ  D ~g7 g 2
+ (  {z } vZt)

gzZ VB V~ vZ gzZ Zz Y +
$Y g X Z'
,
g \vZ s (  t {z) X  D **
3V-{
" X ~g Z
/]: gzZ  T e!$
+ ?:  D a ~q

Z : X Zz gzZ F,
;  n
pg sp y kZ g gz6,LZ
LZ ZgzZ pgzZ i @*
ZgzZ 1X Z'
,y kZ \vZ
Z ) X
k]ggzZ
A $
+
( 12 5:C

: c*

V- f ]4z yZ \vZ ~ a
Z g bZ

45 x H gzZ ~ EG
45 wqZ )**
G
G
X H EG
! Vzg GL L

v ( X  Dq
[Hk0*
kZ X [Y ~ [

Vzn yZ ?X  gN6,V-dX  ~ Vz~(,


6,T X N Y [Z{uZu vt X yT i @*
zF,
l M kZ Xce g ZV Zz gX $v
81 :a
Z ) X v[H 0*
T* {z
( 82@*
g) [Z2ut ~z% +v ~ xgzZ dk0Z ]|
X Y B l M (* q
-Z
A ) V ZzB; N Z ( x ;

Y 2011 ~gz

96

gzZ 0*
{ yzZ yZ L L} [H \vZ

7t Z {z XX^`e hmZZ : y
\vZYXJ
Z% hm V ZX ~ kZ XX^` hmZZ
kZ *
@Y t
/Z @*
7 kZ 1 q q
-Z Zz
W ]zZ X
C

hmZZ
Ht ZX @*
:
6,
WJ
-t ~
kZZgzZ`kZ} [HvZ t Z% XX^`e
gzZ { 0*
}
[HL L: X : ~
# q q gzZ B

\vZ ~C
g]!*
Z X Y l M V ZzB; N Z L L
:c*

y VT * q
-Zt X g C T x Y {z v ( :L L

( eO]
.) N Y w,1kZ ( gzZ )} vZ

Z )
( 6 5:C

X Zf ~Zz g X } [H{zvZ Z% v
Z L LV

C
a kZ t
t ~ Y Zb
Vz [HL LgzZ V ZzB; N Z L L

Zb
{ !*

/Z ) @*
'Z'
,c*
YZ e '!$
+
( C M gZ ~ Z b
: (Z
/ZgzZ Q {

]]4z yZ

H~ g
$u kZ a }g \ vZ {E
+ wqZ ]4 Vz yZ

kZ c*
g (Z # (
z ) z } T : @*

\vZ L L
{z bT Y0*
7bkZ [
Z{ gzZ ~ ] k
B =
Z { ZgzZ @*
0*
[
Z 5Z Z Z
{Z
+ }
gzZ CY kZ = J
- V Lg @*
d
$
})g f
x Z ZBB 5Z Z Z
) } LZ = Z
#

Y 2011 ~gz

97

7{z TV @*

Y 0 y kZ ~ CY ( :
L

V *
@Y 0B; kZ gzZ 8 {z T V @*
Y 0 M kZ gzZ
X {z TV @*
Y 0c kZgzZ @*
{ z T
( Z pZ [!*
t Z [ ~g Z 9)

( [Z )ZzB; N Z

\vZ)g f 5Z Z Z
  D {z vg ZzB; N Z :

q kZC
gzZ H n
6,yZ vZ &  Dx {zC
 Dq [

7 wqZ \ M LZ%Z X Hx Zw6,yZ vZ&  uF,


X  qB; CZgZ b I{Z
+" :gzZ D ZI

( e] e^])Zz Y '

ZBB Z
} [H vZ Zz Y '
G-o!
\vZ )g f
5B z ]Zz {z X  Dq [
gzZ  D Z Z Vz ] E

~ wqZ [8vZ {z Z
# Q X  DuF,
gZ nVz {z(z x Zw

\[g  Dq [
\vZ._
) , Z KZ
Z { Z
# g ~ g
$u 6X 4 yZ
Z% V X CY kZ = @*
q [
Z)g f

: 
g Z \vZ 6

yZ: Hx Z 6,X`6,5 Zg V yZ X `6,5 Zg L L


( 76:BZ ) X ( `6,5 Zg ) VZe:gzZ H 6,X 5 Zg
: ~ e
$ M kZf T c*

x Z CZ \vZ6,VyZ
V yZ y #
{ z  D
) Z wg kZ gzZ vZ  gzZ L L

GgzZ Y ZY m
CZ Hx Z \vZ6,X VB
( 69:Y Z ) X  =g +4 Hvt gzZ (B)
V- gzZ  D &
+
e 5g 0*
Z [
~ ]q I} [Ht :

Y 2011 ~gz

98

\vZ C
yZ X  f
eg (Z ^ !*
g
) Z ~ h yZ gZ b I

[Z
A {z bZ H{ V,Z bT ZX @*
{a
X{ ( l M %)
~ wqZ 0%**
V ZzB; N Z zg : x~ A V>@'
, yZ
X Zb
: Zw: Z 6,kZ a ]Z f KZ yZ  
x ,Z
l M gZ [zH~ kZ Y 7[Z{Z Z
X l M wqZ H~ wqZ yZgT

wVggzZ { 
!*
9

} vZ   {z wg ~ T Y m
CZ wVq
-Z kZ

( o ) gzZ  { 
*
!   {z v'( wg) 7{
!*


\ M ,I a LZ q
-Z ~ Vz {z
Hc*
g (Z a } g
( Z) X c*

I
Cwgz { vZ


!*
B
g qY m
CZ {z
gzZ g Z ]|~ yZ >

:c*

0 gy]| \vZ X  
gy]|

+Z = gzZ } j= !g gz6,} Z ( gy]|) L L

X Zz
Z (," : Vc*
}


!*

B 3,
._ yZ {z c*
y
k
,
i yZ Z Q

{z ( c*

 yZ ) ] gzZ X @*
) Z V

Vzi  ] }uz gzZ Zz g gzZ Zz 'g q

c*
zyZ ( e) ~g t ( ) } ~
( 39@*
35:m ) X 7[ ( 6
,? ) g uzg ( e)

] gzZ  D Z Z {n
vZ {z >

!*
& {z
I KZ ~ wZZ z ]Zg(Z ( ~} ],
Z ]q I) kZgzZ  uF,
X M 7{ k
HZ6,kZgzZ  Ds._ %gzZ

Y 2011 ~gz

99

Z vZ {z ( { 
!*
: )  D } vZ  wg {z

Dxz % KZ : gzZ  % KZ : D7

z vZ& gzZ  D Z vZ& 
a* e
$Zzg b{k
,
1Z ]|O X  D
C
z Z
:c*

~ X V zg : V %KZ ~ ! nvZ L L
X
Hc*
pgZ V V
rg zq V Zz

D ^ (oF^i ] h^e (] h^j (p^f] xnvE

6,V ZzB; N Z V Zz Y '

 aZ kZ { vZ  wg {z vZ *
*yt :
'a]|gzZ R}]|.]|Z'
,
Z ]| 6X { 
!*
vZ bZ !*
X n
pg E6,Ry]|gzZ Z ]|- ]|
Dnn] h^v]E V ZzB; N Z De] e^]E } [H
X  aZ
{z Hn._I ~gZ b IpG Z Z ~0*
]Zz T Z
I vZK wqZ z s T.
kZX g ~ V ZzB; N Z
vZ {z g +
M kZ ~ gZ b IgzZ @*
Zg {z XgzZ 
X X ~ V Zz Y '{z }~zc
=n^] h ^m n (` ^q] `]

z g vZ

: ] ?X h g e kZ 6zge vZ
yZZ } Z L L
: ~ gzZ z g vZ
X ? ~
q kZ1 M
( 103@*
102:yZ/w M D X z7
,

Y 2011 ~gz

100

` 9N*

], V

{z a kZ X Le **
Z ` 9N*
LZ {z X Lg ~ V q
-Z N*
g(
X [!*
i Z et c*
Z ` CZ kZ X
Hk0*
Z e q
-Z
9N*
LZ ~ r
# Z e gzZ c*
M k0*
}y q
-Zt
-Z c*
q
C kZ h7 uZgp kZ kZ ~ X , ` kZ V
J M x M X V
83{gG Vzg V @*
3 0*
Vze ~
z
Vzg 3P q
-Z s Vze Z ~ X V
83 x M k
i 6 k : Zizg
/ kZ r !*
C
!*
V gzZ q
-Z sx M gzZ z s
M X 
X
H q ~ X [ | (,h
+'
&
+
7 20 yiz kZ c*
} g6,kZ L
L e LZgzZ c*
: Zzg} V1P ~Z
1 @*
3 q
-Z x M L L :c*
C = e y } ?7c*
@*
6,
~(,q
-Z P kZ1 @*
3 q
-Z P Vze @*
3x M Z(, q
-Z
_ ~(,~(, kZ VzgX  D M wze b 0*
~ T 3g }R,
wa @*
6 6,R,
t
/ r !*
gzZ C 7Kzg | M 
X 7xq
-Z
gzZ c*
M y q
-Z X ( ~g F
/
) c*
f 9N*
gzZ ~gpg }

~ X { c*
i
/
Zz Hyp X
/
= ! r
# Z e L L :
z X **
Zzs
B M {g !*
z z 37!*
[Z gzZ ~ Zz
W,
Z Zz
H y.6,~ X Z 7,: t
m{ s
B
/
~ ypc*
M
~ hg!*
L L:c*
C kZ ?7 ~ hg **
3 Y7 kZ X H7VY
83 (:

gzZ V mZ e]~|z gzZ "


$e( [Z X
{ M [Z c*
Z ~ X | l,
eq
-Z s~ @*
37{ c*
i X V

Y 2011 ~gz

101

Y7 ~X
/
~ yp c*
M z X 37]gzZ
\ M !r
# Z e L L : kZ ?7 ~hg 3 {)z gzZ ] ?
mZ e
/~
:
} "
$|z e [Z X V ; g Zg7 Zg7 6,e
$Z@
] e
$Z@ QZ ~ X gzZ M = 6,[Z Z X V
X **
37
/b gzZ
Z e L L : C 6,{7 X : ~ g Zl
/
~ yp c*
M z
e [Z X c*
**
3

/] 6, \ M ! r
#
Zz Z
t u CZ ~[Z X V mZ e i~ {)z|z {
6,{7 X g Zl
/
~ yp izg {gG 1Zz iX Z 7,
c*
Zz kg u X 
W kg u k ]b : Zizg [Z r
# g( Z x
Z e L L:c*
C ~b
~(, Y7  X M : m{ Q ~g Zl
/
~ yp
V5N*
gzZ V 1 s[Z ~ 3q C
6, \ M ! r
#
V1 gzZ VAN*
{ M ~ X **
Z :t a Z}
.V @*
3
9~(,6,{7 X .
D g Zl s
B
/
z X **
:B;
z ZX c*

7B; N*
gzZ L
1 ~ n Z}
.! r
# Z e L L :1
X mZ e V5N*
~} z gzZ ~} L
1 ~B; LZ
X V @*
6,e
$Z@ \ M @*
7B; q !*
~
a Z  D ,Z PH, ` qzg CZ ` M !}g\
( L L:[ gzuZ o ) X ;gY @*
F,
+ $
$
+{

]n

~g 26 gzZ 25 / Z lp r
# gzuZ o g Z 0)x k
,

w Z g
CyZ yZ ~ #w
/X IwZ ~ / w 85 ]Zg xg
Mg X jh
+{z { q
-Z
/X :C
!*
kZ {zgzZ
H
X
Zpg ]na yZ

Y 2011 ~gz

102
lAZ

+z

Zg
/
g y!*
i ! ^Z 0 wh ~ ~{~,^ M &~ ~ ~uz

Zg zZ q
-Z s: wh X Zz
g {y t Z{z X
7B; 6, c*
{z X y
KZ sp" gzZ ( gz
) gzig pe
$.
wh wa kZ @*
7,Z eB; 6,g6Z
/ZgzZ mZ e
3 7" L g ! g ! ~ yZy Z kZ X Y
X Zg ; ~ L{z:gzZ
k\
-zZ kZ wh X g 7,\ gzZ
z Pz y q
-Z
} Vzg , gL kZ Nt X u" J zz

X Z 7,^s c*
g a 0*
Z g Z6,
-zZ gzZ aB [ gzZ
{ z Z
# X wZ e 6,
zZ LZ g e Kq
-Z kZ a v \
z Vz t X A g Z {z D M +
$Y ~uz ~ 5 ZgE c*
M gz
I
g;X(E
-GG
X Z (, ~g gzZ
KZ yZ X yZ ^$
+ gzZ VX[
X Zg yZy g M R b kZ e !*
Vzh
~ yZ X ;g Y 0*

-zZ kZ M Z wh
? q
W 3k0*
}g v! Zzl
"Z L L:
)g} (, q
-Z
: t Z} (,gzZ 1x Z kZpc*
M]!*
kZwh
F,
Zn Vzh
-zZ ~t e
C|z X
7VY L L

e  ,gL[ Kzg M k0*


} e **
3
/Z X 8 |z kZe A
X
:gY VrZgzZ c*
MJVzg ZVz[Z wh
F,
Z
-zZ Le s' ~A KZ  y 7}Y " Z L L

Y 2011 ~gz

103

X k0*
}g p,q ~uzgzZ|z

X wh
X M p ]gzVzq X **
~L L
:` q
-Z X $ v M g ZVz [Z

X , Z w3~g v:gz} ,qt gzZ F,


Zn X $
+Z (,L L
gzZ Z F,
Zn 8
-
-zZ {z X g: [@*
G
g gzZ ~ wh [Z
:g

$
+y V 8 [Z , VR b bgzZ $
+= ? L L
X C q
-Z ' ~A gzZ
Zht wh X c*
a
wh Z hq
-Z t Z G,
kZgzZ J (, M g Zq
-Zt

yZg KZkZQ 1 n } hkZ8


-N*
~g ZgzZ zg6,zi !*
LZ
kZg Z Zuz kZ X IS kZ }g U gzZZ !*
n
ZryY kZ Vz X HD kZ wh J (, M a
{z Z
# X ga 3g d1 bkZ yZ wh 1
}uz q
-ZVzu Vz 3
/Vz wh '" Vz
5 wh hB; V,ZgzZ 1 JVz kZ X c*
qz **
Z
X N Y%:gz z hggzZ z3g6,a Z}
. ~ qz~
#,
: wh
X Vzhg7 ? z
/
g: u**
?J
-Z
# LL

X z hg[Z a Z}
.p g ? L L:1 Vz
X V y~ YL L: wh
X Y 77:1 Vz
V Z ~a k ?V ^Z 0 wh ~L L:u
/ wh
X gz x **
Z ?
y (Z D: ~$
+
/
:gz 7 T !n Z}
C
.L L: Vz

Y 2011 ~gz

104


f KZ V; }gvZg ? : x **
Zg v T M

X 7Zz6,
: wh
C c*
i6,{ M z ?Z
# Vz Y V ~ ]gZ ~L L
{y Z
# 7 X M 7 t ZB q
-ZC
gzZ z:
{ M zyZ gzZ zy t VZz Zg } 9~ ua
X ,7
w+z +Z L
X  g yY z w ~g v L L: Vz
} 9~ ua V{y Vz X c*
hgVz yZ wh [Z
( M c*
) X H gZ
/
B Z0
+
i {g M gzZ HyZz Zg

x g z *Z :
# V-gE- gzZ Vt 7 VZgzZ Vzg p V7( w
))
Y HhV~f yZ V N Y ~~ (Class Rooms)
']!*
kZ ZgzZ *
* Z Z g Z CZ *Z V `z DX
x @*
*
*y6f yZ gzZ k
B x KZ 7KZ Z
Xn Y c*
pw
( S o c i a l [ zZ Y , q
-Z gzZ gZ LZ gzZ &Z x Z {E
+ Z x H
 `
z X gx y**
Z a Revolution)
-Zx kZgzZ&ZX
z k0*
}g [ Z
^aZ e x q
i Z0
+Z gzZ V x)
, JZ
i M gz } ~ [f z t

Y 2011 ~gz

105

]Zg q
-Z b/]|

: De
$Zzg Zz LZ bk0vZ]|
6,3 Zg M ~ Z
# X ` s y/]|~ ]Zg ~0
+Z q
-Z

:gzZ 5Z Z T! ZZ q
-Z ~
X MB}kL L
{z  /
]|>ZZ t Z x g! ZZ ~
:gzZ HxsJ (,syQ~ $
+
? p V ! >ZZ c*
LL
:c*
[Z /
]|

X V Le
8{ ^
,Y `Zz ]q [bD Zg f ~ ]Zg q
-g @*
kZ ` M L L
^6 q
-Z q
-Z gzZ yq
-Z q
-Z {z ~ M M /
]|
~ Z H { Zg Z 3Zz gzZ
H {^
,Y J
-V g
a
/
g Z kZ gzZ ]gSh1 q
-Z ~ kZ q
-Z
uv M n Sm
~&
+; q
-Z 6,kZ gzZ ;g V Aa t 
: g VyZ ]gSh1 {zgzZ g
X **
3Q @*
Y **
3Z gzZk
,
Zgf 'L L
L g]gSh1 L/
]|g } 9J
-k
,
~(,V;z
: yQ ~ g
/k
,
J
-V V
X p=[Z IVY \ M ! >ZZ c*
LL
83at J
-Z
# Vz7R V ~ nvZ L L :c*

/
]|
X B:_
Z: g J
-[ Z **
3pX g }I'
,Z'
,1 k
,
~ (,X Iv

Y 2011 ~gz

106

z 7Z '
,Z'
,(,X g m gz Z g zg gz igz i a gz Z
: g }
X **
3Q Le Zg Z gzZk
,
Zgf 'L L
X k0*
kZ gL L: /
]|

X ` yZ ~ X Vg0
+Z/
]|t
X ix?Z L L: (, /
]|
X x?ZizL L:1 {z

? gzg VY atL L: /
]|
X wJ&
+
uL L:(,
?t 7VY 7Z {z  ~ ~&
+;L L: /
]|

?Vz z HVc*
P ' ? H~ ~&
+;L L:(,
;g .
Z 0*
 H @ w~&
+; VrQ (, M /
]|
X  g <
- Vc*
gzZ

? kZy
M L L: {z
Z V Y <
- {z **
3~ ~&
+; V g ( VL L : 1 (,
X  D Yy
M D zg a ~k
,
Z X V C( b
? VY
qt ~g vL L:Hc*
g /
]|
?yi7 =Qg Z "
$Z :gzZC
: : \!*
: '?: VY L L:1 {z
VY ]q LZ ~ #
}
. [0 />ZZ ? L L :1 /
]|

X gH wZ
M a }g vgz{z ?K 77
X H6, kZ n Z}
.}
/]g /
Z}
.L L:
J
G.'5 ~(,X i /
:B
]|t

?HH6,? /
LL
yygzZ Y : g!*
wq c*
g {z n
yZx L L : 1 {z
V,Z n
kZ X g zg c*
" gzZ woZM
b~

Y 2011 ~gz

107

LX}gH g ]gzg a yZ wZ
M X}~

X c*
M Z ~ YZ L L: /
]|
[Z X `BB yQ ~ C
!*
]|t : k
/
g 7
-6, 3 Zg g ^
H{g !*
u~y
M ]Zg

4Zg0
+Z! ZgzZ { i Zzg kZp ]|X VJ
-wZ
M J
-V
X g0
+ZBB yZ ~ X
L M ~(, q
-Z } VrZ Q X Z hz O ZO Z /
]| Vg0
+Z
:=gzZ VQ ~g1 ~
X }g6,+}Z kL L
X z ~

VQ @'
, t ? L L:c*

Q
X zkZ ~
X } 9^gzZ H {i Zzg ]|Q

'
,
Z'
,\ M 1 g
/6,%
O 6,V\ M 6,Sh Z e \ M }g f L M
1 kZ [Z ~ X *
* )Y {z X g Y
:Hn ~ H7\ M LZa VZ
X Z Vg VQ~ y!*
6,\ M \!*

V } ! >ZZ c*
LL
: /
]|
yY k
} Z Xj VQ 71 gzZ Z`
} ?y #
n Z}
.L L

{z {Zp **
VQ1 p y M **
VZ1 '
,
Z'
,h N
X g ( V LZ w!*
Q Vc*
 (,kZ 6,gm{gzZ Z(,c*
N*
g
: (Z ^ ~ ~k} Z ? Y Z (, kZ Hq
- 4,
v Z

X V`{z N Y \ M a D zg D zg (,6
ga ga {z X B yZ '
,
Z'
,~ X ! { c*
i gzZ /
]|[Z
~g1 L M + LZ /
]|X J
- (, `

Y 2011 ~gz

108

g0
+Z ~&
+; VrQ X (, M /
]|X c*
gt @'
, ~ ~g @*
Q

\
M gU v M a "0
+
N*M Q Z e gzZ c*
N 
:Y7 (,
? Vc*
k0*
}g vH L L

g {z' d
W V ; L L: 1 { z
gzZ H g6,a ~&
+; 3t p M Vc*
gzZ`Q/
]|
VZ Z
_ a ~ nvZ X B v M Vc*
@*
Y

z v M k
,
~(,y
M ;g g0
+Z Sh Z e /
]|
X ` ~ Q /
]| ~~B; q
-Z X Z
/
/gzZ
Z
_[p VgzZ
Hg **
3 J
-V g zggzZ g m '
,
Z'
,a

X Q oVpcQ {zQX c*
3
:c*

gzZ zs (,/
]|[Z
? Z Vz y wq Zg v yZ ~ V g Z "
$Z
/
>Z Z ~L L

~4 a }g vvZ h
+
0*
z = ? **
Y V~ {g Zg Z G,
}k
,

X } Za ]g
: /
]| B ~ MC
!*
g kZ/
]|Q
~ g ( Vw!*
Q Vc*
(,t ~ Z
# k} Z L L
~ c*
` **
Z ~ J
-V  g
/6," ~gzZ  g ih N HkC
kC~ [Z X D lplp_a {zQ c*
**
3a yQ
X F,
Q" ~h N {z V ;g
X ~g Z
/z ]Zg ~ X y/
]|Vz Q
kZgzZ kZ \ M X g egzZ **
TN ]| M (,{z Z
#

X YQB ~0*
{/ {  c*
gH wZ
M nz x V

Y 2011 ~gz

109

ggZ 0)x k
,
xH
!M'
,
zvZgzix?Z
\Z
gzZ ^
,t X ]g ZpN 5 {g Y 2011 ~gg Z 0)x
~ ]gzx >X c*
Zg7 c_% \ M & Zp Z6, ~
qyZ M lpZ r
# Z i ZzZpgzZ r
# Z [8zZp[
X {Z
+gzvZ Y 
y Z
 a 4d6, | 7,Zzgg kZ ]gzx >
Wz6,X Y4p6,vZ Y 
yZ Mg 6,yZ  ~ m,
z
gzyz N yZ  *Z gzZ gZ szcgzZ Dr
# r
# "y
: { C
Zj Vzg * Vg sZ g @*
{z
/Z X Y H q
V yZ~ X 7, p gzMg K ~ }g !*
,

Z p M *[ gzZ @*
{g : ; 9zg| l,
e z!*
Y g
/
: Z
Zg7 {g t gZh
+y
6 X 7
o *
*
Z'
,! Z Z r
#
gzZ uq
-Za kZ X w ]Zg 3Zi4 { c*
ia kZ 7

kZ Xn VQ p ]YZy
Z LZp6, @*
~gz *
* ]Zg 3Z%o
-Z ~ wX Y Hi M
q
M! 0*
gzZ! &!z
M` {z
H qzx Z
/
z6,a VX Y H 
y 0*
g !*
-ZgzZwD Zg !*
q
X N Y Z Vzg gzZD Zg 3ZgzZ ] Za kZ X Y
x?Zz
( yM) [8o
/////

Y 2011 ~gz

110

ggZ 0)x k
,
xH

!M'
,
zvZgzix?Z
c*
MI^
, kZ 6,gm{ p N ~g{g g Z 0)x
[Z ph
+'
7,] Z Zzgg ]gzx >6, ~y
M X

dZ k
,
Z zZpx HegzZ [X , Z 
o Mg ~ g Z

~ g X (,G g g ~ g yZ X Z q
-Z **

gzyZ q
-Z "7, V+Z V: c*
V iZX  hZ >

gzZ V Zx[Z g 9 :gz  g )F, x Z


}g f

g g c*
c X  {g I0 VZp { Vzg7 ci7Z
E
tg Z Z X  g\E
x Z6,V G3h8[Z N ~gg7}g

~guZz { nVzg Z Z
H s ~bg Z ZgzZ 6,qZ
5_I y L L}i 5
*Xce '~ V yZ ce N 7h G
\vZ X  g
Z'
,{g   b] Mg r
# Z p M
} M X} i Z Z b
+47Z

x?Zz
( ^()Z w=Vx
////

gg Z 0)x #
{
!M'
,
zvZgzix?Z

4 4Mg LZ } F,
gzZg #
sg Z {g Z Z \vZ
X N Y }p6,b) Z~ kZ %Z kZ ]gzX ;g} Z
gzZ K6,gZ {z ce 7Z  
fZ Y.z ~ ]gzx>
gzZ 4g g bkZ Xce r Zj 7Z  Z e &
X M q
LgyY L kZ H gzZ BgT~ o ! r
# k
,
xH

Y 2011 ~gz

111

" {zt #
1 gg V 0*
B; Da8{ BX

lDa kZ Z 5B #
pi ZVxg7 ci7Z X '
X  g Y VZg
3,
gZ
Hc*
U } w g N*
Z zz B&X"

wZX  g} 1 ZgzZ Hxl kZ yZg Z'


,pgzZ
Hc*

T e **
B
tx
L Lp i Z H y 0*
tx
e
$g/ t x
t
V 4Z gZ x kZ $
H $
+gzZ
~(, kZ gzZ X 
x Z iX  g Z)f VYVz yZ   y7 i BgzZ
Vg Z c*
gzZ V } 9JZ s VzgZ gzZ V`
V Z+( 2
$
X ,B

x?Zz
( yM)g-Z

////

g Z)x k
,
xH
!M'
,
zvZgzix?Z
~ i Z0
+Z ]gzp 6 gzZ K
M F,5^5q
-Z ui Z g Z 0 lg Z
/

V @*
7q
-r@ w]Z|x \ M 6,kZ lz 7
X } M g sgzZ z yZZ~g7 \vZ V @*
gzZ

o6,Y Zg M gzZ b) z Mg t ]gzx>g Z

X x ZZ +4q
-Z N YK
)
Z
o a kZ t Zg Z a J (, W,
ZI
! g Z 0 @*
{z Y g ot a {gzZ Y Hg y ]Y Z

iE Vz} (, o bZ X}q
Ma w q
-Z i Z
X , ZgZz ]gzx> V Zz Z
],z c*
-Z 6,g Z Zz g Z/_
q
. gzZ 6,b) z

Y 2011 ~gz

112

kZ X Y 1 Y ZZx Xce **
q Z a { C
XN YK

g Z z J
- g@*
V# Y hZ g ZI KZ Mg a
X , B I 6 c*
{ Z_6& c*
Xce **
( a q] X) V * V

Xce **
z ~k
,

**
Zz6, a
g L L c* a
g k**FL L {g Z
~g i v:Z V ~ c b Vzv o g c*
Xc e

yZ6,gS2 X  K Z Z ZgzZ opX ;ZuyZZ/


.
!_
yS Z ~ y
M X  N a
g k**
F]z a
D7]o ]) ZZ KZ VM @*
7xsx ZY z x Hx

X Z **
z

gz wY 6,~g i VMxs a! y z yx yZ
bzg wj }g7 x { 0*
gzZ gz { 0*
xsz zg D

g y x \vZ ~X c*

w$
+~ o iz
Z yZZ gzZ gz6,
P xj% ni [ 6,kZ X } M Xg ~ KZ a[
^5  g M c*
g Z ]gzp
Z z g Y : k-
^ s g
zC
g }Z
+ y

^ s g q** } Z
{
/Z
^ s g\ h d | 7,

(n
)
x?Zz
y{ , Z {k
,
e X c  Z sg Z

Vous aimerez peut-être aussi