Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY

S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Mortars for Brickwork


The following information relates to the construction of brick walls to meet ASTM C270, the design and aesthetic requirements.

INTRODUCTION
Mortar is the bonding agent that integrates brick into a masonry assembly. Mortar must be strong, durable and capable of keeping the masonry intact, and it must help to create a water-resistant barrier. Also, mortar accommodates dimensional variations and physical properties of the brick when laid. These requirements are influenced by the composition, proportions and properties of mortar ingredients. Because concrete and mortar contain the same principal ingredients, it is often erroneously assumed that good concrete practice is also good mortar practice. In reality, mortar differs from concrete in working consistencies, methods of placement and structural performance. Mortar is used to bind masonry units into a single element, developing a complete, strong and durable bond. Concrete, however, is usually a structural element in itself. Mortar is usually placed between absorbent masonry units and loses water upon contact with the units. Concrete is usually placed in non-absorbent metal or wooden forms, which absorb little if any water. The importance of the water/cement ratio for concrete is significant, whereas for mortar it is less important. Mortar has a high water/cement ratio when mixed, but this ratio changes to a lower value when the mortar comes in contact with the absorbent units.

MortarCements
Mortar cements are hydraulic cements, consisting of a mixture of Portland or blended hydraulic cement, plasticizing materials such as limestone or hydrated or hydraulic lime, and other materials intended to enhance one or more of the properties of mortar. In this respect, mortar cement is similar to masonry cement. However, ASTM C1329, Standard Specification for Mortar Cement includes requirements for maximum air content and minimum flexural bond strength that are not found in the masonry cement specification. Because of the strict controls on air content and the minimum strength requirement, mortar cement and Portland cement-lime mortars are treated similarly in the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530-05/ASCE 5-05/TMS 402-05). Three Types of mortar cements are specified in ASTM C1329: Types M, S and N. Physical requirements vary depending upon mortar cement Type. Air content for all three Types must be a minimum of 8 percent. The maximum air content is 14 percent for Types M and S and 16 percent for Type N. Flexural bond strength, as measured by the test method in ASTM C1072, Standard Test Method for Measurement of Masonry Flexural Bond Strength, is also specified. The minimum flexural bond strength for these mortar cements is 115 psi 0.8 MPa) for Type M, 100 psi (0.7 MPa) for Type S and 70 psi (0.5 MPa) for Type N.

Aggregates
Aggregates (sand) act as a filler material in mortar, providing for an economical mix and controlling shrinkage. Either natural sand or manufactured sand may be used. Gradation limits are given in ASTM C144, Standard Specification for Aggregates for Masonry Mortar. Sometimes the most feasible method requires proportioning the mortar mix to suit the available sand, rather than requiring sand to meet a particular gradation.

Water
Water that is clean, potable and free of deleterious acids, alkalis or organic materials is suitable for masonry mortars.

Admixtures
Admixtures are sometimes used in mortar to obtain a specific mortar color, increase workability, decrease setting time, increase setting time, increase flexural bond strength or act as a water repellent. Admixtures to achieve a desired color of the mortar are the most widely used. Although some admixtures are harmless, some are detrimental to mortar and the resulting brickwork. Admixtures also should be examined for their effect on the masonry, masonry units and items embedded in the brickwork.

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Colored Mortar
The mortar color can dramatically affect the overall look. The color of mortar is influenced by the color of the cement and the aggregates (sand). Many pigments are also available ranging in color through red, yellow, brown, green, blue and black (mainly oxides but carbon black can be used to give black mortar). The cheapest way of coloring mortar is to use colored sand. White and yellow sands are commonly available but red and brown sands are also available. Sands are normally natural materials which vary considerably even in the one deposit. To ensure color consistency, sufficient sand from the one batch should be set aside for the whole job. Where color is crucial to the look of the masonry, before accepting the sand, a trial wall should be built (4 bricks x 10 courses). After the mortar dries assess the color. Where oxides or carbon black are used as colors never use more than 10% by weight of the cement content. Colors are additive in their effect and it is possible to get different shades and tones of mortar using different combinations of cement, sands and oxides. Use as little pigment as is needed to produce the desired results; an excess may seriously impair strength and durability. The maximum permissible quantity of most metallic oxide pigments is 10 percent of the cement content by weight. Although carbon black is a very effective coloring agent, it will greatly reduce mortar strength when used in greater proportions. Therefore, limit carbon black to 2 percent of the cement content by weight. For best results, use cement and coloring agents premixed in large, controlled quantities. Premixing large quantities will ensure more uniform color than can be obtained by mixing smaller batches in the field. A consistent mixing sequence is essential for color consistency when mixing smaller batches in the field. Further, use the same source of mortar materials throughout the project. Color uniformity varies with the amount of mixing water, the moisture content of the brick when laid and whether the mortar is retempered. The time and degree of tooling and cleaning techniques also will influence final mortar color. Color permanence depends upon the quality of pigments and the weathering and efflorescing qualities of the mortar.

Table 1: Typical Colored Mortar Components


Mortar Color Red Yellow Cream Tan Black Br Cement Grey Off-white or Grey Off-white Grey Grey Sand White or Yellow or Red Yellow Yellow White or Yellow Yellow Oxide Red Yellow & Brown None Brown Black

Note: The color of mortar can be severely degraded by incorrect or poor brick cleaning.

SPECIFYING MORTAR
Masonry mortars are classified by ASTM C270 into four Types: M, S, N and O. Each mortar Type consists of aggregate, water and one or more of the four cementitious materials (Portland or hydraulic cement, mortar cement, masonry cement and lime) listed in the previous section. There are two methods of specifying mortar by Type in ASTM C270: proportion specifications and property specifications. A cement-lime mortar, a mortar cement mortar, or a masonry cement mortar is permitted. The type of cementitious material desired should be specified.

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Proportion Specifications
The proportion specifications require that mortar materials be mixed according to given volumetric proportions. If mortar is specified by this method, no laboratory testing is required, either before or during construction. Table 1 lists proportion requirements of the various mortar Types. Note that masonry cement and mortar cement may be used alone to produce Type M, S, N or O mortars. Additionally, Type N mortar cement or masonry cement may be combined with Portland cement to produce a Type M or Type S mortar. TABLE 2: Proportion Specification Requirements
Note: Two air-entraining materials shall not be combined in mortar

The volumetric proportions given in Table 2 can be converted to weight proportions using assumed weights per cubic foot (cubic meter) for the materials as follows: Portland cement 94 lb (1506 kg) Masonry, mortar and blended cements Varies, use weight printed on bag Hydrated lime 40 lb (641 kg) Lime putty 80 lb (1281 kg) Sand, damp and loose 80 lb (1281 kg) of dry sand

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Property Specifications
The property specifications require a mortar mix of the materials to be used for construction to meet the specified properties under laboratory testing conditions. If mortar is specified by the property specifications, compressive strength, water retention and air content tests must be performed prior to construction on mortar mixed in the laboratory with a controlled amount of water. Table 2 lists property requirements of the various mortar Types. Properties of field-mixed mortar cannot be compared to the requirements of the property specifications because of the different amounts of water used in the mortars, the use of different mixers and the different curing conditions. Field sampling of mortar, where specified, is typically performed for tracking project consistency from beginning to end. It is not to be used for compliance with property specifications.

TABLE 2 Property Specification Requirements

1. Laboratory prepared mortar only. 2. When structural reinforcement is incorporated in cement-lime or mortar-cement mortar, the maximum air content shall be 12 percent. 3. When structural reinforcement is incorporated in masonry-cement mortar, the maximum air content shall be 18 percent.

Proportion vs. Property Specifications


The specifier should indicate in the project specifications whether the proportion or the property specifications areto be used. If the specifier does not indicate which should be used, then the proportion specifications govern by default. The specifier also should confirm that the mortar Types selected and the materials indicated in the project specifications are consistent with the structural design requirements of the masonry. Mortar prepared by the proportion specifications is not to be compared to mortar of the same Type prepared by theproperty specifications. A mortar that is mixed according to the proportion specification will have a higher laboratory compressive strength than that of the corresponding mortar Type under the property specification.

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Joint Types
The type of joint can dramatically affect the overall look of brick masonry. Joints can be used to create a casual, rustic or formal look to brickwork. There are many different joints; the most common ones used are shown below.

IRONED JOINTS 10mm round bar create half round grout neck

THIN IRONED JOINTS Wheeled nail is for thin grout neck with uniform depth

STRUCK JOINTS Combination steel create uniform depth of grout neck

RAKED JOINTS 10mm rectangular bar create a flat depth grout neck

WEATHERED JOINTS 10mm steel square bar create a triangular grout neck
Terminology and joint preference differs in different countries and within thr Kingdom. Where there is any confusion, always use a drawing or physical sample to avoid misunderstandings. Shallow ironed joints are recommended in areas requiring exposure grade bricks and mortar. produces a dense smooth surface which sheds water and dirt better than other types of joint. Ironed and struck joints should always be used for bricks with straight sharp edges. Raked joints may be used with any type of brick but they tend to retain dirt and may lead to streaks down the masonry in dirty environments. Raking must not come closer than 5 mm to any core. This usually limits raking toeless than 10 mm, however it is best to check the bricks that are being used before raking. Flush joints or flat to surface joints may be used with any type of brick. However, flush joints are particularly effective with rumbled bricks as flush joints make the joints look to be of variable thickness that gives a pleasing rustic look.

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Brick bonds and other decorative effects


A bond is the pattern in which bricks are laid. The most common bond is Stretcher Bond which consists of courses of full bricks where every course is offset half a brick from the course below. When following the mortar joint, stretcher bond has the longest vertical pathway and therefore the best bend strength. Stretcher bond is used in walls one brick wide. Where walls are two or more bricks wide then stretcher bond needs ties to hold the leaves together to give it a monolithic action. To avoid the use of ties traditional practice has been to lay some of the bricks sideways. This has usually been either full courses of headers with full courses of stretcher (English) or courses of alternating header and stretcher (Flemish). A variation of Flemish Bond is Garden Wall Bond where courses are made of a header and three stretchers alternating. Corner treatment can be different in these bonds. English corners end in full stretchers or full headers, and any part brick required to make up the course is set inside the corner. Dutch corners end in the part bricks. Variations on these bonds are common in particular a header course every three or six courses with stretcher courses between. Although these bonds have traditionally been developed for thick walls, they can be used in single leaf walls asa decorative effect using cut bricks for the headers. Such walls are usually non-load bearing. Cutting costs are high but not excessive as the headers have the cut side turned in and the bricks can be bolstered. Other decorative bonds may be used in non-load bearing applications, particularly in the form of panels. The limitations are strengths lower than Stretcher Bond and the cost of cutting and slower brick laying. The decorative effect of bonds is highlighted by using a mortar in a contrasting color to the brick. Other bonds include: Stack Bond Bricks laid horizontally in vertical columns so all vertical joints align. Soldier Stack Bond Bricks laid vertically in vertical columns so all vertical joints align. 1/3 Bond Every course is offset by 1/3 of a brick. Zigzag Bond, Vertical Zigzag Bond, 45 Stretcher Bond, Chevron Bond, Basket Weave Bond, 45 Basket Weave Bond and virtually any pattern that tessellates

Other decorative effects are available such as:


Laying bands of bricks of the same color with different textures eg smooth faced and rock faced; Laying bands of bricks with different (contrasting or complimentary) colors; Corbelling (bricks set out from the wall); Racking (bricks set back into the wall); Quoining (corner bricks in different colors or set out from the wall); Soldiers above openings or as a single course; Copings on piers and parapet walls; Sills in different colors or textures, using sill bricks, etc.; or,

In the late 1800s bricks of contrasting colors were laid in patterns such as diamonds or crosses. A more subtle effect can be made by laying bricks with different textures or corbelling the bricks in these patterns. Combinations of the above effects can be used. Eg. An American Architect specified a corbelled course with the course on the next page to be laid in the darkest bricks selected from the packs delivered. The darker band accentuated the shadowing effect from the corbelled course.

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Brick bonds and other decorative effects

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Brick Coursing Height

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Blending
Blending refers to the process of mixing the bricks or pavers to evenly distribute the product colors across the entire finished wall or pavement. This is an important step whether the products you have delivered are a single color or are multi-colored. Our bricks and pavers are partially blended during the packing process in the factory. This is not sufficient to ensure a well blended job. Bricklayers and paving contractors must always blend or mix the product as it is being laid.

1.Work from at least three open packs. 2.Select the top brick or paver from the left of each pack. 3.Work progressively from a corner across and down each pack in a diagonal pattern.
Dont unpack the bricks or pavers in horizontal layers. Be sure to inspect the product before laying. Product liability transfers to the purchaser once the units are installed.

Well blended: These are the same bricks selected according to the blending instructions. This brick walll are beautifully blended.

Brick Storage
Bricks stored on site should be covered and kept off the ground. Bricks may absorb ground water containing salts or colored minerals creating subsequent problems with staining. Bricks when laid saturated usually produce excessive efflorescence as the masonry dries. Saturated bricks may also adversely affect the mortar bond strength. Moving bricks around the site may cause chipping and excessive movement of packs should be avoided.

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

Prepared by: N. Atienza

AL SEDAIS BRICKS FACTORY


S A U D I A R A B I A
Email:alsedais.est@gmail.comwww.alsedais.com
T : +966 1 4455968 : F : +966 1 4455954 :

Brick Masonry Construction (continued)


TECHNICAL ISSUE NO. TIS-002

Laying Practices
Hand tools required and technique for Installing facing bricks Installing facing bricks needs extra care . It will be the final surface of your project. Creativity is also a plus factor yet not really a vital. For your guidance, our gallery and brochure and catalogs images are very helpful as reference. Otherwise you can ask our technical team for any technical support. The following tools can help and guide you to achieve a very nice finished project:

Steel Knife for grout neck trimming and cleaning

Hand Brush for stain removal and grout neck cleaner.

Steel Bar 5 10mm round r square to keep uni-

Rough rug for polishing wet mortar and tough stain.

Strong Brush For finishing, the surface must be almost

Control Joints
Control joints must not be bridged by mortar or render. After laying the bricks or rendering, the joint must be cleaned. Lumps of mortar or render can transfer forces across the closing joint and will cause the bricks to crack (or spall). Control joints are usually constructed with a highly compressible material (in the form of a sheet or rod) inserted to keep dirt and moisture from penetrating to the cavity. For aesthetic reasons a compressible caulking material, matched to the mortar color, is usually applied on the outside. As the joint closes, compressible caulking compounds may be extruded from the joint but incompressible ones may damage the bricks. If extruded caulking compound is considered unsightly, it can be cut out and replaced or the compound can be recessed during construction. Care must be taken when choosing a caulking compound to ensure it is a highly compressible type that will survive for the design life of the building and not discolor significantly. There are numerous suitable materials available and manufacturers recommendations should be sought. Where a control joint has flexible masonry ties built in, a piece of the compressible material must be removed to accommodate the tie.

Al Sedais Bricks Factory Saudi Arabia

10

Prepared by: N. Atienza