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Water Quality Test after 3months practical attachment at NISIR Time allowed: 1Hour 30minutes Instructions: open book

test; answer all questions and no copying no & no discussion please QUESTION ONE ON PH MEASUREMENTS 1. pH is defined as (i) Logarithm of Hydrogen ions (ii) Negative logarithm of Hydrogen ions (iii) Hydrogen ion concentration (iv) OH ion concentration 2. pH of neutral water is (i) less than7 (ii) more than 7 (iii) 7.0 (iv) 0.0 3. For pure water at room temperature (=25C), the product of H+ and OH ions is (i) 107 (ii) 1014 (iii) 10 (iv) 107 4. In Zambia the acceptable value of pH for potable water is (i) 7.0 to 8.5 (ii) 6.5 to 8.5 (iii) 6 to 8.5 (iv) 6.5 to 10 5. Acidity of water means (i) pH of water in acidic range (ii) pH of water in alkaline range (iii) base neutralizing capacity of water (iv) acid neutralizing capacity of water QUESTION2: ON HARDNESS MEASUREMENT 1. The hardness of water is mainly due to the presence of (i) Carbonate, bicarbonate, chlorides and sulfates of calcium and magnesium (ii) Carbonate, bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium (iii) Chlorides and sulfates of calcium and magnesium (iv) Nitrate and sulfates of calcium and magnesium 2. The hard water (i) is not tasty (ii) is saline water (iii) consumes more soap for cleaning purposes (iv) consumes more chlorine as disinfectant

3. The temporary hardness is due to (i) Carbonate and bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium (ii) Sulfate of calcium and magnesium (iii) Chlorides of calcium and magnesium (iv) Nitrates of calcium and magnesium 4. Water with hardness 50 ppm or less is known as (i) Hard water (ii) Soft water (iii) Moderately hard water (iv) Moderately soft water 5. The permanent hardness is due to (i) Sulfates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium and magnesium. (ii) Carbonate and bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium (iii) Sulfate and bicarbonates of calcium (iv) Chlorides and carbonates of magnesium 6. E.D.T.A means (i) Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (ii) Erichrome diamine tetra acetic acid (iii) Ethyle dye toluene acid (iv) Erichrome dye toluene acid QUESTION 3: Measurement of Residual Chlorine in Water 1. Disinfection means (i) Killing of disease producing bacteria and other microorganisms. (ii) Killing of all bacteria and other microorganisms. (iii) Removing infection from water. 2. Residual chlorine means (i) Chlorine required for the disinfection of water normally (ii) Chlorine required for the disinfection of water in the rainy season (iii) Chlorine available at the consumers end. (iv) Chlorine required as the super chlorination. 3. Potable water is (i) tasty water (ii) wholesome water (iii) Mineral water (iv) Water free from disease producing elements and bacteria. 4. The amount of residual chlorine in water should be about (i) 0.2 mg per litre (ii) 2.0 mg/litre (iii) 2.5 mg/litre

(iv) 4.0 mg/l 5. Residual chlorine in water can be detected by (i) Eriochrome black T (ii) Bleaching powder (iii) Methyl orange (iv) Orthotolidine Question 4: Measurement of Conductivity of Water 1. Conductivity is (i) Ability of an aqueous solution to carry current (ii) Ability of an aqueous solution to dissolve a solid (iii) Ability of a solution to conduct heat (iv) Ability of a solution to conduct sound 2. Conductivity depends upon (i) Presence of ions or salts (ii) Valence & relative concentration (iii) Temperature (iv) All of the above 3. The measurement of conductivity may lead to the estimation of (i) Total solids (ii) Total dissolved solids (iii) Suspended solids (iv) Colloidal solids QUESTION5: Measurement of Chlorides in Water 1. Most common ion in the water is (i) Fluoride (ii) Nitrate (iii) Chloride (iv) Sulfate 2. Chloride gives salty taste to water particularly when present as:(i) Sodium chloride (ii) Magnesium chloride (iii) Potassium chloride (iv) Zinc Chloride 3. The acceptable limit of chloride in potable water is about (i) 200 mg/L (ii) 500mg/L (iii) 1000 mg/L (iv) 1500 mg/L

4. The chloride concentration in sewage is (i) More than the water supplied (ii) Less than the water supplied (iii) Equal to the water supplied (iv) None of the above 5. Chloride consumed by us (i) Pass through the fecal matter as it is. (ii) Gets changed into another form (iii) Gets disappeared (v) None of the above 6. High chloride content in water (i) Harms metallic pipes (ii) Harmful for irrigation (iii) Harmful to human beings (iv) All the above QUESTION 6: Measurement of Nitrates in Water 1. Which water generally has high nitrate concentration? (i) Surface water (ii) Ground water (iii) Distilled water (iv) None of above 2. The ground water has high nitrate concentration because of (i) Percolating sewage (ii) Industrial waste (iii) Chemical fertilizers, leaches etc. (iv) All of above 3. The high nitrate concentration of water fed to infants causes (i) Green baby disease (ii) Blue baby disease (iii) Anemia (iv) Cancer 4. The acceptable limit of nitrates in potable water is generally (i) 75 mg/L (ii) 45 mg/L (iii) 90 mg/L (iv) 200 mg/L 5. The determination of nitrates is important as to (i) determine nitrates important from health point of view that is safe against the diseases produced (ii) assess the self-purification capacity of water bodies and the nutrient balance in surface waters and soil.

(iii) find out state of decomposition of organic matter in sewage (iv) All of above QUESTION7: TSS, TS AND TDS Given: Sample size = 100ml 1. 2. 3. 4. mass of empty dish = 52.1533grams mass of dish + residue after evaporation at 105oC = 52.1890grams mass of filter (empty) = 1.5413grams mass of filter + residue after drying at 105oC = 1.5541grams

Required: Calculate the concentration of: 1. Total solids (TS) 2. Total suspended solids (TSS) 3. Total dissolved solids (TDS) QUESTION8: BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS 1. What are e-coli? Are they harmful to human beings? Why are their presence tested in the waters to be supplied for domestic consumption? 2. Give two reasons why testing for all known pathogens in water is not possible 3. What is the significance of Phosphorous and Nitrogen in water quality? 4. Describe how samples of water should be collected and sent to laboratory for the bacteriological test, indicating the necessary precautions to be observed. 5. Name one water borne disease under each of the following categories:a. Bacterial origin b. Protozoal origin c. Viral

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