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Li ni u

Cun "S liu thng k gii nhng nm u th k 21" m bn ang c trong tay l kt
qu ca s hp tc gia U ban Quc gia v s tin b ca ph n Vit Nam v Tng cc
Thng k trong khun kh d n VIE 01-015-01 v Gii trong Chnh sch cng do
Chng trnh Pht trin Lin hip quc (UNDP) v Chnh ph H Lan ti tr. Mc tiu
hp tc l nhm nng cao nng lc thu thp, h thng v phn tch s liu thng k gii
v tin hnh phn tch t gc gii trn c s cc d liu mi nht do Tng cc Thng
k v cc c quan lin quan thu thp. Cun s liu ny nhm khc phc mt phn s
thiu ht hin nay v cc s liu thng k gii thng qua vic cung cp cc s liu c bn
c tch bit theo gii tnh (ch yu t nhng nm cui ca thp k 90 tr li y) v
mt bo co phn tch gii cho cc i tng s dng khc nhau, c bit l cc nh
hoch nh chnh sch.
Cc s liu c tp hp v phn tch vo qu III v IV ca nm 2004, trn c s 59 ch
s v Quyn Ph n Vit Nam theo tinh thn ca Cng c Lin hip quc v xo b mi
hnh thc phn bit i x vi ph n (CEDAW)
1
. Phn s liu c tp hp v h thng
bi cc nhm chuyn gia ca Tng cc Thng k vi s hp tc ca cc b ngnh lin
quan, di s iu phi ca b Tng Th ua, Ph v trng V X hi - Mi trng,
Tng cc Thng k. Bo co phn tch s liu t gc gii do T.S Trn Th Vn Anh,
Vin Gia nh v Gii thc hin. Nhm cn b d n "Gii trong chnh sch cng", di
s ch o ca b Trn Th Mai Hng, Chnh Vn phng UBQG, Ph Gim c d n,
ng gp nhiu kin k thut trong qu trnh xy dng cng, phn tch s liu
cng nh trc tip tham gia vo vic hon thin cun s liu.
Ton b cun s liu bao gm hai phn (1) Bo co phn tch s liu t gc gii v (2)
Bng tng hp s liu thng k. C Bo co phn tch v Bng tng hp s liu u c
xy dng theo 6 lnh vc, bao gm: Dn s v gia nh, Lao ng v vic lm, Gio dc
v o to, Chm sc sc khe, Tham gia lnh o cc cp cc ngnh, Ngc i trn c
s gii (mi dm, ngc i trong gia nh v bun bn ph n, tr em). Ti mi lnh vc,
bo co cp n mt s vn chnh v gii, xu hng bin i ca bnh ng gii v
kt lun.
Vic s dng cun s liu c th i theo trnh t ca 6 lnh vc hoc i trc tip vo lnh
vc m bn c quan tm.
Chng ti xin chn thnh cm n cc i biu tham d Hi tho ngy 31/12/2004 ti
Tng cc Thng k v nhng kin ng gp qu bu chnh sa v hon thin cun s
liu ny.


1
Tng cc Thng k, UNICEF 2003. Ch s quyn ph n Vit Nam. NXB Thng k, H Ni
5


Foreword

The gender statistics book that you have in hand is the output of cooperation between
the National Committee for the Advancement of Women in Vietnam (NCFAW) and the
General Statistical Office (GSO) in the framework of project VIE 01-015-01 on Gender in
public policy funded by the United Nation Development Program (UNDP) and the
Government of the Netherlands. The purpose of this cooperation is to improve the
capacity to collect, systematize and analyze gender statistics and undertake a gender
analysis based on the latest data collected by GSO and related agencies. This book is
expected to fill partly the present shortage of gender statistics through provision of sex-
disaggregated data (mainly dated from the late 1990s up to now) and a gender analysis
report for various users, particularly policy makers.
The data were gathered and analyzed in quarter III and IV, 2004, on the basis of the 59
indicators on the rights of Vietnamese women in the spirit of the United Nation
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
(CEDAW)
2
. All data were collected and systematized by GSO specialists in cooperation
with relevant agencies under the coordination of Mrs. Tong Thi Dua, Deputy Director of
GSO's Social and Environment Department. The data analysis report from a gender
perspective was prepared by Dr. Tran Thi Van Anh from the Institute for Family and
Gender issues. The "Gender in public policy" project team, under the guidance of Mrs.
Tran Thi Mai Huong, NCFAW Permanent Secretary, Deputy National Project Director,
contributed many technical inputs in outline designing and data analysis and was
actively involved in the book finalization.
The statistical book has 2 parts: (1) Data analysis from a gender perspective and (2)
Statistical tables. Both of them are structured into 6 areas, namely population and
family, labor and employment, education and training, health care, leadership
participation at different levels, and gender-based violence (prostitution, domestic
violence and trafficking in women and children). In each area, the report mentions a
number of key gender issues, the changing trends of gender equality and conclusion.
Readers can follow the order of the 6 areas or turn directly to specific areas of interest.
We wish to extend our sincere thanks to the participants having attended the workshop
on December 31
st
, 2004 in GSO for their valuable recommendations to improve and
finalize the report.



2
General Statistical Office (GSO), UNICEF 2003. Indicators on the Rights of Vietnamese
Women. The Statistics Publisher, Hanoi
6
Ban bin tp / EDITOR BOARD
V X hi - Mi trng, Tng cc Thng k/ Social and Environment Department, GSO
Tng Th ua, Ph v trng/ Deputy Director
Nguyn Th Vit Nga, Chuyn vin/ Officer

D n UBQG-UNDP-H Lan VIE01-015-01 "Gii trong chnh sch cng"/ NCFAW-
UNDP-RNE Project VIE01-015-01 "Gender in Public Policy"
Trn Th Mai Hng, Chnh VP UBQG, Ph Gim c d n/ NCFAW Permanent
Secretary, Deputy National Project Director
Nguyn Th Thu, Qun c d n/ National Project Manager
Nguyn Thu Hng, Tr l d n/ National Project Facilitator
Nguyn Th Hoi Linh, Phin dch d n/ National Project Translator

Bin tp vin / EDITORS
Bo co phn tch s liu t gc gii do T.S Trn Th Vn Anh, Vin Gia nh v
Gii thc hin/ The Gender-sensitive Data Analysis was carried out by Dr. Tran Thi Van
Anh, Intitute for Family and Gender issues

Cc nhm s liu do V X hi - Mi trng, Tng cc Thng k thc hin/ Data were
collated and processed by the Social and Environment Department, GSO

Nhm 1 - Group 1
Cao Nh Nguyt, Chuyn vin chnh
Nguyn Quang Phng, Chuyn vin
Nguyn Bi Linh, Chuyn vin

Nhm 2 - Group 2
Nguyn Vn ng, Chuyn vin chnh
V Thu Thu, Chuyn vin

Nhm 3 - Group 3
on Thun Ho, Chuyn vin
L Th c, Chuyn vin

Nhm 4 - Group 4
Nguyn Th Loan, Chuyn vin
Nguyn Vn Thu, Chuyn vin
Nguyn nh Chung, Chuyn vin

Nhm 5 - Group 5
V Thanh Sn, Chuyn vin
H Kim Nhung, Chuyn vin

Nhm 6 - Group 6
Ng Don Gc, Chuyn vin chnh
Trn Th Hin, Chuyn vin
7


Mc lc
Contents
Trang/Page
- Li ni u 5
Foreword 6
- Mc lc 7
Contents 7
- Tm tt kt qu 10
Executive Summary 43

I. Bo co phn tch s liu t gc gii 13
data Analysis report from a gender perspective 46
1. Dn s v gia nh 13
Population and Family 46
2. Lao ng v vic lm 17
Labor and Employment 50
3. Gio dc v o to 24
Education and Training 57
4. Chm sc sc kho 29
Health care 62
5. Tham gia lnh o cc cp, cc ngnh 34
Leadership participation at different levels 67
6. Ngc i trn c s gii (mi dm, ngc i trong gia nh v bun bn
ph n, tr em) 37
Gender-based violence (prostitution, domestic violence and trafficking in
women and children) 70

II. Bng tng hp s liu thng k 77
statistical Tables 77
1. Dn s v gia nh 77
Population and Family 77
2. Lao ng v vic lm 123
8
Labor and Employment 123

3. Gio dc v o to 173
Education and Training 173
4. Chm sc sc kho 295
Health care 295
5. Tham gia lnh o cc cp, cc ngnh 347
Leadership participation at different levels 347
6. Ngc i trn c s gii (mi dm, ngc i trong gia nh v bun bn
ph n, tr em) 377
Gender-based violence (prostitution, domestic violence and trafficking in
women and children) 377

III. Ph lc
Annex
1. Gii thiu v cc cuc iu tra s dng khai thc s liu 419
Surveys as Data Source 426
2. Danh mc cc th 433
List of Figures 433
3. Danh mc cc bng biu 437
List of Tables 437

9


Tm tt kt qu

Cun "S liu thng k gii nhng nm u th k 21", bao gm Bo co phn tch s liu
t gc gii v Bng tng hp s liu thng k, l kt qu ca s hp tc gia U ban
Quc gia v s tin b ca ph n Vit Nam v Tng cc Thng k trong khun kh d
n VIE 01-015-01 v Gii trong Chnh sch cng do Chng trnh Pht trin Lin hip
quc (UNDP) v Chnh ph H Lan ti tr. Bo co nhm cung cp mt s c s d liu
gii cn thit v phn tch gii cho cc nh hoch nh chnh sch trong 6 lnh vc l:
Dn s v gia nh; Lao ng v vic lm; Gio dc v o to; Chm sc sc khe;
Tham gia lnh o cc cp, cc ngnh; Ngc i trn c s gii (mi dm, ngc i
trong gia nh v bun bn ph n, tr em).
Dn s v gia nh
T l gii tnh ca dn s nc ta bt u gim xung di mc 100% sau tui 35, sau
tui ny, dn s nam lun t hn dn s n v tip tc gim nhanh cc nhm tui cao
hn. T l gii tnh nhm s sinh thnh th cho thy c th c hin tng la chn gii
tnh thai nhi. Tuy nhin, hin tng ny cn c kim chng bng cc bng chng xc
thc hn.
T l kt hn ca dn s nc ta vn duy tr mc cao. Tuy nhin, t l n n thn l
cao hn so vi nam. ng ch , t l n sng n thn sau ly hn cao gp 2,6 ln so vi
nam v t l ga n cao hn 5 ln so vi nam.
T l ch h l n phn b khc nhau gia thnh th v nng thn. Ti thnh th, t l
ny l 36,2% cn nng thn l 20,2%.
Trong vic thc hin cc chnh sch i vi h gia nh, cn quan tm n gii tnh ca
ch h nhm m bo nam v n ch h u c th tip cn mt cch bnh ng cc
ngun lc sn xut cng nh cc dch v x hi i vi gia nh.
Lao ng v vic lm
T l n tham gia hot ng kinh t nc ta t mc cao, c bit min ni pha Bc
v Ty Nguyn, ti 79% trong nm 2003.
T l s dng thi gian ca lao ng n nng thn c xu hng tng ln, rt ngn
khong cch mt cch ng k so vi t l ny nam gii. Nm 2003, t l s dng thi
gian lao ng ca n l 77,2%, ca nam l 78,1%.
Tuy nhin, trong mt s nm gn y, t l n tht nghip thnh th c xu hng tng
nhanh so vi nam. Nm 2003, t l ny n l 6,9% v nam l 4,4%. So vi ch tiu
gim t l tht nghip ca lao ng n khu vc thnh th xung cn 5-6% th ta cha
t v cn phi tip tc phn u.
10
Thi gian tham gia sn xut, kinh doanh bnh qun mt ngy ca n l tng ng vi
nam, nm 2002 l 4,9 gi v 5 gi. Tuy nhin, s thi gian lm cng vic ni tr bnh
qun mt ngy ca n cao gp 2,5 ln so vi nam thnh th v gp 2,3 ln nng thn.
iu ny i hi cc bin php cp bch v ng b t pha cc ngnh v cc cp nhm
gim t l tht nghip ca lao ng n thnh th, tng thi gian lm cng vic ni tr
ca nam gii thnh th v nng thn.
Gio dc v o to
Bnh ng gii trong lnh vc gio dc v o to t c nhng thnh tch vt bc
trong nhng nm gn y. T l i hc chung cp tiu hc ca n t 100,6%, ca nam
t 99,3%.
Tuy nhin, vn cn nhiu vn cn c quan tm. Vic tip cn gio dc ca em gi
v ph n dn tc thiu s cc vng su, vng cao cn nhiu kh khn v tr ngi hn
so vi em trai v nam gii. Trong khi t l bit ch ca ph n ngi Kinh nm 2001 t
86,3% th ph n ngi Thi l 63,6% v ph n ngi H'Mng l 30%. Qua cho
thy, vic phn u thc hin ch tiu xa m ch cho 95% ph n b m ch tui
di 40 nh K hoch hnh ng quc gia v s tin b ca ph n n 2005 ra l mt
thch thc ln.
bc tiu hc, t l b hc ca em gi cao hn em trai. Ngc li, cc bc cao hn, em
trai b hc li nhiu hn. Qua , cn t ra nhng bin php c th nhm hn ch tnh
trng b hc ca c nam v n hc sinh tng cp hc. Cn c bit ch trng khc phc
tnh trng b hc ca n sinh cp tiu hc v nng cao t l chuyn cp ca n sinh ln
trung hc c s, nht l cc vng su v vng dn tc thiu s.
Chm sc sc khe
Cc ch s v bnh ng gii trong chm sc sc khe cho thy c s tin b r rt trong
nhng nm gn y v vic chm sc sc khe ni chung v chm sc sc khe b m v
tr em ni ring trn phm vi c nc. Trong nhng nm 2000-2004, t l ph n c
khm thai 3 ln tr ln tng t 69,7% ln 83,5%.
Tuy nhin, cng tc chm sc y t ni chung, c bit l chm sc b m v tr em trc,
trong v sau khi sinh cc vng Ty Bc, ng Bc v Ty Nguyn ni ring, ni c t l
cao v ph n ngho v dn tc thiu s c tr li t kt qu thp hn nhiu so vi c
nc. Trong khi t l t vong ca tr em di 1 tui ca c nc l 21
0
/
00
vo nm 2003
th Ty Bc l 37
0
/
00
, ng Bc v Ty Nguyn l 29
0
/
00
.
C mt s nguyn nhn chnh gy nn tnh trng ny l dch v ca y t cng cha
thun tin, ph dch v cao, c s vt cht ca trm y t x mt s a phng cn thiu
cc trang thit b v nhn lc cn thit.
khc phc tnh trng trn cn tip tc kin ton mng li chm sc sc khe c s,
c bit l vng su, vng xa bng cch u t trang thit b v tng cng cn b y t
cho tuyn x. Cn c bit ch trng a cc dch v chm sc sc khe b m trong khi
sinh phc v ph n ngho, ph n dn tc thiu s vng cao, vng su thng qua vic
11
tin hnh tuyn truyn ng thi nng cao cht lng v ch khuyn khch cn b y t
c s n vi cc bn lng.
Tham gia lnh o cc cp, cc ngnh
T l n tham gia qun l, lnh o tng ln trong nhng nm gn y. T l n i
biu Hi ng Nhn dn c ba cp tng trong hai kha gn y, c th t 19,5%
cp x/phng, 23% cp qun/huyn v 23,9% cp tnh/thnh ph kha 2004-2009.
Tuy nhin, mc tng cn khim tn v khng ng u cc cp v cc lnh vc. ng
ch l t l n tham gia cp u ng hi gim cp trung ng v tnh /thnh ph, v
d t l n tham gia cp u ng cp trung ng l 10,6% ti i hi VIII v 8,0% ti
i hi IX.
T l n lnh o ch cht cc cp trong hai kha gn y nhn chung u mc thp.
Vic ph n tham gia trong cc cp qun l, lnh o ni chung cn hn ch, c bit l
cc v tr ch cht l do thiu s quan tm ch o, thiu kim tra n c vic b tr cn
b n tham gia lnh o, qun l ca cc cp u
3
. Ngoi ra, trong x hi, t tng thin
kin, hp hi, thiu tin tng vo kh nng ca ph n cn ph bin, cn c nh kin
trong nh gi cn b n. V phn mnh, ph n cng chu p lc ca gnh nng ba vai,
khng c thi gian tham gia lnh o, bn thn mt b phn ch em cn cm thy t ti.
Thc t trn i hi s tng cng ch o c hiu qu ca cc cp u ng i vi cng
tc cn b n trong thi gian ti. ng thi, cn c s phi hp ng b gia cc ban,
ngnh on th trong vic gii thiu, bi dng nhm tng bc nng cao t l n tham
gia qun l, lnh o.
Ngc i trn c s gii (mi dm, ngc i trong gia nh v bun bn
ph n, tr em)
Tnh trng ngc i ph n, tr em, nghin ht, mi dm v ti phm bun bn ph
n, tr em c xu hng tng nhanh. T nm 2000 n 2001, s v xm hi tr em
tng t 1684 ln 1913 v. T l v xm hi tnh dc tr em chim 51% tng s v b xm
hi.
ng ch l trong khi tnh trng bun bn ph n, tr em din ra trm trng th s v
xt x ti phm ny trong c nc li c xu hng gim. T 2000 n 2003, s v xt x
ti phm bun bn ph n hng nm gim t 130 v vi 222 b can xung cn 85 v vi
16 b can.
ngn chn tnh trng ngc i v bun bn ph n, tr em i hi nhng bin php
cp bch t mi tng lp x hi. Cc bin php phng nga v ngn chn xm hi cn
c bit ch trng n nhng c th ngh nghip v la tui ca ngi vi phm, k c
tr em. Cc bin php bo v cn quan tm hng ti nhng nn nhn c nguy c b xm
hi mi la tui, c bit l la tui nh. Vic thnh lp Ban ch o ca Chnh ph v
phng chng t nn mua bn ph n, tr em giai on 2004-2010 cho thy tnh cht

3
Bo co 10 nm thc hin Ch th 37 ca Ban b th T.
12
quan trng ca vn , trong cn phi tng cng phi hp cht ch gia cc ban
ngnh, c bit l lc lng B Cng an v B Lao ng, Thng binh v X hi.

I. Bo co phn tch s liu t gc gii
1. Dn s v gia nh
Cc ch s v dn s v gia nh cho thy bc tranh chung v t l gii tnh ca dn s
Vit Nam, tnh trng kt hn v t l ch h gia nh theo gii tnh.
T l gii tnh ca dn s
4
nc ta nm 2003 l 96,6%. T l ny dao ng theo cc
nhm tui. T l gii tnh cao nht nhm di 19 tui, c xu hng cn bng nhm
tui 20-34, gim xung di mc 100% v t mc thp nht nhm tui trn 70 vi t
l l 64,4% (biu 1.1).

Biu 1.1: T l gii tnh ca dn s theo nhm tui nm 2003 (%)
106,4 105,7
98,5 97,6
99,2
97,1
93,7
86,3
73,1
64,4
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
5-9 tui 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 45-49 55-59 65-69 70+
Ngun: iu tra bin ng dn s v k hoch ho gia nh nm 2001-2003, Tng cc Thng k

T l gii tnh gim mnh tui sau 50 l do nam gii c t l t vong cao hn n. Mt s
nguyn nhn c th l do tai nn ng b
5
, nhim mc cc bnh lin quan ti thi quen
sinh hot kh ph bin ca nam gii nh ht thuc l, nghin ru, bia hay do hu qu
chin tranh v.v.. iu ny dn n t l nam trong tng dn s thp hn nhiu so vi n.
Nm 2003, t l nam nhm 45-49 tui l 48,4%, nhm 55-59 tui l 46,3% v nhm 65-
69 tui l 42,2% (biu 1.2).



4
T l nam so vi 100 n vo thi im xc nh
5
Theo UB Quc gia v An ton giao thng, nam gii chim 82% s nn nhn cc v tai nn giao
thng ng b, n gii chim 18%. (S liu ti Hi tho v an ton giao thng ng b nm
2000).
13
Biu 1.2 T l dn s t 35 tui tr ln theo gii tnh v nhm tui nm 2003 (%)
50,7
51,6
53,7
57,8
49,3
48,4
46,3
42,2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
35-39 45-49 55-59 65-69
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra bin ng dn s v k hoch ho gia nh nm 2003, Tng cc Thng k

ng ch l t l gii tnh nhm 0 tui (s sinh) c s giao ng ln gia cc nm v
gia thnh th v nng thn. Nu t l gii tnh ca dn s nhm 0 tui bin i nh
nng thn trong giai on 1999-2003, th thnh th c s bin ng r rt, c th l
tng mnh hai nm 2001 l 114,1% v 2002 l 113,1% v gim t bin vo nm 2003,
l 102,7% (biu 1.3).
Hin cha c cc nghin cu tin cy l gii v s bin ng ny. Tuy nhin, c th
gi thit rng c hin tng la chn gii tnh thai nhi bng vic ph thai da trn
phng tin siu m xc nh sm gii tnh th. Vn ny cn c kim chng
bng cc bng chng y hn.

Biu 1.3: T l gii tnh ca dn s nhm 0 tui thnh th v nng thn
cc nm 1999-2003 (%)
106,6
114,1
113,1
102,7
104,9
106,9
106,1
105,7
95
100
105
110
115
1999 2001 2002 2003
Thnh th
Nng thn

Ngun: iu tra bin ng dn s v k hoch ho gia nh cc nm 2000-2003, Tng iu tra dn s v
nh nm 1999, Tng cc Thng k

T l kt hn ca dn s: C s khc bit nht nh v t l c v/chng ca dn s
gia cc nhm tui. n, t l cao nht l 87,1% vo tui 35-39, cn nam t l cao
nht l 96,5% tui 45-49 (biu 1.4).
14

Biu 1.4: T l dn s c v/chng theo nhm tui v gii tnh nm 2003 (%)

6,5
78,5
87,1
81,2
67,9
1,6
65,2
93,7
96,5
95,1
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
15-19 25-29 35-39 45-49 55-59
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra bin ng dn s v k hoch ho gia nh 2003, Tng cc Thng k

T l n cha kt hn l 26,3% thp hn so vi nam l 32,5%. T l n ga, ngc li,
cao hn so vi nam. Nm 2003, t l ga chng l 10,7%, cao hn 5 ln so vi t l ga v
l 2%. T l ly hn n l 1,3% cao hn so vi t l nam l 0,5%, tng t, t l ly thn
n l 0,6% cao hn 3 ln so vi nam l 0,2%. T l c v/chng l 61,1% n v 64,9%
nam (biu 1.5).

Biu 1.5: Tnh trng hn nhn theo gii tnh nm 2003 (%)
26,3
10,7
1,3 0,6
61,1
32,5
2
0,5 0,2
64,9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Cha kt
hn
Ga Ly hn Ly thn C v/chng
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra bin ng dn s v k hoch ho gia nh 2003, Tng cc Thng k

c bit, nhm dn s n trn 45 tui, t l sng n thn, bao gm cha kt hn, ga,
ly hn v ly thn l kh cao v tng nhanh theo tui. Nhm 50-54 tui, c ti 24% dn s
n sng n thn, t l ny tng ln 32% nhm 55-59 tui v tng ln 56% nhm trn
60 tui, trong khi , t l ny nam l kh thp, tng ng l 4,3%; 4,8% v 15,4%
(biu 1.6).
15

Biu 1.6. T l dn s 45 tui tr ln sng n thn theo gii tnh v
nhm tui nm 2003 (%)
18,8
24,2
32,1
56,1
3,6
4,3 4,8
15,4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
45-49 50-54 55-59 60+
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra bin ng dn s v k hoch ho gia nh nm 2003, Tng cc Thng k

T l ch h l n
6
theo ng k trong c nc nm 2002 l 24%. C s chnh lch kh
ln gia thnh th v nng thn v t l ny. Nu thnh th, n ch h chim 36% tng
s h
7
, th nng thn t l ny l 20%. ng ch l t l n ch h trong c nc tng
ln theo tui, t 50 tui tr ln, t 28,6% v t 60 tui tr ln t 35% (biu 1.7).
iu ny ph hp vi t l gii tnh ca dn s theo tui.

Biu 1.7: T l n ch h theo nhm tui nm 2002 (%)
13,6
14,9
24,7
31,5
37,8
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
25-29 35-39 45-49 55-59 65-69

Ngun: iu tra mc sng h gia nh 2002, Tng cc Thng k
Tm li, t l gii tnh ca dn s nc ta bt u gim xung di mc 100% sau tui
35
8
, c bit gim nhanh sau tui 50, c ngha l t sau tui 35, dn s nam lun t hn
dn s n v tip tc gim nhiu hn cc nhm tui cao hn. Trong vic hoch nh

6
Phn trm h gia nh c ch h l n so vi tng s h gia nh
7
Thc t ny b chi phi mt phn bi chnh sch phn phi nh ti th trong nhng nm 60-
70 vi cch tnh con theo m dn n mt s lng ng k n cng nhn vin chc c phn
nh v ng tn ch h trong h khu gia nh.
8
Xu hng ny th hin r s liu Tng iu tra dn s nm 1999 v iu tra bin ng dn s
cc nm 2001-2003
16
chin lc nng cao cht lng dn s, cn quan tm ti vic s dng hp l lc lng lao
ng, c bit l lc lng lao ng n. Cc bin php chin lc cn c tin hnh
ng thi vi vic ci thin iu kin lao ng cho c hai gii.
T l kt hn ca dn s nc ta vn duy tr mc cao. Tuy nhin, t l n sng n thn
cao hn so vi nam. ng ch , t l n sng n thn sau ly hn cao gp 2,6 ln so vi
nam v t l ga n cao hn 5 ln so vi nam (s liu nm 2003). Do , vic cung cp
cc loi hnh dch v x hi cn phi ph hp vi tng i tng gia nh ch c m hoc
cha.
T l n ch h phn b khc nhau gia thnh th v nng thn. Theo s liu nm 2002,
ti thnh th, c 2,8 h th c mt h do n lm ch, nng thn, c 4,9 h c mt h do
n lm ch. ng ch l t l ch h l n trn ton quc tng ln theo tui v t
31,5% nhm tui 55-59 v 37,8% nhm tui 65 tr ln. Trong vic thc hin cc chnh
sch i vi h gia nh, cn quan tm ti kha cnh gii tnh ca ch h nhm m bo
nam v n ch h u c th tip cn mt cch bnh ng cc ngun lc sn xut cng
nh cc dch v x hi.
2. Lao ng v vic lm
Lao ng v vic lm l lnh vc c ngha then cht i vi vic nng cao bnh ng
gii. Cc ch s thng k phn ny cho bit c hi ca ph n v nam gii v tip cn
vic lm, tht nghip, vic s dng thi gian v v thu nhp, tin lng ca hai gii.
T l n tham gia hot ng kinh t
9
nc ta duy tr mc cao, nm 2003, t l
ny n l 68,5%, cn nam l 75,8%. Mc chnh lch gia n v nam v t l tham gia
hot ng kinh t trong thi k 2000-2003 hu nh khng thay i (biu 2.1).

Biu 2.1: T l tham gia hot ng kinh t theo gii tnh cc nm 2000-2003 (%)
68,9
69,6
69,1
68,5
76,1
76,8
76,3
75,8
60
65
70
75
80
2000 2001 2002 2003
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra Lao ng vic lm cc nm 2000-2003, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi
ng ch l gia cc vng c s khc bit ln v t l n tham gia hot ng kinh t.
Nm 2003, t l n hot ng kinh t l cao nht Ty Bc, t 80%, tip theo l Ty
Nguyn, t 78%. T l n tham gia hot ng kinh t thp nht c ghi nhn ng
Nam B, t 60%, theo sau l ng bng sng Cu Long, t 64%. c bit, y cng l
hai vng c mc chnh lch ln nht v t l tham gia hot ng kinh t ca nam v n

9
S n t 15 tui tr ln thuc lc lng lao ng, tc l nhng ngi ang c vic lm hoc
khng c vic lm nhng c nhu cu lm vic so vi tng s dn s n t 15 tui tr ln.
17
(biu 2.2). C th thy vic nng cao cht lng vic lm, bn cnh t l hot ng
kinh t cao ca lao ng ni chung, trong c cht lng ca lao ng n l vn cn
c quan tm Ty Bc v Ty Nguyn
10
. Trong khi , ng Nam B v ng bng
sng Cu Long li cn tng t l hot ng kinh t ca n gim mc chnh lch so vi
nam.

Biu 2.2: T l tham gia hot ng kinh t theo gii tnh v theo vng nm 2003 (%)
80
78
75
71 70 70
64
60
82 82
77
72 72
75
80
75
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Ty Bc Ty
Nguyn
ng
Bc
B sng
Hng
Bc
Trung
B
Nam
Trung
B
B sng
Cu
Long
ng
Nam B
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra Lao ng vic lm nm 2003, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi

T l n c vic lm thng xuyn cng t mc cao, nm 2003 t l ny n l
95,5%, cn nam l 96,2%. T l c vic lm thng xuyn thnh th thp hn nng
thn. Cng nm 2003, t l n thnh th c vic lm thng xuyn l 94,5, cn nng
thn l 95,8%; cc t l tng ng nam l 95,8% v 96,3%.
T l n tht nghip thnh th cao hn so vi nam. ng ch l trong thi k
2000-2003, trong khi t l tht nghip ca nam c xu hng gim th t l tht nghip n
tng ln, nm 2003, t l tht nghip ca n l 6,9%, cn t l tht nghip ca nam l
4,4% (biu 2.3).



10
Thu nhp bnh qun 1 thng ca dn s t 15 tui tr ln lm cng lm thu trong nng nghip
ni chung l 404.000 ng, th Ty Bc l 362.000 ng v Ty Nguyn l 347.000 ng, thuc
vo mc thp nht trong c nc (iu tra mc sng h gia nh nm 2002).
18
Biu 2.3: T l tht nghip thnh th cc nm 2000-2003 theo gii tnh (%)

6,8
6,6
6,9
5,6
5,1
4,4
6,2
6,5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2000 2001 2002 2003
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra Lao ng vic lm cc nm 2000-2003, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi

ng ch l tui lao ng tch cc 25-44 th khong cch v t l tht nghip gia
nam v n t mc cao nht (biu 2.4).

Biu 2.4: T l tht nghip thnh th theo gii tnh v nhm tui nm 2003 (%)
14,7
6,8
3,9
13
2,6
1,9
15,5
3,3
14,6
3,1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
15-19 20-24 30-34 40-44 50-54
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra Lao ng vic lm cc nm 2000-2003, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi

T l thiu vic lm ca n
11
nhn chung gim xung trong nhng nm gn y v
duy tr mc thp hn so vi nam. Nm 2003, t l thiu vic lm ca n thnh th l
3,86%, ca nam l 4,55%. T l thiu vic lm nng thn cao hn thnh th, vi t l
tng ng ca n l 6,99% v ca nam l 7,96% (biu 2.5).



11
S n t 15 tui tr ln c s gi lm vic di 35 gi trong tun v c nhu cu lm thm gi so
vi tng s dn s n hot ng kinh t
19
Biu 2.5: T l thiu vic lm theo gii tnh v thnh th, nng thn
cc nm 2001-2003 (%)
3,94 3,86
4,96
4,55
9,53
8,48
6,99
10,71
9,48
7,96
4,55
5,26
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
2001 2002 2003
N thnh th Nam thnh th N nng thn Nam nng thn

Ngun: iu tra Lao ng vic lm cc nm 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi

T l s dng thi gian lao ng ca n
12
nng thn c xu hng tng ln trong
thi k 2000-2004 v khng cn khong cch ng k so vi nam. Nm 2003, t l s
dng thi gian lao ng ca n l 77,7%, ca nam l 78,1% (biu 2.6).

Biu 2.6: T l s dng thi gian lao ng nng thn theo gii tnh
cc nm 2000-2003 (%)
73,6
74,3
75,5
77,7
74,6
74,5
75,6
78,1
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
2000 2001 2002 2003
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra Lao ng vic lm cc nm 2000-2003, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi

T l s dng thi gian ca lao ng n nng thn tuy nhin c s khc bit nht nh
gia cc nhm tui. T l ny t mc cao nht sau 50 tui v thp nht trc 20 tui.
Trong khong thi gian 20-50 tui, t l s dng thi gian lao ng ca n tng u v
duy tr u khong cch so vi nam l thp hn khong 1 phn trm, c th n l

12
Phn trm s thi gian lm vic thc t ca n so vi tng qu thi gian c nhu cu lm vic ca
dn s n hot ng kinh t nng thn.
20
77,3% v nam l 78,3% i vi nhm tui 25-29. iu ny cho thy ngay trong thi gian
sinh con v nui con nh th t l s dng thi gian lao ng ca n nng thn vn
khng gim so vi nam (biu 2.7).

Biu 2.7: T l s dng thi gian lao ng nng thn theo gii tnh v
nhm tui nm 2003 (%)

73.9
77,3
78,3 78,4
80,9
73,8
78,3
78,8 79,4
79,2
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
15-19 25-29 35-39 45-49 55-59
N Nam

Ngun: iu tra Lao ng vic lm cc nm 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi

Lao ng n c xu hng tp trung cao hn so vi nam cc ngnh nng nghip
v thng nghip, trong khi lao ng nam tp trung cao hn so vi n cc ngnh thy
sn v xy dng. Nm 2002, c 100 lao ng n th c gn 60 ngi lm nng nghip; 1,5
lm thu sn; 13 lm thng nghip v 0,7 lm xy dng; c 100 lao ng nam th c
51,5 lm nng nghip; 4,5 lm thy sn; 7,5 lm thng nghip v 8 lm xy dng (biu
2.8).

Biu 2.8: Dn s t 15 tui tr ln theo gii tnh v ngnh sn xut kinh doanh chnh
(vic chim nhiu thi gian nht trong 12 thng qua)
59,8
1,5
12,2
0,7
13
15,1
51,5
4,5
12,9
7,9 7,5
12,4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Nng nghip Thy sn Cng nghip Xy dng Thng
nghip
Dch v
N Nam

Ngun: iu tra Mc sng h gia nh 2002, Tng cc Thng k
21
Thu nhp bnh qun mt nm ca lao ng n trong nn kinh t quc dn l tng
ng so vi lao ng nam. Tuy nhin c s khc bit gia cc nhm ngnh. Nm 2002,
nu trong ton ngnh kinh t quc dn, t s thu nhp bnh qun mt nm ca lao ng
n so vi lao ng nam l 1,05 th ngnh cng nghip-xy dng l 1,13 v ngnh nng
lm- thy sn l 0,97 (biu 2.9). S liu ny phn no gy ngc nhin v nhng kt
qu nghin cu gn y cho thy t s tin lng, tin cng trung bnh ca lao ng n
ch t 0,9 so vi lao ng nam.

Biu 2.9: T s thu nhp bnh qun t tin lng, tin cng ca n
so vi nam, nm 2002
1,05
0,97
1,13
0,98
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
1,05
1,1
1,15
Nn KTQD Nng lm thu sn Cng nghip xy
dng
Thng mi dch v

Ngun: iu tra Mc sng h gia nh 2002, Tng cc Thng k

S thi gian tham gia sn xut, kinh doanh bnh qun 1 ngy ca n trong tui
lao ng l tng ng vi lao ng nam. Nm 2002, s gi tham gia sn xut, kinh
doanh bnh qun 1 ngy ca lao ng n l 4,9 gi, ca nam l 5 gi. Gia cc nhm
ngnh c s khc bit nht nh, s gi ngnh nng lm thy sn l thp nht, ngnh
thng mi dch v l cao nht vi 6,1 gi i vi c n v nam (biu 2.10).

Biu 2.10: S gi sn xut, kinh doanh bnh qun 1 ngy ca dn s trong tui lao
ng theo gii tnh v nhm ngnh, nm 2002 (gi)
5
4,3
5,8
6,1
5,1
4,4
5,8
6,1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Nn KTQD Nng lm thu sn Cng nghip xy
dng
Thng mi dch v
N
Nam
Ngun: iu tra Mc sng h gia nh 2002, Tng cc Thng k
22
S thi gian lm cng vic ni tr bnh qun mt ngy ca lao ng n t 15 tui
tr ln cao gp 2.5 ln so vi nam thnh th v gp 2,3 ln nng thn. Nm 2002, s
gi lm vic ni tr bnh qun ca n thnh th l 1,97 gi, ca nam l 0,78 gi (biu
2.11).

Biu 2.11: S gi lm vic ni tr theo gii tnh v thnh th/nng thn,
nm 2002 (gi)
1,97
0,78
2,06
0,88
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
Thnh th Nng thn
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra Mc sng h gia nh 2002, Tng cc Thng k

Tm li, t l n tham gia hot ng kinh t nc ta t mc cao, c bit Ty Bc l
80% v Ty Nguyn ti 78% nm 2003.
T l s dng thi gian ca lao ng n nng thn c xu hng tng ln, khng cn
khong cch ng k so vi nam. i chiu vi mc tiu ca K hoch hnh ng v s
tin b ca ph n n nm 2005 l tng t l s dng thi gian lao ng ca n khu
vc nng thn ln 75%, th chng ta hon thnh ch tiu ny vo nm 2003, t
77,7%.
Tuy nhin, t l tht nghip ca n thnh th c xu hng tng nhanh so vi nam trong
mt s nm gn y, nm 2003, t l n l 6,9% v nam l 4,4%. i chiu vi ch
tiu gim t l tht nghip ca lao ng n khu vc thnh th xung cn 5-6% th
chng ta cha t c ch tiu ny v cn phi tip tc phn u.
Thi gian tham gia sn xut, kinh doanh bnh qun mt ngy ca n l tng ng vi
nam, nm 2002 l 4,9 gi v 5 gi, tuy nhin, s thi gian lm cng vic ni tr bnh qun
mt ngy ca lao ng n cao gp 2,5 ln so vi nam thnh th v gp 2,3 ln nng
thn.
Thc t cc vn gii trong lnh vc lao ng vic lm cho thy chng ta t nhng
thnh tu ng k, t c mt s mc tiu ca K hoch hnh ng v s tin b ca
ph n n 2005. T l s dng thi gian ca lao ng n nng thn tng ln, thu
nhp bnh qun ca lao ng n t tng ng nam gii. Tuy nhin, cng cn mt s
tn ti, cn c bin php khc phc trong thi gian trc mt cng nh lu di, trong ,
ng ch nht l cc vn sau:
- Gim t l tht nghip ca lao ng n thnh th, c bit l nhm tui 25-44 v to
c hi vic lm ng u cho c lao ng n v lao ng nam.
23
- Nng cao cht lng vic lm ca lao ng nam v n mt s vng, c bit l Ty
Bc v Ty Nguyn nhm nng cao thu nhp v i sng ca ngi dn trn c s t l
hot ng kinh t cao ca lao ng nam v n nhng vng ny.
- Tng thi gian lm cng vic ni tr ca nam gii c thnh th v nng thn nhm
nng cao hiu qu v trchnhim chia s cng vic gia nh gia nam v n.
Ngoi ra, cng cn quan tm n vic thc hin mt s ch tiu quan trng khc ca K
hoch hnh ng v s tin b ca ph n n nm 2005 nh t l 40% lao ng n trong
s nhng ngi c to vic lm mi v 50% ph n trong s ngi c vay vn tn
dng, mc d chng ta cha c s liu thng k y v tnh trng hin nay.
3. Gio dc v o to
Bnh ng gii trong gio dc v o to l kt qu ca qu trnh phn u lu di ca
ton x hi v ng thi l tin cho s pht trin ca ph n v nam gii trong tng
lai. Cc ch s thng k trong lnh vc gio dc v o to cho bit t l bit ch, t l i
hc cc cp, t l chuyn cp, b hc ca em trai, em gi, t l dn s t bng cp cao
nht v t l gio vin n.
T l bit ch ca ngi dn nc ta t mc cao, khong cch gia nam v n
khng chnh lch nhiu. Nm 2002, trong c nc, 92% dn s t 10 tui tr ln bit ch,
t l ny nam l 95% v n l 89%. Tuy nhin, gia cc nhm dn tc c s khc bit
ln v t l bit ch. Trong khi t l bit ch ca ph n Kinh nm 2002 t 92% th
ph n Ty l 89,2%, ph n Thi l 69,8% v ph n ngi HMng l 21,9%; t l bit
ch ca nam gii cc dn tc tng ng l 96,6%; 95,3%; 89,6% v 53,1% (biu 3.1).

Biu 3.1. T l dn s t 10 tui tr ln bit ch theo gii tnh v dn tc,
nm 2002 (%)
92,0
89,2
69,8
21,9
96,6
95,3
89,6
53,1
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Kinh Ty Thi H'Mng
N
Nam

Ngun: iu tra mc sng h gia nh 2002, Tng cc Thng k

24
T l i hc chung ca n v nam
13
trong c nc bc tiu hc t mc cao v
c xu hng tng trong nhng nm gn y. Nm hc 2003-2004, t l i hc chung ca
n l 102,6%, ca nam l 107,4%.
T l i hc chung ca n v nam trong c nc cp trung hc c s cng t
mc cao v c xu hng tng trong nhng nm gn y. S liu cho thy mc d t
nhp tng n nh trong nhng nm gn y, song gia t l i hc chung ca n v
nam bc trung hc c s vn cn mt khong cch cha c thu hp, c th nm hc
2003-2004, t l ny n l 86,5%, nam l 90,2%, chnh lch 3,7 im, trong khi chnh
lch vo nm hc 2000-2001 l 3,2 im (biu 3.2).

Biu 3.2: T l i hc chung cp trung hc c s theo gii tnh
cc nm hc 2000-2004 (%)
80,2
83,7 84,2 86,5
83,3
87,0 87,6
90,2
0
50
100
150
200
2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004
Nam
N

Ngun: Bo co nh k ngnh Gio dc, Bo co nh k ngnh Thng k

ng ch l mt s a phng khong cch ny c xu hng gia tng, v d C Mau,
t l i hc chung nm hc 2001-2002 ca n l 58%, ca nam l 67,3% th n nm hc
2003-2004 t l trn i vi n l 60%, trong khi t l i vi nam tng ln 74%. Tnh
hnh trn cho thy t l i hc chung ca n bc trung hc c s cn cha bn vng.
Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn ca tnh trng trn l t l n hc sinh vo trung hc c
s thp hn mc d t l tt nghip tiu hc cao hn so vi nam. Nm hc 2002-2003
trong c nc, t l hon thnh cp tiu hc
14
ca hc sinh n l 82,7%, trong khi ca hc
sinh nam l 78,9%. Cng trong nm , t l chuyn cp
15
ca hc sinh n l 95,7%
trong khi ca hc sinh nam l 100,5% do nhiu hc sinh nam thi hc, nay quay tr
li trng hc tip trung hc c s, tuy nhin, ng ch l iu ny khng xy ra vi
cc em gi.

13
T l n i hc chung bc tiu hc l t l phn trm hc sinh n ang hc tiu hc so vi tng
s dn s n trong tui bc tiu hc (6-10 tui). Tng t nh vy i vi t l n i hc chung
bc trung hc c s (11-14) v trung hc ph thng (15-17).
14
T l hon thnh cp tiu hc ca hc sinh n l phn trm hc sinh n tt nghip tiu hc nm
t so vi s hc sinh n lp 1 u nm t-4.
15
T l chuyn cp ca hc sinh n t bc tiu hc ln bc trung hc c s l phn trm hc sinh
n tuyn mi lp 6 so vi s hc sinh n tt nghip tiu hc.
25
T l i hc chung trung hc ph thng nm hc 2003-2004 ca n l 45,2% v
ca nam l 45,7%. T l ny tng lin tc trong nhng nm gn y. Khong cch v
t l i hc chung ca n v nam trung hc ph thng ang dn c thu hp k t
nm 2000 n nay (biu 3.3).

Biu 3.3: T l i hc chung cp trung hc ph thng theo gii tnh
cc nm hc 2000-2004 (%)
36,6
38,2
43,1
45,2
43,6
44,9
44,3
45,7
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004
N
Nam

Ngun: Bo co nh k ngnh Gio dc, Bo co nh k ngnh Thng k

Ti mt s vng, t l i hc chung ca n bc trung hc ph thng b tt li khong
cch kh xa so vi nam. Nm hc 2003-2004, trong khi khong cch ny ca c nc l
0,5 im th ng Bc l 2 im, Ty Bc l 5,8 im v ng bng sng Cu Long l
1,4 im. Ring Ty Nguyn t l ca n cao hn nam l 2,5 im (biu 3.4).

Biu 3.4: T l i hc chung cp trung hc ph thng nm hc 2003-2004
theo gii tnh v vng (%)
45,2 45,3
30,4
47,9
32,3
45,7
47,3
36,2
45,4
33,7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
C nc ng Bc Ty Bc Ty Nguyn B sng Cu
Long
N
Nam

Ngun: Bo co nh k ngnh Gio dc, Bo co nh k ngnh Thng k

26
Mt vn cn quan tm l mc d chnh lch khng ln song t l b hc ca hc sinh
nam l cao hn so vi n c cp tiu hc, trung hc c s v trung hc ph thng. Nm
hc 2002-2003, trong c nc, t l b hc cp tiu hc ca hc sinh n l 3,09%, ca
hc sinh nam l 3,16% (biu 3.5).

Biu 3.5: T l hc sinh b hc cc cp theo gii tnh nm hc 2002-2003 (%)
3,09
5,37
7
3,16
6,38
7,47
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Tiu hc Trung hc c s Trung hc ph thng
N
Nam

Ngun: Bo co nh k ngnh Gio dc, Bo co nh k ngnh Thng k

N gio vin chim t l cao trong tng s gio vin ca ngnh gio dc song ch yu
tp trung cc bc hc thp. Nhn chung, cng ln cao, t l n gio vin cng gim, tr
bc cao ng l ni t l gio vin nam v n xp x ngang nhau (biu 3.6). Nguyn
nhn y c th l do cc gia nh trc y thng u t t hn cho vic hc ca em
gi, do quan nim rp khun v vai tr gii, nh kin v nng lc ca n v cho rng
ph n cn c nhiu thi gian lm vic nh.

Biu 3.6: T l gio vin theo gii tnh cc bc hc nm hc 2003-2004 (%)
78,1
68,2
56,1
39,9
48,8
37,6
21,9
31,9
43,9
60,1
51,2
62,4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Tiu hc Trung hc
c s
Trung hc
ph thng
Trung hc
chuyn
nghip
Cao ng i hc
N
Nam

Ngun: Bo co nh k ngnh Gio dc, Bo co nh k ngnh Thng k

27
T l t bng cp cao nht ca n gii
16
t mc kh nhiu cp hc v bc hc. Nm
2002, c 100 dn s n t 15 tui tr ln th c 25,5 ngi tt nghip tiu hc, 25,8 ngi
tt nghip trung hc c s v 9,4 ngi tt nghip trung hc ph thng; cc t l tng
ng dn s nam l 27,3; 29,5 v 12. Bc trung hc chuyn nghip khng c s khc bit
ln, n t 2,9% v nam 2,8%; bc cao ng v i hc n t 2,7% v nam t 4,2%
(biu 3.7). Ring bc trn i hc, t l n thp hn 3 ln so vi nam, c th n t
0,04% v nam 0,13%.

Biu 3.7 T l dn s t 15 tui tr ln t bng cp cao nht
theo gii tnh nm 2002 (%)


Ngun: iu tra mc sng h gia nh 2002, Tng cc Thng k
25,5 25,8
9,4
0,8
2,9 2,7
27,3
29,5
12,0
2,2
2,8
4,2
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Tiu hc Trung hc
c s
Trung hc
ph thng
Cng nhn
k thut
Trung hc
chuyn
nghip
Cao ng,
i hc
N Nam

Tm li, Vit Nam, bnh ng gii trong lnh vc gio dc v o to t c nhng
thnh tch to ln. Tuy nhin, vn cn nhiu vn cn c c bit quan tm gii
quyt, l:
Em gi v ph n dn tc thiu s cc vng su, vng cao gp nhiu kh khn v tr
ngi hn so vi em trai v nam gii trong vic tip cn gio dc. iu ny t ra nhng
thch thc ln i vi vic phn u thc hin ch tiu xa m ch cho 95% ph n b m
ch tui di 40 nh K hoch hnh ng quc gia v s tin b ca ph n n
nm 2005 ra.
T l i hc chung cp trung hc c s ca n v nam c tng ln, song khong cch v
t l i hc chung gia hai gii vn cha c thu hp trong nhng nm gn y. Ring
cp trung hc ph thng khong cch v t l i hc chung ca n v nam ang dn c
thu hp.
T l b hc ca em gi cao hn em trai bc tiu hc, ngc li, em trai b hc nhiu
hn cc bc cao hn. c bit, t l chuyn cp t tiu hc ln trung hc c s ca n
thp hn so vi nam. Thc t ny yu cu t ra nhng bin php c th nhm hn ch

16
T l t bng cp cao nht ca dn s n l phn trm dn s n t 15 tui tr ln c bng tt
nghip cao nht cc cp hc, bc hc so vi dn s n t 15 tui tr ln (Ring phn biu s liu
ca cun s liu ny s tnh trn dn s n t 10 tui tr ln - xem biu 3.10A).
28
tnh trng b hc ca c nam v n hc sinh tng cp hc, song c bit cn tp trung
vo vic khc phc tnh trng b hc ca n sinh cp tiu hc v nng cao t l n sinh
chuyn cp ln trung hc c s, c bit l i vi cc em gi vng su v vng dn tc
thiu s.
4. Chm sc sc khe
Chm sc sc khe, nht l chm sc sc khe ca ph n c tm quan trng c bit
khng ch i vi th h hin ti m cn i vi cc th h tng lai. Cc ch s thng k
trong lnh vc ny cp n tui th ca ph n v nam gii, vic chm sc sc kho
ca ph n trc, trong v sau khi sinh v v tnh trng suy dinh dng ca tr.
Tui th bnh qun khi sinh ca n gii
17
nc ta nm 1999 l 70,1 tui, nam l
66,5 tui. Trong thi k 1999-2002, tui th bnh qun ca nam tng 3,5 tui nhanh
hn so vi n 2,9 tui (biu 4.1).

Biu 4.1. Tui th bnh qun khi sinh ca dn s theo gii tnh
trong nm 1999 v 2002 (tui)
68,3
71,3
70,1
73
66,5
70
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
1999 2002
Chung
N
Nam

Ngun: Tng iu tra dn s 1999 v iu tra bin ng dn s 2002, Tng cc Thng k

T l ph n c khm thai 3 ln tr ln trong c nc nm 2003 t 83,8%, t l ph
n khi c thai c tim phng 2 mi un vn t 88,5%.
Trong thi k 2000-2003, t l ph n c khm thai 3 ln tng ng k, t 69,7 ln
83,8%. Trong khi , t l ph n mang thai c tim phng 2 mi un vn mc d vn
gi mc cao song c xu hng gim nh (biu 4.2).







17
Tui th bnh qun khi sinh ca dn s n l s nm bnh qun m ngi n gii c th sng,
da trn nhng t l cht c trng theo tui ca mt s nm xc nh
29
Biu 4.2: T l ph n c khm thai 3 ln v t l ph n mang thai
c tim phng 2 mi un vn cc nm 2000-2003 (%)
89,8
88,6
83,8
81,8
78,9
69,7
88,5
87,7
0
20
40
60
80
100
2000 2001 2002 2003
Khm thai Tim phng un vn

Ngun: Bo co nh k, B Y t

Gia cc vng trong c nc c s khc bit ln v cng tc chm sc sc khe ca ph
n mang thai. T l ph n c khm thai 3 ln tr ln nm 2003 cao nht thuc v cc
tnh ng bng sng Hng, thp nht l Ty Nguyn (biu 4.3).

Biu 4.3: T l ph n c khm thai 3 ln nm 2003 theo vng (%)
68,5
74,6
83,8
86,3 86,4
90,1
91,7
96,3
0
20
40
60
80
100
120

Ngun: Bo co nh k, B Y t

ng ch l t l ph n sinh con khi mang thai tim phng un vn t 2 mi tr ln
mt s a phng cn ang mc thp. Nm 2003, ni c t l tim phng un vn thp
nht trong c nc l Lo Cai 47,6% v Sn La 53%.
T l ph n khi sinh con c cn b y t tr gip nm 2003 t 95,8%. T l ny
tng lin tc trong nhng nm gn y. T l ph n c ung Vitamin A sau
30
khi sinh nm 2003 t 55,8% v c xu hng tng nh t nm 2000 tr li y (biu
4.4).

Biu 4.4: T l ph n khi sinh con c cn b y t tr gip v t l ph n c
ung Vitamin A sau khi sinh cc nm 2000- 2003 (%)
55,8
95,8
93,8 92,1 91,4
52,4
55,9
52,2
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
2000 2001 2002 2003
C y t gip
Ung Vit A

Ngun: Bo co nh k, B Y t

Vic chm sc ph n khi sinh cn c s khc bit ln gia cc vng v cc a phng.
Nm 2003, t l ph n khi sinh con c cn b y t tr gip t mc cao nht ng
bng sng Hng 99,9% v thp nht Ty Nguyn 72,7% v Ty Bc 80% (biu 4.5).

Biu 4.5: T l ph n khi sinh con c cn b y t tr gip theo vng nm 2003 (%)


Ngun: Bo co nh k, B Y t
72,7
80
88,3
96,2 97 98,2 98,5
99,9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Ty
Nguyn
Ty Bc ng
Bc
Nam
Trung
B
Bc
Trung
B
B sng
Cu
Long
ng
Nam B
B sng
Hng

ng ch l mt s tnh Ty Nguyn v ng Bc, t l ph n khi sinh con c
cn b y t tr gip cn thp nh Gia Lai 53,2%; H Giang 59,8%.
T sut cht s sinh (di 1 tui) phn nh r nt s khc bit v cht lng chm sc
b m v tr em gia cc vng. Nm 2003, t l t vong ca tr em di 1 tui trong c
nc l 21
0
/
00
, nhng Ty Bc l 37
0
/
00
, ng Bc v Ty Nguyn l 29
0
/
00
. c bit
31
ng quan tm l mt s tnh thuc cc vng ny c t l cao gp 2 ln mc trung bnh
ca c nc nh Lai Chu, H Giang, Kon Tum (biu 4.6).

Biu 4.6. T sut cht s sinh mt s a phng nm 2003 (
0
/
00
)
21
37
41
29
47
29
45
0
10
20
30
40
50
C nc Ty Bc Lai Chu ng Bc H Giang Ty Nguyn Kon Tum

Ngun: iu tra bin ng dn s nm 2003, Tng cc Thng k

T l cht m lin quan n thai sn ti cc c s y t gim lin tc trong
nhng nm gn y, t 18,2
0
/
0000
vo nm 2003. Tuy nhin, t l ny cha n nh, v
mt s a phng cn mc cao hn nhiu so vi trung bnh c nc nh Cao Bng
123,92
0
/
0000
; Bnh nh 89,22
0
/
0000
v Lai Chu 88,82
0
/
0000
.
Vic chm sc ph n trong v sau khi sinh ph thuc mc ln vo lc lng cn b
y t ti ch. T l trm y t x/phng c h sinh hoc y s sn nhi tng ln
trong nhng nm gn y, t 93,1% nm 2003 (biu 4.7).

Biu 4.7. T l trm y t x/phng c cn b h sinh hoc y s sn nhi
cc nm 2000-2003 (%)
87,8
90,6
93,1
87,9
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
2000 2001 2002 2003

Ngun: Bo co nh k, B Y t

ng ch l cn mt s vng c t l trm y t x/phng c h sinh hoc y s sn nhi
thp hn t l trung bnh ca c nc nm 2003 l Ty Bc 79,3% v ng Bc 88,7%.
32
T l tr suy dinh dng (cn nng theo tui) ca tr em di 5 tui c xu hng
gim trong nhng nm gn y v gim nhanh hn em trai, xung cn 28,2% nm
2003. T l em gi b suy dinh dng vn cao hn so vi em trai v khong cch ny cha
c du hiu thu hp trong thi k 2000-2003 (biu 4.8).

Biu 4.8: T l suy dinh dng ca tr em di 5 tui theo gii tnh
cc nm 2000-2003 (%)
33,6 33,6
29,2 28,2
33,9 33,9
31,0
28,5
2000 2001 2002 2003
Gi
Trai

Ngun: iu tra suy dinh dng nm 2002-2003, Vin dinh dng, B Y t

T l s dng cc bin php trnh thai ca ph n 15-49 tui c chng nm 2003 l
75,6%. Trong cc nhm tui th ph n t 35-39 tui c t l s dng cc bin php trnh
thai cao nht, nhm di 20 tui c t l s dng thp nht (biu 4.9).

Biu 4.9: T l ph n 15-49 tui c chng s dng cc bin php trnh thai
theo nhm tui nm 2003 (%)
23,2
51,1
71,3
82,1
86,3
84,1
70,7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Ngun: iu tra bin ng dn s nm 2003, Tng cc Thng k

ng ch l cc bin php trnh thai hin nay cha a dng, vng trnh thai vn l
bin php trnh thai ph bin nht ph n.
Tm li, trn phm vi c nc, cc ch s v bnh ng gii trong chm sc sc khe cho
thy s tin b r rt trong nhng nm gn y v vic chm sc sc khe ni chung v
chm sc sc khe b m v tr em.
33
Tuy nhin, cng tc chm sc y t ni chung, c bit l chm sc b m v tr em trc,
trong v sau khi sinh cc vng Ty Bc, ng Bc v Ty Nguyn ni c t l ph n
ngho v dn tc thiu s c tr t kt qu thp hn nhiu so vi c nc. Trong khi t
l t vong ca tr em di 1 tui trong c nc l 21
0
/
00
, th Ty Bc l 37
0
/
00
, ng
Bc v Ty Nguyn l 29
0
/
00
.
Cc nguyn nhn chnh l dch v y t cng cha thun tin, ph dch v cao cng nh do
c s vt cht ca trm y t x mt s a phng cn thiu cc trang thit b v nhn
lc cn thit. iu ny nh hng n vic chm sc sc khe cho ngi dn ni chung
song c bit l ph n v tr em ngho bi h ph thuc nhiu hn vo s lng v cht
lng dch v ca h thng y t c s.
khc phc tnh trng ny cn tip tc kin ton mng li chm sc sc khe c s,
c bit l vng su, vng xa bng cch u t cho trang thit b v tng cng cn b y
t cho tuyn x. Ch trng c bit n vic a cc dch v chm sc sc khe b m
trong khi sinh n vi ph n ngho, ph n dn tc thiu s vng cao, vng su. ng
thi, tin hnh cng tc tuyn truyn vi vic nng cao cht lng v ch khuyn
khch cn b y t c s n vi cc bn lng.
5. Tham gia lnh o cc cp, cc ngnh
Cc ch s v t l nam, n tham gia qun l, lnh o cho bit nam v n tham gia n
cp no trong cc qu trnh ra quyt nh v nhng vn chnh tr, kinh t, x hi then
cht ca mt a phng hoc quc gia, ng thi cng cho bit ph n c to iu
kin ra sao th hin nng lc qun l v lnh o ca mnh. Cc ch s thng k trong
phn ny bao gm t l nam, n i biu Quc hi, t l nam, n i biu Hi ng Nhn
dn cc cp, t l nam, n tham gia cc cp u ng v t l nam, n m nhn cc chc
v lnh o.
Nt ni bt trong nhng nm gn y l t l nam n tham gia cc cp lnh o bin
i theo hng ngy mt cn bng hn. T l n tham gia lnh o, qun l gia tng
tt c cc cp. C th l t l n i biu Quc hi tng lin tc trong ba kho gn
y v t 27,3% trong kha XI (2002-2007) (biu 5.1).

Biu 5.1: T l i biu Quc hi cc kha IX, X v XI theo gii tnh (%)
18,5
26,2 27,3
81,5
73,8 72,7
0
20
40
60
80
100
Kha IX Kha X Kha XI
N
Nam

Ngun: Bo co hnh chnh, Vn phng Quc hi
T l i biu Hi ng Nhn dn l n c ba cp tng trong hai kha gn y,
c th t 19,5% cp x/phng, 23% cp qun/huyn v 23,9% cp tnh/thnh kha
2004-2009 (biu 5.2).
34
Biu 5.2: T l n i biu Hi ng Nhn dn nhim k 1999-2004 v 2004-2009 (%)

21,1
23,9
20,1
23,0
16,6
19,5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1999-04 2004-09
Tnh
Huyn
X






Ngun: Bo co hnh chnh, B Ni v

C c kt qu trn y l nh c s ch o st sao ca cc cp u ng trong cng tc
quy hoch, o to bi dng cn b, c bit l cn b n. Mt s a phng c chnh
sch h tr cn b n trong o to, bi dng. Bn thn cn b n nhn thc y
hn vai tr, v tr, trch nhim trc tnh hnh mi t tin hn, ch ng khc phc
kh khn, n lc phn u vn ln
18
.
Tuy nhin, t l n tham gia lnh o gia tng khng ng u cc lnh vc. i vi
cp Trung ng, trong hai k i hi gn y, t l n tham gia cp u ng b
gim st. Cp tnh/thnh hu nh khng thay i. Ring cp qun/huyn v
x/phng, t l n c xu hng gia tng. C th, y vin Ban chp hnh ng b
huyn/qun y nhim k 1996-2000 t l n t 11,3%; nhim k 2001-2005 t 12,6%.
y vin Ban chp hnh ng b x/phng nhim k 1996-2000 t l n t 10,7%;
nhim k 2001-2005 t 11,4%. T l n tham gia cp u ng cp trung ng gim t
10,6% i hi XIII xung cn 8,0% i hi IX (biu 5.3).

Biu 5.3: T l u vin Ban chp hnh Trung ng nhim k i hi VIII v IX
theo gii tnh (%)
10,6
8,0
89,4
92,0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Kha XIII Kha IX
N
Nam

Ngun: Ban T chc Trung ng ng

18
Hi LHPN Vit Nam 2003. Bo co tng kt 10 nm thc hin Ch th 37 ca Ban B th v
Cng tc cn b n.
35
iu cn quan tm l t l n tham gia lnh o, k c Quc hi, Hi ng Nhn dn
v cp u ng mc d c tng song mc gia tng cn nh, c bit l i vi cp u
ng, ch tng trn di 1%. Qua cho thy, v c bn, nam gii vn chim s ng
trong cc cp lnh o.
T l nam, n lnh o cc b ngnh cng khng ng u gia cc cp. cp b trng
v th trng hu ht lm nam, mc d t l n cng c s gia tng nht nh. cc cp
v trng, ph v trng c s gim st v t l n trong vng 10 nm qua. C th t l
n v trng gim t 13% xung 12,1% v v ph gim t 12,1% xung cn 8,1% (biu
5.4).

Biu 5.4: T l n lnh o cc b ngnh v cc doanh nghip Nh nc
trc thuc Chnh ph, 1992-2002 (%)
11,9
12,5
7,3
9,1
13
12,1 12,1
8,1
4 4 4 4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1992-96 1997-02
B trng
Th trng
V trng
V ph
Tng Gim c
Ph Tng gim c

Ngun: Bo co hnh chnh Hi LHPN Vit Nam

im ng ch l trong vng hai nhim k gn y, t l n cn b lnh o ch
cht cc cp trn thc t cn mc qu thp, c bit l cp c s. Cc chc danh ch
tch, ph ch tch UBND cp tnh/thnh t l n ch t di 10% v cp x/phng ch
t di 2% c hai nhim k 1992-1997 v 1997-2002 (biu 5.5).

Biu 5.5: T l n lnh o ch cht cc cp 1992-2002 (%)
7,0
8,9
5,4
6,2
1,3
1,9
0 2 4 6 8 10
1992-97
1997-02
X
Huyn
Tnh

Ngun: B Ni v, Hi LHPN Vit Nam, Ban T chc TW ng

36
Tm li, t l n tham gia qun l, lnh o tng ln trong nhng nm gn y. Tuy
nhin, mc tng cn hn ch v khng ng u cc cp v cc lnh vc. ng ch l
t l n tham gia cp u ang b gim st cp trung ng v tnh /thnh. T l n lnh
o ch cht cc cp trong hai kha gn y nhn chung u mc thp.
Vic ph n tham gia trong cc cp qun l, lnh o ni chung cn hn ch, c bit l
cc v tr ch cht l do thiu quan tm ch o, thiu kim tra n c vic b tr cn b
n tham gia lnh o, qun l ca cc cp u. Ngoi ra, hin nay trong x hi vn tn ti
t tng thin kin, hp hi, thiu tin tng vo kh nng ca ph n, cn c nh kin
trong nh gi cn b n. V phn mnh, ph n cng chu p lc ca gnh nng ba vai,
khng c thi gian tham gia lnh o, bn thn mt b phn ch em cn cm thy t ti.
Thc t trn i hi s tng cng ch o c hiu qu ca cc cp u ng i vi cng
tc cn b n trong thi gian ti. ng thi, cn c s phi hp ng b gia cc ban,
ngnh on th trong vic gii thiu, bi dng nhm tng bc nng cao t l n tham
gia qun l, lnh o.
6. Ngc i trn c s gii (mi dm, ngc i trong gia nh v bun bn
ph n, tr em).
Ngc i ph n, tr em tc ng tiu cc n ph n, nam gii v cn tr vic thc
hin bnh ng gii v quyn tr em. Trong phn ny, cc ch s thng k nu ln mt s
vn v nn xm hi tr em, ngi cha thnh nin vi phm php lut v t nghin
ht, mi dm v bun bn ph n, tr em.
Cc v xm hi tr em b pht hin v x l trong c nc c xu hng gia tng. Tnh
ring trong hai nm 2000 v 2001, s v xm hi tr em tng t 1684 ln 1913 v.
Trong tng s i tng xm hi tr em th ti danh xm hi tnh dc chim 53,2% tng
s v b xm hi, cn li l cc ti danh xm hi khc nh git tr em 4,7%, c gy
thng tch 16,3%, mua bn, bt trm 3,2%, d d cha chp tr em phm php 1,5%
(biu 6.1).

Biu 6.1: i tng xm hi tr em theo ti danh, nm 2001 (%)
4,7
53,2
16,3
3,2
1,5
21,1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Ti danh
Git TE
Xm di tnh dc
Gy thng tch
Mua bn, bt trm
D d, cha chp
Cc ti khc

Ngun: B Cng an 2001

37
ng ch l mt s vng t l v xm hi tnh dc tr em trn tng s v xm hi l
kh cao, v d ng bng sng Cu Long l 84,7%, Nam Trung b l 71,5% (biu
6.2).

Biu 6.2: T l xm hi tnh dc trn tng s v xm hi theo vng nm 2001 (%)
15,5
33
42,9
50,8
71,5
37,8
62,8
84,7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
B sng
Hng
ng Bc Ty Bc Bc Trung
B
Nam
Trung B
Ty
Nguyn
ng Nam
B
B sng
Cu Long

Ngun: B Cng an 2001

T l tr em gi b xm hi chim 63,8% tng s tr b xm hi. ng ch l tr di
13 tui b xm hi chim ti 50%, c bit, tr di 6 tui chim 9,5%.
i tng xm hi tr em hu ht l nam gii, chim 96,8%. ng ch l s cha
thnh nin (di 18 tui), chim ti 33,6%.
Ngi cha thnh nin lm tri php lut u ang la tui i hc nhng ch c
64% thc t ang i hc, cn li c 28% b hc v 8% cha tng i hc. Nm 2001 c
11.376 ngi cha thnh nin lm tri php lut, trong 1,4% l n; 35,6% phm ti
ln th hai tr ln. ng ch l mt s ng k ngi cha thnh nin phm php
tui cn nh, c th c 14% di 14 tui (biu 6.3).

Biu 6.3: S ngi cha thnh nin lm tri php lut theo nhm tui nm 2001(%)
14
36
50
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Tr phm php
Di 14
T 14 di 16
16-18

Ngun: B Cng an 2001

38
Nn nghin ht ma tu. S ngi cai nghin ma ty cc Trung tm cai nghin trong
c nc trong giai on 2001-2004 tng ln ng k. C th l t 38.461 ngi nm
2001 tng ln 43.782 nm 2004 (9 thng u nm). T l n trong tng s ngi cai
nghin 9 thng u nm 2004 l 8,2%. T l ny l cha y v ch c 13 tnh/thnh
c bo co tch s liu v n.
Trong s nhng tnh c thng k th t l n trong tng s ngi cai nghin cao nht l
Cn Th chim 12% tip theo l Thnh ph H Ch Minh chim 10% (biu 6.4).

Biu 6.4: T l ngi cai nghin l n mt s tnh/thnh 9 thng u nm 2004 (%)
2,6
5,9
10,1
12,0
7,4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
H Ni Thi Nguyn Tp HCM Cn Th B Ra-Vng Tu

Ngun: Cc phng chng t nn x hi, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi

S i tng mi dm c pht hin trong c nc c tnh nm 2003 l 30.600
ngi, trong s ny c 12.912 ngi c h s qun l, con s ny gim ng k so vi
mt s nm trc (biu 6.5).

Biu 6.5: S lng i tng mi dm b pht hin v c h s qun l
cc nm 2000-2003 (ngi)
36 995
50 833
30 600
17 098
12 912
13 923
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
2000 2002 2003
B pht hin
C h s QL

Ngun: Nin gim Thng k, B Lao ng - Thng binh v X hi nm 2003

39
Nn bun bn ph n v tr em c xu hng gia tng, ang din ra di nhiu hnh thc
rt phc tp. Theo thng k, trong thi gian t 1991 n 9/2004, trong c nc, cc c
quan chc nng pht hin iu tra 2.458 v, gm 4.076 i tng tham gia vo ng
dy bun bn ph n v tr em
19
. Tuy nhin, y cha phi l con s thng k y v
nhiu i tng bun bn ph n khng b pht hin, v do mc cm, nhiu nn nhn
khng bo cng an. Con s c tnh cho thy c hng chc ngn ph n, tr em Vit Nam
b la bn ra nc ngoi, lm v bt hp php, buc lao ng trong iu kin ti t, lm
con nui hoc s dng vo cc mc ch thng mi, v nhn o khc
20
.
ng ch l trong khi nn bun bn ph n, tr em din ra trm trng th s v xt x
ti phm ny trong c nc li c xu hng gim. Nu tnh trung bnh s v pht hin
iu tra hng nm l 180 v vi 300 i tng phm ti th s v b x n thp hn
nhiu. T 2000 n 2003, s v xt x ti phm bun bn ph n v tr em hng nm
gim t 179 v vi 303 b can xung cn 115 v vi 62 b can (Biu 6.6).

Biu 6.6. S v xt x ti phm bun bn ph n v tr em
cc nm 2000-2003 (v, ngi)
179
107
115 115
303
184 183
62
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
2000 2001 2002 2003
S v xt x
S b can

Ngun: Cc Thng k ti phm, Vin Kim st nhn dn ti cao

Mt s a phng c nhiu ph n, tr em b la gt bun bn ra nc ngoi l Lng
Sn, Qung Ninh, Thanh Ha, Ngh An, Thi Bnh, Nam H, An Giang, Kin Giang,
Ty Ninh, ng Thp. Tuy nhin, do nhiu l do, s v xt x ti phm bun bn ph n
cc a phng cn rt t. Chng hn Lng Sn, pht hin 4.390 ph n i khi a
phng, trong phn ln b la gt, hoc xut cnh tri php sang Trung Quc ly
chng, tuy nhin, trong 4 nm 2000-2003, Lng Sn mi xt x 28 v vi 39 b can. Ti
Thi Bnh, qua kho st pht hin 2.514 ph n b la gt, bun bn hoc t nguyn
ra nc ngoi, nhng mi xt x 3 v vi 4 b can
21
.

19
Bo co ti Hi ngh ton quc trin khai Chng trnh phng chng ti phm bun bn ph n,
tr em. TP HCM ngy 18.12.2004, trch theo Bo Lao ng s 1929, ngy 20/12/2004
20
Sch dn
21
Sch dn; Cc Thng k ti phm Vin Kim st nhn dn ti cao
40
Tm li, nn xm hi tr em, t nghin ht, mi dm v ti phm bun bn ph n, tr
em c xu hng tng nhanh.
ngn chn tnh trng xm hi tr em v bun bn ph n i hi nhng bin php
cp bch t mi tng lp x hi. Cc bin php phng nga v ngn chn xm hi cn
c bit ch n cc c th v ngh nghip v la tui ca ngi vi phm php lut,
k c tr em. Cc bin php bo v cn hng vo cc nn nhn c nguy c b xm hi
mi la tui, c bit l la tui nh. Vic thnh lp Ban ch o ca Chnh ph v
phng chng t nn mua bn ph n, tr em giai on 2004-2010 cho thy Nh nc
rt quan tm ti loi ti phm ny, tin hnh cc bin php cn thit nhm tng cng
phi hp cht ch gia cc ban ngnh, c bit l B Cng an v B Lao ng, Thng
binh v X hi.



41


Ti liu tham kho
(ngoi cc s liu do Tng cc Thng k cung cp)

Hi LHPN Vit Nam 2003. Bo co 10 nm thc hin Ch th 37 ca Ban b th T
Bo co ti Hi ngh ton quc trin khai Chng trnh phng chng ti phm bun bn
ph n, tr em. TP HCM ngy 18.12.2004, trch theo Bo Lao ng s 1929, ngy
20/12/2004
y ban Quc gia v An ton giao thng, Hi tho v an ton giao thng ng b nm
2000.



42


executive summary

This gender statistics book, comprised of a data analysis report from a gender
perspective and statistical tables, is the output of cooperation between the National
Committee for the Advancement of Women in Vietnam (NCFAW) and the General
Statistical Office (GSO) in the framework of project VIE 01-015-01 on Gender in public
policy funded by the United Nation Development Program (UNDP) and the Government
of the Netherlands. The report is to provide policy makers with a key data set and data
analysis from a gender perspective in 6 areas: population and family, labor and
employment, education and training, health care, leadership participation at different
levels, and gender-based violence (prostitution, domestic violence and trafficking in
women and children).
Population and family
Sex ratio of Vietnamese population begins to fall under 100% after the age of 35. Since
then the male population is always lower the female population and continues to drop
quickly in higher age groups. Sex ratio in the newborn group suggests the possibility of
embryo sex selection in urban areas. However, this needs to be verified by more accurate
evidence.
The proportion of married population remains high. However, the percentage of single
women is higher than men. It is noteworthy that the percentage of women remaining
single after divorce is 2.6 times higher than men and the widowhood percentage is 5
times higher in women than men.
The percentage of female-headed households is disproportionately distributed between
urban and rural areas (36.2% and 20.2% respectively).
It is clear that attention should be paid to the male/female structure of household heads
while implementing household-related policies to ensure equal assess by both male and
female household heads to production resources as well as social services.
Labor and employment
The percentage of economically active women in Vietnam is high, particularly in the
Northern mountainous areas and Central Highlands, as much as 79% in 2003.
The percentage of working time used by female workforce in rural areas tends to
increase and there is no considerable gap between men and women in this aspect. In
2003, the percentage of working time used was 77.2% by female and 78.1% by male
workforce.
However, in recent years, unemployment rate of urban women appears to increase
quickly in comparison with that of men (6.9% and 4.4% respectively in 2003). We are still
43
behind the target of an unemployment rate of 5-6% in urban women and more efforts
should be made in this regard.
The average hours used per day for production and business by women is the same as
men (4.9 and 5.0 hours respectively in 2002). However, the average hours used per day
for housework by women is 2.5 times higher than men in urban areas and 2.3 times
higher in rural areas.
It requires urgent and consistent measures by agencies at different levels to cut down
the unemployment rate of female workforce in urban areas and to increase the hours
used for housework by men in both urban and rural areas.
Education and training
Impressive achievements have been made in regards to gender equality in education and
training in recent years. The gross enrolment rate at primary school is 100.6% for girls
and 99.3% for boys.
However, there are still many problems. It is more difficult for ethnic minority women
and girls in remote and mountainous areas to gain access to education than men and
boys. While the 2001 literacy rate is 86.3% for Kinh women, the number is only 63.6%
and 30% for Thai and Hmong women respectively. It poses a big challenge to the target
of functional literacy among 95% of illiterate women aged under 40 as set out in the
national Plan of Action for the advancement of women by 2005.
The drop-out rate in girls is higher at primary school but lower at higher levels. This
points to the need for specific measures to limit the drop-out rate among boys and girls
at different education levels, particularly among primary girl students, and to improve
the promotion rate of girl pupils to lower secondary schools, especially in ethnic minority
and remote areas.
Health care
Indicators in this group demonstrate remarkable progress in recent years in health care,
particularly maternal and child health care. Between 2002 and 2004, the percentage of
birth-giving women having received prenatal examination three times or more has
increased from 69.7% to 83.5%.
However, health care in general and maternal and child health care before, during and
after delivery in particular is poorest in the North West, North East and Central
Highlands, where a large number of poor and ethnic minority women live. While the
2003 infant mortality rate is 21
0
/
00
in the whole country, it is as high as 37
0
/
00
in the
North West and 29
0
/
00
in the North East and Central Highlands.
The major causes of this situation include inconvenient public health services, high user
fees, and inadequate human resources and medical facilities in commune health centers.
To this situation it needs to further strengthen the grassroots health network,
particularly in remote and isolated areas, through increased investment in medical
equipments and health workers at commune level. Special attention should be paid to
make maternal health care during delivery accessible to poor and ethnic women living in
44
mountainous and remote areas through conducting communication activities, improving
service quality and giving incentives for local health workers to visit villages and
hamlets.
Leadership participation at different levels
Women have a better representation in management and leadership in recent years. The
percentage of female Peoples Council deputies at all three levels has increased in the
last two tenures, reaching 19.5% at commune/ward level, 23% at district/quarter level
and 23.9% at provincial/municipal level for tenure 2004-2009.
However, the improvement is modest and uneven among different levels and areas. It is
noteworthy that the female representation at Party executive committees has declined at
central and provincial/municipal levels. This figure at central level has dropped from
10.6% in 8
th
Congress to 8.0% in 9
th
Congress.
The percentage of women key leaders at different levels is generally low in the last 2
tenures.
The limited participation of women in leadership and management, particularly in key
positions, is due to the lack of guidance, monitoring and encouragement by Party
executive committees to women promotion
22
. Besides, there exist a stereotyped and
narrow-minded thinking about women, distrust in their capacity and prejudices against
female staff; the situation is also attributed to women's heavy triple roles and inferiority
complex.
This requires more effective guidance by Party levels to women cadre work in the coming
time. At the same time, there should be consistent cooperation among various agencies
and organizations in fostering and introducing women candidates, thus to gradually
increase women representation in management and leadership.
Gender-based violence (prostitution, domestic violence and trafficking in
women and children)
Violence against women and children, illicit drug use, prostitution and trafficking in
women and children are on the increase. Between 2000 and 2001, the incidence of child
abuse increased from 1,684 to 1,913 cases. Sexual abuse cases account for 51% of the
total number of child abuse cases.
It is noteworthy that while the trafficking in women and children is very serious, judged
cases of this offence tend to decrease in number. From 2000 to 2003, the trial of women
trafficking cases dropped from 130 cases with 222 accused to 85 cases with 16 accused.
To stop violence against and trafficking in women and children, it requires urgent
measures by all social strata. Preventive and reactive measures need to take into
account occupational and age characteristics of perpetrators, including children.
Preventive measures should be directed to people at risk of all ages, particularly young
children. The establishment of the Government Steering Committee for prevention of

22
Report on ten years implementation of Directive 37 of the Party Central Secretariat.
45
trafficking in women and children of the 2004-2010 period has shown the importance of
the issue, including the need for closer cooperation between different sectors, especially
the Ministry of Police and the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs.

I. data Analysis report from a gender perspective
1. Population and family
Indicators on population and family provide a panorama of Vietnamese population in
terms of sex ratio, marital status and male/female structure of household heads.
Sex ratio
23
of Vietnamese population is 96.6% in 2003. It changes among different age
groups. It is highest in the under-19 group, leveled at the age from 20 to 34, falling below
100% since 35 to the lowest level of 64.4% in the 70-and-over group (Figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1: Sex ratio of population by age group in 2003 (%)
106.4 105.7
98.5 97.6
99.2
97.1
93.7
86.3
73.1
64.4
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
5-9
years
old
15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 45-49 55-59 65-69 70+
Source: 2003 Population Changes and Family Planning survey, GSO.

Sex ratio drops dramatically after the age of 50 because of higher mortality rate in men
than in women. Possible causes include land traffic accidents
24
, diseases related to
men's popular habits like smoking and alcoholism, warfare, etc. This results in the lower
percentage of male population in comparison with female. In 2003, the male percentage
is 48.4% in the 45-49 group, 46.3% in the 55-59 group and 42.2% in the 65-69 group
(Figure 1.2)



23
The ratio of men to 100 women at the reference moment.
24
As reported by the National Committee for Traffic Safety, men account for 82% of the victims
of land traffic accidents and women account for18% (Data from the workshop on land traffic
safety, 2000).
46

Figure 1.2: Percentage of population aged 35 and over by sex and age group in 2003 (%)
50.7
51.6
53.7
57.8
49.3
48.4
46.3
42.2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
35-39 45-49 55-59 65-69
Female
Male

Source: 2003 Population Changes and Family Planning survey, GSO

It is noteworthy that sex ratio in the newborn sees a big fluctuation between the years
and between urban and rural areas. While sex ratio changes slightly in rural newborns
in the 1999-2003 period, the figure in urban newborns sees dramatic changes - it is as
high as 114.1% and 113.1% (in 2001 and 2002 respectively) and drops sharply in 2003 to
102.7%. (Figure 1.3).
There has not been reliable research to explain these changes. The supposition of sex-
selective abortion in urban areas using ultrasound for early sex identification needs to be
verified with additional evidence.

Figure 1.3: Sex ratio in newborns in urban and rural areas in the years 1999-2003 (%)
106.6
114.1
113.1
102.7
104.9
106.9
106.1
105.7
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
1999 2001 2002 2003
Urban
Country

Source: 2000-2003 Population Changes and Family Planning surveys and 1999 Population and
Housing Census, GSO.

Marriage percentage: The percentage of married population varies among different
age groups with the highest level of 87.1% for women in the 35-39 group and 96.5% for
men in the 45-49 group (Figure 1.4).
47
Figure 1.4: Percentage of married population by age groups and sex in 2003 (%)
6.5
78.5
87.1
81.2
67.9
1.6
65.2
93.7
96.5 95.1
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
15-19 25-29 35-39 45-49 55-59
Female
Male

Source: 2003 Population Changes and Family Planning survey, GSO.

The percentage of single women is 26.3% and single men is 32.5%. Conversely,
widowhood percentage is higher in women than men (the 2003 figure is 10.7% for
women, which is 5 times higher than that of men - 2%). Divorce rate is 1.3% in women
and 0.5% in men. Likewise, separation rate in women is 0.6%, 3 times higher than men -
0.2%. The percentage of married population is 61.1% among women and 64.9% among
men (Figure 1.5).

Figure 1.5: Marital status by sex in 2003 (%)
26.3
10.7
1.3 0.6
61.1
32.5
2
0.5 0.2
64.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Single Widowed Divorced Separated Married
Female
Male

Source: 2003 Population Changes and Family Planning survey, GSO.

Particularly the percentage of female population aged 45 and over living alone (including
single, widowed, divorced and separated) is fairly high and increases through age
groups. The figure is 24%, 32% and 56% in the age groups of 50-54, 55-59, and 60 and
over, respectively. Meanwhile the rate is 4.3%, 4.8% and 15.4% in men respectively
(Figure 1.6).

48
Figure 1.6: Percentage of population aged 45 and over living alone
by sex and age group in 2003 (%)
18.8
24.2
32.1
56.1
3.6
4.3 4.8
15.4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
45-49 50-54 55-59 60+
Female
Male

Source: 2003 Population Changes and Family Planning survey, GSO.

Percentage of female-headed households
25
according to household registration is
24% in the whole country in 2003. The figure is 36% in urban areas
26
and 20% in rural
areas. It is noteworthy that the percentage of female household heads in the whole
country goes up through age groups, reaching 28.6% in the 50-and-over group and 35%
in the 60-and-over group (Figure 1.7). This is in line with sex ratio of population by age
group.

Figure 1.7: Percentage of female-headed households by age group in 2002 (%)
13.6
14.9
24.7
31.5
37.8
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
25-29 35-39 45-49 55-59 65-69

Source: 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, GSO

In short, sex ratio of Vietnamese population begins to fall below 100% after the age of
35
27
and drop dramatically after the age of 50. It means that after 35, male population is

5
Percentage of female-headed households to the total number of households.
26
It is partly due to the housing allocation policy in urban areas in the 60s and 70s whereby
children are affiliated with mother, as a result, many women government employees were
provided with accommodation and have their names in household registration as household
heads.
27
This trend is shown in data of the 1999 Population Census and 2001-2003 Population Changes
surveys.
49
fewer than female population and the higher the age group, the fewer. This should be
taken into account in developing strategies to improve population quality and in
deploying workforce, particularly the female workforce. These measures should go hand
in hand with the improvement of working conditions for both males and females.
Marriage percentage remains high in Vietnamese population. However, the percentage
of women living alone is the higher than men. Particularly, the percentage of women
remained unmarried after divorce is 2.6 times higher than men and the percentage of
widowhood is 5 times higher in women than men (data of 2003). This calls for specific
social services to be provided to single parent families.
The percentage of female-headed households differs between urban and rural areas. In
2002, there is a female-headed household per 2.8 urban households, while there is one
per 4.9 rural households. The percentage of female-headed households in the whole
country increases through age groups. In 2002, it was 31.5% and 37.8% in the age groups
of 55-59 and 65 and over. It is clear that attention should be paid to the male/female
structure of household heads while implementing household-related policies to ensure
equal assess by both male and female household heads to production resources as well as
social services.
2. Labor and employment
Labor and employment is a crucial area for improving gender equity. Statistical data in
this part provide information about women and men's employment opportunities,
unemployment, rate of working time used, income, and salary/wage.
Percentage of economically active women
28
in our country is high. In 2003, it is
68.5% in women and 75.8% in men. The difference between men and women in this
regard remains unchanged in the 2000-2003 period (Figure 2.1).

Figure 2.1: The percentage of economic activity involvement by sex from 2000 to 2003 (%)
68.9
69.6
69.1
68.5
76.1
76.8
76.3
75.8
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
2000 2001 2002 2003
Female
Male

Source: 2000-2003 Labor and Employment surveys, MOLISA


8
Women aged 15 and over in the workforce, i.e. those who are employed or currently unemployed
but desire for work, compared to the total female population aged 15 and over.
50
It is noteworthy that the percentage of economically active women varies among
different regions. In 2003, the North West and the Central Highlands came first and
second in this aspect with the percentage of 80% and 78% respectively. The lowest
regions are the South East and the Mekong river delta with the percentage of 60% and
64% respectively. These are also the two regions with the biggest gap between men and
women in terms of economic participation (Figure 2.2). Thus, it is necessary to improve
employment quality of population and female workforce in particular in the North West
and Central Highlands
29
. In the mean time, the issue of concern for the South East and
Mekong river delta is to improve the percentage of economically active women to reduce
the gap between men and women.

Figure 2.2: Percentage of economic participation by sex and region in 2003 (%)
80
78
75
71
70 70
64
60
82 82
77
72 72
75
80
75
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
North West Central
Highlands
North East Red River
Delta
North Central
Coast
South Central
Coast
Mekong River
Delta
South East
Female
Male

Source: 2000-2003 Labor and Employment surveys, MOLISA

The percentage of women in permanent employment is also high. In 2003, this rate
is 95.5% and 96.2% in women and men respectively. The percentage of women in
permanent employment is lower in rural areas. In 2003, it is 94.5% in urban areas and
95.8% in rural areas. The respective percentage in men is 95.8% and 96.3%.
Unemployment rate is higher in women than men in urban areas. It is noteworthy that
in the 2000-2003 period, unemployment rate tends to decrease in men but increase in
women. The 2003 unemployment rate is 6.9% and 4.4% in women and men respectively
(Figure 2.3).





29
The average monthly income per capita of population aged 15 and over as agricultural wage
workers is 400,000 VND in the whole country. The North West and the Central Highlands are
among the lowest regions - 362,000 VND and 347,000 VND respectively (2002 Household Living
Standard Survey).
51

Figure 2.3: Unemployment rate percentage in urban areas from 2000 to 2003 by sex (%)

6.8
6.6
6.9
5.6
5.1
4.4
6.2
6.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2000 2001 2002 2003
Female
Male

Source: 2000-2003 Labor and Employment surveys, MOLISA

Particularly the distance between men and women in this aspect is the biggest in the age
of 25-44, which is the active working age (Figure 2.4)

Figure 2.4: Unemployment rate in urban areas by sex and age group in 2003 (%)
14.7
6.8
3.9
13
2.6
1.9
3.3
15.5
3.1
14.6
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
15-19 20-24 30-34 40-44 50-54
Female
Male

Source: 2000-2003 Labor and Employment surveys, MOLISA

Underemployment rate of women
30
in general has been reduced in recent years and
remains lower than men. The 2003 figure is 3.86% and 4.55% in urban women and men
respectively. It is higher in rural areas at 6.99% for women and 7.96% for men (Figure
2.5).


10
Women aged 15 and over having total working hours below 35 hours per and wishing to work
more hours to the total economically active women.
52


Figure 2.5: Unemployment rate by sex and urban/rural from 2001 to 2003 (%)
3.94
9.53
8.48
6.99
10.71
3.86
4.55
4.96
4.55
5.26
9.48
7.96
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
2001 2002 2003
Female (urban area) Male (urban area)
Female(rural area) Male (rural area)

Source: 2000-2003 Labor and Employment surveys, MOLISA

Percentage of working time used by rural female workforce
31
gains an increase in
the 2000-2004 period, bridging the gap with men. In 2003, the rate is 77.7% and 78.1%
for rural women and men respectively (Figure 2.6).

Figure 2.6: Percentage working time used in rural areas by sex from 2000 to 2003 (%)
73.6
74.3
75.5
77.7
74.6
74.5
75.6
78.1
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
2000 2001 2002 2003
Female
Male

Source: 2000-2003 Labor and Employment surveys, MOLISA

However, the percentage of working time used by rural female workforce varies among
different age groups. It is highest after the age of 50 and lowest before the age of 20. In
the 20-50 age group, the percentage of the working time used by women increases
steadily and is always about one percent lower than men, e.g. 77.3% in women vs. 78.3%
in men in the age of 25-29. It means that even in the age of birth-giving and child-

11
Percentage of time actually used for work by rural women to the total hours available for work
in economically active rural women.
53
rearing, the percentage of working time used by rural women does not reduce as
compared to men (Figure 2.7)
Figure 2.7: Percentage of working time used in rural areas by sex and age group
in 2003 (%)

Source: 2000-2003 Labor and Employment surveys, MOLISA
80.9
79.2
78.4
78.3
73.9
77.3
79.4
78.8
73.8
78.3
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
15-19 25-29 35-39 45-49 55-59
Female Male

The concentration of female workforce is higher in agriculture and trade and male
workforce is higher in fishery and construction. In 2002, per 100 female workers, there
are nearly 60 women in agriculture; 1.5 in fishery; 13 in trade and 0.7 in construction.
Meanwhile per 100 male workers, there are 51.5 men in agriculture, 4.5 in fishery, 7.5 in
trade and 8 in construction (Figure 2.8).

Figure 2.8: Population aged 15 and over by sex and key economic sector
59.8
1.5
12.2
0.7
13
15.1
51.5
4.5
12.9
7.9 7.5
12.4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Agriculture Fishery Industry Construction Trade Service
Female Male

Source: 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, GSO

The annual average income of female workers in the national economy is about the
same level as male. However, it differs from sector to sector. In 2002, the ratio of annual
average income of a female to a male worker is 1.05 in the whole national economy, 1.13
in industry and construction, and 0.97 in agriculture, forestry and fishery (figure 2.9).
54
This is a surprising finding given the fact that recent studies indicate a ratio of
female/male average income being just 0.9.
Figure 2.9: Ratio of annual average income of a female to a male worker in 2002
1.05
0.97
1.13
0.98
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
1.15
National economy Agro - forestry - fishery Industry & construction Trade & services

Source: 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, GSO

The average hours used per day for production and business by women in the
working age is about the same as men. In 2002, the figure is 4.9 hours for women and 5.0
hours for men. There is a certain difference between sectors with the figure being lowest
in agriculture, forestry and fishery and highest in trade and services at 6.1 hours for
both men and women (figure 2.10).

Figure 2.10: Average hours used per day for production and business by population in
the working age by sex and sector in 2002 (hours)
5
4.3
5.8
6.1
5.1
4.4
5.8
6.1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
National economy Agro - forestry -
fishery
Industry &
construction
Trade & services
Female
Male

Source: 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, GSO.

The average hours used per day for housework by women aged 15 and over is 2.5 times
higher than men in urban areas and 2.3 times higher in rural areas. In 2002, this
number is 1.97 and 0.78 hours for urban women and men respectively (figure 2.11).


55

Figure 2.11: Average hours used per day for housework by sex and urban/rural
in 2002 (hours)
1.97
0.78
2.06
0.88
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Urban areas Rural areas
Female
Male

Source: 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, GSO.

In short, the percentage of economically active women is high, particularly in the North
West and Central Highlands (80% and 78% respectively in 2003).
The percentage of working time used by female workforce in rural areas tends to
increase, almost filling up the gap between men and women. We have surpassed the
target of 75% of working time used by rural women as set in the Plan of Action for the
advancement of women by 2005 and achieved the rate of 77.7% in 2003.
However, in recent years, unemployment rate of urban women appears to increase
quickly in comparison with that of men (6.9% and 4.4% respectively in 2003). We are still
behind the target of an unemployment rate of 5-6% in urban women and more efforts
should be made in this regard.
The average hours used per day for production and business by women is the same as
men (4.9 and 5.0 hours respectively in 2002). However, the average hours used per day
for housework by women is 2.5 times higher than men in urban areas and 2.3 times
higher in rural areas.
Gender situation in labor and employment shows that we have made considerable
progress and achieved a number of targets set out in the Plan of Action for the
advancement of women by 2005. The percentage of working time used by rural women
goes up and the average income of female workforce is about the same as male. However,
there are still some shortcomings to be overcome in the immediate and long-term future.
Attention should be given to the following issues:
Reduce unemployment rate of urban female workforce, particularly in the age between
25 and 44, and provide equal employment opportunities for both men and women.
Improve employment quality of male and female workforce in a number of regions,
particularly the North West and Central Highlands, to upgrade income and living
standard of the population on the basis of high percentage of economically active people
in these areas.
56
Increase hours used by men for housework in urban and rural areas to improve the
sharing of family burdens between men and women.
Besides, it is necessary to pay attention to other important targets of the Plan of Action
for the advancement of woman by 2005, such as women making up 40% of people
provided with newly-created jobs and women accounting for 50% of credit borrowers,
though we currently do not have adequate statistical data on these indicators.
3. Education and training
Gender equality in education and training is the result of long-term efforts made by the
whole society and it serves as a prerequisite for the development of women and men in
the future. Statistical indicators in the area of education and training include indicators
on literacy rate, enrolment rate at all education levels, level promotion and drop-out rate
of boys and girls, percentage of highest education level achieved by population and
percentage of female teachers.
The literacy rate of Vietnamese population is high with a very small difference
between men and women. In 2002, the rate in population aged 10 and over is 92% - 95%
in men and 89% in women. However, the difference is considerable between different
ethnic groups. In 2002, it is 92% in Kinh women, 89.2% in Tay women, 69.8% in Thai
women and 21.9% in HMong women. Men's literacy rate among respective ethnic groups
is 96.6%, 95.3%, 89.6% and 53.1% (figure 3.1).

Figure 3.1: Literate rate of population aged 10 and over by sex and ethnic group
in 2002 (%)
92.0
89.2
69.8
21.9
96.6
95.3
89.6
53.1
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Kinh Tay Thai H'Mong
Female
Male

Source: 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, GSO.

The gross enrolment rate of boys and girl
32
at primary education in the whole

32
Gross enrolment rate of female population at primary education is the percentage of girl pupils
attending primary schools to the total population in the primary education age group (6-10 years
old). It is the same for gross enrolment rate at lower secondary education (11-14 years old) and
upper secondary education (15-17 years old).
57
country is high and tends to increase in recent years. In school year 2003-2004, it is as
high as 102.6% for girls and 107.4% for boys.
The gross enrolment rate of boys and girls at lower secondary education is also
high and keeps increasing. Despite stable growth recently, there is still a gap between
boys and girls in term of gross enrolment rate at lower secondary school. The difference
is 3.7 percents in school year 2003-2004 (86.5% in girls and 90.2% in boys), against 3.2-
percetn-difference in school year 2000-2001 (figure 3.2).

Figure 3.2: Gross enrolment rate of boys and girls at lower secondary school
from 2000 to 2004 (%)
80.2
83.7 84.2
86.5
83.3
87.0 87.6
90.2
0
50
100
150
200
2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004
Boys
Girls

Source: MOET and GSO periodical reports

It is noteworthy that the gap is increasing in some localities. For example in Ca Mau
province, the rate is 58% and 67.3% for girls and boys respectively in school year 2001-
2002, and is 60% and 74% for girls and boys in school year 2003-2004. This points to the
instability of the gross enrolment rate of girls at lower secondary education level.
One of the causes of this situation is that fewer girls enroll into lower secondary school
although they have higher completion rate of primary school as compared to boys. In
school year 2002-2003, the completion rate of primary school
33
in the whole country is
82.7% for girls and 78.9% for boys. Also in that year, the rate of pupils moving from
primary to lower secondary level
34
is 95.7% for girls and 100.5% for boys. While many
boy drop-outs have returned to school and continued with the lower secondary education,
this has not happened to girls.
The gross enrolment rate of girls at upper secondary education in school year
2003-2004 is 45.2% and 45.7% in girls and boys respectively. This rate has been

33
Completion rate of primary level by girls is the percentage of girl pupils graduated from
primary level in school year t to the number of girl pupils of grade 1 at the beginning of school
year t-4
34
Rate of girl pupils moving from primary to lower secondary level is the percentage of girl pupils
who enroll at grade 6 to the number of female primary graduates.

58
increasing constantly for recent years, narrowing the gap between boys and girls since
the year 2000 (figure 3.3).

Figure 3.3: Gross enrolment rate at upper secondary school by sex from 2000 to 2004 (%)
36.6
38.2
43.1
45.2
43.6
44.9
44.3
45.7
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004
Girls
Boys

Source: MOET and GSO periodical reports

But in some regions, girls are still left behind boys in this regard. In school year 2003-
2004, while the difference in the whole country is 0.5 percent, it is 2 percents in the
North East, 5.8 percents in the North West, and 1.4 percents in the Mekong River delta.
However the rate is 2.5 percents higher in girls than in boys (figure 3.4).

Figure 3.4: Gross enrolment rate at upper secondary school in school year 2003-2004
by sex and region (%)
45.2 45.3
30.4
47.9
32.3
45.7
47.3
36.2
45.4
33.7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Whole country North East North West Central
Highlands
Mekong River
Delta
Girls
Boys

Source: MOET and GSO periodical reports

An issue of concern is the higher drop-out rate of boys as compared to girls at all the
primary, lower secondary and higher secondary education levels, though the difference is
not much. In school year 2002-2003, the drop-out rate at primary level in the whole
country is 3.09% for girls and 3.16% for boys (figure 3.5).
59

Figure 3.5: Drop-out rate at all school levels by sex in school year 2002-2003 (%)
3.09
5.37
7
3.16
6.38
7.47
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Primary Lower secondary Upper secondary
Girls
Boys

Source: MOET and GSO periodical reports

Women teachers make up a high percentage in the total teachers of education sector
but mostly at lower levels. Generally, the higher the education level, the fewer women
teachers, except for college level, where the percentage of men and women teacher are
almost the same (figure 3.6). It is possibly because of lower investment by families in girl
education in the past, stereotypes of gender roles, prejudices against womens capacity
and family workload on women themselves.

Figure 3.6: Percentage of teachers at all education levels by sex
in school year 2003-2004 (%)
78.1
68.2
56.1
39.9
48.8
37.6
21.9
31.9
43.9
60.1
51.2
62.4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Primary Lower
secondary
Upper
secondary
Professional
secondary
College University
Women
Men

Source: MOET and GSO periodical reports

60
The percentage of highest education level achieved by women
35
is fairly good at some
education levels. In 2002, for every 100 women age 15 and over, there are 25.5 primary
graduates, 25.8 lower secondary graduates and 9.4 upper secondary graduates.
Respective figures in male population are 27.3, 29.5 and 12.0. The difference between
men and women is not big in professional secondary education with 2.9% in women and
2.8% in men. The figure at college and university level is 2.7% in women and 4.2% in
men (figure 3.7). At post-graduate level, the percentage of women is 3 times lower than
men (0.04% in women and 0.13% in men).

Figure 3.7: Percentage of highest education level achieved by population
aged 15 and over by sex in 2002 (%)


25.5 25.8
9.4
0.8
2.9 2.7
27.3
29.5
12
2.2
2.8
4.2
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Primary Lower
secondary
Upper
secondary
Technical
worker
Professional
secondary
College /
university
Female Male
Source: 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey.

In short, impressive achievements have been made in regards to gender equality in
education and training in recent years. However, there are still many issues of concern,
particularly the following problems:
It is more difficult for ethnic minority women and girls in remote and mountainous areas
to gain access to education than men and boys. It poses a big challenge to the target of
functional literacy among 95% of illiterate women aged under 40 as set out in the
national Plan of Action for the advancement of women by 2005.
While the gross enrolment rate of boys and girl at lower education level has been
improved, the gap between the two sexes remains unchanged. Improvement in the said
gap, however, has been reported at upper secondary education level.
The drop-out rate in girls is higher as compared to boys at primary school but lower at
higher levels. Particularly the rate of girls moving from primary to lower secondary level
is lower than boys. This points to the need for specific measures to limit the drop-out

35
Percentage of highest education level achieved by women is the percentage of women aged 15
and over having achieved the highest education level to female population aged 15 and over
(However, data of this statistics book is calculated on women aged 10 and over - see table 3.10A).

61
rate among boys and girls at different education levels, particularly among primary girl
students, and to improve the promotion rate to lower secondary schools, especially for
girls in ethnic and remote areas.

4. Health care
Health care, particularly women health care, is of special importance not only for the
present generation but also for many generations in the future. Indicators in health care
group are those on life expectancy of women and men, women health care before, during
and after birth-giving and child malnutrition.
Life expectancy at birth
36
in 1999 is 70.1 years in women and 66.5 years in men. From
1999 to 2002, the figure increased quicker in men (3.5 years in men vs. 2.9 years in
women) (figure 4.1).

Figure 4.1: Life expectancy at birth of population by sex in 1999 and 2002 (years)
68.3
71.3
70.1
73.0
66.5
70.0
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
1999 2002
Total
Female
Male

Source: 1999 Population Census and 2002 Population Changes Survey, GSO

Percentage of women having received prenatal examination three times or
more is 83.8% in 2003, and percentage of women vaccinated against tetanus
twice during pregnancy is 88.5%.
In 2000-2003 period, the percentage of women having prenatal examinations three times
or more has increased considerably from 69.7% to 83.8%. Meanwhile, the percentage of
women vaccinated against tetanus twice during pregnancy has slightly reduced though
remained at a high level (figure 4.2).

Figure 4.2: Percentage of women having prenatal examination three times or more and
women vaccinated against tetanus twice during pregnancy from 2000 to 2003 (%)

36
Life expectancy at birth of a woman is the average number of years a woman expects to live,
based on age specific death rates for some given years
62
69.7
89.8
83.8 78.9 81.8
88.5 88.6 87.7
0
20
40
60
80
100
2000 2001 2002 2003
Prenatal examination Tetanus vaccination

Source: MOH periodical reports
Different regions in the country differ greatly in terms of health care for pregnant
women. The percentage of women having prenatal examination three times or more in
2003 is highest in Red River delta and lowest in the Central Highlands (Figure 4.3).

Figure 4.3: Percentage of women having prenatal examination three times or more
in 2003 by region (%)
68.5
74.6
83.8
86.3 86.4
90.1
91.7
96.3
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
C
e
n
tr
a
l H
ig
h
la
n
d
s
N
o
r
th
W
e
s
t
N
o
r
th
E
a
s
t
N
o
r
th
E
a
s
t S
o
u
th
M
e
k
o
n
g
R
iv
e
r
D
e
lta
N
o
r
th
C
e
n
tr
a
l C
o
a
s
t
S
o
u
th
C
e
n
tr
a
l C
o
a
s
t
R
e
d
R
iv
e
r
D
e
lta

Source: MOH periodical reports

The percentage of women vaccinated against tetanus twice during pregnancy remains
low in some provinces. In 2003, it is lowest in the provinces of Lao Cai (47.6%) and Son
La (53%).
The percentage of women giving birth with medical worker assistance has
increased continuously in recent years and is 95.8% in 2003. The percentage of
women taking vitamin A supplements after giving birth has been slightly
increased since 2000 and is 55.8% in 2003 (Figure 4.4).

Figure 4.4: Percentage of women giving birth with medical worker assistance
and percentage of women taking vitamin A supplements after giving birth
from 2000 to 2003 (%)
63
95.8 93.8
92.1 91.4
55.8
52.4
55.9
52.2
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
2000 2001 2002 2003
With medical worker
assistance
Taking vitamin A
supplements

Source: MOH periodical reports.
The care given to birth-giving women greatly differs between regions. In 2003, the
percentage of women giving birth with medical worker assistance is highest in the Red
River delta at 99.9% and lowest in the Central Highlands and the North West (72.7%
and 80% respectively) (figure 4.5).

Figure 4.5: Percentage of women giving birth with medical worker assistance
by region in 2003 (%)
72.7
80.0
88.3
96.2 97.0 98.2 98.5
99.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Central
Highlands
North West North East South
Central
Coast
North
Central
Coast
Mekong
River Delta
South East Red River
Delta
Source: MOH periodical reports.

It is noteworthy that in some Central Highlands and North East provinces, the
percentage of women giving birth with medical worker assistance is still low: 53.2% in
Gia Lai and 59.8% in Ha Giang.
The infant mortality rate (mortality rate of children under 1) reflects clearly
differentiated quality of maternal and child health care between regions. The rate in
2003 is 21
0
/
00
in the whole country, 37
0
/
00
in the North West and 29
0
/
00
in the North East
and Central Highlands. Particularly the rate in some provinces can be twice as much as
the national average level, e.g. in Lai Chau, Ha Giang and Kon Tum (figure 4.6).

Figure 4.6: Infant mortality rate in some localities in 2003 (
0
/
00
)
64
21
37
41
29
47
29
45
0
10
20
30
40
50
Whole
country
North West Lai Chau North East Ha Giang Central
Highlands
Kon Tum

Source: 2003 Population Changes and Family Planning Survey, GSO

Rate of maternal mortality related to gestation in public health establishments
has been continuously reduced in recent years to the level of 18.2 deaths per 100,000 live
births in 2003. However, this rate is unstable and is much higher in some provinces as
compared to the national average level, such as 123.9
0
/
0000
in Cao Bang, 89.2
0
/
0000
in Binh
Dinh and 88.8
0
/
0000
in Lai Chau.
Quality of care for women during and after delivery depends largely on the local health
personal. The percentage of commune health centers with at least a midwife or
an obstetric-pediatric assistant doctor has increased in recent years and reached
93.1% in 2003 (figure 4.7).

Figure 4.7: Percentage of commune health centers with at least a midwife or an
obstetric-pediatric assistant doctor from 2000 to 2003 (%)
93.1
90.6
87.8
87.9
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
2000 2001 2002 2003

Source: MOH periodical reports.

This percentage is considerably lower in some regions than the countrys average level,
namely 79.3% in North West and 88.7% in the North East in 2003.
The malnutrition rate (weight for age) of children under 5 has been declining recently. It
has been reducing faster in boys to the level of 28.2% in 2003. The rate is still higher in girls and
the gap does not seem to be narrowed in period 2000-2003 (figure 4.8).

65
Figure 4.8: Malnutrition rate of children under 5 by sex from 2000 to 2003 (%)
33.6 33.6
29.2 28.2
33.9 33.9
31.0
28.5
2000 2001 2002 2003
Girls
Boys

Source: 2000-2003 Malnutrition Surveys, National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) - MOH.
The percentage of married women aged 15-49 using contraceptives is 75.6% in
2003. The percentage is highest in the age group of 35-39 and lowest in women under 20
(figure 4.9).

Figure 4.9: Percentage of married women aged 15-49 using contraceptives
by age group in 2003 (%)
23.2
70.7
84.1
86.3
82.1
71.3
51.1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source: 2003 Population Changes and Family Planning Survey, GSO.

It is noteworthy that the choices of contraceptives are limited and IUD is the most
popular contraceptive for women.
In short, indicators in this group demonstrate remarkable progress in recent years in
health care, particularly maternal and child health care.
However, health care in general and maternal and child health care before, during and
after delivery in particular is poorest in the North West, North East and Central
Highlands, where a large number of poor and ethnic minority women live. While the
2003 infant mortality rate is 21
0
/
00
in the whole country, it is as high as 37
0
/
00
in the
North West and 29
0
/
00
in the North East and Central Highlands.
The major causes of this situation include inconvenient public health services, high user
66
fees, and inadequate human resources and medical facilities in commune health centers.
This especially affects health care of poor women and children as they depends more on
local health services, both in quantity and quality.
To this situation it needs to further strengthen the grassroots health network,
particularly in remote and isolated areas, through increased investment in medical
equipments and health workers at commune level. Special attention should be paid to
make maternal health care during delivery accessible to poor and ethnic women living in
mountainous and remote areas through conducting communication activities, improving
service quality and giving incentives for local health workers to visit villages and
hamlets.

5. Leadership participation at different levels
The indicators on male and female representation in management and leadership
indicate the level of participation by men and women in making decisions on national
and local political and socio-economic issues. They also tell how women are facilitated to
demonstrate their management and leadership capacities. Indicators in this group
include the percentage of male/female National Assembly deputies, People's Council
deputies, members of Party executive committees, and leaders at various levels.
Prominently the male/female structure in leadership has changed recently to be more
balanced. The percentage of women in leadership has increased at all levels. Particularly
the percentage of female National Assembly deputies has increased continuously for
three terms to reach 27.3% in 11
th
term (2004-2007) (figure 5.1).

Figure 5.1: Percentage of National Assembly deputies in 9
th
, 10
th
and 11
th
terms by sex (%)
18.5
26.2
27.3
81.5
73.8
72.7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Term 9 Term 10 Term 11
Female
Male

Source: National Assembly Office administrative reports.

The percentage of female People's Council deputies at all levels has increased in the last
2 terms, reaching 19.5% at commune/ward level; 23% at district/quarter level and 23.9%
at province/city level in term 2004-2009 (figure 5.2).

67
Figure 5.2: Percentage of female Peoples Council deputies in 2 terms
1999-2004 and 2004-2009 (%)
21.1
23.9
20.1
23.0
16.6
19.5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1999-2004 2004-2009
Province
District
Commune
Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs administrative reports.
It is thanks to the guidance and attention by Party committees at all levels to the
planning and training of women cadres. In some localities, there have been policies
supporting women cadres in education and training. Aware of their positions and
responsibilities in the new situations, women have become more self-confident and pro-
active in overcoming challengers and striving for further progress
37
.
However, women's participation in leadership increases unevenly in different areas. At
the central level, in the last two Party congresses, women representation in Party
Committee has dropped down. It remains unchanged in Party executive committees at
provincial/municipal level. The rate, however, has slightly increased in Party executive
committees at district and commune levels. Specifically at district level, it has increased
from 11.3% in term 1996-2000 to 12.6% in term 2001-2005, and at commune level, it has
increased from 10.7% in term 1996-2000 to 11.4% in term 2001-2005. Women percentage
in the Party Central Committee has dropped from 10.6% in 8
th
Congress to 8.0% in 9
th

Congress (figure 5.3).

Figure 5.3: Percentage of Party Central Committee members in 8
th
and 9
th

Congresses by sex (%)
10.6
8.0
89.4
92.0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Term 8 Term 9
Women
Men


37
Vietnam Women Union 2003. Review report on 10 years implementation of directive No.37 by
the Party Central Secretariat on women personnel issues.
68
Source: Party Central Commission for Organization and Personnel.

It is notable that although the percentage of women in leadership has increased, such as
in the National Assembly, Peoples Councils and Party executive committees, the growth
is very modest, particularly in Party executive committees at approximately 1%. It
means that men are still dominant in leadership positions.
The male/female structure also differs at different levels of ministries and sectors.
Ministers and deputy ministers are mostly men, though there is a little rise of female
representation. The percentage of women as department directors and deputy directors
has been falling in the last 10 years. Specifically the percentage of women as department
directors has declined from 13% to 12.1% and as department deputy directors from
12.1% to 8.1% (figure 5.4).
Figure 5.4: Percentage of women in leadership positions in ministries and state-owned
enterprises under the Government from 1992 to 2002 (%)
11.9
12.5
7.3
9.1
13.0
12.1 12.1
8.1
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1992-1996 1997-2002
Minister
Deputy minister
Dept. Director
Dept. Deputy Director
Director General
Deputy Director General

Source: VWU administrative reports

It is remarkable that in the last two terms, the percentage of women key leaders at all
levels remains very low, particularly at grassroots levels. In the 2 terms of 1992-1997 and
1997-2002, the percentage of chairwomen and vice chairwomen of People's Committees is
under 10% at provincial level and is under 2% at commune level (figure 5.5).

Figure 5.5: Percentage of women key leaders at different levels from 1992 to 2002 (%)
7.0
8.9
5.4
6.2
1.3
1.9
0 2 4 6 8 10
1992-1997
1997-2002
Commune
District
Province

69
Source: MOIA, VWU, Party Central Commission for Organization and Personnel.

In short, women have a better representation in management and leadership in recent
years. However, the improvement is modest and uneven among different levels and
areas. It is noteworthy that the female representation at Party executive committees has
declined at central and provincial/municipal levels. The percentage of women key leaders
at different levels is generally low in the last 2 tenures.
The limited participation of women in leadership and management, particularly in key
positions, is due to the lack of guidance, monitoring and encouragement by Party
executive committees to women promotion. Besides, there exist a stereotyped and
narrow-minded thinking about women, distrust in their capacity and prejudices against
female staff; the situation is also attributed to women's triple roles and inferiority
complex.
This requires more effective guidance by Party levels to women cadre work in the coming
time. At the same time, there should be consistent cooperation among various agencies
and organizations in fostering and introducing women candidates, thus to gradually
increase women representation in management and leadership.
6. Gender-based violence (prostitution, domestic violence and trafficking in
women and children)
Maltreatment of women and children adversely affects women and men and hinders the
realization of gender equality and childrens rights. Indicators in this group deal with
some problems related to child abuse, adolescent offenders, illicit drug use, prostitution,
and trafficking in women and children.
Child abuse cases discovered and judged in the whole country have seen an upsurge.
In 2000 and 2001 alone, the number of child abuse cases escalated from 1,684 to 1,913
cases. Among perpetrators of child abuse, 53% are related to sexual abuse and the rest
are other offences, such as child killing - 4.7%, malice prepense - 16.3%, trafficking and
abduction - 3.2%, seducing and harboring child offenders - 1.5% (figure 6.1).

Figure 6.1: Perpetrators of child abuse by offence in 2001 (%)
70
4.7
53.2
16.3
3.2
1.5
21.1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Offence
Child killing
Sexual abuse
Malice prepense
Trafficking and abduction
Seducing and haboring child
offenders
Other offences

Source: Ministry of Public Security, 2001.

It is worth mentioning that the proportion of sexual abuse in child abuse is fairly high in
some regions, such as 84.7% in Mekong River Delta and 71.5% in South Central Coast
(figure 6.2).







Figure 6.2: Proportion of sexual abuse in child abuse cases by region in 2001 (%)
15.5
33.0
42.9
50.8
71.5
37.8
62.8
84.7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Red River
Delta
North East North West North
Central
Coast
South
Central
Coast
Central
Highlands
South East Mekong
River Delta

Source: Ministry of Public Security, 2001.

Girls make up 63.8% of total abused children. It is significant that children under
13 account for 50% of the total abused children, especially children under 6 account for
9.5%.
Perpetrators of child abuse are mostly male, making up 96.8%. It is striking that the
percentage of adolescents (under 18) in the total perpetrators is as much as 33.6%.
71
Among adolescent offenders (who are in school age), 64% are at school, 28% are drop-
outs and 8% have never been to school. The number of adolescent offenders is 11,376 in
2001, of whom 1.4% female and 35.6% having offended twice and over. A considerable
number of adolescent offenders are at young age, i.e. 14% are under 14 (figure 6.3).

Figure 6.3: Adolescent offenders by age group in 2001 (%)
14
36
50
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Under 14 14-under 16 16-18

Source: Ministry of Public Security, 2001.

Illicit drug use. The number of drug addicts being treated in rehabilitation centers has
considerably increased from 38,461 people in 2001 to 43,782 in the first 9 months in
2004. The percentage of women is 8.2% in the first 9 months of 2004. The data is
incomplete as only 13 provinces/cities provided sex-disaggregated data.
Of the reported provinces, the percentage of women in drug addicts being treated is
highest in Can Tho at 12%, followed by Ho Chi Minh city at 10% (figure 6.4).

Figure 6.4: Percentage of women in drug addicts being treated in rehabilitation centers
in some provinces/cities in 2000(%)
2.6
5.9
10.1
12.0
7.4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Hanoi Thai Nguyen HCMC CanTho Ba Ria-VungTau

Source: Social Evil Prevention Department, MOLISA.

The number of reported prostitutes in the whole country is estimated to be 30,600 in
2003, of whom 12,912 are on file. This is a considerable decline as compared to previous
72
years (figure 6.5).

Figure 6.5: Prostitutes reported and on file in 2000, 2002 and 2003 (persons)
36,995
50,833
30,600
13,923
17,098
12,912
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
2000 2002 2003
Reported
On file

Source: MOLISA Statistical Yearbook 2003.

Trafficking in women and child trafficking is now on the increase and take many forms.
According to statistics, from 1991 to September 2004, 2,458 cases were discovered and
investigated in the whole country with 4,076 people involved
38
. However, this statistical
data is incomplete as many perpetrators are not discovered and many victims do not
report their cases to the police. It is estimated that tens of thousands of Vietnamese
women and children have been trafficked out of country as brides, forced laborers,
adopted children or other commercial and inhumane purposes
39
.
It is surprising that while the trafficking in women and children is on the rise, the
number of judged cases in the whole country is declining. On the average 180 cases are
discovered and investigated annually with 300 offenders involved, but the number of
judged cases is much lower. From 2000 to 2003, the number of judged cases of women
and child trafficking every year dropped from 179 cases with 303 defendants to 115 cases
with 62 defendants (figure 6.6).

Figure 6.6: Adjudication of trafficking in women and children from 2000 to 2003
(number of cases and defendants)

38
Report at the national workshop on women and child trafficking prevention program, Ho Chi
Minh city, Dec 18, 2004, excerpted from Lao dong (Labor) newspaper, Dec 20, 2004.
39
Ibid.
73
179
107
115 115
303
184 183
62
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
2000 2001 2002 2003
Number of judged cases
Number of defendants

Source: Criminal Statistics Department. Peoples Supreme Procuracy

The trafficking of women and children out of border is serious in some localities, such as
the provinces of Lang Son, Quang Ninh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Thai Binh, Nam Ha, An
Giang, Kien Giang, Tay Ninh and Dong Thap. However, for many reasons, the number of
judged cases on women trafficking remains very low in these localities. For example, in
Lang Son province, 4,390 women are reported leaving the country, most of them are
trafficked or illegally immigrate to China as brides. However, during 4 years from 2000
to 2003, only 28 cases were tried with 39 defendants. In Thai Binh province, a survey
found that 2,514 women have been trafficked or illegally migrate overseas but only 3
cases have been bought to court with 4 defendants
40
.
In short, the violence against women and children, illicit drug use, prostitution and
trafficking in women and children are on the increase.
To stop violence against and trafficking in women and children, it requires urgent
measures by all social strata. Preventive and reactive measures need to take into
account occupational and age characteristics of perpetrators, including children.
Preventive measures should be directed to people at risk of all ages, particularly young
children. The establishment of the Government Steering Committee for prevention of
trafficking in women and children of the 2004-2010 period has shown the attention by
the Government to this type of crime. Necessary actions are being taken for a closer
cooperation between different sectors, especially the Ministry of Police and the Ministry
of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs.



40
Ibid; Criminal Statistics Department, People's Supreme Procuracy.
74


References
(In addition to GSO data)


Vietnam Women Union, 2003. Review report on 10 years implementation of directive
No.37 by the Party Central Secretariat.
Report at the national workshop on women and child trafficking prevention program, Ho
Chi Minh city, Dec 18, 2004, excerpted from Lao dong (Labor) newspaper, issue 1929,
Dec 20, 2004.
National Committee on Traffic Safety. Workshop on Land Traffic Safety, 2000.





75







I. Dn s v gia nh

I. Population and family
77
78



Khi nim cc ch s v nh gi s liu
nhm dn s v gia nh


Nhm ch s v Dn s v Gia nh c 6 ch s trn tng s 59 ch s v Quyn Ph n
Vit Nam. 3 ch s phn nh v lnh vc dn s c ngun thu thp ch yu ti Tng cc
Thng k, 3 ch s phn nh v tnh trng ngc i ph n trong gia nh, cai nghin
ma tu v mi dm c tch sang nhm 6. Do , vi nhng ch s v dn s, vic thu
thp s liu v bin son rt thun li.

I. Khi nim cc ch s v vic thu thp s liu
1. T l n trong dn s
T l n trong dn s c tnh bng s phn trm dn s l n (trung bnh/thi im) so
vi tng dn s (trung bnh/thi im)
D kin ban u c th thu thp s liu ny t Tng iu tra dn s v nh 1999 v cc
cuc iu tra bin ng dn s v ngun lao ng 2000 n 2003. Thc t, s liu nm
1999 thu thp c t Tng iu tra dn s v nh nm 1999; s liu cc nm 2000-
2003 thu thp t cc cuc iu tra bin ng dn s v ngun lao ng cc nm 2000 n
2003.
S liu d kin c phn t theo gii tnh, khu vc thnh th/nng thn, 8 vng sinh
thi, 61 tnh/TP, dn tc, nhm tui v ngnh kinh t. Trn thc t, cc phn t theo dn
tc v ngnh kinh t khng phn t c do cc cuc iu tra bin ng dn s v k
hoch ho gia nh khng cng b kt qu cc phn t trn.
2. T l gii tnh
T l gii tnh nam so vi 100 n c tnh bng dn s (trung bnh/thi im) nam so
vi tng dn s (trung bnh/thi im) n v nhn vi 100.
Ngun s liu cho ch s ny c th thu thp c t Tng iu tra dn s v nh nm
1999 v cuc iu tra bin ng dn s v ngun lao ng 2000 n 2003. Thc t, s
liu nm 1999 thu thp c t Tng iu tra dn s v nh nm 1999; s liu cc nm
2000-2003 thu thp t cc cuc iu tra bin ng dn s v ngun lao ng t nm
2000 n 2003.
S liu d kin c phn t theo gii tnh, khu vc thnh th/nng thn, 8 vng sinh
thi, 61 tnh/TP, dn tc, nhm tui v ngnh kinh t. Trn thc t, cc phn t theo dn
tc v ngnh kinh t khng phn t c do cc cuc iu tra bin ng dn s v ngun
lao ng khng cng b kt qu cc phn t trn.
79
3. T l h gia nh c ch h l n
H gia nh l mt hoc mt nhm ngi c quan h huyt thng, hn nhn hoc nui
dng, cng chung qu thu nhp v chi tiu, sng chung vi nhau trong cng mt mi
nh vi thi gian t 6 thng tr ln trong 12 thng qua
Ch gia nh l thnh vin ca h gia nh, l ngi c vai tr iu hnh qun l gia
nh, gi v tr ch yu, quyt nh nhng cng vic ca h. Thng thng (nhng khng
nht thit) ch h thng l ngi c thu nhp cao nht trong h, nm c tt c cc
hot ng kinh t v ngh nghip ca cc thnh vin khc ca h.
T l h gia nh c ch h l n c tnh bng s phn trm h gia nh c ch h l n
so vi tng s h gia nh.
Ngun s liu cho ch s ny c th thu thp c t Tng iu tra dn s v nh nm
1999 v Kho st mc sng h gia nh. Trn thc t, s liu c khai thc t b s liu
th ca Kho st mc sng h gia nh nm 2002.
S liu c phn t y theo khu vc thnh th/nng thn, 8 vng sinh thi, 61
tnh/TP, dn tc v nhm tui ch h.
4. Phn b phn trm dn s t 15 tui tr ln
y l ch s thu thp thm ngoi cc ch s trong nhm dn s v gia nh. Ch s ny
c thu thp t iu tra bin ng dn s v ngun lao ng nm 2002 - 2003, c
phn t theo tnh trng hn nhn, gii tnh v nhm tui.
5. Dn s trung bnh
y l ch s thu thp thm ngoi cc ch s trong nhm dn s v gia nh. S liu nm
1999 c thu thp t cuc Tng iu tra dn s v nh nm 1999; s liu nm 2001
n 2003 c thu thp t iu tra bin ng dn s v ngun lao ng nm 2001 - 2003.
Ch s ny c phn t theo tnh trng hn nhn, gii tnh v nhm tui.

II. nh gi v tnh chnh xc v tin cy ca thng tin
y l nhng s liu c ly t kt qu ca cuc Tng iu tra dn s v nh nm
1999, iu tra bin ng dn s v ngun lao ng hng nm, Kho st mc sng h gia
nh c thc hin 2 nm 1 ln t 2002 n 2010 do Tng cc Thng k thc hin. Nhn
chung, s liu t cc cuc iu tra ny p ng c phn ln nhu cu thng tin phn
nh t l n trong dn s, t l gii tnh, t l h c ch h l n. Tuy nhin, mt s ch s
hin nay cha c c th p ng c y ngun s liu theo cch phn t chi tit
nh: t l n trong dn s chia theo dn tc, ngnh kinh t v c bit l cuc Kho st
mc sng h gia nh ch tin hnh 2 nm 1 ln, v vy khng th c ngun s liu
tnh ton v cp nht s liu hng nm theo yu cu. y l mt trong nhng hn ch
ca ngun s liu cha th gii quyt c trong nhng nm ti.
S liu t l n trong dn s, t l gii tnh v t l h c ch h l n nhn chung
m bo c tin cy v y l nhng s liu c khai thc t kt qu ca nhng
cuc iu tra do Tng cc Thng k tin hnh. Trong nhng cuc iu tra chn mu ny,
80
mu c chn theo mt phng php khoa hc c s t vn ca chuyn gia chn mu
Quc t. Qu trnh thu thp s liu mi cuc iu tra c ch o cht ch, iu tra vin
thu thp s liu l nhng cn b ca ngnh Thng k c kinh nghim trong lnh vc iu
tra v c tp hun k v nghip v trc khi tin hnh. Qu trnh thu thp s liu
c gim st v kim tra k. Cc bc lm sch v x l s liu c coi trng v p
dng cc phng php hin i x l s liu v vy s liu m bo tin cy cao.

III. Khuyn ngh
Ngoi mt s ch s c x l, cng b rng ri v c th khai thc mt cch d dng,
mt s ch s phi da trn b s liu gc v s dng cc phn mm STATA hoc SPSS
x l v tnh ton. Do , phi mt nhiu thi gian mi c kt qu a vo bng s
liu. c y thng tin theo ng yu cu phn t ca tng ch s, cn chn lc cc
ch s cng nhng phn t u tin cn c x l, tnh ton v cng b ti cc tp bo co
kt qu u ra ca cc cuc iu tra ny.
81



Indicator Definition and data assessment
population and family group


Population and Family indicator group consists of 6 indicators among 59 indicators on
the rights of Vietnamese women. Data for 3 population indicators come mainly from the
General Statistical Office (GSO), the 3 indicators on domestic violence against women,
detoxification and prostitution are moved to group 6. Therefore, data collection and
compilation for population indicators is not difficult.

I. Indicator definition and data collection
1. Percentage of women in the population
Percentage of women in the population is calculated as the percentage of women
(average at the reference moment) to the total population (average at the reference
moment).
Data was intended to be collected from the 1999 Population Census and Population
Changes and Labor Source surveys from 2000 to 2003. In fact, data of 1999 was collected
from the 1999 Population and Housing Census; and data of 2000 - 2003 was collected
from Population Changes and Labor Source surveys from 2000 to 2003.
It was intended to disaggregate data by sex, urban/rural, 8 ecological regions, 61
provinces/cities, ethnicity, age group and economic sector. In fact, data cannot be
disaggregated by ethnic group and economic sector because such disaggregation is not
available in the published Population Changes and Labor Source surveys.
2. Sex ratio
The ratio of men to 100 women is calculated by dividing male population (average at the
reference moment) by female population (average at the reference moment) and
multiplying by 100.
Data was intended to be collected from the 1999 Population and Housing Census and
Population Changes and Labor Source surveys from 2000 to 2003. In fact, data of 1999
was collected from the 1999 Population and Housing Census; and data of 2000 - 2003
was collected from Population Changes and Labor Source surveys from 2000 to 2003.
It was intended to disaggregate data by sex, urban/rural, 8 ecological regions, 61
provinces/cities, ethnicity, age group and economic sector. In fact, data cannot be
disaggregated by ethnic group and economic sector because such disaggregation is not
available in the published Population Changes and Labor Source surveys.
82
3. Percentage of female-headed households
A household is a person or a group of persons of blood, marriage or nurture relations,
sharing the income and expenditure, living in one house for at least 6 months in the past
12 months.
Head of household is a member of the household in the position to manage and decide
household activities. Head of household usually but not necessarily has the biggest
income in the household and directs all economic and occupational activities of other
household members.
Percentage of female-headed households is calculated as the percentage of female-
headed households to the total number of households.
Data was intended to be collected from the 1999 Population and Housing Census and
Household Living Standard Survey. In fact, data was extracted from primary data set of
the 2002 Household Living Standard Survey. The data is disaggregated by urban/rural,
8 ecological regions, 61 provinces/cities, ethnicity and age group of household heads.
4. Proportion of population aged 15 and over
This is an additional indicator besides the population and family indicators. Data of this
indicator was collected from the 2002 and 2003 Population Changes and Labor Source
surveys, disaggregated by marital status, sex and age group.
5. Average population
This is an additional indicator besides the population and family indicators. Data of 1999
was collected from the 1999 Population and Housing Census; data of 2001 - 2003 was
collected from the Population Changes and Labor Source surveys from 2001 to 2003. The
data is disaggregated by marital status, sex and age group

II. Assessment of data accuracy and reliability
The data was extracted from the 1999 Population and Housing Census, annual
Population Changes and Labor Source surveys and Household Living Standard survey
conducted by GSO every 2 years from 2002 to 2010. In general, data from these surveys
are satisfactory for the indicators on the percentage of women in population, sex ratio
and percentage of female-headed households. However, data of some indicators, such as
percentage of women in population is inadequate for disaggregation by ethnicity and
economic sector. Also the Household Living Standard survey is conducted every two
years, therefore there is no source for annual data compilation and updating as required.
This is one of the limitations in data source, which may not be solved in the next few
years.
Data of the indicators of the percentage of women in population, sex ratio and
percentage of female-headed households are generally reliable as they are from GSO
surveys. In these sampling surveys, sampling is conducted with scientific methods and
with consultation of international sampling experts. Data collection is always supervised
83
strictly and checked carefully. Each survey involves experienced and well-trained
enumerators of the statistics sector. Data cleaning and processing are highly considered
and advanced methods have been applied in data processing. The data therefore are
highly reliable.

III. Recommendations
Some indicators that have been processed and disseminated publicly can be accessed and
explored easily. Others must base on original data and can only be compiled and
calculated by using STATA and SPSS softwares. Therefore, it takes a long time to have
results in data tables. In order to have adequate information of all groups of each
indicator, some indicators and groups must be prioritized to be processed, compiled and
published in reports of these surveys.



84