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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

1.1WhatisMultimedia?
Whendifferentpeoplementionthetermmultimedia,theyoften havequitedifferent,orevenopposing,viewpoints.

Chapter1 IntroductiontoMultimedia
1.1WhatisMultimedia? 1.2MultimediaandHypermedia 1.3WorldWideWeb 1.4OverviewofMultimediaSoftwareTools 1.5FurtherExploration

APCvendor:aPCthathassoundcapability,aDVD-ROMdrive,and perhapsthesuperiorityofmultimedia-enabledmicroprocessorsthat understandadditionalmultimediainstructions. Aconsumerentertainmentvendor:interactivecableTVwithhundreds ofdigitalchannelsavailable,oracableTV-likeservicedeliveredovera high-speedInternetconnection. AComputerScience(CS)student:applicationsthatusemultiple modalities,includingtext,images,drawings(graphics),animation, video,soundincludingspeech,andinteractivity.

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MultimediaandComputerScience:
Graphics,HCI,visualization,computervision,datacompression,graph theory,networking,databasesystems.MultimediaandHypermedia

MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

ComponentsofMultimedia
Multimediainvolvesmultiplemodalitiesoftext,audio, images,drawings,animation,andvideo. Examplesofhowthesemodalitiesareputtouse:
Videoteleconferencing. Distributedlecturesforhighereducation. Tele-medicine. Co-operativeworkenvironments. Searchingin(very)largevideoandimagedatabasesfor targetvisualobjects. 6.Augmentedreality:placingreal-appearingcomputer graphicsandvideoobjectsintoscenes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
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7.Includingaudiocuesforwherevideo-conference participantsarelocated. 8.Buildingsearchablefeaturesintonewvideo,and enablingveryhigh-toverylow-bit-rateuseofnew, scalablemultimediaproducts. 9.Makingmultimediacomponentseditable. 10.Buildinginverse-Hollywoodapplicationsthatcan recreatetheprocessbywhichavideowasmade. 11.Usingvoice-recognitiontobuildaninteractive environment,sayakitchen-wallwebbrowser.

MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

MultimediaResearchTopicsandProjects
Tothecomputerscienceresearcher,multimediaconsistsofawidevarietyoftopics: 1.Multimediaprocessingandcoding: multimediacontentanalysis,contentbasedmultimediaretrieval,multimediasecurity,audio/image/videoprocessing, compression,etc. 2.Multimediasystemsupportandnetworking: networkprotocols,Internet, operatingsystems,serversandclients,qualityofservice(QoS),anddatabases. 3.Multimediatools,end-systemsandapplications: hypermediasystems,user interfaces,authoringsystems. 4.Multi-modalinteractionandintegration: ubiquityweb-everywhere devices,multimediaeducationincludingComputerSupportedCollaborative Learning,anddesignandapplicationsofvirtualenvironments.

CurrentMultimediaProjects
Manyexcitingresearchprojectsarecurrentlyunderway.Herearea fewofthem:
1.Camera-basedobjecttrackingtechnology:trackingofthecontrol objectsprovidesusercontroloftheprocess. 2.3Dmotioncapture:usedformultipleactorcapturesothatmultiple realactorsinavirtualstudiocanbeusedtoautomaticallyproduce realisticanimatedmodelswithnaturalmovement. 3.Multipleviews:allowingphoto-realistic(video-quality)synthesisof virtualactorsfromseveralcamerasorfromasinglecameraunder differinglighting. 4.3Dcapturetechnology:allowsynthesisofhighlyrealisticfacial animationfromspeech.

MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

5.Specificmultimediaapplications:aimedathandicappedpersonswith lowvisioncapabilityandtheelderlyarichfieldofendeavor. 6.Digitalfashion:aimstodevelopsmartclothingthatcancommunicate withothersuchenhancedclothingusingwirelesscommunication,so astoartificiallyenhancehumaninteractioninasocialsetting. 7.ElectronicHousecallsystem:aninitiativeforprovidinginteractive healthmonitoringservicestopatientsintheirhomes 8.AugmentedInteractionapplications:usedtodevelopinterfaces betweenrealandvirtualhumansfortaskssuchasaugmented

1.2MultimediaandHypermedia
HistoryofMultimedia: 1.Newspaper:perhapsthefirstmasscommunicationmedium, usestext,graphics,andimages. 2.Motionpictures:conceivedofin1830sinordertoobserve motiontoorapidforperceptionbythehumaneye. 3.Wirelessradiotransmission:GuglielmoMarconi,atPontecchio, Italy,in1895.

storytelling.

4.Television:thenewmediumforthe20thcentury,established videoasacommonlyavailablemediumandhassincechanged theworldofmasscommunications.


MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir) MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

5.Theconnection betweencomputersandideasaboutmultimedia coverswhatisactually onlyashortperiod: 1945VannevarBushwrotealandmarkarticledescribingwhatamountstoa hypermediasystemcalledMemex. LinktofullV.Bush1945Memexarticle,AsWeMayThink 1960TedNelsoncoinedthetermhypertext. 1967NicholasNegroponteformedtheArchitectureMachineGroup. 1968DouglasEngelbartdemonstratedtheOn-LineSystem(NLS),anotherveryearly hypertextprogram. 1969NelsonandvanDamatBrownUniversitycreatedanearlyhypertexteditor calledFRESS. 1976TheMITArchitectureMachineGroupproposedaprojectentitled Multiple MediaresultedintheAspenMovieMap,thefirsthypermediavideodisk,in1978.

1985NegroponteandWiesnerco-foundedtheMITMediaLab. 1989TimBerners-LeeproposedtheWorldWideWeb 1990KristinaHooperWoolseyheadedtheAppleMultimediaLab. 1991MPEG-1wasapprovedasaninternationalstandardfordigital videoledtothenewerstandards,MPEG-2,MPEG-4,andfurther MPEGsinthe1990s. 1991TheintroductionofPDAsin1991begananewperiodinthe useofcomputersinmultimedia. 1992JPEGwasacceptedastheinternationalstandardfordigital imagecompressionledtothenewJPEG2000standard. 1992ThefirstMBoneaudiomulticastontheNetwasmade. 1993TheUniversityofIllinoisNationalCenterforSupercomputing ApplicationsproducedNCSAMosaicthefirstfull-fledgedbrowser.

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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

1994JimClarkandMarcAndreessencreatedthe Netscape program. 1995TheJAVAlanguagewascreatedforplatform-independent applicationdevelopment. 1996DVDvideowasintroduced;highqualityfull-length moviesweredistributedonasingledisk. 1998XML1.0wasannouncedasaW3CRecommendation. 1998Hand-heldMP3devicesfirstmadeinroadsinto consumeristtastesinthefallof1998,withtheintroductionof devicesholding32MBofflashmemory. 2000WWWsizewasestimatedatover 1billionpages.

HypermediaandMultimedia
Ahypertextsystem:meanttttobereadnonlinearly,byfollowinglinks thatpointtootherpartsofthedocument,ortootherdocuments (Fig.1.1) HyperMedia:notconstrainedtobetext-based,canincludeother media,e.g.,graphics,images,andespeciallythecontinuousmedia soundandvideo. -TheWorldWideWeb(WWW)thebestexampleofa hypermediaapplication. Multimediameansthatcomputerinformationcanberepresented throughaudio,graphics,images,video,andanimationinaddition totraditionalmedia.
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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

Examplesoftypicalpresentmultimediaapplicationsinclude: Digitalvideoeditingandproductionsystems. Electronicnewspapers/magazines. WorldWideWeb. On-linereferenceworks:e.g.encyclopedia,games,etc. Homeshopping. InteractiveTV. Multimediacourseware. Videoconferencing. Video-on-demand. Fig1.1:Hypertextisnonlinear
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Interactivemovies.
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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

1.3WorldWideWeb
TheW3ChaslistedthefollowinggoalsfortheWWW: 1.Universalaccessofwebresources(byeveryoneeverywhere). 2.Effectivenessofnavigatingavailableinformation. 3.Responsibleuseofpostedmaterial. HistoryoftheWWW 1960sCharlesGoldfarbetal.developedtheGeneralizedMarkup Language(GML)forIBM. 1986TheISOreleasedafinalversionoftheStandardGeneralized MarkupLanguage(SGML).
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1990TimBerners-LeeinventedtheHyperTextMarkup Language(HTML),andtheHyperTextTransferProtocol (HTTP). 1993NCSAreleasedanalphaversionofMosaicbasedonthe versionbyMarcAndreessenforX-Windowsthefirst popularbrowser. 1994MarcAndreessenetal.formedMosaicCommunications CorporationlatertheNetscapeCommunications Corporation. 1998TheW3CacceptedXMLversion1.0specificationsasa RecommendationthemainfocusoftheW3Cand supersedesHTML.

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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

HTTP(HyperTextTransferProtocol)
HTTP:aprotocolthatwasoriginallydesignedfortransmittinghypermedia, butcanalsosupportthetransmissionofanyfiletype. HTTPisastatelessrequest/responseprotocol:noinformationcarriedover forthenextrequest. Thebasicrequestformat:
Method URI Version Additional-Headers: Message-body

Twopopularmethods:GETandPOST. Thebasicresponseformat:
Version Status-Code Status-Phrase Additional-Headers Message-body

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Twocommonlyseenstatuscodes: 1.200OKtherequestwasprocessedsuccessfully. 2.404NotFoundtheURIdoesnotexist.


MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

TheURI(UniformResourceIdentifier):anidentifierfortheresource accessed,e.g.thehostname,alwaysprecededbythetokenhttp://.

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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

HTML(HyperTextMarkupLanguage)
HTML:alanguageforpublishingHypermediaontheWorld WideWebdefinedusingSGML: 1.HTMLusesASCII,itisportabletoalldifferent(possibly binaryincompatible)computerhardware. 2.ThecurrentversionofHTMLisversion4.01. 3.ThenextgenerationofHTMLisXHTMLa reformulationofHTMLusingXML. HTMLusestagstodescribedocumentelements: <token params>definingastartingpoint. </token>theendingpointoftheelement. Someelementshavenoendingtags.
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AverysimpleHTMLpageisasfollows: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> A sample web page. </TITLE> <META NAME = "Author" CONTENT = "Cranky Professor"> </HEAD> <BODY> <P> We can put any text we like here, since this is a paragraph element. </P> </BODY> </HTML>

Naturally,HTMLhasmorecomplexstructuresandcanbemixedinwith otherstandards.

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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

XML(ExtensibleMarkupLanguage)
XML:amarkuplanguagefortheWWWinwhichthereismodularity ofdata,structureandviewsothatuserorapplicationcanbeable todefinethetags(structure). ExampleofusingXMLtoretrievestockinformationfromadatabase accordingtoauserquery:
1.FirstuseaglobalDocumentTypeDefinition(DTD)thatisalready defined. 2.TheserversidescriptwillabidebytheDTDrulestogenerateanXML documentaccordingtothequeryusingdatafromyourdatabase. 3.FinallysendusertheXMLStyleSheet(XSL)dependingonthetypeof deviceusedtodisplaytheinformation.

ThecurrentXMLversionisXML1.0,approvedbytheW3Cin Feb.1998. XMLsyntaxlookslikeHTMLsyntax,althoughitismuchmore strict: Alltagsareinlowercase,andatagthathasonlyinline datahastoterminateitself,i.e., <token params />. UsesnamespacessothatmultipleDTDsdeclaring differentelementsbutwithsimilartagnamescanhave theirelementsdistinguished. DTDscanbeimportedfromURIsaswell.
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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

AnexampleofanXMLdocumentstructure thedefinitionforasmallXHTMLdocument:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?> <!DOCTYPE htmlPUBLIC "- //W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1transition.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> ... [html that follows the above mentioned XML rules] </html>

ThefollowingXMLrelatedspecificationsarealso standardized:
XMLProtocol:usedtoexchangeXMLinformationbetween processes. XMLSchema:amorestructuredandpowerfullanguagefor definingXMLdatatypes(tags). XSL:basicallyCSSforXML. SMIL:SynchronizedMultimediaIntegrationLanguage, pronouncedsmileaparticularapplicationofXML(globally predefinedDTD)thatallowsforspecificationofinteraction amonganymediatypesanduserinput,inatemporally scriptedmanner.

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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

SMIL(SynchronizedMultimediaIntegration Language)
PurposeofSMIL:itisalsodesirabletobeabletopublish multimediapresentationsusingamarkuplanguage. Amultimediamarkuplanguageneedstoenablescheduling andsynchronizationofdifferentmultimediaelements,and definetheirinteractivitywiththeuser. TheW3CestablishedaWorkingGroupin1997tocomeup withspecificationsforamultimediasynchronization languageSMIL2.0wasacceptedinAugust2001. SMIL2.0isspecifiedinXMLusingamodularization approachsimilartotheoneusedinxhtml:
MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

1.AllSMILelementsaredividedintomodulessetsofXML elements,attributesandvaluesthatdefineoneconceptual functionality. 2.Intheinterestofmodularization,notallavailablemodulesneed tobeincludedforallapplications. 3.LanguageProfiles:specifiesaparticulargroupingofmodules, andparticularmodulesmayhaveintegrationrequirementsthat aprofilemustfollow. SMIL2.0hasamainlanguageprofilethatincludes almostallSMILmodules.

BasicelementsofSMILasshowninthefollowingexample:

MultimediaSystems(eadeli@iust.ac.ir)

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

<!DOCTYPE smil PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SMIL 2.0" "http://www.w3.org/2001/SMIL20/SMIL20.dtd">

1.4OverviewofMultimediaSoftwareTools

<smil xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/SMIL20/Language">

Thecategoriesofsoftwaretoolsbrieflyexaminedhereare:
<meta name="Author" content="Some Professor" /> </head> <body> <par id="MakingOfABook"> <seq> <video src="authorview.mpg" /> <img src="onagoodday.jpg" />

1.MusicSequencingandNotation 2.DigitalAudio 3.GraphicsandImageEditing

</seq>

4.VideoEditing
<audio src="authorview.wav" /> <text src="http://www.cs.sfu.ca/mmbook/" /> </par> </body> </smil>

5.Animation 6.MultimediaAuthoring

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<head> h d

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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

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MusicSequencingandNotation
Cakewalk:nowcalledProAudio. Thetermsequencercomesfromolderdevicesthatstoredsequencesof notes(events,inMIDI). ItisalsopossibletoinsertWAVfilesandWindowsMCIcommands(for animationandvideo)intomusictracks(MCIisaubiquitous componentoftheWindowsAPI.) Cubase:anothersequencing/editingprogram,withcapabilitiessimilarto thoseofCakewalk.Itincludessomedigitalaudioeditingtools. MacromediaSoundedit:matureprogramforcreatingaudioformultimedia projectsandthewebthatintegrateswellwithotherMacromedia productssuchasFlashandDirector.

DigitalAudio
DigitalAudiotoolsdealwithaccessingandeditingtheactual sampledsoundsthatmakeupaudio: CoolEdit:averypowerfulandpopulardigitalaudiotoolkit;emulates aprofessionalaudiostudiomultitrackproductionsandsoundfile editingincludingdigitalsignalprocessingeffects. SoundForge:asophisticatedPC-basedprogramforeditingaudio WAVfiles. ProTools:ahigh-endintegratedaudioproductionandediting environmentMIDIcreationandmanipulation;powerfulaudio mixing,recording,andeditingsoftware.

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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

GraphicsandImageEditing
AdobeIllustrator:apowerfulpublishingtoolfromAdobe.Usesvector graphics;graphicscanbeexportedtoWeb. AdobePhotoshop:thestandardinagraphics,imageprocessingand manipulationtool. Allowslayersofimages,graphics,andtextthatcanbeseparately manipulatedformaximumflexibility. Filterfactorypermitscreationofsophisticatedlighting-effectsfilters. MacromediaFireworks:softwareformakinggraphicsspecificallyforthe web. MacromediaFreehand:atextandwebgraphicseditingtoolthatsupports manybitmapformatssuchasGIF,PNG,andJPEG.
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VideoEditing
AdobePremiere:anintuitive,simplevideoeditingtoolfornonlinear editing,i.e.,puttingvideoclipsintoanyorder: Videoandaudioarearrangedintracks. Providesalargenumberofvideoandaudiotracks, superimpositionsandvirtualclips. Alargelibraryofbuilt-intransitions,filtersandmotionsfor effectivemultimediaproductionswithlittleeffort. clips AdobeAfterEffects:apowerfulvideoeditingtoolthatenablesusers toaddandchangeexistingmovies.Canaddmanyeffects:lighting, shadows,motionblurring;layers. FinalCutPro:avideoeditingtoolbyApple;Macintoshonly.
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FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

FundamentalsofMultimedia,Chapter1

Animation
MultimediaAPIs: Java3D:APIusedbyJavatoconstructandrender3Dgraphics,similartothe wayinwhichtheJavaMediaFrameworkisusedforhandlingmediafiles. 1.Providesabasicsetofobjectprimitives(cube,splines,etc.) forbuildingscenes. 2.ItisanabstractionlayerbuiltontopofOpenGLorDirectX (theusercanselectwhich). DirectX:WindowsAPIthatsupportsvideo,images,audioand3-Danimation OpenGL:thehighlyportable,mostpopular3-DAPI.

RenderingTools:
3DStudioMax:renderingtoolthatincludesanumberofvery high-endprofessionaltoolsforcharacteranimation,game development,andvisualeffectsproduction. SoftimageXSI:apowerfulmodeling,animation,andrendering packageusedforanimationandspecialeffectsinfilmsand games. Maya:competingproducttoSoftimage;aswell,itisacomplete modelingpackage. RenderMan:renderingpackagecreatedbyPixar.

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GIFAnimationPackages:asimplerapproachtoanimation, allowsveryyqquickdevelopmentofeffectivesmall animationsfortheweb.

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MultimediaAuthoring
MacromediaFlash:allowsuserstocreateinteractivemoviesby usingthescoremetaphor,i.e.,atimelinearrangedinparallelevent sequences. MacromediaDirector:usesamoviemetaphortocreateinteractive presentationsverypowerfulandincludesabuilt-inscripting language,Lingo,thatallowscreationofcomplexinteractivemovies. Authorware:amature,well-supportedauthoringproductbasedon theIconic/Flow-controlmetaphor. Quest:similartoAuthorwareinmanyways,usesatypeof flowchartingmetaphor.However,theflowchartnodescan encapsulateinformationinamoreabstractway(calledframes) thansimplysubroutinelevels.
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SomeOpenSourceMultimediaAuthoringTools
VirtualDub:Avideocapture/processingutilityfor32-bitWindows platforms,licensedundertheGNUGPL. http://www.virtualdub.org/ http://virtualdub.sourceforge.net/ Audacity:Audacityisafree,easy-to-useaudioeditorandrecorderfor Windows,MacOSX,GNU/Linuxandotheroperatingsystems. http://audacity.sourceforge.net/ KompoZer:Acompletewebauthoringsystemthatcombineswebfile managementandeasy-to-useWYSIWYGwebpageediting.Designedtobe extremelyeasytouse. http://www.kompozer.net/ Andalotmoreat:http://sourceforge.net/
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