Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 51

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Digital Proofer

The Language of Zoroaster and Darius the Great

Unied Kurdish Lang...


Authored by Hamma Mirwaisi 6.0" x 9.0" (15.24 x 22.86 cm) Black & White on White paper 100 pages ISBN-13: 9781483931357 ISBN-10: 1483931358
Please carefully review your Digital Proof download for formatting, grammar, and design issues that may need to be corrected. We recommend that you review your book three times, with each time focusing on a different aspect.

1 2 3

Check the format, including headers, footers, page numbers, spacing, table of contents, and index. Review any images or graphics and captions if applicable. Read the book for grammatical errors and typos.

Once you are satisfied with your review, you can approve your proof and move forward to the next step in the publishing process. To print this proof we recommend that you scale the PDF to fit the size of your printer paper.

ALISON BUCKLEY and HAMMA MIRWAISI

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Unified Kurdish Language The Language of Zoroaster and Darius the Great Copyright 2013 Hamma Mirwaisi and Alison Buckley All rights reserved. This book is copyright protected. Apart from any fair dealings for the purpose of private study, criticism, research or review as permitted under the Copyright Act (Australia), no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Enquiries should be addressed to the copyright owners. A copy of this book can be found in the National Library of Australia Acknowledgements: Map of the Median Empire public domain through Wikipedia (University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.) Images of Prophet Zoroaster, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche and Darius the Great public domain property through Wikipedia. ISBN-13: 978-1483931357 ISBN-10: 1483931358 Ancient and Modern Kurdish Language/historical Unified Kurdish Language:The Language of Zoroaster and Darius the Great. Any similarity between the characters in this book and real people, living or dead, is coincidental.

Dedication To my wife and our children and grand children, I appreciate your help by allowing me to serve our people the Kurds and other Airyanem people. As they say for every action there must be a reaction. That is a law of physics, but it can be a law for the behavior of humans as well. Events in my life were the actions; the reaction to those events was the writing of this bookquite an unexpected event. Whether my destiny was decided by some invisible spiritual source or not is impossible to say. Nevertheless, here I am and here is the book, the research for which led me to discover the 2500 year-old lost language of my people and to learn of the reasons for their unfortunate fate Hamma Mirwaisi. To the Kurdish people - I hope one day to be able to communicate with you in your own unified language Alison Buckley (consultant for the English language).

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Contents Unified Kurdish Language -------------------------------------------------- 2 Dedication --------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Authors Foreword ----------------------------------------------------------- 5 Map of Median Empire ------------------------------------------------------ 6 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 Why a Unified Kurdish Language? ---------------------------------------- 8 Description -------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 The Prophet Zoroasters Philosophy and Western scholars ----------- 10 The Prophet Zoroaster and Western scholars --------------------------- 13 Word Translations of 7 songs from the Gathas ------------------------- 14 The translation of each word in the 7 songs above --------------------- 22 Numbering of the Avesta and Sanskrit ---------------------------------- 26 Behistun cuneiform inscriptions ------------------------------------------ 27 Word Translations for Behistun Cuneiform Inscriptions --------------45 In Conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------- 77 Authors Afterword -------------------------------------------------------- 79 References ------------------------------------------------------------------ 80 Authors ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 82

Authors Foreword To the Kurdish People from Hamma Mirwaisi To those Kurds who sacrificed their lives so that their countrymen and women can live in their own land of Kurdistan peacefully; to the Kurdish people who have been suffering for over 2500 years since the collapse of the Median Empire; to those Kurds who really want to help other Kurds live in Kurdistan peacefully; never forget that the forefathers and foremothers of the many different Aryan tribes from which you come started the first civilization. Two and a half centuries ago in mysterious and tragic circumstances we became enemies of the Jewish people who used to be part of us by blood. Consequently although the Jewish people worked hard to erase the evidence of our true origins and what lawfully belonged to us, we are still known as Kurds today. Unfortunately other nations of the Greeks, Arabs, and Turks followed our own Jewish people to help erase our language, religion, culture, history and heritage. Now, like no other time, we need a unified language to help us re-discover so much more about ourselves. Only education will help our Kurdish people to understand our suffering for over 2,500 years and it will also lead us Kurds to liberation so that we can live in our beloved homeland of Kurdistan, according to our peaceful culture. I understand that since the collapse of the Median Empire over time many Kurdish tribal leaders became merchants who sold the Kurdish peoples material, spiritual and human heritage for their own notoriety and monetary gain. Many principalities were built by traitors against the Kurds, for example Bani-Erdalan, Baban, Badexan and others. But after 1800 CE the Kurdish people moved away from tribal leaders to religious leaders in the hope that they would lead them to freedom; their hopes were dashed when they realised what two of these more prominent leaders had done to them. The Kurds, especially those from poor families, moved to join political parties; very quickly they found out that one leader was as dictatorial as the other. What must the Kurdish people now do? In my opinion they should seek an organization that advocates the formulation of a constitution as the basis for the establishment of the Kurdish nation and its laws, instead of relying on selfinterested individuals. Such a constitution must be formulated in constitutional conferences of respected political and other leaders and prominent, benevolent citizens chosen by the people, who must then approve it in a referendum vote. The US people in their short history have become the leaders of the world because of the US Constitution. Many of you do not know that their constitution came from the genius of Cyrus the Great and General Harpagos, who have not been regarded

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey by Kurds as their finest leaders because of their portrayal as anti-Kurd by misguided and erroneous Greek and Jewish scholars.

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Map of the Median Empire As a matter of fact both Cyrus and General Harpagos were genuine Medes and they built the Median Empire. Cyrus did not create the Persian Empire, nor did he kill his grandfather, King Astyages, and General Harpagos never betrayed this Median King and the Median Empire. These stories by Greek and Jewish scholars were part of a campaign to eliminate the Medes (Kurds) from history. I, Hamma Mirwaisi, am dedicating this start up booklet to help you participate in re-building our past by using a unified alphabet and unified language. Out of the three alphabets used in the Prophet Zoroasters songs, including the modern Kurmanji Kurdish dialect and the Aryan language of Darius the Great, which form the basis of the ancient and modern Kurdish languages, I have formulated one alphabet as below. Here are the 33 letters for a standard alphabet to be used for a Unified Kurdish Language and by the other Airyanem groups from Pakistan to Turkey and from Kurdistan to the former Soviet Union countries. A, , B, C, , D, E, , F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, , T, Th, U, , V, W, X, Y, Z a, , b, c, , d, e, , f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, , t, th, u, , v, w, x, y, z

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge It means, The good thoughts must come from us, for whatever you have to say, that is your deed. These words in the Kurdish language above have evolved to this below: Hemata, Hekmata, Roshta.

Introduction The people known as Kurds are the descendents of the Prophet Mahabad (according to the Mitra religions teachings) and the Prophet Zoroaster (according to the Zoroastrian religions teachings). Language is the major tool for communication between most people. The religions can also unite peoples language through their teachings. From religious teachings come many aspects of culture. And from culture come history and heritage. The Airyanem (Aryan) people, especially the Kurdish people are lucky that their unified languages are preserved in the songs of the Prophet Zoroaster and the Behistun cuneiform inscriptions. But the modern Kurdish political parties have used the differences between Kurdish dialects to gain more members within that dialect. Two south Kurdistan ruling families in particular have successfully used people speaking the Soran Kurdish dialect against others speaking the badini (Kurmanji) Kurdish dialect or vice versa. These two Kurdish family rulers with their supporters have hurt the Kurdish people more than their enemies have done. They are known by the Kurdish people now as war merchants, not liberators of the Kurds. Creating obstacles to unity, peace and access to human rights they spend millions of Kurdish oil money to divide the Kurdish people, anyway they can. The people need knowledge of their language, culture and history to be united. It is clear that a divided people are never going to have a country and peace within it. Instead of uniting them, the occupiers of Kurdistan are not only working hard to divide Kurds along the lines of dialect but they also exploit differences in tribal names, regions and so forth. Also some immediate past and present Kurdish and Islamic political leaders have used religion to divide the Kurdish people. Furthermore the Kurdish language has been corrupted with the Arabic and Turkish languages. As shown in the example below, the author has injected Arabic words in the three principle words of the Prophet Zoroasters teaching of Good Thought, Good Word and Good Deed written in the Kurdish language. ZERDUTNAME: Ba Bifikire, Ba Bje, Ba Bike- (Selahaddn Mihotul-Ji droka Ferhengya Kurdan) Here is the real and original word in the Kurdish language by Prophet Zoroaster for the Good Thought, Good Word and Good Deed below: Humata, Hkhta, Hvarshta

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Why a Unified Kurdish Language? Today the PKK is the largest political organization in Kurdistan. As far as I know, probably because it is too busy trying to bring about Kurdish geographical and political unification, it has not done much for the Unified Kurdish Language. It is also clearly evident that the KDP of Barzani and the PUK of Talabani plus Gorran of Nawshirwan Mustafa along with Islamic parties, communist parties and socialist parties from left to right and from right to left, have not even considered a Unified Kurdish Language. The Kurdish people should ask them why they do not want a Unified Kurdish Language. After all, it existed at the orgins of the Median Empire, under the great Kay-Xesraw, whose territory some of these organisations are trying to regain. People without a unified language, history, culture and heritage will find it difficult to combine as one. Only united people can be successful in the establishment of a nation. A common language is very helpful in developing a shared understanding. All of the above parties are claiming to be liberators; the key for liberation is to become a united people. Well could any observer ask why the above parties seem to not want the Kurdish people to be united through language, cultural observances and knowledge of their history! Below is my opinion, I hope that you as Kurds will also have an opinion. Together we can put irresistible pressure on these political parties leadership to help Kurdish people to become as one through the use of a Unified Kurdish Language, as presented in this book.

Description A unified alphabet is the basis for a unified language so that the Kurdish people will understand one another. The language contribution in this book, although relatively small, is very meaningful because it comes from the roots of the languages used by more than 500 million people in the Middle East. It is meant to be the foundation of a unified language and for a future dictionary of the Unified Kurdish language. This unified alphabet is good for Kurds who have descended from the ancient Medes (Kurmanji, Soran, Zazas Dimili, Goran, Lak, Lurs and Bakhtiaris, Hawrami, old Azeri, Talish and other groups), Persians (Pars, Dari, Tajick and other groups) and the entire Airyanem people. As authors of the historical novels Vashti Queen of the Ancient Medes (Kurds) and Esther Mystery Queen of the Medes (Kurds), Hamma Mirwaisi and Alison Buckley are working to revive knowledge and understanding of the ancient Airyanem Civilization described in these first two books of a series. We hope that our readers and many others will support the concept of the establishment of an Economic Union for the Middle East to solve some of the problems among the population of that part of the world. It will require the support of a Unified Kurdish Language based on the unified alphabet formulated in this book.

10

11

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge Zoroastrian faith. It is because they do not understand the language of Prophet Zoroaster. After Alexander Great and the Arab Islamic army destroyed everything that was written by early Zoroastrian members and later by the Sassanid Empire to revive the teachings of the Avesta, no documents of spiritual knowledge and guidance were left for the people in the region. The group of Persians who escaped to India with the remains of the Avesta probably did not understand the language, but the songs of the Prophet Zoroaster and the Mount Behistun cuneiform inscriptions are available for us today to study. Providentially I, Hamma, know how to read both documents now. The word aa (Asia or asiah Kurds are using this word very often in their conversation) means normal or normality in the ancient Kurdish language. While the word asha means flour mill in the ancient Kurdish language. The Prophet Zoroaster used this machine as an analogy to explain the human system, which compares the concept of a systematised religion to asha. He also compares Gods system within the universe to asha. In one of his songs he is saying Ashem vohu, explaining that his system or the religion that he teaches belongs to almighty God. In another song he says ashaon hu zarathushtrahe, meaning I am Zoroaster, the operator of Gods system,or I am just a messenger from God to teach you the right path. There are no ambiguities in his songs. The Avesta language is very old compared to the language used to write the Behistun cuneiform inscriptions. Indeed after careful examination of three principle words from the Zoroastrianism religious beliefs, one can appreciate the evolution of the languages. The words Humata, Hkhta, Hvarshta mean Good Thoughts, Good Words and Good Deeds. Humata, Hkhta, Hvarshta in the Avestan or Avsts 8000 year old language has evovled into Hemata, Hekmata, Roshta in our language today. Humata is Good Thoughts in English. Hu-ma-ta in the Kurdish language can be divided into HU which is the name of God who is kind to humans, and Good God meaning you must think to be good always. MA means Me in English and TA is You in English. In short the word means the thinking coming out from you toward others must be good. Hkhta is Good Word in English.

The Prophet Zoroasters Philosophy and Western scholars

Detail of the School of Athens by Raphael, 1509, showing Zoroaster (left, with star-studded globe). Here is how Prophet Zoroasters philosophy has been explained by Greek scholars according to Wikipedia: In the Gathas, Zoroaster sees the human condition as the mental struggle between aa (truth) and druj (lie). The cardinal concept of aawhich is highly nuanced and only vaguely translatableis at the foundation of all Zoroastrian doctrine, including that of Ahura Mazda (who is aa), creation (that is aa), and existence (that is aa) and as the condition for Free Will. The purpose of humankind, like that of all other creation, is to sustain aa. For humankind, this occurs through active participation in life and the exercise of constructive thoughts, words and deeds. Elements of Zoroastrian philosophy entered the West through their influence on Judaism and Middle Platonism and have been identified as one of the key early events in the development of philosophy. Among the classic Greek philosophers, Heraclitus is often referred to as inspired by Zoroaster's thinking. Our language study indicates differently. In the above explanation, the word aa (Asia or asiah) is unknown to the scholars and even members of the
12

13

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey H-kh-ta, in the Kurdish language or Hkhta means the saying coming out from you toward the others must be good. Hvarshta is Good Deed in English. Hva-rshta in the Kurdish language or Hvarshta means the behavior coming out from you toward the others must be good.

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

The Prophet Zoroaster and Western scholars Western scholars rather quaintly admit that, Elements of Zoroastrian philosophy entered the West through their influence on Judaism and Middle Platonism. Although the adherants of Judeo-Christianity have been claiming for over 2000 years that theirs is the seminal foundation of Middle Eastern and European civilisation, there is plenty of previously suppressed and hidden evidence otherwise. Critically, it also shows that the Prophet Mahabad and the Prophet Zoroaster, both of whose writings and Airyanem Civilization made significant contributions to the advancement and development of European society, were completely distinct from the Middle Eastern Arab and Turkish peoples and their cultures. These discoveries answer questions about why the surviving Airyanem people and the rest of the world have not been informed about such misconceptions held for over 2000 years. Briefly the reasons are as follows: after Alexander the Great conquered the region the Greek and Jewish people united to fight the Airyanem civilization; both groups successfully did so by promoting the Egyptian civilization over the Airyanem civilization so the European peoples would forget where they came from. This emphasis covertly, but deliberately prohibited knowledge and understanding of the importance and identifying features of the Airyanem civilisation for over 2000 years until the era of the internet. Using similarly destructive methods, in time Arab and Turkish scholars engineered enmity between both groups of the Airyanem people, that is, the Kurds and the Persians. All this happened for political reasons. Four groups, namely the Greek, Jewish, Arab and Turkish powers used the European and Airyanem peoples of the Middle East against one another for economic benefit. While the Greeks dropped out of the unbalanced equation of domination earlier, the Jewish, Arab and Turkish forces remained and exerted their political influence and power to our time. We hope this explanation will prompt all readers with a stake in the outcome of the conflict over the disputed Middle Eastern territories of the former Median Empire to do their own research, regarding the validity of information presented in this book.

14

15

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge the renovation of humanity, Zarathrustra focused on the renewal of the individual in relationship to his/her fellow human beings and by implication, the deity, whom the real Prophet Zoroaster revered. This reflects Nietzsches central philosophy of life-affirmation, involving an honest questioning of all doctrines that drain life's expansive energies, however socially prevalent those views might be.

Word Translation for the Gathas of Zarathushtra Friedrich Nietzsches study of the Prophet Zoroasters philosophy was the beginning of the end of Greek and Jewish scholarly monopoly on the Western world. Greek propaganda died out but Jewish scholars misinformation and their biased views promulgated in the Western world, especially the US, have survived and continue without being subjected to thorough investigation by Western scholars to our time. In contrast German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche deserves much credit for his novels based on his appreciative understanding of the Prophet Zoroasters teachings. His work highlighting the writings of the Kurdish peoples forefathers noble principles of civilized living meant he became the first Western scholar to examine these origins. The enemies of the truth about the Medes (ancient Kurds) originally comprised Greek, Jewish, Assyrian, Armenian, Arab and Turkish scholars, who were followed by Western scholars to the present. After years of their concerted attempts to destroy Prophet Zoroasters influence, Nietzsches confrontational recognition of the sages contribution to civilization finally exposed their dubious practices. But now, in the era of internet and freedom of information people it is easier to read and do research to find true information about the past. Misguided teachings are hurting the people of the world. With billions trying to survive in the small house of earth together, unity and co-operation are needed, perhaps for the ongoing existence of the race. While some pursue the idea of interplanetary colonization, working together to deal with overpopulation, pollution and wars makes immediate sense. It is time for humanity to think differently by getting out of the corrupted philosophical boxes of the original Greek and Jewish scholars. Their precepts have not solved past and present problems rather they can be seen as contributors to wars, greed and destruction of lives and prosperity. People must now think differently to find solutions to living together on earth peacefully in collaboration. Friedrich Neitzsche discerned the futility of the enslavement and entrapment of willing or forced adherants to monolithic religions dominated by powerful men who espouse freedom and betterment of the population but rarely deliver either. In his philosophical novel, Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (German: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch fr Alle und Keinen) composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885 Neitzsche featured a fictionalized prophet Zarathrustra as protagonist, descending from his mountain retreat to humankind. Unlike the questionable Greek and Jewish reliance on institutional leadership for
16

17

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge ASHEM VOHU

The Latin alphabet used to write Prophet Zoroasters songs Gathas A, , B, C, , D, E, , F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, , O, , P, R, S, SH, T, TH, U, , V, X, Y, Z a, , b, c, , d, e, , f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, , o, , p, r, s, sh, t, th, u, , v, x, y, z Song 2 Ashem voh vahishtem ast. Usht ast Usht ahmi hyat ashi vahishti ashem. Ahunavaiti GATHA Song 1 nm man nm vac nm shyaothnem ashaon zarathushtrahe. fer amesh spet gth gurvin. nem v gth ashaonsh! You are the spirit for all, indeed you are king; you are residence of heaven in this philosophy. This kindle is belonging to God This kindle (light) is belong to you, you are my heaven, and you are the spirit

Gathas Revelation Here I brought myself God (good thought), here I brought and implemented Gods order (good word), and here I brought the one worth to worship (good deed) Messengers of the God, Zarathushtrahe Always repeat a lot the enlightened Gathas The name of God comes in Gathas as the reliever of pain and suffering

18

19

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey YATHA AHU Song 3 ath ah vairy ath ratush ashtct hac vanghush dazd manangh shyaothananm anghush mazdi

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge Song 4 ahy s nemangh ustnazast rafedhrahy manyush mazd pourvm spetahy ash vspg shyaothan vanghush xratm manangh

xshathremc ahuri im driguby dadat vstrem. xshnevsh gushc urvnem.

Laws of God (The Principle of Choice) Whatever you can see wont last forever Oh God bring them laws The God is the master of love and relief giver Outlaws stopping your path, the king taking your place here Forever living spirit is great, I am follower, it is enlighten Do not let the spirit, be stolen make you think differently; the God will live for ever The one worth to worship by all of us, do not let your soul forget great God God is the King of Kings for all of us in this place; the Gods path is here Come for us through that door oh God, your justice is healing for us Him is the king with enlighten worth to worship The source of soul I am following your path the God will live forever Him is happiness writer I am listening here him is my soul

20

21

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Song 5 v mazd ahur pair-jasi voh manangh maiby dvi ahv astvatasc hyatc manangh yapt asht hac

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge Song 6 v ash ufyn manasc voh apaourvm mazdmc ahurem aiby xshathremc aghzhaonvamnem varedait ramaitish mi rafedhri zavg jasat.

ish rapat daidt xvthr.

Me for the great holy God, and the Gods path Aged person join the one live forever Join with me for God to become pro God that is it Wake up get out from your place, indeed it is good life in this place the God never die Have respect he is your king in this place This pain can be removed only by God; it will come to an end this suffocation

Me for the King him not destroyable Me in this place for him I am the follower Holy for us in this place is the Gods path Come with me to God him is our king of kings in this place I am aware about my tongue Taking this path will bring us pain and suffering Yes we the follower of God him the pain reliever born within your life until the death

22

23

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Song 7

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge The translation of each word in the 7 songs above Alphabet and Word A Aghzhaonvamnem (Agh-zhaon-vamnem) Ahmi Ah Ahy Ahur (A-hu-r) Ahuri Ahv Amesh Anghush Apaourvm Ash Ashi Asht Asha Ashaon Ashaon Ashaonsh! Ashahy Ashem Ashtct (Ash-t-c-t) Ashshc (now is this Bexsheash) Ast Astvatasc (Ast-vatas-c) Ath Avat Avat xsi ash ashahy (Ava-txsi-ash- ashahy) Ash ramaitish (-ra-mai-t-ish) mi yapt Meaning in English Letter, to start the word I am aware about my tongue For all For you, for all Whatever exists or yes indeed exists or my wishes The path of God The Gods path or those following Gods path That is it or Together Always Do not let the soul or spirit I am the follower Him is the king You are the king or he is follower of King Him is your king System or old flour mill Operator of system Am Gods operator or messenger of God Operator of pain or relieving pain and suffering Is an honor or indeed the system exist This candle or this light This king coming in your place This gift in this place Exist Wake up get out from your place Lawlessness For you For you goodness to do this is an honor To do this or to say this Ha, it is a with sound like ha To follow this path will give us pain and suffering We are the follower of God Have respect
25

urvnem m gair voh dad hathr manangh ashshc shyaothananm vdush mazd ahurahy avat isi tavc avat xsi ash ashahy.

For me oh my soul you are driving me For him within this head will stay forever This gift worth to worship who give me my soul Holiness is the path of God This for you is normal to do your will in this place For you goodness to do this is an honor

24

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey nm D Dadat Dad Daidt Driguby Dazd Brought Manasc Man You justice or Answered my pray or our prayer Coming from Come to an end From that door come God To be stolen or your mind thinks differently or do not let lie leak into your brain To become pro God Manyush Mazd Mazdi M N Naz Nem Nem Nemangh

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge die For me in this place My God meaning good God or Good Thought Stay in with my soul Great holy God Pro great holy God Make me

Dvi F Fer G Gair Gth (G-th)

A lot (Hu) Pair-jasi Pourvm R Rafedhri Rafedhrahy Rapat Ratush

Love or happiness Half or name Name of God The thing will die or every things is not going to last forever

Gurvin Gushc H Ha Hac Hathr Hyat hyatc Hyat ashi Hu H (Haw, aw, awin) I Isi J Jasat M Maiby Man Manangh Manangh

To move or function Song of prophet Zoroaster which is meaning This is it or this is the saying Say it repeatedly over and over I am hearing and accepting your call

It is meaning invisible God, good God you think about, true God Aged person I am follower

In this In this place This Head Indeed or for sure or life Indeed it is good life in this place Indeed you are king Another name for God Him or her or them

The God is peace giver and take pain from you Indeed God can relive pain and suffering or God is happiness giver too Can be removed only by God Path for your soul or the God is your spirit to guide you for your path

Normal

S Shtrahe Shyaothan Shyaothnem Shyao Shyaothananm

Smart, brilliant Worth to worship Worth my praise Worth or value The one worth to be worshiped by all of us Indeed there are Enlighten Enlighten

To the time you live meaning death too Spetahy Spet Come to us God or join God with us Me Live forever The God will live forever or God never
26

T Tavc Thnem

To do your will in this place Worship that name


27

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Th U Ufyn Urvnem Usht Usht ast Usht ahmi Ustnazast The Letter and him or her too Live for ever My spirit, my soul Your are the spirit, or conscious Indeed you are the Spirit You are the spirit of all Indeed you are the master of love and happiness God (Ya) (Ya-ha) s (Ya-ee) i avat isi (a-vat- isi) aiby ish ath nm im Z Zarathushtrahe (zara-th-u-shtrahe) Zara Zavg Zhaon

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

V Va V V V Vo (Boo) Vohu Vac (Vagu) Vac Vairy Vanghush (Va-ngh-ush) Vahishti Vahishtem Vahishtem ast Varedait Vstrem Vdush Vspg Voh X Xratm Xshathremc Xshnevsh Xsi Xvthr

The The In Come For For God Meaning speak or word The implementation of Gods good word Bring us God Do not let the spirit One who live in the haven or very kind My heaven You are my heaven Continue on this path to the end To heal me from illness or terrible Give me my soul Come as enlightens For him or this is for all of you

Kind pointing or referring to unknown, meaning This, Him, Her, He, She Yes As you can see Me Oh This for you is normal Come to us God This pain Here it is This is what I brought For us

Zoroaster, his name is meaning that he is gold and he is wise Gold, diamond or jewellery Birth or born Tongue

I am follower of your path Him my king of kings here in this place Happiness giver or good writer Goodness or doing good thing Your depression, suffocation or hopelessness

Y Yatha Yatha Ahu Yath

Law Laws of God Laws or here it is


28 29

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Numbering of the Avesta and Sanskrit (saskt, summed up)

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Behistun cuneiform inscriptions The numbering system in the language of Avesta and Sanskrit (saskt, meaning summed up) is a refined speech, it is a historical language. However for a long time it has been called an Indo-Aryan language by Western scholars in favor of the Jewish perspective. This language is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and a literary and scholarly language in Buddhism and Jainism. Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand. Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Aryan (Indo-European) studies. The Achaemenid kings left extensive cuneiform inscriptions in Ancient Aryan, (scholars working to divide Aryan people called it old Persian on purpose to confuse readers), dated roughly between 600 BCE and 300 BCE. They also left ruins which have been described as the most grandiose of the ancient world. While it is by no means certain that they were orthodox Zoroastrians, the majority opinion among scholars is that this is very likely. One of the strongest arguments for this is the frequent mention of Ahura Mazda in the inscriptions, which is almost certainly an innovation of Zarathushtra's. Their religion is also described by Herodotus in sufficient detail to leave little doubt that they were basically Zoroastrian. European discovery of the 2500 year old Aryan languages (Kurdish, Elamite, Persian and others) on the Behistun monument led to re-examination of its meaning, some of which is translated below from the Behistun (Behishtan) cuneiform inscriptions to the Kurmanji Kurdish Alphabet for your information. Dear reader Please let me know if you find anything wrong or you do not agree with the meaning of words. Write me and I will communicate with you to fix any errors you might find. I appreciate any assistance to make the document understandable and enjoyable for the people to read. Hamma Mirwaisi Note In Darius, Behishtan (DB), Column 4, number 89 below: He is saying I used Aryan language in my inscriptions writing. 88 m : taumm : uba(r)tm : paribar : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : vashn : Au Protect well the family of these men, because they helped me against those separated from my path, praise upon him, Darius, he is king and law giver, by the favor of, 89 ramazdha : i(ya)m : dipmaiy : ty(m) : adam : akunavam : patisham : ariy : ha : ut : pavast Auramazd (God), this is the inscription which I made, among us, mankind, there are those who are not wise, our reward is written, in Aryan language, alert, as known, it is on clay tablets and on parchment it was composed,

Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Avesta aua Dua Thri athwar Pana xShuash Sapt Ashta Naua Dasa

Sanskrit (saskt) ka Du Tri atuar Pana Shash Hapta Ashta Nua Dsa

30

31

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey From Behistun cuneiform inscriptions to the Kurmanji Kurdish Alphabet Dear reader I am so excited with my findings which might resolve the differences between Kurds, Persian, Elamites and other branches within our Airyanem Vaejah nations. Please read and understand our old language. Yes indeed we have one common language, called Airyanem Vaejah language of Prophet Zoroaster and the Holy Book of Avesta. The alphabet of the Kurmanji Kurdish dialect contains 31 letters below: A, B, C, , D, E, , F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, , T, U, , V, W, X, Y, Z a, b, c, , d, e, , f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, , t, u, , v, w, x, y, z But our old Airyanem Vaejah language does not have the letters (Q, E, , O and W) in the Emperor Darius the Greats Behishtan inscriptions, there are letters for sh and th like English, using two letters for one sound. The alphabet of the Airyanem Vaejah language contains 29 letters below without Q of Arabic: A, , B, C, , D, F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, P, R, S, SH, T, TH, U, , V, X, Y, Z a, , b, c, , d, f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, sh, t, th, u, , v, x, y, z My work on the translations of text to English is written below each line with the meaning of each word. Please let me know if you think that the words meanings are different. I will look at it and change the words after we agree. Please extend assistance to those publications that are supporting the education of our people for the introduction of a true democratic system to implement beneficial changes in the lives of all our peoples without intimidation and use of force. They are truly serving our nations cause. We do need to get united; I hope my work will be one of the foundations for our union as one nation, as we were during the time of the Median and Achaemenid Empires, and throughout the time of the Parthian and Sassanid Empires too. Long live our struggle for peace and freedom. Alphabet and Word A A Abara Abavam (A-Bava-m) Abaram (A-bara-m, aun barie-mi) Abarat (A-bara-t) Abava-tya Abava Abicarish (Abi-car-ish) Abish Abiy Adakaiy (ada-kaiy) Adam Adamshim (Adam-shi-m) Adamshm Adamshaiy (Adam-shaiy) Adarshnaush (A-da-rsh-na-ush) Adn (A-d-n) Adnam (A-d-nam) Adurujiya (a-du-ru-jiya)

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Word Translation for Behistun Cuneiform Inscriptions by Hamma MirwaisiI Aug1-2010 Revision (taken from the trilingual inscription on the face of a gorge beneath a panel of sculptures) Based on Roland G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953 See UC Berkeley site for an Old Persian syllabary Darius, Behishtan (DB), Column 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Darius, Behishtan (DB), Column 1:

Adurujiyasha (A-du-ru-jiya-sha) Adn (A-d-n) Adraya (a-d-raya)


32

Meaning in English Is like the a in father and balm, IPA [A], as in bav [bAv] father. I, him, that Bring that or before that Those against me or the one want to fight us Bring that for us or bring him for me Brought that for you This is danger or could be a war It is fire, do not touch, fight, war The declaration of war, some time becomes headache or pain or fight He is fighting Used to be He claim or do his job or implemented his duty Mankind, humankind, people Human king Our human king or he is our king He used to be our king It is the dark thinker Look alike or the end or no longer exist He is gone, no longer alive He is liar, meaning the person is living as double face, which mean liar in that culture Deceived the king Otherwise Sea or River
33

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Adriya Agarbya (A-garbya) Agarbyat (A-garb-ya-t) Agarbyam (A-garb-ya-m) Agaubat (a-ga-u-ba-t) Agaubatkara (A-ga-u-ba-t-kara) Ahatiy (A-ha-tiy) Ahyy (Ahy-y) Aishtat (A-ish-ta-t) Aita Aja (ajawiah) Ajanam (aja-na-m) Ajavasiy (Aja-vasiy) Akariyat (Aka-riya-t) Akum (A-kum) Akunaush (Ak-u-na-ush) Akunavat (Ak-u-na-va-t) Akunavayat (Ak-u-na-vaya-t) Akuravam (Ak-u-ra-vam) Akut (Ak-u-t) Akunavam (Ak-u-na vam) Amahy Amariyat (Amariya-t) Door or front of the door or pathway I arrested him or I took him as prisoner He seized the kingdom I arrested him for us or prisoner Army or Military personal or those listening to you The person working for you His wish is Those was possible for me to do Standing up right there, ready to fight you Here The one creating disturbance The disturbance are gone The disturbance are stopped Came back to our right path As all or in group he was not knowledgeable or not wise He is not with you He is not with you, he is ruling in your name There are people know the right path Now he is with you He was not wise All of you The person is dead, the person give his life for you, the statement means word die This did not come Stay where you are We are worry We are worry for you Come for us I not stop or continue with Bring him or he did not want to come Bring him to me or brought to him Name of the month, meaning eat from other houses month, for religion
34

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge purpose Otherwise or those say no to him Enemies or those say no to me He is not come from royal family Brought in Brought him He brought us He brought that Enjoyed Located by Drink for that Do not conceal, those I have done or those done you see Do not conceal, those are my accomplishment I will ask him or I will straighten him out Begging me It is full for us, there are a lot among us or that page of our history Indeed there are a lot among us He is my leader or he is our leader I Arrived or related to Name of person Evil, not straight, wrong, shameful He run away not good Aryan Ariaramnes name of person, meaning Aryan is mine Arsames name of person, meaning our royal court My court horse Fear or powerful Run on the hours the fighter or horseman I took off The people you know or to be friend Went away Stop or stopped Farther, what else Afraid
35

Aniya Aniyahy (Aniya-hy) Aniyashciy (A-niya-shciy) Aniy Aniyha Aniyam Aniyuv Anushiy Anuv Anushiya (A-nushiya) Apagaudaya (A-pa-ga-u-dya) Apagaudayhy (A-pa-ga-u-day-hy) Aparsam (A-pa-rsam) Apariyya Aparam (A-para-m) Aparamhy (a-para-m-hy) Arbairy (A-rbair-y) Arasam (a-rasa-m) Arakadrish Arika (A-rika) Arik (A-ri-k) Ariy Ariyramna (Ariy-ra-mna) Arshmahy (Arsh-ma-hy) Arshtm (Arsht-m) Asab Asam Asabraibish (Asab-rai-b-ish) Ashiyavam (Ashiya-va-m) Ashnaiy Ashiyava Astiy Atar Atarsa

Amnaiya (A-m-naiya) Amnaya Amxam (Am-xam) Amxam-taum Amiy Amutha (am-u-tha) Anaya Anayat (Anaya-t) Anmakahya (A-nmaka-hya)

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Athahya (atha-hya) Athaha (Atha-ha) Athaham (Athaha-m) Athiy Athury Atiyish (A-tiy-ish) Auramazdmaiy Auzamazd (A-u-zamazd) Ava Avam (A-va-m) Avadashim (av-adashim) Avadasha Avad Avadashish (A-va-da-shish) Avahyardiy (Avah-yar-diy) Avahy Avaharda (Ava-ha-rda) Avah Avaiy Avataiy Avaina (Avai-na) Avajam (Ava-ja-m) Avaishm (Avai-shm) Avam Avamshm (A-va-m-sh-m) Avapar (Ava-par) Avath Avathshat (A-vath-sha-t) Avathshaiy (Avath-shaiy) Avathshm (Avath-sh-m) Avathdish (Avath-d-ish) Avayj Ava Av Avja Avjanam (A-v-ja-na-m) Avkanam Avjaniy (A-vjani-y) There are outlaws or outlaws do exist He is outlaw He is outlaw for us Outlaw Assyrian He come for fight Believe in God He is the injured one That, or Right now Then us I say Declaring to be King As it is Barbequed him The one who helped There are this To that extend or to this point That is Happened or those What you shall do Not that or not acceptable He was alive Become our King Wise or understand Appointed him as our King Falling apart As you can see or right now As you can see he is your king He decleared himself King or now he is royal Our appointed King Our enemy or animosity He is saying As long As long as He is alive He is not alive or I killed him camel there are rumor or people are hearing or I hear
36

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge Avstyam (Avst) Avrasam (A-v-rasa-m) Ayadiya Azd iydiyahya (-iy-diya) Our holy book That is right to us He do remember or worship Free sound like Ha or when it is in the end of the word sound like H Name of the month- means the people went to villages back from mountain Arrest him or seized Loyal or he return not with seperatist Alert or Sound of attentions Here is the list or here it is He was Income or this happened Life or water Attack Attacked us Everyone is for you or the entire people are your supporter Now he is Jumped or brought to an end Give it to it or water carried them away that name There are few or one person In this time or avoiding you

garbta(-gar-b-ta) gariya (-gariya, hogar) ha ham (-ham) hata hat (-hat, di-hait) hyat ish (harish) isha mt (m-t) nm (han-ham) piy pidhim vahanam (vaha-na-m) yadan (ya-dan) yasat (ya-sat) B Badaka Badak (Ba-da-k) Bagha Baratiy Bardiya Bardiyam Basta Biya Biy Brt

My subject or loyal to me My subject or loyal subject Say to or saying or promise Before you come Smerdis son of Cyrus the Great Our Smerdis Tied him down or is under arrest Come Abundance (a lot) Brother
37

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Bxtriy (Bxt-riy) Bgaydaish (Bga-ydaish) Bjim Baxtria province Name of the month (meaning remember the occasions) I say, do you want me to say Dipim Drauga (Drau-ga) Draugam Draug (Drau-g) Draujana (liars) Drauj Dausht (Da-ush-t) Eye His eye, our eye To be royal Teispes name of person, meaning his place is ahead Place seeker or power hungry or taking other people places In that place or in his place My declarations Thieve or declarations to stand up against you your place was my desire Sound like Ch Road robbers Dish (now known as dij) Dipiy Dipmaiy Dtam Duruv Duruxtam (Du-ru-xta-m) Duvitya Duvityam (Du-vitya-m) Duvitymca (Du-vity-m-ca) Duivityam (Du-i-vitya-m) Duvitparanam (Du-vi-t-para-nam) Drayavaush Draya Draymiy (Dray-miy) Dt Duvaraymaiy (Du-va-ra-y-maiy) F Fraharavam (Fra-hara-va-m)

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge Give us or Behold for us Lie or tell lie Lied to us Those who are talking about your saying or in other words liars Telling lie Lie Be careful of him or keep him in mind Rebellious or enemy So the thing wont come to an end or inscribed Our inscription See or we saw Double face Double face and betray us For the second time For the second time for us For the second time here in this place For me, it happened second time Two came from him as famous Darius-Name of person, meaning the person possess sea of knowledge Sea My wealth Now is yours In our road

C Casha Casham Cishciy (Ci-shciy) Cishpish (Cish-pish) Caxriy (Ca-xriy) Cit (Ci-t) Carm Cartanaiy (Car-tanaiy) Citmm (Ci-t-m-m) ityam (it-yam) D Dahyauv Dahyushuv (Dahy-u-sh-u-v) Dahyauvvasiy (Dahya-u-v-vasiy) Dahyush Dahyva (Dahy-va) Dahyvatyan (Dahy-va-t-yan) Dahyushmaiy (Dahy-ush-maiy) Dahynm (dahy-n-m, dahie aun ham) Dapata Dargam (Dar-ga-m) Darsham (Da-rsha-m)

His desire is that His desire were known very well His desire is stoppened The land of ancestor or his region Countries, provinces Asking you for justice You are in our mind or thought His father is Rose up or revolt Our door It is evil doing for us or we are suspicious of him or we are not believing him Handed to me Region or location or falling into that location Our region
38

The total of my or a lot and a lot of my Foremost, not very loyal or sold us out Not very loyal to our path Name of Median Empire second king, which is meaning he will hurt you a lot Savior or the one you go to when you have problem in life More his life was for us Servant My servant
39

Fratam (Fra-ta-m) Frataram (Fra-ta-ra-m) Fravartish (Fra-va-rtish)

Frbara Frhajam Frishaya Frishayam

Dastay (dasta-y) Did Didm (Di-d-m)

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Frjanam (Fr-jana-m) Frnayam (Fr-naya-m) Frstyam (fr-stya-m) G Garma Garmapadahya (Garma-pa-da-hya) Gaithmc (gaith-m-c) Gaubataiy (Ga-u-ba-taiy) Gaubtaiy Gthav Grathit (G-ra-thit) Gaumta Gush Gaush H Hac (Ha-c) Hacma (ancam darai) Had Hadugm (Ha-dug-m) Haijy (Ha-i-jy) Hagmati (Ha-gmati) Hamaranam Hamapit Hamadrayaiy (Hama-d-rayaiy) Hamataxshat (Hama-ta-xsha-t) Hamtaxshat Hamataxshta (Hama-ta-x-sh-ta) Hamataxshaiy (Hama-ta-xshaiy) Hamahyy (Hama-hy-y) Hurt him more It is not a lot for us Send it off every where Hagmatnaiy (today Hamadan-Iran) Hagmatparait (Hagma-t-parait) Warm Warm giver Our Prophets messages we follow Military (The one listen to you or The one take your order) Military personal The word of prophet Zoroaster Are about the truth Name of person Ear His ears Haiiy Hamt (Ham-t) Hmiiya (Hmi-iya) Hamiiy (Hami-iy) Hainaranam (Hai-na-ra-na-m) Harauvatim (Ha-ra-u-va-t-i-m) Harauvatish (Hara-u-va-tish) Hatiy Haruva (Ha-r-u-va) Haruvashim (Ha-r-u-va-shim) Hashiyam (Ha-shiyam) Hauv Hauvmaiy (Ha-u-v-maiy) Hauvam Hauvamid (Hau-va-mi-d) Haxmanish (Ha-xma-nish) Haxmanishiya Haznam (Ha-z-na-m) Hya Hyashm Hyashaiy (Hya-shaiy) Hy (paruviyata :hy) Hyparam (Hy-pa-ra-m) I I Hamiiyaibish (Hami-iyai-b-ish) hagmat

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge All joined military or all join the war Gathered together, Military, or rebel People from Hagmatna The military fall apart and deserting you Everyone went All for you The entire people gone or join others The entire people joined him Now there are no other way for him His path is for me and us Anyone followed his path will get hurt Included or it is here with in The path he take I follow his path or I follow king path He do not like or upset with you He was or he has Belong to me Him for us Belong to us now Achaemen - name of person, he does not have any worry Achaemenian the place where the people of Achaemenian live. Noise, his noise, our noise Now Now he is our King Came from royal family Right now, or to have or to exist There are some following our path

Hamiiva (Hami-i-va) Hamiiyam (hami-iya-m)

In this place In every place of ours Over there or then They are talking about us Come to existence or have been implemented by me Meeting Chased all of them out from the area Son of all All wealth, give to him Those who co-operated with me or everone like you The people were united and they worked upon Co-operated with my house, they like me and my family Betrayed all of you I accomplished everything or whatever are there is my accomplisment Everyone went to him Every one left us
40

im

is like the i in bit, IPA [I] as in dil [dIl] heart; in clo-syllables ending in m, i is often pronounced as a close central unrounded vowel [], i.e., as in vedixwim [vQdIxwm] I drink. This is the
41

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Imaiv (i-mai-v) Imaiy Imaishm (Imai-sh-m) Imatya (Ima-tya) Id Ima Im Imm (i-m-m) Iyam Inscribed Those Came as our king This in it or this what was Implement or to perform the duty or right now This one This is mine or came to me Yes it is my desire or this for me This is mine or now a day Kr Kunautuv! (Ku-na-u-tuv) Kunavhy (Ku-na-vhy) Kraush (K-raush)

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge Work or the start on the road May prolong your life or make successful May you live long Cyrus. The true name of Cyrus means he is like behavior or deed, it come from the Zoroastrianism religion principle of Good deed

L M Magush (mag-ush)

J jadiy jat Jiyamnam ( jiya-m-na-m) Jv J Jvahy (J-va-hy)

Like the ee in beet, IPA [i], as in nv [niv] half. Living over there or rumor Live for you or punish him Our life not left for us Open or alive Live As long as you are alive or we have life

Maiy Mashkuv (Mashk-uv) Maniy Maniyhay (Maniy-hay) Maniyhaiy (Maniy-haiy) Maniytaiy (Maniy-taiy) Man Man Frbara Marshiyush Martiya Martiyaibish (Martiyai-b-ish) Martiy Martiynm (Martiy-n-m) Mathishta (Ma-th-ish-ta) Mathishtam (Ma-th-ishta-m) Mathishtashm (Ma-th-ishta-shm) Mdaibish (Mdai-b-ish) Mdaishuva Mhy Mm (M-m) My Mniyamc (M-niya-m-c) Mrush (M-rush)

Magi (Magian) or wise man, those who are saying things with knowledge, theologians, religion philosopher, deep thinker come Inflated animal skin Is there anything left There are some thing left from them They left came to me Those left from it For us he is my savior Sword or other weapon Man or that fellow or that man Fighter man Dead The men are dead They killed him They elected him as chief and leader He is chief appointed by king Brought pain to Median or fight Median Median should hurt him Month My desire or for us Came Left for us from the past good knowledge
43

K Kabjiya Kamnaibish (Kamnai-b-ish) Kamnam Kartam (karam-tamam-shoud) Kashciy (Ka-shciy) Kiramavafi (Kira-ma-va-fi) Kaufa Kma (k-ma) Kra Krahy Krahynaiy Kram Krashim (K-rash-i-m)

Cambyses son of Cyrus the great it is meaning born for life Fighter, those who are using (arrow and bow to fight) Not famous or small group Our work is done You come from royal family or you have royal place Making false claim Cave Not too much That work If there are ways to take action Have work to do, do not come or Not free to express the opinions Our work His work for us
42

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Mtya (M-tya) Mtyamm (M-tya-mm) N Naimaiy (Nai-maiy) Naishim (Nai-shim) Naiy Naiydish (Naiy-d-ish) Nap Navama Nijyam (Ni-j-ya-m) Nikatuv (Ni-katuv) Nipadiy (Ni-pa-diy) Nipishtam (Nipish-tam) Niya Niyapaisham (Niya-paisha-m) Among them, or some of them Came for us or come for our people Paishiyuvdy (Paishiy-u-v-dy) Paishiy Paishiyuvdm Parait Parashim (Pa-ra-shim) Paribar (Pa-ri-bar) Paribarhadish (Pa-ribar-ha-dish) Parbartam (Pa-r-bar-ta-m) Pars Paruviyata (paru-viya-ta) Paruvam (Paru-va-m) Paruv Paruv (Pa-ru-v) Parbara (Pa-r-bara) Parrasa (Pa-r-rasa) Pasva Pasvashaiy (Pas-va-shaiy) Pasvashim (pas-va-shim) Patish Patisham (Patisha-m) Patishamaiy Patiparstiy (Pati-pars-tiy) Patiyabaram (patiya-ba-ra-m) Patiyafrasiya (Patiya-fra-siya) Paishiyuvdy (Paishiy-u-v-dy) Pit (Pesar) Patiy Patiyvahyaiy (Patiy-va-hyaiy) Patikar (Pati-kar) Patikaram Patipadam (Pati-pa-da-m) Patiparshy (Pati-pa-r-shy) Patipayauv (Pati-paya-u-v) Patiyduvityam (Patiy-du-vitya-m)
44

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge His job is preacher His job His job is to preach for us Separated or revolted Our leader Anti leadership Strive to lead us Persian Your follower We are follower follow The one followed or Former let it take it, river take the tree They are rescuing us, or to rescue them After that After that a royalty After that my King Payback could be in good way or bad way, separatist fighter Our reward as Came as my reward in this inscriptions or answer our questions I brought back what had been taken away or separated from our path Inscription I sent off His past known as this Son Separate, split God bore me aid Sculptures Our Sculptures Give us that inscriptions or give him reward Inscriptions of our questions Pay your attentions to that separatist Again for second time
45

Niyapithiya (Niya-pi-thiya) Niyarayam (Niya-ra-ya-m) Nham Nviy (N-viy) Nm Nma Nram (N-ra-m) P Paranam (Pa-ra-nam) Paraidiy (Pa-ra-idiy) Paribarhy (Pa-ribar-hy) Pariy Paruv Paruvamciy (Paru-va-m-ciy) Paishiy

Not within or none of my family Excessive amount of work without pain for me Not Not to be destroyed or not be an enemy Descendent Dumb or unintelligent or those who does not understand Now the people can live Now is written Now he has disappeared, hide Inscriptions or wrote Not come Behold this inscription or do not neglect to be part of our suffering or it is not part of our behavior Not want to come under our protection We are without choice or not have choice Now us Not letting us to pass or not allowing us to cross the river Now us name Looking at the or my new path

Famous Give him authority Give him leadership Parted Follow him or Read We followed the teaching from him For the work he done

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Patiyisha (Patiy-isha) Patiyita (Patiyi-ta) Pua (Bachah) Prsaiy Pyam R Ragam (Ra-gam) Rauca Raucabish (Ra-u-ca-b-ish) Raucapativ (ra-u-ca-pativ) Rdiy S Shkaurim (Sh-ka-u-rim) T Taiy Tharda Taum (ta-u-m) Taumm Taumy (Ta-u-m-y) Taumytyaiy (Ta-u-m-y-tyaiy) Thigarcaish (Thi-gar-ca-ish) Tigrm (Ti-g-r-m) Reward Reward to him Son or Children Parsian or the Person is from Pars region Send him message My road or my path Was past or he gone from that place His path is hurting others meaning fighting and war Not following kings path or order in those places I give my permission or allow Ty Tym (ty-m) Tydish (Ty-d-ish)

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge Belong or among Get back to you You get hurt or the fight come to you The To this point Person from Sistan At that time He have Shadow for all (He have protection for all) To him what has been done They are listening to you Name of the month, meaning get up and go He have shadow or he have protection We are under your shadow (we are under your protection), the word on time became praise be up on you, in time it evolved to word is used to praise the leaders by public He is with us Name of the month, meaning Red on that road Thra is meaning red and meaning wedding too, in Kurdish language or honeymoon month Our appointed king (Tya-m-sh-m)

Th Thardam Thastanaiy (Thasta-naiy) Thakat (tha-kat) Thahymahy (tha-hy-mahy) Thadaytaiy (Tha-day-taiy) Thatagush (Thata-gush) Thuravahara (Th-u-ra-va-hara) Thhy

Thankful or thank them Thtiy (Sitay-ish) Come To this time or were possible You for us For you-us you come from them You came from them or We believe you are chosen one for us Name of the month Tigris River (in today Iraq). It is meaning the one on our path or the one cuting our road The one came from the family are not allowed to abuse others The thing you give us or to be acknowledged or we should understand, came For you Come among us Come with no or they do not want me What was done by me Trying to be king Come as our king
46

Thuvm (Th-u-v-m) Thravharahya (Thra-v-harahya)

Tyamshm U U

Tunuvatam (T-u-n-u-va-tam) Tuvam (T-u-vam) k

Tya Tyaiy Tyam (Tya-m) Tyan (Tya-n) Tya : man : kartam Tyaishaiy (tya-i-shaiy) Tyashm (Tya-sh-m)

Ubartam (U-barta-m) Ubartm (U-bart-m) Ucram (U-c-ra-m) Udapatati (U-da-patati) Udapatat (U-da-pata-t) Ufrtuv (U-fr-t-u-v) Ufrastam (U-fra-stam)

is like the u in put and bull, IPA [U], as in du [dU] two; the sequences gu and ku are pronounced by some as [gE] and [kE], particularly in closed syllables like gur wolf, pronounced either [gER] or [gUR]. Him I reward They should be rewarded by you He is on our path He is revolted He rose up or revolted the Euphrates River in Iraq Punished or he has lot of pain
47

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Ufrashtam (U-fra-sh-ta-m) He is serving you and us or him not like the king a lot or They sold us out or traitors He is coming to serve you or getting close to you or trying to be your friend He came for us as Outlaw or Hurt other Outlaw is not part of me or No one will be allowed by me to hurt others Stopped him before reaching you Stopped him before Him we tied down or stopped him He is for He is for all of us He is coming for us To cross the River to other side He wants to lead us as our king Knowledge or alert He have it for you, He is saying or as you known Whatever I can do or as you can see he come Those come from you or family Cut it off or shaved off or take it out Put him on fire or cut it off Give him to us or the payoff to my hard work From his own weapon, from his own hand Uvaxshtrahy (from Emperor Cyaxares family) These are the stuffed bodies of those separates from us. Vafi Vainhy (Vai-nhy)

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge False Vision or opened our eye or way to see Vardana (Var-dana) Vardanam (Va-r-dana-m) Varkna (Va-r-kna) Varnavatm (Va-r-na-va-t-m) Varnavtaiy (Va-r-na-v-taiy) Vartaiyaiy (Va-r-tai-yaiy) Vashna (Va-shna) Vashn Vasiy (Va-siy) Vaumisam (Va-u-misam) Vavam (Va-vam) Vayam (Va-ya-m) Vazraka Vikanhadish (Vi-ka-n-ha-d-ish) Vishtspahy (Vish-t-spahy) Vis Vitham (Vitha-m) Vithbishc (Vi-th-b-ish-c) Vithiy (Vi-thiy) Viyaka (Vi-yaka) Viyamarda Viyanthaya (Viya-n-thaya) Over there Over there us Moving The path is not dark or I am Convinced Not follow your path Same as your path or it is not false favor Favor or by the favor of almighty God Be to or happened to stop Stand against him Wise or smart For us Great Protect them to not be destroyed Hystaspes - name of Person, meaning the one who lead the Army Stop What comes from you You hurt others or you come to fight others The one with shadow or the one with protections Only one Come to the right path, I not have any protections for him or not want him to be under my protections Come to our road Name of the month, meaning come to home getting close to winter Digging it out or be destroyed Come to path

Ufrashtdiy (U-fra-sh-t-diy)

Umy (U-m-y) Upariy (U-pa-riy) Upariyyam (U-pa-riy-ya-m) Upastmabarayt Upastmabara Upastm (U-pa-stm) Up Upmm (U-p-m-m) Upyam (U-p-ya-m) Ushabrim (U-sha-b-rim) Uvpashiyam (U-v-pashiya-m) Ush Utava (U-ta-va) Ut (U-t) Utmaiy (U-t-maiy) Uttaiy (U-t-taiy) Utshaiy (U-t-shaiy) Utshim (U-t-shi-m) Uvadm Uvmarshiyush (U-v-marshiyush) Uvaxshtrahy or Cyaxares Uzmaypatiy (u-zmay-patiy)

Viyataraym (Viya-ta-ray-m) Viyaxnahya (Viya-xnahya) Vikanhy ((Vi-kan-hy) Viyatara (Viya-ta-ra)

(Aw)

IS like the oo in boot, IPA [u], as in bn [bun] to be.

X Xaudm Xshnstiy (xsh-n-s-tiy) They wear the pointed cap Bad from that time or violent for us or without happiness from that time
49

V Va
48

of

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Xshaam Xshapava (X-sha-pa-va) Xshaamshim Xshaapv (X-sha-a-p-v) Xshthiya (X-sh-thiya) Xshyatha (X-sh-yatha) Xshyathiya (X-sh-yathiya) Xshyathiy (X-sh-yathiy) Xshyathiy (X-sh-yathiy) Y Yady (Ya-d-y) Yadtaiy (Yad-taiy) Yadiy (Ya-diy) Yatha Yath Yathshm Ya Ye Y Ynam Yt (Y-t) yv Z Zurakara Zrakara Zra Zzna Vit it Du Iyam (i-ya-m, aiam) iyam : Mda iyam : Prsa
50

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge iyam : vja iyam : Parthava iyam : Sak : tigraxaud iyam : Bbirush iyam : Athuriya iyam : Maciy Prsa vja Bbirush Athur Sparda Yauna Mda Armina Katpatuka Arabya Mudrya tyaiy : drayahy Parthava Zraka Haraiva Uvrazmy Bxtrish Suguda Gadra Saka Thatagush Harauvatish Maciy This is the Elamite. This is the Parthian. This is the Scythian with pointed cap. This is the Babylonian. This is the Assyrian. This is the man of Maka. Persia Elam Babylonia Assyria Sardis Ionia Media Armenia Cappadocia Arabia Egypt (those) who are beside the sea Parthia Drangiana Aria Chorasmia Bactria Sogdiana Gandara Scythia Sattagydia Arachosia Maka

He is king for all or he is king we love him like our eye He is against king He is King of Kings He is King of the region He is King with protections He is king by law He is king and Law givers He is ruling by law He is king and have the laws

Right now Worship or to remember God Remind them, or let them to remember Law Right now, here it is Our Lawful King (Ya-th-sh-m) What Us Mine One God (Y-nam) For you or as you can see, This is or until That is

Abuser or using force against others Dictator or force against others A lot Zaza 2, second 3, Third 2 This person This is the Mede. This is the Pars.
51

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Word Translation for Behistun Cuneiform Inscriptions by Hamma MirwaisiI Aug1-2010 Revision (taken from the trilingual inscription on the face of a gorge beneath a panel of sculptures) Based on Roland G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953, See UC Berkeley site for Old Persian syllabary Aryan Text (It is called old Persian text to divide Aryan people) It was thanks to Darius the Great that we have been able to decipher the cuneiform script, which had fallen into even deeper oblivion than the Egyptian hieroglyphs. Darius King of Kings of Achaemenid Empire (549- 486 BCE)

Darius the Great was the man who destroyed unity amongst the Aryan people, which led them to internal wars and suffering for over 2500 years and the loss of most of their land to the Arabs and the Turks. However thanks go to Darius the Great for the composition of the cuneiform script that I, Hamma have been able to decipher. Otherwise it would have fallen into even deeper oblivion than the Egyptian hieroglyphs. But unfortunately today Kurds and Persians are enemies of one another because of this rulers mischief.
52 53

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey In spite of the part you played in the destruction of the magnificent Median Empire I hope that your legacy of the unified Aryan language will once more unite the Airyanem Vaejah people to re-claim their own land and their own past glory as one people under an Economic Union similar to the EU of Europe.

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Darius, Behishtan (DB), Columns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Darius, Behishtan (DB), Column 1: Taken from the trilingual inscription on the face of a gorge beneath a panel of sculptures Text: 1 : adam : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : vazraka : xshyatha : xshyathiy 2 nm : xshyathiya : Prsaiy : xshyathiya : dahynm : Visht 3 spahy : pua : Arshmahy nap : Haxmanishiya : thtiy : 4 Drayavaush : xshyathiya : man : pit : Vishtspa : Vishtspahy : pit : Arsh 5 ma : Arshmahy : pit : Ariyramna : Ariyramnahy : pit: Cishpish : Cishp 6 ish : pit : Haxmanish : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshthiya : avahyar 7 diy : vayam : Haxmanishiy : thahymahy : hac : paruviyata : mt : ama 8 hy hac : paruviyata :hy :amxam : taum : xshyathiy : ha : th 9 tiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : VIII : man : taumy : tyaiy : paruvam 10 xshyathiy : ha : adam navama : IX : duvitparanam : vavam : 7-8. us, is Achaemened, he have shadow for all of us in this place, everyone is for you in this place, they are your follower, We are worry for you, you for us are the lawful king, alert, we are under your shadow. 9-10. Darius is the King and law giver, there were 8 come from his family, for you we are follower, he is lawful king, alert, mankind, for those who are not wise, within 9 of them came two of them with fame and wise,
55

Translation: 1-3. Oh mankind, Darius is the king and law giver, he is Great, He is King by law, and he rules the country by law. Right now, he is king and law giver, he is Persian, he is King and law giver, his father is Hystaspes son of Arsames, descendent of Achaemenian, we are under his shadow (under his protection). 4-6. Darius is King and law giver, he is son of Hystaspes; Hystaspes' is son of Arsames; Arsames' is son of Ariaramnes; Ariaramnes' is son of Teispes; Teispes' is son of Achaemenes, we are under his shadow (under his protection), Darius is the king with shadow (with protection for all), the one helped

54

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey xshyathi as lawful King. : Drayava 21 ush : xshyathiya : atar : im : dahyva : martiya : hya : gariya : ha : avam : u 22 bartam : abaram : hya : arika : ha : avam : ufrastam : aparsam : vashn : Auramazd 23 ha : im : dahyva : tyan : man : dt : apariyya : yathshm : hacma : athah 24 ya : avath : akunavayat : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : Auramazd 25 maiy : ima xshaam : frbara : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : yt : ima : xshaam : 26 hamadrayaiy : vashn : Auramazdha : ima : xshaam : draymiy : th

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge against the king, not following kings order and laws separated in some places, those, are not belong to you. We are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, farther, comes, within these countries, the man who was loyal, alert, that one with us, him I rewarded well; we have evil one too, alert, him I will punish a lot and hurt him; straight him out, by the favor of Ahuramazda there are countries do not want me, now is mine, they are begging me, to include them for my Justice, in this place of mine, there are separatist, right now, they are not with you, we are all under your shadow. Darius is the King and law giver, Oh our Ahuramazda 25-26. he come for us, king for all, and protector, he is religious and believer of Ahuramazda, him was got hurt for you, he come for us, king for all, give him all the wealth, by the favor of Ahuramazda, he came for us king for all, he is our wealth, we are under his shadow. 27-35. Darius is the King and law giver, this is what was done by him afterward he became king. After that, according to laws, he is lawful king, the one went to war his name is Cambyses son of Cyrus, we are worry for him, him for us, served as king and law giver, alert, there are this, it is known that Cambyses, has brother by name of Bardiya, alert, all of them, are children of Cambyses, after that, Cambyses, as I understand Bardiya, is alive, and had work to do, he was not free, went to war and got killed by his brother Cambyses before went to Egypt, after that, Cambyses went to Egypt, after that, it was wrong doing, that was the war. Afterward, he lied, his desire is
57

11 y : amahy : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : vashn : Auramazd 12 ha : adam : xshyathiya : amiy : Auzamazd : xshaam : man : frbara : th 13 tiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : im : dahyva : ty : man : patiyisha : vashn 14 : Auramazdha : adamshm : xshyathiya : ham : Prsa : vja : Bbirush : A 15 thur : Arabya : Mudrya : tyaiy : drayahy : Sparda : Yauna : Mda : Armina : Kat 16 patuka : Parthava : Zraka : Haraiva : Uvrazmy : Bxtrish : Suguda : Gadra : Sa 17 ka : Thatagush : Harauvatish : Maka : fraharavam : dahyva : XXIII : thtiy : Dra 18 yavaush : xshyathiya : im : dahyva : ty : man : patiyita : vashn : Au 19 ramazdha : man : badak : hat : man : bjim : abarat : tyashm : hacma

11-12. all of you, we are under his shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, favor him, Oh Ahuramazda, mankind, he is king and law giver, came for us, oh Ahuramazda, as the king for all, he is our protector, we are all under his shadow. 13-16. Darius is the King and law giver, These are the countries which belong to me; it is my reward, by the favor of Ahuramazda, mankind-king, he is the king and law giver, here is the list, Persia, Elam, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, (those) who are beside the sea, Sardis, Ionia, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Chorasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana, Gandara, Scythia,

17-19. Sattagydia, Arachosia, Maka: total of the countries belong to me is, 23 provinces. We are all under his shadow. Darius is the King and law giver, these countries belong to me, as a reward; by the favor of Ahuramazda and my loyal subject; they bore tribute to me; I can say, they brought him to you, you come as our king, in every place of ours.

27 tiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : ima : tya : man : kartam : pasva : yath : xsh 28 yathiya : abavam : Kabjiya : nma : Kraush : pua : amxam : taumy 29 : hauvam : id : xshyathiya : ha : avahy : Kabjiyahy : br 30 t : Bardiya : nma : ha : hamt : hamapit : Kabjiyahy : pasva : Ka

20 : athahya : xshapava : raucapativ : ava : akunavayat : thtiy


56

20-24. There are some outlaws,

31 bjiya : avam : Bardiyam : avja

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey : yath : Kabjiya : Bardiyam : avja : krahy 32 : naiy : azd : abava : tya : Bardiya : avajata : pasva : Kabjiya : Mudryam 33 : ashiyava : yath : Kabjiya : Mudryam : ashiyava : pasva : kra : arika : abava 34 : pasva : drauga : dahyauv : vasiy : abava : ut : Prsaiy : ut : Mdaiy : ut 35 : aniyuv : dahyushuv : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : pa 36 sva : I martiya : magush : ha : Gaumta : nma : hauv : udapatat : hac : Paishi 37 yuvdy : Arakadrish : nma : kaufa : hac : avadasha : Viyaxnahya : mh 38 y : XIV : raucabish : thakat : ha : yadiy : udapatat : hauv : krahy : avath 36-38. Afterwards, there was one man, a Magian, alert, named Gaumata; he rose up separated, in that place, his job was a preacher, in the place by name of Arakadrish caves, In that place declared himself to be king, in the 14 days of the month of Viyaxnahya, his path was war, which is not good, alert, remember, He revolted, for that action he took, right now known. stopped, the country is in war, as you can see in Pars, Media, he brought that, and his desire is known. We are under his shadow; Darius is the king and law giver. 42 : agarbyat : Garmapadahya : mhy : IX : raucabish : thakat : ha : avath : xsha 43 am : agarbyat : pasva : Kabjiya : uvmarshiyush : amariyat : thtiy 44 : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : aita : xshaam : tya : Gaumta : hya : magush : adn 45 : Kabjiyam : aita : xshaam : hac : paruviyata : amxam : taumy : 46 ha : pasva : Gaumta : hya : adn : Kabjiyam : ut : Prsam : ut 47 : Mdam : ut : aniy : dahyva : hauv : yasat : uvpashiyam : akut : hau 48 v : xshyathiya : abava : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : naiy : ha : martiya : 49 naiy : Prsa : naiy : Mda : naiy : amxam : taumy : kashciy : hya : avam : Gau 50 mtam : tyam : magum : xshaam : dtam : caxriy : krashim : hac : darsham : a

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge 42-43. He seized the kingdom; in the month of Garmapadahya 9 days were past, his path lead to fighting, at that time, alert, you can see, he is king for all, he seized the kingdom. After that, Cambyses died by his own sward. We are all under your shadow 44-47. Darius is the King and law giver, here he is king for all, came Gaumata the Magian look alike Cambyses, here he is king for all, in this place, the people followed him, we are worry for you he came, alert, afterward, Gaumata the Magian is look alike Cambyses; you can see, Persia, Media and the other provinces, joined him at that time, he become leader instead of you, now

39 : adurujiya : adam : Bardiya : amiy : hya : Kraush : pua : Kabjiyahy : br 40 t : pasva : kra : haruva : hamiiya : abava : hac : Kabjiy : abiy : avam : 41 ashiyava : ut : Prsa : ut : Mda : ut : aniy : dahyva : xshaam : hauv

39-41. He lied, mankind, Bardiya came as Cyrus son and Cambyses brother." After that, work he did, the people became rebellious everywhere, fighting in this place, while we understand that Cambyses left, he come, as I understand, he is from royal family, as you can see, Persian, Median and the other provinces, he is king for all, right now

48-50. He is king and law giver, which is meaning war. We are all under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, do not come, alert, do not come, that man, neither a Persian nor a Mede, we are worry about you, you are coming from royal family, we understand, Gaumata the Magian came declared himself as king for all, we saw that was taking your place, his work for us, in this place, is evil doing.

51 tarsa : kram : vasiy : avjaniy : hya : paranam : Bardiyam : adn : avahyar 52 diy : kram : avjaniy : mtyamm : xshnstiy : tya : adam :

51-54. we are afraid of him, our work, stopped, there are rumor among us, that our famous Bardiya is here, otherwise, those helped, our work, was that rumor among us, came for us without happiness from that time, mankind did not come Bardiya the one
59

58

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey naiy : Bard 53 iya : amiy : hya : Kraush : pua : kashciy : naiy : adarshnaush : cishciy : thastana 54 iy : pariy : Gaumtam : tyam : magum : yt : adam : arasam : pasva : adam : Aura 55 maz(d)m : patiyvahyaiy : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : Bgaydaish : 56 mhy : X : raucabish : thakat : ha : avath :adam : had : kamnaibish : martiyaibi 57 sh : avam : Gaumtam : tyam : magum avjanam : ut : tyaishaiy : fratam : mar 58 tiy : anushiy : hat : Sikayauvatish : nm : did : Nisya : n 59 m : dahyush : Mdaiy : avadashim : avjanam : xshaamshim : adam : adnam : va 60 shn : Auramazdha : adam : xshyathiya : abavam : Auramazd : xshaam : man : fr 61 bara : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : xshaam : tya : hac : amxam ta 62 umy : parbartam : ha : ava : adam : patipadam : akunavam : adamshim : gtha 63 v : avstyam : yath : paruvamciy : avayj : adam : akuravam 60-65. By the favor of Ahuramazda, mankind, he is King and law giver, protect him from war Auramazd he is king for all, he is our savior, we are under his shadow. Darius is the king and law giver; he is king for all in this place, we are worry for you, he strive to lead us, alert, this, mankind, he give us that inscriptions, and there are people among us not very wise, he is our human king, believe gtha and our avst, laws, he is following in his rule, he is saying. Mankind There are people know the right path, there are few come like, Gaumta magian, only one,
60

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge : yadan 64 : ty : Gaumta : hya : magush : viyaka : adam : niyarayam : krahy : abi 65 carish : gaithmc : mniyamc : vithbishc : tydish : Gaumta : hya : 66 magush : adn : adam : kram : gthav : avstyam : Prsamc : Mdamc 67 : ut : aniy : dahyva : yath : paruvamciy : avath : adam : tya : parbarta 68 m : patiyabaram : vashn : Auramazdha : ima : adam : akunavam : adam : hamataxshaiy : 69 yt : vitham : tym : amxam : gthav : avstyam : yath : paruvamciy : 70 avath : adam : hamataxshaiy : vashn : Auramazdha : yath : Gaumta : hya : magu 71 sh : vitham : tym : amxam : naiy : parbara : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyath 72 iya : ima : tya : adam : akunavam : pasva : yath : xshyathiya : abavam : thtiy 73 : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : yath : adam : Gaumtam : tyam : magum avjanam : pa 74 sva : I martiya : ina : nma : Upadarmahy : pua : hauv : udapatat mankind, we did not have choice, we had work to do, some time is painful, following our gaith, left for us from the past, the one hurt you, you hurt him, there was Gaumta.

son of Cyrus, from royal family, there are no dark thinker, from royal family, This one is from Sistan, separatist, Gaumata the Magian came among us, until mankind, I came. After that, mankind I sought help from our Ahuramazda;

55-59. Ahuramazda bore me aid; to stop him and hurt him, before 10 th of the Bgaydaish Month, he was in his way at the time to start the fight, alert, you can see, mankind, then I with a few fighter went to fight him, I understand, Gaumata came among us, as Magian, we kiiled him, and now his crown is sold to me, and now he enjoyed the test of his death, this happened, in the fortress named Sikayauvatish, in district named Nisaya, in the province of Media. I took the kingdom from him. No longer will he say I am king for all, mankind, in the end.

66-71. the Magian no more, mankind my work is on the gtha and our avst, to be restored in the Pars and Media, here it is, brought back the countrys laws, to be followed, right now, mankind, he came strive to lead us, I brought back what had been taken away by the favor of Auramazdha, came, mankind, he was not wise, mankind, he betrayed all of you, Here you are, what come from you, is coming back to you, we are worry, that gtha and our avsts laws, are not followed, right now, mankind, he betrayed all of you, by the favor of Auramazdhas law, there was Gaumta the Magian what come from him, goes back to him, we are worry, you do not want to lead us, we are under your shadow, Darius is the king and rules by law.

72-81. come among us, people not wise, afterward, by the law, he is lawful king, but he have to fight outlaws, we are under his shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, by the law, mankind, Gaumtam came among us, magian, I slain him, afterwards one man, named Hachins, son of Upadarma -- he rose up in Elam, working, right now as outlaw, mankind, in Elam, he is king and law giver, come, after that,
61

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey : vjai 75 y : krahy : avath : athaha : adam : vjaiy : xshyathiya : amiy : pasva : v 76 jiy : hamiiy : abava : abiy : avam : inam : ashiyava : hauv : xshyathiya 77 abava : vjaiy : ut : I martiya : Bbiruviya : Naditabaira : nma : Ainairahy 78 : pua : hauv : udapatati : Bibirauv : kiram avafi : adurujiya : adam : Nab 79 ukudracara : amiy : hya : Nabunaitahy : pua : pasva : kra : hya : Bbiruviya 80 : haruva : abiy : avam : Naditabairam : ashiyava : Bbirush : hamiiya : abava : x 81 shaam : tya : Bbirauv : hauv : agarbyat : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshya 82 thiya : pasva : adam : frishayam : vjam : hauv : ina : basta : anayat : abiy : m 83 m : adamshim : avjanam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : pasva : adam : B 84 birum : ashiyavam : abiy : avam : Naditabairam : hya : Nabukudracara : agaubat 85 : kara : hya : Naditabairahy : entire Elami joined him, started the fight, he should understand, our Hchina, went away, he was king and law giver he fought us in Elam, And now another man, a Babylonian, named Naditabaira, son of Ainaira -- he rose up in Babylon; thus he deceived the people making false claim, a liar, mankind, he said "I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus." Afterwards, he had work, and the Babylonian people all went over to him, with understanding that he is Nidintu-Bel; went to Babylonia became rebellious; he seized the kingdom in Babylon and started the war, king for all, we arrested him, we are under your shadow. Darius is the king and law giver. Tigrm : adraya : avad : aishtat : ut 86 abish : nviy : ha : pasva : adam : kram : mashkuv : avkanam : aniyam : usha 87 brim : akunavam : aniyahy : asam : frnayam : Auramazdmaiy : upastm 88 : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : Tigrm : viyataraym : avad : avam : kram : 89 tyam : Naditabairahy : adam : ajanam : vasiy : iydiyahya : mhy : XXVI : rau 90 cabish : thakat : ha : avath : hamaranam : akum : thtiy : Drayavaush : x 91 shyathiya : pasva : adam : Bbirum : ashiyavam : athiy : Bbirum : yath : naiy : up 92 yam : Zzna : nma : vardanam : anuv : Ufrtuv : avad : hauv : Nadita 93 baira : hya : Nabukudracara : agaubat : ish : had : kr : patish : mm : hamaranam : 94 cartanaiy : pasva hainaranam akum : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Aurama 95 zdha : kram : tyam : Naditabairahy : adam : ajanam : vasiy : aniya : piy : hyat : 96 pidhim : parbara : Anmakahya : mhy : II: raucibish : thakat : ha :

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge animal skin and camel-borne to cross the River, he was not smart, there are this thing, that we are not afraid of him, our Ahuramazda helped me to stop him and hurt him, bring him for me. By the favor of Ahuramazda, the Tigris River did not stop us, as it is, understand that my work, paid off, that army of Nidintu-Bel have been defeated exceedingly; mankind the disturbance are stopped, the month iydiya 26 days were past, then we fought the battle. Alert, as you can see, we defeated his group and chased them out from the area, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the king and law giver.

82-90. Afterward, mankind, I sent one of my servant to Elam. They arrested Hachina and brought him to our king; he used to be our local king, we slew him, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, Afterward, mankind, he took off went to Babylon, as I understand, that Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar. The army of NidintuBel held the Tigris River; as it is, he is ready to fight him, as you can see, he is fighting, not letting us to pass, alert, afterward, mankind, we used, inflated
62

91-96. Afterward, mankind, I went off to our Babylon, the revolt of Babylon, was not lawful, he did not come after us, When I had arrived at town named Zazana, we drive them out of that area, beside the Euphrates River- there this Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar came with an army, attacking, then our rewarded was to drive them all out of the area, those road robber. Afterward, there are no other way for them as a group, thereupon we Joined battle; now with the help of our Ahuramazda, we stopped them and hurt them, on other side; by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote that army of Nidintu-Bel exceedingly. Mankind, the disturbance are stopped, we brought them, The rest was jumped into the water, we give them to water, and the water carried it away. This happened in the month of Anmaka 2 days were past, his path was wrong led to fight then, alert, as
63

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey avath : hamaranam akum you can see, we chased them all out, as a group.

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

DB, COLUMN 2: Text: 1 : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : pasva : Naditabaira : ha 2 d : kamnaibish : asabraibish : amutha : Bbirum : ashiya 3 va : pasva : adam : Bbirum : ashiyavam : vashn : Auramazdha : ut B 4 birum : agarbyam : ut : avam : Naditabairam : agarbyam : pasva : ava 5 m : Naditabairam : adam : Bbirauv : avjanam : thtiy : Drayavaush : x 6 shyathiya : yt : adam : Babirauv : ham : im : dahyva : ty : hacma : ha 7 miiy : abava : Prsa : vja : Mda : Athur : Mudrya : Parthava : Margush : Tha 8 tagush : Saka : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : I martiya : Martiya : n 9 ma : Cicixrish : pua : Kuganak : nma : vardanam : Prsaiy : avad : adraya : 10 hauv : udapatat : vjaiy : krahy : avath : athaha : adam : Imanish : amiy : 11 vjaiy : xshyathiya : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : adakaiy : 11-13. declaring himself as king and law giver, we are under his shadow, Darius is the King and law
65

Translation: 1-5. We are under his protection, Darius is the King and law giver, afterward that, Nidintu-Bel with a few horsemen fled; he did not stop and continue going to Babylon, afterward, mankind, we are going to Babylon, By the favor of Ahuramazda you can see, we seized Babylon and you can see as I understand, that Nidintu-Bel have been arrested as prisoner. And brought to me, after that, I slew that NidintuBel at Babylon. We are under his shadow, Darius

6-10. is the King and law giver, for you to see mankind Babylon is with the rest of country all of the provinces which became rebellious from me are: Persia, Elam, Media, Assyria, Egypt, Parthia, Margiana, Sattagydia, and Scythia. We are under his shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, one man, named Martiya, son of Cicixrish from a town named Kuganak, in the province of Persia He in this place, rose up against us. He is saying, he have work to do in Elam; as you can see, he is outlaw, mankind, he is calling himself Imanish of Elam

64

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey adam : ashna 12 iy : ham : abiy : vjam : pasva : hacma : atarsa : vjiy : avam : Marti 13 yam : agarbya : hyashm : mathishta : ha : utshim : avjana : thtiy : D 14 rayavaush : xshayathiya : I martiya : Fravartish : nma : Mda : hauv : udapatat 15 : Mdaiy : krahy : avath : athaha : adam : Xshathrita : amiy : Uvaxshtrah 16 y : taumy : pasva : kra : Mda : hya : uithpatiy : hauv : hacma : hamiiya : a 17 bava : abiy : avam : Fravartim : ashiyava : hauv : xshyathiya : abava : Mdaiy : 18 thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : kra : Prsa : ut : Mda : hya : up : mm : 19 ha : hauv : kamnam : ha : pasva : adam : kram : frishayam : Vidarna : nma : Prsa : man 20 : badaka : avamshm : mathishtam : akunavam : avathshm : athaham : parait : avam : k 21 ram : tyam : Mdam : jat : hya : man : naiy : gaubataiy : pasva : hauv : Vidarna : ha 22 d : kr : ashiyava : yath : Mdam : parrasa : Mrush : nma : giver, he is claiming, mankind, to be friend of king, and he will have Elam, afterward, in that place, Elamian people afraid of me; as I know, our man, seized him, for the king, e was chief of the fighter, alert, our king killed him, we are under your shadow. vardanam : M 23 daiy : avad : hamaranam : akunaush : had : Mdaibish : hya : Mdaishuva 24 : mathishta : ha : hauv : adakaiy : naiy : avad : ha : Auramazdmaiy : u 25 pastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram : t 26 yam : hamiiyam : aja : vasiy : Anmakahya : mhy : XXVII : raucabish : thakat 27 : ha : avathshm : hamaranam : kartam : pasva : hauv : kra : hya : man : Kapada : nm 28 : dahyush : Mdaiy : avad : mm : amnaiya : yt : adam : arasam : Mda 29 m : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : Ddarshish : nma : Arminiya : man 30 : badaka : avam : adam : frishayam : Arminam : avathshaiy : athaham : paraidiy : k 31 ra : hya : hamiiva : man : naiy : gaubataiy : avam : jadiy : pasva : Ddarshi 32 sh : ashiyava : yath : Arminam : parrasa : pasva : hamiiy : hagmati : parai 33 t : patish : Ddarshim : hamaranam : cartanaiy : Zzahya : nma

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge not smart, brought pain to Medes, Median is paying for his fight, he used to be their leader, alert, his claim did not come true, alert, by the favor of Ahuramazda stopped him and hurt him, bring him for me, by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly. The disturbances stopped as of the month Anmakahya 27 days were past, and then the battle was fought by them. Thereafter this army of mine, a district named Kapada, in Media -- there it waited for me until I arrived in Media.

14-17. Darius is the King and law giver, one man, named Phraortes, a Median -- he rose up in Media. He was working for me, right now he is outlaw, mankind; he is saying I am king of kings, coming from the family of Cyaxares. Thereafter he had work in Media, but now he separated, in that place, he became rebellious from me, and everyone went over to him. He became king in Media, and declared war, I understand, our Phraortes, went away, as king of kings leading the war in Media against us.

18-28. we are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, works, He is Persian and as you can see, he is Median too, he is for all of us, him was unknown, alert, afterward, mankind, my worker by name of Vidarna, Persian, loyal to me, him been appointed as local king of Media, he lead our military, now those separated from us are not wise, as you can see our local king, separated from as, revolted as I understand, our work in Media, belong to you, the army over there is not mine, afterward, belong to Vidarna right away, went to his work, to rebuild law and order in Media, very fast he reached town named Mrush, in Media -- there he joined battle with the Medes. He defeated the Medes, he was
66

29-37. we are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, An Armenian by name of Ddarshish, my loyal servant -- I sent him forth to our Armenia. I said to him: "the outlaws becoming king, separated working, everyone not with me anymore, including military personnel; I understand there are rumors, afterward, he is going forward, and thereupon Ddarsh marched off. To put the laws in our Armenia on right path, afterward, everyone is gone, meeting together those separated from us, the rebels assembled came out against our Ddarsh. A place named Zzahya, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. He defeated them all, they are not wise, our Ahuramazda bore me aid; to stop them and hurt them, by the favor of
67

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey : vahanam : A 34 rminiyaiy : avad : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : a 35 bara : vashn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram : tyam : hamiiyam : 36 aja : vasiy : Thravharahya : mhy : VIII : raucabish : thakat : ha : avath 37 shm : hamaranam : kartam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : patiy : duv 38 ityam : hamiiy : hagmat : parait : patish : Ddarshim : hamaranam : carta 39 naiy : Tigra : nm : did : Arminiyaiy : avad : hamaranam : akunava : A 40 uramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : man : a 41 vam : kram : tyam : hamiiyam : aja : vasiy : Thravharahya : mhy : XVIII 42 : raucabish : thakat : ha : avathshm : hamaranam : kartam : thtiy : Draya 43 vaush : xshyathiya : patiy : ityam : hamiiy : hagmat : parait : pat 44 ish : Ddarshim : hamaranam : cartanaiy : Uyam : nm : did : Ahuramazda my worker, as I understand they have to do our work, those rebelled against us, everywhere, stopped now; as of the month of Thravhara 8 days were past, then the battle was fought by them. Alert, you can see, our king defeated them all, the work is done, and we are under your shadow. Darius is the king and law giver, for the second time they separated. Arminiyaiy : a 45 vad : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Aurama 46 zdha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram : tyam : hamiiyam : aja : vasiy : Thigarca 47 ish : mhy : IX : raucabish : thakat : ha : avathshm : hamaranam : kartam : pasva 48 : Ddarshish : cit : mm : amnaya : Arminiyaiy : yt : adam : arasam : M 38-42. The entire separated people gathered again and came out against our Ddarsh to join battle. The thieve did not come, his name is Tigra, calling Armenia is our Armeniahe want to chase us out, he was not wise, Ahuramazda bore me aid; to stop him and hurt him, bring him for me, by the favor of Ahuramazda we have work to do, I understand, our work is those deserted us must stop now; as of the month Thravhara 18 days were past, then the battle was fought by them at that time. Alert, as you can see, our king defeated them all, we are under his shadow. 49 dam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : pasva : Vaumisa : nma : Prsa : man : ba 50 daka : avam : adam : frishayam : Arminam : avathshaiy : athaham : paraidiy : kra : 51 hya : hamiiya : man : naiy : gaubataiy : avam : jadiy : pasva : Vaumisa : a 52 shiyava : yath : Arminam : parrasa : pasva : hamiiy : hagmat : parait : pa 53 tish : Vaumisam hamaranam : cartanaiy : Izal : nm : dahyush : Athury 43-48. Darius is the King and law giver, separatist, road robbers, all went to mountain meeting gathering, the rebels assembled and came out against our Ddarsh to join battle. A fortress named Uyam, in Armenia -- there
68

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge they joined battle. They are not wise, Ahuramazda bore me aid to stop them and hurt them; bring them, by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly, the disturbances stopped, this happened in the month Thigarcaish 9 days were past, then the battle was fought by them. Alert, right now our King, defeated all of them, the work thereafter Ddarsh fighter, waited for me until I arrived in our Media.

54 : avad : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdmaiy : upastm abara : vashn : Au 55 ramazdha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram : tyam : hamiiyam : aja :

49-56 We are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, thereafter a Persian named Vaumisa, my loyal wise man and my servant, I sent forth to Armenia as local king. Thus I said to him, there are outlaws, separated, working against me, everywhere, their army is not loyal to me, I understand they are there, afterward Vaumisa went to reinstate laws in Armenia and rescue them, afterward, all of them gone to separatist meeting, they attacked, Vaumisa to join battle. A district named Izal, in Assyria there they joined battle, they are not smart. Ahuramazda bore me aid to stop them and hurt them; bring them, by the favor of Ahuramazda my army have work to do, I understand we have work to do, all of them run to mountains, the disturbances are stopped, this happened in the month Anmaka 15 days were past, then the battle was fought by them, alert, as you can see

69

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey vasiy : 56 Anmakahya : mhy : XV : raucabish : thakat : ha : avathshm : hamaranam : 57 kartam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : patiy : duvityam : ham 58 iiy : hagmat : parait : patish : Vaumisam : hamaranam : cartanaiy : Au 59 tiyra : nm : dahyush : Arminiyaiy : avad : hamaranam : akunava : 60 Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : ma 61 n : avam : kram : tyam : hamiiyam : aja : vasiy : Thravharahya : mh 62 y : jiyamnam : patiy : avathshm : hamaranam : kartam : pasva : Vaumisa 63 : cit : mm : amnaya : Arminiyiy : yt : adam : arasam : Mdam 64 : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : pasva : adam : nijyam : hac : 65 Bbiraush : ashiyavam : Mdam : yath : Mdam : parrasam : Kudurush : nma : 66 vardanam : Mdaiy : avad : hauv : Fravartish : hya : Mdaiy : xshyathiya :a 67 gaubat : ish : had : kr : 64-69. We are under your protection, and Darius is the king and law giver, thereafter, people can live in that place, I went away from Babylon and arrived in our Media. When I arrived in Media, a town named Kudurush, over there in Media -- there this Phraortes who called himself king and law giver in Media came with an army against me to join battle as separatist, everyone was with him, he declared war. Thereafter we joined battle, as hole. Ahuramazda bore me
70

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge patish : mm : hamaranam : cartanaiy : pasva hamarana 68 m : akum : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : kram aid stopped them and hurt them; bring them, by the favor of Ahuramazda that army of Phraortes I smote exceedingly; the disturbances stopped, in the month of Adukanaisha 25 days was past.

our king defeated them all.

57-63. Our work is done, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the king and law giver. Again for the second time everyone runs to mountains meeting, the rebels assembled and came out against Vaumisa to join battle, everyone joined declaring war. In the district named Autiyra, in Armenia -- there they joined battle, not wise. Ahuramazda bore me aid to stop them and hurt them; bring them, by the favor of Ahuramazda my army was working, I understand, that our work is to stop violence, this happened in the month Thravhara, our life not left for us, in hand of separatist, as you can see, our local king, defeated them. The work is done, after that, Vaumisa, waited for me in Armenia until I arrived in Media.

69 : tyam : Fravartaish : adam : ajanam : vasiy : Adukanaishahya : mhy : XXV : ra 70 ucabish : thakat : ha : avath : hamaranam : akum : thtiy : Drayavaush : x 71 shyathiya : pasva : hauv : Fravartish : had : kamnaibish : asabraibish : amutha : Ra 72 g : nm : dahyush : Mdaiy : avapar : ashiyava : pasva : adam : kram : f 73 rishayam : nipadiy : Fravartish : garbta : anayat : abiy : mm : ada 74 mshaiy : ut : nham : ut : gaush : ut : haznam : frjanam : utsha 75 iy : I casham : avajam : duvaraymaiy : basta : adriya : haruvashim : k 76 ra : avaina : pasvashim : Hagmatnaiy : uzmaypatiy : akunavam 77 : ut : martiy : tyaishaiy : fratam : anushiy : hat : avaiy : Ha 78 gmatnaiy : atar : didm : frhajam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xsh 79 yathiya : I martiya : Ciataxma : 70-76. Then we fought the battle, alert, right now, we defeated them all as a group, we are under his shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, thereafter this Phraortes with a few fighter and horsemen fled; to a district named Rag, in Media his forces fall apart, he went off. Thereafter, people were working for me, I sent an army in pursuit, he disappeared; Phraortes, seized, was led to me. He was suppose to be my local king, right now, I am, as you can see, cut off his ears, his nose, and take out one of his eye; he was alive, kept bound at my palace entrance path, where I was going to work, to see, Afterward I impaled him at Ecbatana; and the men who were his foremost followers, those at Ecbatana within the fortress I (flayed and) hung out (their hides, stuffed with straw) for people to see, he was not smart.

77-90. As you can see, he is dead, he sold out his kingdom to me, I enjoy that, for you people of Ecbatana, from now on, your welfare belong to me a lot. We are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, One
71

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey nma : Asagartiya hamiiya : : hauvmaiy : man named Ciataxma, a Sagartian -he became rebellious to me; thus he said to the people, "I am king in Sagartia, came from the family of Cyaxares." Thereupon I sent off a Persian and Median army; a Mede named Taxmaspda, my loyal subject - I made him chief of them. I said to them those who want to fight us, are stupid, you can see our local king, revolted from us, seperated, every one there are against me, his military as I understand ready to fight you, thereupon Taxmaspda with the army went off; he joined battle with Ciataxma who was without mind. Ahuramazda bore me aid to stop him and hurt him; bring him, by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army and took Ciataxma prisoner, was led to me. He was suppose to be my local king, right now, I am, as you can see, cut off his ears, his nose, and take out one of his eye; he was alive, kept bound at my palace entrance path, where I was going to work, to see, Afterward I impaled him; and the men who were his foremost followers ut : Var 93 kna : hamiiy : abava : hacma : Fravartaish : agaubat : Vishtspa : man : pit : ha 94 uv : Parthavaiy : ha : avam : kra : avaharda : hamiiya : abava : pasva : Vishtspa : 95 ashiyava : had : kr : hyashaiy : anushiya : ha : Vishpauztish : nma : varda 96 nam : Parthavaiy : avad : hamaranam : akunaush : had : Parthavaibish : Auramazdmaiy 97 : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : Vishtspa : avam : kram : tyam : hamiiya 98 m : aja : vasiy : Viyaxnahya : mhy : XXII : raucabish : thakat : ha : avathshm : hamaranam : kartam

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge done by me in Media. We are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, Parthia and Hyrcania became rebellious from me, called themselves (adherents) of Phraortes. Hystaspes my father -- he was in Parthia; him the people abandoned, became rebellious. Thereupon Hystaspes went forth with the army which was faithful to him. A town named Vishpauzt, in Parthia -- there he joined battle with the Parthians. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Viyaxna 22 days were past -then the battle was fought by them. Alert, as you can see our king dfeated them all, and the work is done.

80 abava : krahy : avath : athaha : adam : xshyathiya : amiy : Asagarta 81 iy : Uvaxshtrahy : taumy : pasva : adam : kram : Prsam : ut 82 : Mdam : frishayam : Taxmaspda : nma : Mda : man : badaka : avam 83 shm : mathishtam : akunavam : avathshm : athaham : parait : k 84 ram : hamiiyam : hya : man : naiy : gaubtaiy : avam : jat : pas 85 va : Taxmaspda : had : kr : ashiyava : hamaranam : akunaush : had 86 : Ciataxm : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramaz 87 dha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram : tyam : hamiiyam : aja : ut : C 88 iataxmam : agarbya : anaya : abiy : mm pasvashaiy : adam : ut : n 89 ham : ut : gaush : frjanam : utshaiy : I casham : avajam : duvaray 90 maiy : basta : adriya : haruvashim : kra : avaina : pasvashim Arbairy : 91 uzmaypatiy : akunavam : thatiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : ima : tya : ma 92 n : kartam : Mdaiy : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : Parthava :

91-98. I (flayed and) hung out (their hides, stuffed with straw) for people to see, he was not smart, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, this is what was
72 73

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey akunavat : pas DB, COLUMN 3: Text: 1 : thtiy : Drayavaush xshyathiya : pasva : adam : kra Translation: 1-8. We are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, after that I sent forth a Persian army to Hystaspes, from Raga. When this army came to Hystaspes, thereupon Hystaspes took that army (and) marched out. A town by name Patigrabana, in Parthia - there he joined battle with the rebels. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Garmapada 1 day was past -- then the battle was fought by them. Alert, our king defeated them all, the work is done. 13 va : adam : frishayam : Ddarshish : nma : Prsa : man : badaka : Bxtriy 14 : xshaapv : abiy : avam : avathshaiy : athaham : paraidiy : ava 15 m : kram : jadiy : hya : man : naiy : gaubataiy : pasva : Ddarshish : had : k 16 r : ashiyava : hamaranam : akunaush : had : Mrgavaibish : Auramazd 17 maiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram 18 : tyam : hamiiyam : aja : vasiy : iydiyahya : mhy : XXIII : raucabi 19 sh : thakat : ha : avathshm : hamaranam : kartam : thtiy : Drayavau 20 sh : xshyathiya : pasva : dahyush : man : abava : ima : tya : ma 9-16. We are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, after that the province became mine. That fight come to us and now, this is what was done by me in Parthia. We are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, A province named Margiana -- it became rebellious to me. One man named Frda, a Margian I understand he is wanted to fight us, he is not with us. Thereupon I sent forth against him a Persian named Ddarsh, my loyal subject, appointed him as satrap in Baxtria. He
74

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge understands that our local king is revolted as separatist, with his army After that, Dadarshi marched out with the army; he joined battle with the Margians. Ahuramazda.

2 m : Prsam : frishayam : abiy : Vishtspam : hac : Rag 3 y : yath : hauv : kra : parrasa : abiy : Vishtspam 4 : pasva : Vishtspa : yasat : avam : kram : ashiyava : Patigraba 5 n : nma : vardanam : Parthavaiy : avad : hamaranam : akunaush : had : 6 hamiiyaibish : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramaz 7 dha : Vishtspa : avam : kram : tyam : hamiiyam : aja : vasiy : Ga 8 rmapadahya : mhya : I : rauca : thakatam : ha : avathshm : hamaranam : ka 9 rtam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : pasva : dahyush : ma 10 n : abava : ima : tya : man : kartam : Parthavaiy : thtiy : Drayavau 11 sh : xshyathiya : Margush : nm : dahyush : hauvmaiy : hamiiy : abava 12 : I martiya : Frda : nma : Mrgava : avam : mathishtam :

17-21. Bore me aid to stop them and hurt them; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; the disturbances ended, of the month iydiya 23 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them. Alert, as you can see our king defeated them all, our work is done, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the king and law giver, afterward, the country fought me, is now mine, our work is done in Baxtria, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the king and law giver.

21 n : kartam : Bxtriy : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshya 22 thiya : I martiya : Vahyazdta : nma : Trav : nma : vardanam 23 : Yautiy : nm : dahyush : Prsaiy : avad : adraya : ha 24 uv : duivityam : udapatat : Prsaiy : krahy : avath 25 : athaha : adam : Bardiya : amiy :
75

22-28. One man named Vahyazda -a town named Trav, a district named Yautiy, in Persia -- there in that region. He made the second uprising in Persia. To the people he said thus: "I am Bardiya, the son of Cyrus." Thereupon the Persian army which (was) in the palace, (having come) from Anshan previously -- it became

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey hya : Kraush : pua : pasva 26 : kra : Prsa : hya : Vithpatiy : hac : Yady : frataram : ha 27 uv : hacma : hamiiya : abava : abiy : avam : Vahyazdta 28 m : ashiyava : hauv : xshyathiya : abava : Prsaiy : th 29 tiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : pasva : adam : kram : Prsa 30 m : ut : Mdam : frishayam : hya : up : mm : ha : Artavard 31 iya : nma Prsa : man : badaka : avamshm : mathishtam : aku 32 navam : hya : aniya : kra : Prsa : pas : man : ashiyava : M 33 dam : pasva : Artavardiya : had : kr : ashiyava : Prsam 34 : yath : Prsam : parrasa : Rax : nma : vardanam : Prsaiy : a 35 vad : hauv : Vahyazdta : hya : Bardiya : agaubat : ish : 36 had : kr : patish : Artavardiyam : hamaranam : cartanaiy : pas 37 va : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : va 38 shn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram : tyam : Vahya 39 zdtahya : aja : vasiy :
76

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge Thravharahya : mhy : XII : raucabish : thaka 40 t : ha : avathshm hamaranam : kartam : thtiy Drayavaush : xsyathi : :

rebellious from me, went over to that Vahyazd. He became king in Persia.

41 ya : pasva : hauv : Vahyazdta : had : kamnaibish : asabraibish : a 42 mutha : ashiyava : Paishiyuvdm : hac : avadasha : kram : yasa 43 t : hyparam : ish : patish : Artavardiyam : hamaranam : cartana 44 iy : Parga : nma : kaufa : avad : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdma 45 iy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : man : ava 46 m : kram Vahyazdtahya : aja Garmapadahya : mh : : tyam vasiy : :

29-39. We are under his shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, Thereupon I sent forth the Persian and Median army which was loyal to me. A Persian named Artavardiya, my subject -- I made him chief of them. There are some people not wise; the rest of the Persian army went forth behind me to Media. Thereupon Artavardiya with his army went forth to Persia. When he arrived in Persia, a town named Rax, in Persia -- there this Vahyazdata who called himself Bardiya came with his army against Artavardiya, to join battle. Thereupon they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid stopped him and hurt him; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that army of Vahyazdata exceedingly; the disturbances ended, of the month Thravhara 12 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

40-48. Alert, as you can see, our king defeated them all, the work is done, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, after that, this Vahyazdta with a few fighters and horsemen fled; he went off to Paishiyuvd. From there he got an army; later he came against Artavardiya to join battle. A mountain named Parga, with caves -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid stoped them; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that army of Vahyazdta exceedingly; the disturbances are stopped of the month Garmapada 5 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them, alert, as you can see our king defeated them all, and that Vahyazdta is dead and they took prisoner, who were his foremost followers they captured.

47 y : V : raucabish : thakat : ha : avathshm : hamaranam : kartam : ut : ava 48 m Vahyazdtam : agarbya : ut : martiy : tyaishaiy : fratam 49 : anushiy : hata : agarbya : thtiy : Drayavaush : xsh 50 yathiya : pasva : adam : avarn : Vahyazdtam : ut : martiy : 51 tyaishaiy : fratam : anushiy : hata : Uvdaicaya : nma : var 52 danam : Prsaiy : avadashish :

49-53. They test what they fought for, right now all have been arrested, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, after that I took that Vahyazdt and those who were his foremost followers -- a town named Uvdaicaya, in Persia -- there I impaled them. And hang stuffed body for people to see. Those separated from
77

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey uzmaypatiy : akunavam : th 53 tiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : ima : tya : man : kartam : Prsaiy 54 thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : hauv : Vahyazdta : hya : Bardiya 55 : agaubat : hauv : kram : frishaya : Harauvatim : Vivna : 56 nma : Prsa : man : badaka : Harauvatiy : xshaapv : abiy : ava 57 m : utshm : I martiyarn : mathishtam : akunaush avathshm : a 58 thaha : parait : Vivnam : jat : ut : avam : kram : hya : Draya 59 vahaush : xshyathiyahy : gaubataiy : pasva : hauv : kra : ashiya 60 va : tyam : Vahyazdta : frishaya : abiy : Vivnam : hamaranam : cartanaiy : K 61 pishaknish : nm : did : avad : hamaranarn : akunava : Auramazdmai 62 y : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram : tya 63 m : hamiiyam : aja : vasiy : Anmakahya : mhy : XIII : raucabish : thakat : ha : a 64 vathshm : hamaranam : kartam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : patiy : h 64-68. As you can see, our king defeated them all, our work is done, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, again later the
78

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge 65 yparam : hamiiy : hagmat : parait : patish : Vivnam : hamaranam : cartana 66 iy : Gadutava : nm : dahyush : avad : hamaranam : akunava : Auramazdma 67 iy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramazdha : kra : hya : man : avam : kram : t 68 yam : hamiiyam : aja : vasiy : Viyaxnahya : mhy : VII : raucabish : thakat : 69 ha : avathshm : hamaranam : kartam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : 70 pasva : hauv : martiya : hya : avahy : krahy : mathishta : ha : tyam : Va 71 hyazdta : frishaya : abiy Vivnam : hauv : amutha : had : kamnaib 72 ish : asabraibish : ashiyava : Arshd : nm : did : Harauvatiy : a 73 vapar : atiyish : pasva : Vivna : had : kr : nipadiy : tyaiy : ashiya 74 va : avadshim : agarbya : ut : martiy : tyaishaiy : fratam : anushiy : 75 hat : avja : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : pasva : dahyush : ma 76 n : abava : ima : tya : man : 75-83. This happened what he is saying, we are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, after that the province became mine. The fight came and this is what was done by me in Arachosia. We are under his shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, while I was in Persia and Media, again a second time the Babylonians
79

us are not wise; we are under your shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, this is what was done by me in Persia. 54-63. We are under his shadow, and Darius is the king and law giver, this Vahyazdta who called himself Bardiya had sent an army to Arachosia -- a Persian named Vivna, my subject, satrap in Arachosia -- against him; and he had made one man their chief. Thus he said to them: "Go forth; smite Vivana and that army which calls itself King Darius's!" Thereupon this army marched off, which Vahyazdata had sent forth against Vivna to join battle. A fortress named Kpishakn -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid stopped them; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Anamaka 13 days were past -then the battle was fought by them. Alert.

rebels assembled and came out against our Vivna to join battle. A district named Gandutava -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid stopped them and hurt them; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; the disturbances ended, of the month Viyakhna 7 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

69-74. Alert, as you can see our king defeated them all, our work is done, we are under his shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver, after that, this man who was the chief of that army which Vahyazdta had sent forth against Vivna -- he fled with a few horsemen and got away. A fortress named Arshd; in Arachosia -- past that he went. Afterwards Vivna with his army went off in pursuit of them; there he took him prisoner and the men who were his foremost followers, and slew them test what they fought for.

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey kartam : Harauvatiy Drayavaush : xsh : thtiy : became rebellious from me. One man named Arxa, an Armenian, son of Haldita -- he rose up in Babylon. A district named Dubla -- from there he thus lied to the people: "I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus." Thereupon the Babylonian people became rebellious from me, and went over to that Arxa. He seized Babylon; he became king in Babylon. Ready to fight, in Babylonian, we are under his shadow, and Darius is the King and law giver. Auramazdmaiy : upastm : abara : vashn : Auramaz 88 dha : Vidafarn : Bbiruviy : aja : ut : bast : anaya : Varkazanahya : mhy : XXII : ra 89 ucabish : thakat : ha : avath : avam : Arxam : hya : Nabukudracara : duruxtam : a 90 gaubat : ut : martiy : tyaishaiy : fratam : anushiy : hat : agarb 91 ya : niyashtyam : hauv : Arxa : ut : martiy : tyaishaiy : fratam : an 92 ushiy : hat : Bbirauv : uz(ma)ypatiy : akariyat

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge falsely called himself Nebuchadrezzar and the men who were his foremost followers he took prisoner. I issued an order: this Arxa and the men who were his foremost followers were dead and impaled at Babylon. Those who are separated from us are not smart.

77 yathiya : yt : adam : Prsaiy : u(t) : Mdaiy : ham : patiy : duvityam : 78 Bbiruviy : hamiiy : abava : hacma : I martiya : Arxa : nma : Armini 79 ya : Halditahya : pua : hauv : udapatat : Bbirauv : Dubla : nm : dahy 80 ush : hac : avadasha : hauv : krahy : avath : adurujiya : adam : Nabukud 81 racara : amiy : hya : Nabunaitahya : pua : pasva : kra : Bbiruviya : hacma : ha 82 miiya : abava : abiy : avam : Arxam : ashiyava : Bbirum : hauv : agarbyat 83 : hauv : xshyathiya : abava : Bbirauv : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathi 84 ya : pasva : adam : kram : frishayam : Bbirum : Vidafarn : nma : Prsa : man 85 : badaka : avamshm : mathishtam : akunavam : avathshm : athaham : parait : avam : kram 86 : Bbiruviyam : jat : hya : man : naiy : gaubtaiy : pasva : Vidafarn : had : kr 87 : ashiyava : Bbirum :

84-92. Thereupon I sent forth an army to Babylon. A Persian named Vidafarn, my loyal subject -- him I made chief of them. Thus I said to them: "Go forth; that Babylonian army smite, which shall not call itself mine!" Thereupon Vidafarn with the army marched off to Babylon. Ahuramazda bore me aid stopped them and hurt them; by the favor of Ahuramazda Vidafarn smote the Babylonians and led them in bonds; of the month Varkazana 22 days were past -- then they joined battle, that Arxa who
80 81

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey adurujiya : avath : athaha : DB, COLUMN 4: Text: 1 : thtiy : xshyathiya : ima : t Translation: 1-5. We are under his shadow and Darius is the King and law giver, this is what was done by me in Babylon. We are under his shadow and Darius is the King and law giver, among us some people are not wise, by the favor of Ahuramazda so far this is what I had accomplished below, afterward, here it is, he is king and law giver, he fought 19 wars defeated them all. 14 adam : Nabukudracara : amiy : hya : Nabunaitahya : pua : 15 hauv : Bbirum : hamiiyam : akunaush : I Martiya : n 16 ma : Prsa : hauv : adurujiya : avath : athaha : adam : Imani 17 sh : amiy : vjaiy : xshyathiya : hauv : vjam : hamiiya 18 m : akunaush : I Fravartish : nma : Mda : hauv : adurujiya 19 : avath : athaha : adam : Xshathrita : amiy : Uvaxshtrahya : taumy 6-10. They were not wise, by the favor of Ahuramazda, I fought and killed 9 local kings. As you can see, they said, they are lawful king with military, One was named Gaumata, a Magian; alert, he was lied, as known, he was outlaw, and said, "I am Bardiya (Smerdis), the son of Cyrus;" he rebelled, the Persian and everyone left us, now known he was without mind, one, named ina, an Elamite; lied. 20 : hauv : Mdam : hamiiyam : akunaush : I Ciataxma : nma : Asa 21 gartiya : hauv : adurujiya : avath : athaha : adam : xshyath 22 iya : amiy : Asagartaiy : Uvaxshtrahya : taumy : hauv 23 : Asagartam : hamiiyam : akunaush : I Frda : nma : 24 Mrgava : hauv : adurujiya : avath : athaha : adam : 11-15. As known now, he was outlaw, said I am king and law giver in Elam, in Elam everyone joined him, and now known he was without mind. One, named Nidintu-Bel, a Babylonian; lied, as known now, he was outlaw, and said, "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus; he made Babylon rebellious. He was without mind. One,
82

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge named Martiya.

Drayavaush

2 ya : man : kartam : Bbirauv : thatiy : D 3 rayavaush : xshyathiya : ima : tya : adam : akuna 4 vam : vashna : Auramazdha : hamahyy : thar 5 da : pasva : yath : xshyathiya : abavam : XIX : hamaran 6 : akunavam : vashn : Auramazdha : adamshish : a 7 janam : ut : IX : xshyathiy : agarbyam : I Gaumta : 8 nma : magush : ha : hauv : adurujiya : avath : athaha : adam : 9 Bardiya : amiy : hya : Kraush : pua : hauv : Prsam : ha 10 miiyam : akunaush : I ina : nma : vjiya : hauv : adu 11 rujiya : avath : athaha : adam : xshyathiya : amiy : vjaiy 12 : hauv : vjam : hamiiyam : akunaush : man : I Naditabaira : n 13 ma : Bbiruviya : hauv :

16-23. A Persian; he lied, as known now, he was outlaw, the man was Imanish, came from Elam as king and law giver, in Elam;" he made Elam rebellious, not wise. One, named Phraortes, a Mede; he lied, as known he was outlaw, the man said, "I am king of kings, coming from the family of Cyaxares;" he made Media rebellious, he was not wise. One named Ciataxma, a Sagartian; he lied and said, "I am king in Sagartia. Came from the family of Cyaxares;" he made Sagartia rebellious, not very wise. One, named Frda,

25 xshyathiya : amiy : Margauv : hauv : Margum : hamici 26 yam : akunaush : I Vahyazdta : nma : Prsa : hauv : a 27 durujiya : avath : athaha : adam

24-30. a Margian; he lied as known he was outlaw, and said, "I am king in Margiana;" he made Margiana rebellious, not very wise. One, named Vahyazdta, a Persian; he lied, as known he was outlaw, and said, "I am Bardiya (Smerdis), the son of Cyrus;" he made Persia rebellious, not very wise. One named Arxa, an Armenian; he lied, as known he was outlaw and
83

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey : Bardiya : amiy : hya : K 28 raush : pua : hauv : Prsam : hamiiyam : akunaush : I Ar 29 xa : nma : Arminiya : hauv : adurujiya : avath : athaha : adam : Nab 30 ukudracara : amiy : hya : Nabunaitahya : pua : hauv : Bbirum : ham 31 iiyam : akunaush : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : imaiy : 32 IX : xshyathiy : adam : agarbyam : atar : im : hamaran 33 : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : dahyva : im : ty : hamiiy 34 : abava : drauga : dish : hamiiy : akunaush : tya : imaiy : kram : adur 35 ujiyasha : pasva : dish : Auramazd : man : dastay : akunaush : yath : mm : k 36 ma : avatha : dish : akunavam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathi 37 ya : tuvam : k : xshyathiya : hya : aparam hy : hac : draug : darsham : 38 patipayauv : martiya : hya : draujana : ahatiy : avam : ufrashtam : pars : ya 39 diy : avath : maniyhaiy : dahyushmaiy : duruv : ahati 37-42. You acknowledge him, he is king and law giver, now, and there are a lot among us, in this Liar, not following our king; they are separatist, there are many who Lie-as follower, I understand, him sell out, the questions are, coming, as you can see, there are some of them left over, his country is mine, but they are double face, as known, we are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, coming among us people not wise, by
84

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge 40 y : thtiy : Drayavaush : xsyathiya : ima : tya : adam : akunavam : 41 vashn : Auramazdha : hamahyy : tharda : akunavam : tuvam : k : hya 42 : aparam : imm : dipim : patiparshy : tya : man : kartam : varnavatm the favor of Ahuramazda, these are my accomplishment to this time, there are unwise people, you should understand that, there are a lot among us, it is my desire, be hold for us, the separatist is my question for work to be done, lets not live the unknown road.

said: "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus;" he made Babylon rebellious

31-36. Not very wise, we are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, these 9 kings I took prisoner, farther defeated them all. We are under your shadow; Darius is the King and law giver. These are the provinces which became rebellious. The Lie (druj) made them rebellious; we had many unwise people, so that these (men) deceived the people. Afterwards Ahuramazda put them into my hand; they were not wise, as you can see, that was my desire, which is not much, enemies, came out to not be wise. We are under his shadow; Darius is the King and law giver

43 : thuvm : mtya : draugam : maniyhay : thtiy : Drayavaush : xsh 44 yathiya : Auramazdha : ragam : vartaiyaiy : yath : ima : hashiyam : naiy : duru 45 xtam : adam : akunavam : hamahyy : tharda : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshya 46 thiya : vashn : Auramazdha : utmaiy : aniyashciy : vasiy : astiy : karta 47 m : ava : ahyy : dipiy : naiy : nipishtam : avahyardiy : naiy : n 48 ipishtam : mtya : hya : aparam : imm : dipim : patiparstiy : avah 49 y : paruv : thadaytaiy : tya : man : kartam : naishim : ima : varnavtaiy : d 50 uruxtam : maniytaiy : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : tyaiy 51 : paruv : xshyathiy : yt : ha : avaishm : av : naiy : astiy : kar 52 tam : yath : man : vashn :

43 -50. Those with to us, among them liar to us, some of them are out there, We are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, Auramazdha, my path is your path, right now, come our king, he is not going to lie and betray us, there are people not wise, among all of us, to the point, we are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, By the favor of Ahuramazda, he come now, others did not come from royal family, they stopped when I come, my work is done, now, whatever was there for me to do, so the thing wont come to an end or inscribed this inscription on that post, come on it, is page of our history; this for me, is a gift for us, this for us, we follow, we will implement what in it, my work is done, without pain, but came, those not follow your path, double face and betrayed people, among us. We are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, we are your

51-56. Follower, you are king and law giver, as you can see, alert, he become our king, if he did not come,
85

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey Auramazdha : hamahyy : tharda : kartam : th 53 tiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : nram : thuvm : varnavatm : tya : man 54 : kartam : avath : krahy : rdiy : m : apagaudaya : yadiy : imm : 55 hadugm : naiy : apagaudayhy : krahy : thhy : Auramazd : thuvm : 56 dausht : biya : uttaiy : taum : vasiy : biy : ut : dargam : jv the work stopped without being done, now by the favor of Ahuramazda all of the work are done by me to this point, we are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, looking, he is with us, the path is not dark, anything come to me is done, right now If there are way to take action, I give my permission, those are done you can see, remind all of them, so they do not talk about me, If there was way to take action, and possible to be done, I give permission, Ahuramazda he is with us, he is your king, you want him to come, as you can see he is here, you want him for us, it happened, he came, as you can see, our door is open for him to live. 63 yha : bagha : tyaiy : haijy : yath : naiy : arika : ham : naiy : draujana : ham : na 64 iy : zrakara : ham : naiy : adam : naimaiy : taum : upariy : arshtm : upariy 65 yam : naiy : shkaurim : naiy : tunuvatam : zra : akunavam : martiya : hya : hamata 66 xshta : man : vithiy : avam : ubartam : abaram : hya : viyanthaya : avam : ufrasta 67 m : aparsam : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : tuvam : k : xshyathiya : 57 thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : yadiy : imm hadugm : apagauday 58 hy : naiy : thhy : krahy : Auramazdtay : jat : biy : uttaiy : taum 59 : m : biy : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : ima : tya : adam : akunavam : 60 hamahyy : tharda : vashn : Auramazdha : akunavam : Auramazdmaiy : upas 61 tm : abara : ut : aniyha : bagha : tyaiy : hatiy : thtiy : Drayavau 57-61. We are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, remind the entire population, so they do not talk about me, those are done you can see, those are not done will be done, may Auramazd, punish and smite those spreading rumors about me. We are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, among us there some not wise, I accomplish everything possible to this point by the favor of Ahuramazda I did; there are people not wise, Ahuramazda bore me aid to stop them, bring him, as you can see, my desire, tell them whatever he says he will do, it came. We are under your shadow, Darius is the 68 hya : aparam : hy : martiya : hya : draujana : ahatiy : hyav : zurakara : ahat 69 iy : avaiy : m : dausht : biy : ufrashtdiy : pars : thtiy : Dra

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge he says, come to be implementation, right now, there are no wrong doing, and he is not liar, and he is not dictator, also-- neither him nor within his family were outlaw, if one of them were outlaw is not belong to my court. Those wish to be outlaw from my family wont be thanked by me, members of my family are not allowed to abuse or force others, that person is not wise, the man is king for all, the one with shadow to protect us, smart, he is our gift, bring him to us, there are those, I not have shadow for them, I understand, abuse a lot, we question them, we are under your shadow, Darius is the king and law giver, try to understand him, he is king by law, there are people separated, there are good man, there are liar, since he come, there are some who like to abuse others using force, since he come, to us, now he is your king, came, he is kind to us, he is Persian, in short, according to righteousness I conducted myself. Neither to the weak nor to the powerful did I do wrong. The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well; those did injury, him I punished well. We are under his shadow. 70-75. Darius is the King and law giver, try to understand him, , now he is a lot came for us, it is giving vision, to our people, behold this inscription which I have inscribed, or these sculptures, do not digging it out or be destroyed, it is belong to you, right now your king is leading you, we are under his shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, he come for us, give us vision, the inscription and sculptures not be destroyed, or digging it out, whatever in it is for you, here it is, protect it as your leader do not destroy them, may Ahuramazda be with you and be your
87

70 yavaush : xshyathiya : tuvam : k : hya : aparam : imm : dipim : vainhy : ty 71 m : adam : niyapaisham : imaiv : patikar : mtya : vikanhy : yv : u 72 tava : hy : avathshat : paribar : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : ya

62 sh : xshyathiya : avahyardiy : Auramazd : upastm : abara : ut : ani

62-69. King and law giver, the one helped him is Auramazd, to stop them, brought him, as you can see, whatever
86

73 diy : imm : dipim : vainhy : imaiv : patikar : naiydish : vikanhy :

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey ut 74 taiy : yv : taum : ahatiy : paribarhadish : Auramazd : thuvm dausht : biy 75 : uttaiy : taum : vasiy : biy : ut : dargam : jv : ut : tya : kunavhy 76 : avataiy : Auramazd : ucram : kunautuv : thitiy : Drayavaush : xsh 77 yathiya : yadiy : imm : dipim : imaiv : patikar : vainhy : vikanhadish : ut 78 taiy : yv : taum : ahatiy : naiydish : paribarhy : Auramazdtaiy : jat : b 79 iy : uttaiy : taum : m : biy : ut : tya : kunavhy : avataiy : Auramazd friend, he is your king, come, he came for you, you, him and us, are alive, as you can see, may you live long, Vidarna : nma : Ba 85 gbignahy : pua : Prsa : Bagabuxsha : nma : Dtuvahyahy : pua : Prsa : 86 Ardumanish : nma : Vahaukahy : pua : Prsa : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyath 76-79. As you wish and what you shall do, that may Ahuramazda make successful for you! You are on right path, may prolong your life, we are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, reminding you he give us the inscription and these sculptures, to open our eyes, protect them to not be destroyed, it is for you, I am telling you, whatever in it, not to be destroyed, the one lead you and guide you is Ahuramazda, if you destroy these things God will punish you, your family not be to you, and what you shall do, that for you may Ahuramazda utterly destroy! 80-86. Now is written, we are under his shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, these are the men who were there at the time when I slew Gaumata the Magian who called himself Bardiya (Smerdis), he had military, and said he is king of kings, deserve what he got; at that time these men cooperated as my followers: Intaphernes by name, son of Vayaspara, a Persian; Otanes by name, son of Thukhra, a Persian; Gobryas by name, son of Mardonius, a Persian; Hydarnes by name, son of Bagabigna, a Persian; Megabyzus by name, son of Datuvahya, a Persian; Ardumanish by name, son of Vahauka, a Persian. We are under your shadow; Darius is the 87 iya : tuvam : k : xshyathiya : hya : aparam : hy : tym : imaishm : martiyn 88 m : taumm : uba(r)tm : paribar : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : vashn : Au 89 ramazdha : i(ya)m : dipmaiy : ty(m) : adam : akunavam : patisham : ariy : ha : ut : pavast 90 y : ut : carm : grathit : ha : patishamaiy : patikaram : akunavam : patisham : uvad 91 m : akunavam : ut : niyapithiya : ut : patiyafrasiya : paishiy : mm : pasva : i(m)m : d 92 ipim : adam : frstyam : vispad : atar : dahyva : kra : hamtaxshat

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge King and law giver,

80 : nikatuv : thtiy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : imaiy : martiy : tyaiy 81 : adakaiy : avad : hat : yt : adam : Gaumtam : tyam : magum : avjanam : 82 hya : Bardiya : agaubat : adakaiy : imaiy : martiy : hamataxshat : anushiy : man 83 : Vidafarn : nma : Vyasprahy : pua Prsa: Utna : nma : Thuxrahy 84 : pua : Prsa : Gaubaruva : nma : Marduniyahy : pua : Prsa :

87-92. The one you give us, is the king and law giver, he is a lot for come from us, he is our king, the one is not from us, do not bring us, by your favor he is the leader, We are under his shadow, Darius is the king and law giver, by the favor of Auramazdha this is the inscription which he made. There are people among us not very wise, it is our reward written in Aryan language, alert, as you can see right now, he is committed, as you can see, his declaration is true, alert, our reward is on sculpture, there are some not so wise, our reward, he give to us, those not so wise, are not coming under his shadow, as you can see, inscription I sent off, his work is known. Afterwards this inscription I sent off everywhere among the military, farther provinces, wherever they are belonging to our king.

88

89

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey avjanam : pasva : dahy DB, COLUMN 5: Text: 1 : thtiy xshyathiya : Translation: 1-14. We are under your shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, there are people among us are not wise, for the second time here in this place. This is what I did in fourth year to this point after I became king by law. A province named Elam became rebellious every one joined them. The fight started by one man named Atamaita, an Elamite I understand they made him chief; he is not loyal to me, afterward, thereupon I sent forth an army. One man named Gobryas, a Persian, my loyal subject -I made him chief of them. There are some not wise, after that, Gobryas with the army marched off to Elam; he joined battle with the Elamites, defeated them all, he did not have knowledge, brought fight to Elam. Thereupon Gobryas smote and crushed the Elamites, and captured the chief of them; he led him to me, and I killed him. After that fight the province became mine. We are under your shadow; Darius is the King and law giver. 14 ush : man : abava : thtiy Drayavaush : xshyathi 15 ya : avaiy : vjiy : arik : ha : utshm : Aurama 16 zd : naiy : ayadiya Auramazdm : ayadaiy : vashn : A :

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Drayavaush

2 ima : tya : adam : akunavam : duvity 3 mca : itmc : thardam : pasva : yath : xshya 4 thiya : abavam : vja : nm : dahyush : hau 5 v : hamiiy : abava : I martiya : Atamaita : nma : 6 vjiya : avam : mathishtam : akunavat : pasva : ada 7 m : kram : fraishayam : I martiya : Gaubaruva : 8 nma : Prsa : man : badaka : avamshm : mathishtam : aku 9 navam : pasva : Gaubaruva : had : kr : ashiyava : 10 vjam : hamaranam : akunaush : had : vjiyaibish : pas 11 va : Gaubaruva : vjiy : avja : viyamarda : 12 ut : tyamshm : mathishtam : agarbya : anaya : abi 13 y : mm : utshim : adam :

17 uramazdha : yath : mm : kma : avathdish : akunavam 18 : thtiy Drayavaush xshyathiya : hya : Auramazd :

19 m : yadtaiy : ynam : avah : ahatiy : ut : jvah 20 y : ut : martahy : thtiy : Drayavaush : xsh 21 yathiya : pasva : had : kr : adam : ashiyavam : abiy : Sak 22 m : pas : Sak : tyaiy : xaudm : tigrm : barati 23 y : imaiy : Sak : hacma : isha : yadiy : abiy : draya : a 24 vrasam : parashim : avad : had : kr : vis : viyatara 25 yam : pasva : adam : Sak : vasiy : ajanam : aniyam : aga 26 rbyam : hauv : basta : anayat : abiy : mm : ut 27 shim : avjanam : mathishtashm : Skuxa : nma : avam :

15-20. Those Elamites were faithless, alert, as you can see, they told our king, and Ahuramazd was not worshipped. I worshipped Ahuramazda; by the favor of Ahuramazda, as you know, for us is not much, he did hurt those, who are not wise. We are under his shadow, Darius is the King and law giver, as you know our Auramazd, he always worship you, and he is our hope, this is our desire, as you can see, as long as we alive, as you can see we follow your path, we are under his shadow. Darius is the King

21-30. And law giver, afterwards with an army I went off to Scythia, after the Scythians who wear the pointed cap. These Scythians went from me. When I arrived at the Tigris River, which hold us, came Scythian attack us in that place, remember, become sea, to help us, I have question for them, the one his work stopped, they helped us, afterward, I smote the Scythians exceedingly; another leader I took captive; this one was led bound to me, and I slew him. The chief of them, by name Skunkha him they seized and led to me, I killed him. Then I made another their chief, as was my desire. After that, the province became mine. After the fight, we are under his shadow; Darius is the king and law giver.

90

91

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey aga

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

In Conclusion 28 rbya : ut : anaya : abiy : mm : avad : aniyam : math 29 ishtam : akunavam : yath : mm : kma : ha : pasva : da 30 hyush : man : abava : thtiy Drayavaush : xshya 31 thiya : avaiy : Sak : arik : ha : ut : naiy : Auramazd 32 shm : ayadiya : Aurmazdm : ayadaiy : vashn : Aurama 33 zdha : yath : mm : kma : avathdish : akunavam : tht 34 iy : Drayavaush : xshyathiya : hya : Auramazdm : yadta 35 iy : avahy : ynam : ahatiy : ut : jvahy : ut 38 : martahy 31-38. Those Scythians, not good, alert, as you can see, they are not following our Auramazd-shm, we worship him, our Auramazd, remember us, by the favor of Auramazd, right now for us, anyone hurting us, is not wise, we are under his shadow, Darius is the king and law giver, always he worship our Auramazd, he is saying that name give us life, as you can see, we have life, as you can see that man is dead. We have three different sets of Latin alphabets used for our language now, plus the Arabic alphabet For every problem there are solutions, if one wants to unite people instead of dividing them. Kurdish people are Airyanem and Airyanem people are the owners of 12,000 years of civilization. The Airyanem people started human civilization before the Phoenecians (written Arabic alphabet came from them) existence. For that reason the Arabic alphabet should be eliminated for Kurdish and Airyanem languages. Below out of the three sets of the latin alphabet, it is suggested one set be used for the Airyanem languages of more than five hundred million people; Kurdish, Persian and others are just dialects within that Airyanem langauge. Solution The Latin alphabet used to write Prophet Zoroasters songs (Gathas) A, , B, C, , D, E, , F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, , O, , P, R, S, SH, T, TH, U, , V, X, Y, Z a, , b, c, , d, e, , f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, , o, , p, r, s, sh, t, th, u, , v, x, y, z The modern alphabet of the Kurmanji Kurdish dialect contains 31 letters below: A, B, C, , D, E, , F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, , T, U, , V, W, X, Y, Z a, b, c, , d, e, , f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, , t, u, , v, w, x, y, z While our old Airyanem Vaejah language does not have letters (Q, E, , O and W) in the Emperor Darius the Greats Behishtan inscriptions there are letters for sh and th like English, using two letters for one sound. The alphabet of the Airyanem Vaejah language contains 29 letters below without the Q of Arabic: A, , B, C, , D, F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, P, R, S, SH, T, TH, U, , V, X, Y, Z

92

93

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey a, , b, c, , d, f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, sh, t, th, u, , v, x, y, z

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Authors Afterword Out of the three sets of alphabet namely from the Prophet Zoroasters songs, the modern Kurmanji Kurdish dialect and the Aryan language of Darius the Great, which had been used to write ancient and modern Kurdish languages, one set of alphabet letters as below is the most clear and efficient. Here are the 33 letters for a standard alphabet to be used for a Unified Kurdish Language and by other Airyanem people from Pakistan to Turkey and from Kurdistan to the former Soviet Union countries. A, , B, C, , D, E, , F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, , T, Th, U, , V, W, X, Y, Z a, , b, c, , d, e, , f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, , t, th, u, , v, w, x, y, z With limited resources, we are able to produce only a small document; in fact to complete the project by compiling a Unified Kurdish Language Dictionary access to some of the vast wealth of our Kurdish peoples money, appropriated by a few powerful families corrupt schemes, is needed. These resources will supply Kurdish people with a unified alphabet and guidelines for a Kurdish language for communication and study in one language for all the Airyanem Vaejah people.

94

95

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey References 1. Grecian historians and the Histories of Herodotus (c. 440 BC) Plus historians like Aristotle, Odoxous, Pollianus, Hermitus, Plutarch, Theopompous, Suidas, Eskoloiyon and Laktantius 2. The DAWN Political Teaching of the Book of Esther 3. The Kurds: A Concise Handbook 4. The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) 5. AvestaZoroastrian Archives 6. 7000 Years of World History 7. Behistun cuneiform inscriptionsby the Achaemenid Emperor, Darius the Great (522486 BCE) 8. Greek Historian Xenophons (Anabasis) books 9. Greek Herodotus books 10. The Book of Queen Esther 11. Josephus History, Josephus (AD 37c. 100). He was also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph, son of Matthias) the Jewish historian who wrote a history of the Roman Empire 12. Friedrich Nietzsche - Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a 19thcentury German philosopher, poet, composer and classical philologist. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. Nietzsche's influence remains substantial within and beyond philosophy, notably in existentialism, nihilism and postmodernism. His style and radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth have resulted in much commentary and interpretation, mostly in the continental tradition. His key ideas include the death of God, perspectivism, the bermensch, the eternal recurrence, and the will to power. Central to his philosophy is the idea of life-affirmation, which involves an honest questioning of all doctrines that drain life's expansive energies, however socially prevalent those views might be. Nietzsche began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. At the age of 24 he was appointed to the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel (the youngest individual to have held this position), but resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life. In 1889 he became mentally ill, possibly due to atypical general paresis attributed to tertiary syphilis.He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897, then under the care of his sister until his death in 1900.

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche 13. The Latin alphabet used to write Prophet Zoroasters songs (Gathas) A, , B, C, , D, E, , F, G, H, I, , J, K, L, M, N, , O, , P, R, S, SH, T, TH, U, , V, X, Y, Z a, , b, c, , d, e, , f, g, h, i, , j, k, l, m, n, , o, , p, r, s, sh, t, th, u, , v, x, y, z

96

97

HAMMA MirwAisi & ALison BUcKLey

Unified KUrdisH LAngUAge

Hamma Mirwaisi Authors Two authors from different backgrounds one who grew up in the Middle East with the educational privileges granted men in a Muslim society, the other a woman raised in Christian Western culture - have combined particular aspects of their knowledge and experiences to produce Vashti, Queen of the Ancient Medes, Esther Mystery Queen of the Medes and now, The Unified Kurdish Language. Alison Buckley

After fleeing with his young family from Kurdistan to the US as a refugee, Hamma Mirwaisi completed a Masters in Electrical Engineering and worked as a communications engineer and businessman. Seconded by the US government to translate for the military in the Iraq War, he accessed documents in his native language that provided answers to some of his many questions about the history of Kurdistan. He also completed a unique and more accurate translation from one of the Behistun Inscriptions languages, giving a more revealing account of Middle Eastern imperial life in the late sixth and seventh centuries BCE. Returning to his adopted country, he dedicated his retirement years to further research for his first book, Return of the Medes, a commentary on Kurdish history. Along with his contributions to two historical novels Hammas research and writing for online journal articles and newspapers further focuses on his campaign to assist his countrymen and women to gain the freedoms and political independence to form their own nation. His tireless work for peace for Kurdistan through personal representations and pleas to influential political figures and their governments is also reflected in his plans for the Airyanem civilisation series which will tell the stories of Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great.

After years of questioning the cursory treatment of female heroes of the Jewish Old Testament particularly Queen Vashti and Queen Esther, Alison finally found Hamma Mirwaisis name under a google search for Vashti. Much to her amazement and delight he was able to fill in the massive gaps in the vanquished queens story, the result being the first historical novel in the Airyanem series. Since Queen Esther featured in the account it was logical that the real story of her life be extracted from misguided interpretations of it. Ahead lies the literary challenge of writing the rest of the history of Kurdistan in novel form, which will not be left in obscurity for too much longer. Alison still finds time to write a couple of articles a year for the Australian monthly magazine Signs of the Times and with Hamma also produces articles for online political journals and newspapers. A high school teacher, Alison credits her Bachelors Degrees in politics, history, counselling and human services and her Graduate Diplomas in law, education and English for many of the skills and knowledge which she uses to write about her rapidly expanding interest in the Middle East.

98

99

Proof
Printed By Createspace

Digital Proofer