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Application layer

Application layer
In computer network programming, the application layer is an abstraction layer reserved for communications protocols and methods designed for process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol (IP) computer network. Application layer protocols use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host connections. In the OSI model, the definition of its application layer is narrower in scope. The OSI model defines the application layer as being the user interface. The OSI application layer is responsible for displaying data and images to the user in a human-recognizable format and to interface with the presentation layer below it.[1] It separates functionality above the transport layer at two additional levels, the session layer and the presentation layer. OSI specifies strict modular separation of functionality at these layers and provides protocol implementations for each layer.

Internet protocol suite

Application layer



Application layer

(more) Internet layer

IP IPv4 IPv6 ICMP ICMPv6 ECN IGMP IPsec (more) Link layer

ARP/InARP NDP OSPF Tunnels L2TP PPP Media access control

Ethernet DSL ISDN FDDI (more)

The OSI model

7 Application layer 6 Presentation layer 5 Session layer 4 Transport layer 3 Network layer 2 Data link layer

LLC sublayer MAC sublayer

1 Physical layer

Application layer

TCP/IP protocols
The following protocols are explicitly mentioned in RFC 1123 (1989), describing the application layer of the Internet protocol suite.[2] Remote login category Telnet File transfer category FTP TFTP Electronic mail category SMTP IMAP POP Support services category DNS RARP BOOTP SNMP CMOT

Other protocol examples

9P, Plan 9 from Bell Labs distributed file system protocol AFP, APPC, Advanced Program-to-Program Communication AMQP, Advanced Message Queuing Protocol BitTorrent Atom Publishing Protocol CFDP, Coherent File Distribution Protocol CoAP, Constrained Application Protocol DDS, Data Distribution Service DeviceNet eDonkey ENRP, Endpoint Handlespace Redundancy Protocol FastTrack (KaZaa, Grokster, iMesh) Finger, User Information Protocol Freenet FTAM, File Transfer Access and Management Gopher, Gopher protocol HL7, Health Level Seven HTTP, HyperText Transfer Protocol H.323, Packet-Based Multimedia Communications System IRCP, Internet Relay Chat Protocol Kademlia KAP, Anonymous File Transfer over UDP/IP (KickAss Protocol) [citation needed]

LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LPD, Line Printer Daemon Protocol

Application layer MIME (S-MIME), Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions and Secure MIME Modbus Netconf NFS, Network File System NIS, Network Information Service NNTP, Network News Transfer Protocol NTCIP, National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol NTP, Network Time Protocol OSCAR, AOL Instant Messenger Protocol PNRP, Peer Name Resolution Protocol RDP, Remote Desktop Protocol RELP, Reliable Event Logging Protocol RIP, Routing Information Protocol Rlogin, Remote Login in UNIX Systems RPC, Remote Procedure Call RTMP, Real Time Messaging Protocol RTP, Real-time Transport Protocol RTPS, Real Time Publish Subscribe RTSP, Real Time Streaming Protocol SAP, Session Announcement Protocol SDP, Session Description Protocol SIP, Session Initiation Protocol SLP, Service Location Protocol SMB, Server Message Block SNTP, Simple Network Time Protocol SSH, Secure Shell SSMS, Secure SMS Messaging Protocol TCAP, Transaction Capabilities Application Part TDS, Tabular Data Stream TSP, Time Stamp Protocol VTP, Virtual Terminal Protocol Whois (and RWhois), Remote Directory Access Protocol WebDAV X.400, Message Handling Service Protocol X.500, Directory Access Protocol (DAP) XMPP, Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol

[1] http:/ / www. inetdaemon. com/ tutorials/ basic_concepts/ network_models/ osi_model/ application. shtml

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors

Application layer Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=548464211 Contributors: AS, Ahoerstemeier, AlistairMcMillan, Amillar, AndyHedges, Arunachalammanohar, Ashdurbat, B4hand, Bearcat, Brest, BronsonP, Butko, ChazBeckett, Cradel, DDR2Nite, DIonized, Danim, DeweyQ, Dgtsyb, Dicklyon, Dogcow, Dominio, Eimsand, Ejabberd, ElKevbo, Enjoi4586, Evertw, Fctoma, Frap, Fredrik, Geozapf, GermanX, Gilliam, Graham87, GrapeSteinbeck, Grapht, Gruzd, Harryboyles, Hawaiiboy99, Hede2000, Honcw, Hrvoje Simic, Hu12, Ipahophead, IvanLanin, Jafeluv, James smith2, Jamie, Jasper Deng, Jauerback, Jaybeeunix, Jaymcjay, Jerome Charles Potts, Jnc, Johnuniq, Jorunn, Kbrose, Kbthompson, Kesac, Lababidi, LiDaobing, Looxix, Lost.goblin, Lugia2453, Lulu of the Lotus-Eaters, Lysdexia, MainFrame, Mange01, Markushx, MartinHarper, MattieTK, Mfloryan, Mhby87, Mild Bill Hiccup, Minesweeper, Morte, MrsValdry, MulberryBeacon, Mwtoews, Nhorton, Night Gyr, Nixdorf, Orphan Wiki, Oxymoron83, Panarchy, Pelleasdaphnis, Pgallert, QueBurro, R'n'B, Ramprasad.ap, Reconsider the static, RedWolf, Rich Farmbrough, Ringbang, Rserpool, SatyrTN, Schlesselman, ScottDavis, Shii, Shivdeepak, Solarra, Squideshi, Stephan Leeds, Stonehead, Stryn, Sureshganapa, Suruena, Template namespace initialisation script, Theopolisme, Tmopkisn, Ttony21, Unglesb, Useight, West.andrew.g, Wisamsafi, Wknight94, Wmasterj, Yacht, Yerpo, Zac439, Zfr, , 186 anonymous edits

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