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Politics Of 1792

1 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King of Austria
Politics Of 1792
In 1792, Brissot, a member of a lodges influenced by the Illuminati at Paris, was the chairman of the French Assembly's foreign affairs committee. He issued unilateral ultimatums to Austria for it to express an intent to never attack France or to reclaim lands taken by France from Austrian protection (e.g., the Comte region seized in 1790). He imposed a March 1, 1792 deadline on Austria to comply or face war with France. In response to this boisterous behaviour by Brissot, Sweden agreed to ally with Austria against France if a war erupted. This will provide the context to understand why the kings of Sweden and Austria were both assassinated in March 1792.

The Illuminati Of Sweden
The Illuminati of Sweden were no different in ideology than the Illuminati of Germany. T. Thorild, member of Illuminati of Sweden, under the Pernetty branch, wrote in approximately 1790 in his newspaper:
The construction of the Universal Republic that ought to be founded has as its aim the Happiness of Humanity ... They that excel by intelligence ought to rule the world; those
Illuminati of Bavaria 1

Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King

that have virtuous energy ought to take in hand the executive power. If some imposter is in power and does not obey, behold the sentence: feriendus. [A blow]. It will give fire to cities and destroy them since they are schools of tyranny, of corruption, of misery ... With a spontaneous return to nature, they will form a free society on the model of the [Golden Rule] ... with a uniform support of a universal religious tolerance.1

Did this group end up assassinating Gustavus III on March 16, 1792? Who was the leader of the Illuminati in Sweden? British diplomats who spoke of the “Illuminati” of Sweden happened to mention that the next in line, the brother of Gustavus, “was a fervent disciple of this mystic sect....” of the “Illuminati.”2 This particular diplomat drew no connection to Weishaupt’s Order. It is simply the name of the Order to which this Regent of Sweden was well-known to be associated with. This Regent by further machinations afterwards became Charles XIII — the King of Sweden. Yet, if the Illuminati of Sweden had Gustavus killed, why in March 1792?

Gustavus III: His Reign Was Marked As Liberal
Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was a devoted follower of the French philosophers. When he was made King of Sweden in 1766, he often met with Rousseau, D’Alembert, and Marmontel. He corresponded regularly with Voltaire. He

1. Felice, supra, at 63 n. 54. 2. Horace Rumbold, Recollections of a Diplomatist (London: Edward Arnold, 1903) Vol. 1 at 22. (Available books.google.com.) Illuminati of Bavaria 2

he won military support to surround the Riksdag. but widened his own powers—giving him control of the army. Plans of public education were studied. thereafter acted to rid the government of the current Riksdag because it allegedly had become a corrupt oligarchy of nobles and businessmen. The Riksdag accepted. However. Free ports were created on the Baltic. the Caps party who allegedly were in the pay of Russia had won a majority of estates in the Riksdag. Rousseau and Revolution — The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster. navy. however. When he came to power. the power to tax. The reformists of France were delighted by this enlightened use of state-power. and foreign relations. Illuminati of Bavaria 3 . particularly that of Russia.Gustavus III: His Reign Was Marked As Liberal proved his devotion to the reforming spirit soon after taking the throne. The Riksdag would have. The Riksdag would only assemble at his will. Gustavus. Gustavus borrowed money from Dutch bankers so as to secure the nomination of the Marshal of the Riksdag. By 1772. less regulation over industry and less control over labor guilds. with the support of the Army. 1967) at 656-57. Gustavus ordered the delegates to accept a limited monarchy. Will & Ariel Durant. the reformist group should have critized Gustavus for improper pressure over the legislators. Only he could appoint ministers.4 3. Gustavus instituted reforms that the French physiocrats like Turgot advocated: free trade.3 The people hailed Gustavus as the liberator from foreign influence. He abolished torture and softened penalties and lowered taxes. 4.

but few supported his proposals. Gustavus convened the Riksdag for a vote of confidence.The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster. On May 6. seeds of disaffection were being sown regularly in the press against Gustavus. King Plot on Gustavus Was In Waiting Since 1786.5 Why attack Gustavus. at a meeting of Masons in 1786 in Frankfurt-am-main . La Révolution at 104. 5.Assassination of Gustavus III.6 Despite the efforts of those who were trying to undermine Gustavus.The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster. always previously revered as a liberal. discussed in Nesta Webster. 1967) at 662. was now subject of pamphleteers who cast suspicion on the motives of the government’s monopoly on liquor and the expenditures on the army. it was planned to kill Gustavus III of Sweden and Louis XVI. The other three legislative houses put no limit. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. even the House of Nobles voted two years supplies for the war with Denmark. The French Revolution. Denmark invaded Sweden and the people were "overwhelmingly for the King. As evidence of the widespread support for his reforms. He had adopted many liberal reforms. 1786. 1967) at 663. Will & Ariel Durant. This was because in January of 1789."7 The people supported Gustavus’ politics as well. he emerged alive from this dark period. Charles d’Hericault. according to the testimony of two French Freemasons. The king. He also opened political offices to almost anyone. 7. the most progressive of Monarchs? In 1786. Illuminati of Bavaria 4 . supra. He also went further by personally ending many priveleges of the nobility. Rousseau and Revolution -. Rousseau and Revolution -. But Thwarted Through 1789 Nevertheless. Will & Ariel Durant. at 21 6.

the “Duke of Sudermanie. [Lepeletier de] St. and these initiates chose it for the attack of the people because it had been the prison of Jacobus Molai [Jacques du Molay. The Grand Master actually is the Duke of Sudermanie. as discussed below. . Avignon was the theater of the greatest atrocities because it had belonged to the Pope .8 Gassicourt identifies that the Duke of Sudermainie held international control over Templar Freemasonry during the French Revolution period: The principle initiates. Grand Master in 1301 of the Knights Templars]. Illuminati of Bavaria 5 . Joseph Fletcher Brennan. His biography is most revealing on the causes for Gustavus’ death. Danton. Dumouriez. . 9 8.Now Enters The Duke of Sudermanie — Templar Chief — & Illuminati Assassi- Now Enters The Duke of Sudermanie — Templar Chief — & Illuminati Assassination of King of Sweden in 1792 The Swedish political figure known as the Duke of Sudermanie now enters the scene. are Mirabeau. Since 1780. According to a masonic history pubication. Fox. Robespierre. A General History of Free-masonry in Europe (American Masonic Publishing. who have played a role in the French revolution. Cadet-Gassicourt indicated the Duke of Sudermanie was the chief of the Templars of Europe during the French Revolution of 1792. . First. Emmanuel Rebold. Fargeau. Regent of Sweden. It is by the taking of the Bastille that the revolution began. let’s review the Duke’s Freemason career. the Duke d’Orleans.” the “brother of King Gustavus III” was “initiated in 1770” into the Strict Observance Templar Freemason system along with Gustavus III. Clootz. 1869) at 111. He was the brother of King Gustavus III. the Duke of Sudermanie was Grand Master of the “Knights Templar” of the “Strict Observance” system of Sweden.

Gustavus III of Sweden was the military commander agreed upon by Prussia & Austria to lead the coalition forces to protect the King of France should any harm come. à ceux qui veulent tout savoir. Gustavus IV. as a result of disturbances back home.Rebold & Brennan. As Louis Philippe notes: “But as this Prince 9. Charles Louis Cadet-Gassicourt. 12. 13. It was Gustavus who was put in charge of these troops who belonged to a coalition force. 1796) at 18. Oevure Posthume (Paris: Les Marchands de Nouveaute. However. he mistrusted its tendency. Joseph Fletcher Brennan. 11. In early 1792. also the Duke of Brunswick replaced Gustavus IV as head of allied forces on the borders of France.Assassination of Gustavus III. 1869) at 111. Le Tombeau de Jacques Molay ou le secret des conspirateurs. Austria stationed troops near France should anything befall their nation’s daughter — Marie Antoinette — still the reigning Queen of France. 10. His young 13 year old son. at 451. All were in a wait-and-see mode on the next move inside France. id. King Gustavus III Finds Out About The Secret Plans of The Strict Observance (Templars) However. Will & Ariel Durant. he was forced to return to Stockholm to see what was afoot. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. A General History of Free-masonry in Europe (American Masonic Publishing. Gustavus went to Aix-le-Chapelle to lead these allied forces into France if there was war..13 As a result. Illuminati of Bavaria 6 . at 112. Memoires. 1792.Emmanuel Rebold.11 In March 1792. succeeded him.”10 In 1792. 1967) at 664.Louis Philippe.12 Thereupon King Gustavus III was assassinated on March 16. Gustavus III then turned to support King Louis XVI to maintain a constitutional monarchy against internal agitators. the same masonic historians admit that when King Gustavus III “discovered the secret plans which lay hidden under the Strict Observance. Rousseau and Revolution — The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster. supra.

Le Vicomte de Mirabeau (Mirabeau-Tonneau)(17541792) (Paris: Hachette.”17 14. Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol. never would move forces on France. II at 90-91. Memoires.15 Police determined this killing was part of a much larger conspiracy than just Ankarstrom. Death was caused by two pistol shots from Mr. at 451. Ankarstrom. He was a Swede formerly in the royal guard. Illuminati of Bavaria 7 . This astonished all of Europe. who assassinated Gustavus III? The assassination took place at a masquerade ball at the opera house of Stockholm on the night of March 16. Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards.Eugene Berger. despite the seizure of Louix XVI and Marie Antoinette in August 1792. As Mirabeau-Tonneau. 16. We will later explore why the Duke of Brunswick did nothing.16 It was indeed not the lower classes conspiring. commented at the time.The Assassination of Gustavus Itself [Gustavus] was assassinated in March 1792."14 It later turned out that the Duke of Brunswick. 1792. 17. but members from the upper classes. as well as the killer. 15. 1904) at 368. the brother of the revolutionary.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards. they “arrested thirty-four persons.” noting “it is dreadful to imagine that it is the order of the nobility that formed the infamous conspiracy.Louis Philippe. II at 89. particularly the allies. supra. the Powers [Prussia and Austria] made a new choice which fell on the Duke of Brunswick. The Assassination of Gustavus Itself Thus.

including to put in place a new constitution. King The conspirators’ papers showed this killing was intended to start a revolution. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. Many of his works are still cited today." Revue des Deux Mondes (Jan.” A second edition appeared in 1802. as one magazine in England recorded in 1840: “it has been proved that the assassination of Gustavus III in Sweden was the work of a conspiracy of Illumines: Ankarstrom and Horn did not attempt to conceal this fact. and the results published by a French “historian and diplomat” named Alexis-François Artaud de Montor (1772-1849). Diplomat. as cited and discussed in "Un Prince Allemand Du XVIII Siecle D’Apres des Memoires Inedits.18 What Organization Was Found Responsible? A complete police investigation was made.Assassination of Gustavus III. Under Napoleon.This book was discussed in a 1798 issue of Allgemeine Literaturzeitung (Jahrgang 1798) Band 2 \ Numero 194.19 He claimed the Swedish police proved some "Illuminati society" was behind the assassination. Illuminati of Bavaria 8 .”21 Was Montor credible? Montor in his life-time wrote over a dozen serious histories that were well-regarded. Montor also was a translator into French of Dante’s Divine Comedy. The first step was to seize command of the national guard of Stockholm. 19.” Fraser’s Magazine for Town and Country (May 1840) 542. roi de Suede. Montor added to these achievements a career as a diplomat. at 548. [Artaud de Montor] Histoire de l'assassinat de Gustave III. II at 91. 1866) at 920. 20. Alexis-François (17721849.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards. (Paris 1797). 1. Historiker. par un officier polinaise temoin oculaire. 18.“The History and Mystery of Secret Societies and Political Clubs.20 This account became wellknown. 21. Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol. and its online reference identifies the author as “Artaud de Montor.

”23 — age 13 at the time. Brother To King.”25 22. the Encyclopedia Americana says “a conspiracy was formed against” Gustavus IV. Templar Leader. the Duke of Sudermanie. Brother To King. Cadet-Gassicourt referred to this same “Duke of Sudermanie.22 There is thus no reason to disregard this treatise simply because it ‘fits’ the Illuminati legend.org/wiki/AlexisFran%C3%A7ois_Artaud_de_Montor (accessed 1/1/2009).Y. was called to the throne. 24. the Duke of Sudermanie became the “regent of the kingdom [of Sweden] during the minority of Gustavus IV.wikipedia. and he was deposed and exiled. Gains From His Brother’s Assassination A clearly corroborating fact is that the person who directly benefited in the short-run and long-run from the assassination turned out to be the Duke of Sudermanie.”24 Then “after the deposition of Gustavus IV. as a result of Gustavus III’s assassination. 23. II at 329. Illuminati of Bavaria 9 . In 1792. regent” as the chief of the entire Templar system during the French Revolution period. The question is whether the facts surrounding this claim fit what Montor revealed. Memoirs Illustrating the History of Napoleon I from 1802 to 1815 (N. 25.“Gustavus IV. Gains From His Brother’s Assassination Artaud de Montor was the Secretary of the French legation at Rome until 1805 when he was made chargé d’affaires at Florence. this king’s uncle. The Memoirs of Alexandre Dumas (Père) (London: 1891) Vol.Templar Leader.Alexandre Dumas. Then in 1809.Claude-François de Meneval. later he “died in poverty.” The Encyclopedia Americana (N.Y. I at 230.: 1894) Vol.: 1919) at 578.http://fr.

people in those days derogatorily called him the “Duke of Orleans of Sweden (not altogether inaptly).28 It seems pretty transparent that not only was CadetGassicourt correct about this Duke of Sudermanie being the head of European Templars at the time. supra. King Hence.26 Masonic histories record the duke. the international head of the Templar sect — effectively ruled as regent until Gustavus IV became an adult. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. and the Regent-brother of Gustavus was still on the sidelines — yet laying in wait for his day to oust the true successor king and seize the throne for himself. due to Gustavus III’s death. This was during the period the young boy-king and true king was ruling. This time he duke making himself king.J. 28.27 Because of the way this duke took the crown.Assassination of Gustavus III.Rebold & Brennan.Louis Gabriel Michaud. but also that this duke used the same means his Templars used in France to engineer seizures of power. The Public and Private Life of Louis Philippe of Orleans (London: 1851) at 75.” meaning he was regarded to be a virtual “regicide” like many viewed the Duc d’Orleans of France. Bernadotte. his brother — the Duke of Sudermanie. making the true king a pauper. and then again later when the king turned age 30. at 112. continued as Templar Grand Master of Sweden until 1811 when he turned the post over to Prince C. 27. 26. Illuminati of Bavaria 10 . now king.The Duke of Sudermanie called himself King Charles XIII. The police investigation finding the “Illuminati” assassinated Gustavus III should surprise no one.

” King Gustavus replied: If I allowed myself to listen to all the stories of conspiracies. I will by my moral authority inspire confidence and respect that is naturally accorded conquerors. told Gustavus III of “a plot against the King’s life. They offered this help despite no request from King Louis of France. I intend to send Stockolhm all the flags that I can. The Swedes are brave in war.Other Advantages To Killing Gustavus III Other Advantages To Killing Gustavus III Loss of A Zealous Protector Of King Louix XVI During the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1792. Gustavus became more obviously a target to destroy. and as I have no doubt in the success of my expedition in France. Illuminati of Bavaria 11 . This is something that was broken when he was replaced by a new expeditionary forces leader — the Duke of Brunswick — the very same who chaired Wilhemsbad where the overthrow of France was planned in 1782. 29. in which he was instructed about a widespread talk that the next murder would be of Gustave. I would soon have to take a drink of water. but timid in the political affairs. II at 87-88. a German of distinction who served several French princes in exile.” based on “notices from Germany.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards.29 Gustavus III clearly had a zeal and purpose to invade France if necessary to protect Louix XVI’s life. Gustavus was indeed zealous to defend Louis XVI. Sweden with Prussia and Austria in February of 1792 had agreed to protect King Louis of France if any harm should befall him. When Baron Escars. Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol.

31. 1792 was singled out for the date of Gustavus’ assassination. 1793. 30. We already spoke of the Duke of Sudermanie.30 Also. Was Leopold Murdered on March 1. . are alone excepted from this inspection. the Duke of Sudermanie. I. the new young king put all secret societies under government supervision but his Ordinance said explicitly "Freemasons . Id. The king’s son. King Sweden Dropped Out of The Alliance Against France Another consequence of this assassination is that Sweden dropped out of the alliance. those who took power from Gustavus III. This was due not only to the disruption such a death causes but also because the new king besides the Regent (Duke of Sudermanie) appears to have sympathized with the forces behind the Jacobins. at 312. Hence. "Gustavus IV. in the same month of March 1793. joined the Freemasons at Stockholm on March 10. King Gustavus IV. Illuminati of Bavaria 12 . supra... at age 14. . at Vol. were obviously protective of the forces that were hiding the Illuminati in the upper degrees. whether the boy-king or his uncle." Encyclopedia of Freemasonry."31 Thus no secret society other than Freemasons could operate in Sweden. Its connection to those other events cannot be ruled out as one of the reasons why March 16. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. 1792? The assassination of Gustavus also coincided with events in Austria.Assassination of Gustavus III.

Leopold was brother to Queen Marie Antoinette of France. Emperor of Germany. near Dresden. however.” The North American Review (Boston: Crosby Nichols. 1859) No.org/wiki/Leopold_II. 1791.org/Frederick_William_II (accessed 1/ 2/09). 1792. But in March.”33 In fact. In the year prior — August 25. on March 1. the cause of death appears to be poisoning by an Illuminatus. Illuminati of Bavaria 13 . might be pardoned the suspicion that the Jacobins were entering in disguise the service of their enemies. A formal alliance by Leopold with Austria was indeed signed on the 7th of February 1792. 1792? Leopold: Poisoned By Another.1911encyclopedia._Holy_Roman_Emperor 34. and thus had very sincere reasons why he would wish to help his sister in France.34 32. Emperor Leopold died on March 1. 1792 Leopold died “suddenly. Leopold. 1792. — and the king of Sweden was assassinated by Anckarstrom. to play more conveniently the part of assassins. Leopold had met the king of Prussia at Pillnitz. 349 at 354. at age 45. this is precisely what people believed. 33.“Prince Gallitzin. who. or A Natural Death At Age 45 on March 1. 1792? This part of the account starts with Leopold’s sudden death in Austria. These two catastrophes struck terror into the royal and noble families of Europe. and they drew up a declaration of their readiness to intervene in France if and when their assistance was called for by the other powers. after the horrible events of the French Revolution. 182.Was Leopold Murdered on March 1. At the time.http://en. died.32 However. — as his friends supposed. Or His Own Concoctions.http://www. of poison administered by an agent of the secret order of Illuminati.wikipedia.

: Harper. let’s review some facts. Lamartine says there were a mixture of issues. shattered by debauchery and excess. declared he discovered traces of poison. including the likelihood that pills concocted by Gustavus were involved and the face a trace of poison was found — which indeed may have been in those very same pills: The most probable opinion is that this prince had made an immoderate use of drugs which he compounded himself. his chief physician. From the Foundation of the Monarchy (2006) at 199 fn. 37.37 As we read on. Gerald Brennan. Illuminati of Bavaria 14 .Assassination of Gustavus III. 36. Lagusius. Vehse explains: 35. in order to recruit his constitution.Y. an envoy of the King of Prussia. “Because of rumors that he was poisoned. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. However. but the question was whether another person was responsible for this or Leopold himself alone. King Before we discuss that evidence. but no one ever seems to suspect him.William Coxe. He was Johann Rudolph von Bischoffswerder (1741– 1803). Allen Schrott. someone came with new recipes. History of the Girondists (N. without bad effects. I at 365. History of the House of Austria. The king had been vomitting for three days. Let’s read Dr. and some assume this was the cause of death. Dr. whether Leopold or Bischoffswerder.36 However. Eduard Vehse’s account because his naivete about Bischoffswerder is most revealing about who poisoned the pills. 1848) Vol. After advising us that the king was vomitting for three days. the government was obliged to perform an autopsy.Chris Woodstra.”35 The autopsy revealed a tape worm several cells in length. He had used such pills for a very long time. shortly before his death.Alphonse de Lamartine. who had assisted at the autopsy of the body. it is evident that the pills he used contained a poison. All Music Guide to Classical Music (2005) at 299.

39 So this doctor does not think anyone but Leopold poisoned himself.W. General Bischofswerder. 1792? There was a rumour of his having been poisoned. After a year’s probation. at 78. who was reputed to be particularly skilled in the preparation of those erotic stimulants. he was anxious to join. and Diplomacy of Austria (London: Longman Brown. 38. 1856) Vol. recovered. Illuminati of Bavaria 15 . of that sort which were then in Italy called Diavolini. Frederic William II of Prussia had sent to him. who afterwards lived in great luxury in Italy.From 1778 to mid-1780. the famous Rosicrucian. Leopold dabbled in alchemy and chemistry. Aristocracy. as an ambassador. the suspicion even being fixed on Signora Livia. Major Bischosffswerder was stationed as a calvary officer in Bavaria fighting the potato war with Austria. (Christopher McIntosh. When F. II at 371. Eduard Vehse (trans.Was Leopold Murdered on March 1. manufactured in his own laboratory. He said the Order held the secrets. Bischoffswerder with Wollner initated him into the Rosicrucian order. however. 1781. Bischoffswerder accepted him as a candidate as F. on August 8. Yet.38 and with this adept the Emperor was repeatedly engaged in alchemist and other similar experiments in his secret laboratory.W. the doctor ignores the role potentially played by the “Rosicrucian” Bischoffswerder in helping formulate new alchemist concoctions. and hastened his death by the use of stimulating pills.W. Everyone assumed Bischoffswerder was above suspicion. with the alias Ormesus Magnus. supra. has completely refuted this gratuitous suspicion. Franz Demmler). was already an initiate in the Masonic lodge of the Golden Keys.) 39. The Rosicrucians. Memoirs of the Court. Hormayr.) of some disease.Dr. Bischoffswerder applied a ‘magic elixir’ to cure Prince Frederick William (F.

King However. once one understand this “Rosicrucian” Bischoffswerder was actually part of the Illuminati. The Illuminati Are Linked To Bischoffswerder.Assassination of Gustavus III. the Comte de Vaudreuil. Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Introduction & Synopsis of Conclusions The evidence below should establish that at Berlin there were two lodges of significance in our account of Bischofswerder. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. So did Wöllner. that one finds these sectaries everywhere. wrote him from Venice: What strikes me most is that the sect of the Illumines is the cause and instigator of all our troubles. 1792. Bischofswerder belonged to both. the Comte d’Artois. that even the King of Prussia is imbued with this pernicious system. as explained next. advisor and friend to the emigre prince of France. but the other was a Rosicrucian lodge. The other lodge at Berlin was a lodge of Rosicrucians at Berlin. that the man who possesses his chief confidence (Bischoffswerder) is one of its chief heads.40 Illuminati of Bavaria 16 . not Wöllner In October 1790. First. this was the lodge run by the Illuminati linked to Weishaupt. there was a Freemason lodge Concordia that later changed over to become a Strict Observance lodge. One was controlled by the Illuminati. to be followed by Gustavus III on March 16th by two pistol shots. Just as Cagliostro was told the Illuminati were the higher superiors within the Strict Observance. then there is no coincidence that Leopold died by poisoning on March 1st.

2005) at 98. 41. There is no mention of Wöllner. Lord Holland’s Links Bischofswerder To The Berlin Illuminati Lord Holland provides a most ‘illuminating’ account of the Illuminati and Bischoffswerder. Lord Holland (1773-1840) 41 was the “orphaned nephew and ward of Charles James Fox. Henry Fox/ Lord Holland went to Paris in 1791 and was able to meet with Lafayette and Talleyrand.43 In 1796. as of 1790. we need some background on Lord Holland to understand his reliability. the French emigre princes were not fooled into thinking Bischoffswerder was on their side. The King of Prussia may have sympathized with the emigre Princes of France. First.Correspondence du Comte de Vaudreuil et du Comte d’Artois (Paris: 1889) Vol.http://en. Henry Fox. The History of Gothic Fiction (Edingburgh University Press. 3d (1773–1840). Henry Richard Vassall Fox. the celebrated Whig politician and the most powerful British supporter of the French Revolution in this period. Henry Fox 3d. and his Illuminati sect. He was a member of the Whig opposition party from 1797 and served as lord privy seal in the coalition ministry of 1806–7. I at 342. He again visited France in 1793 during its most extreme phase.com/topic/baronholland 42.org/wiki/Henry_Vassall-Fox. supra. including the company he kept. quoted in N.Markman Ellis. World Revolution. nephew of Charles James Fox. held sway over the king.”42 Through connections of his famous uncle. not Wöllner. Henry Fox became Lord Holland as he joined the House of Lords.answers. And note that Bischofswerder is linked to the Illuminati. There he became leader of the (liberal) Whig party. at 86.Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Thus._3rd_Baron_Holland Illuminati of Bavaria 17 . 43.” http://www.Lord Holland. but that did not matter if Bischoffswerder.wikipedia. “Throughout [Lord Holland’s] whole 40. Webster. “British politician.

1729. In 1792. for the purpose of converting the King to his views of policy. this could be. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. he was not devoid of superstition. his favorite. Lord Holland specifically reported how Bischoffswerder used Illuminati seances to manipulate of the king of Prussia. After threats were made by Prussia. Bischoffswerder. Holland could not fathom how this made the Illuminati in league with the French Revolution. he was much under the influence of a sect then famous in Germany.But what Holland overlooked is that if the Prussian king ended up only threatening war from Prussia on France. 44. was a member . and called the Illumines. as a pretext to initiate revolution at Paris. Holland. Illuminati of Bavaria 18 .http://johntyrrell. He does not claim they are all true. but that so many statements to the same effect must have some truth in them.”44 He opposed absolute monarchies in Europe and any effort to restore the Bourbons to France. In 1850.blogspot. This is precisedly what happened on August 10th.com/2008/03/lady-holland-dahlias-everlastings. where important figures from around the world visited.Assassination of Gustavus III. Mr. and swapped stories. Yet. It became a salon comparable to those found in France. Lord Holland wrote a book of his reminisces from what he heard in such political circles. no counter-attack from Prussia ever came. including discussions about Bischoffswerder. and he is much belied if he did not resort to conjuration and apparitions.html 45. and was used.45 Here is Lord Holland’s reminisce of King Frederick William II of Prussia and the role of the Illuminatus Bischofswerder in his cabinet: However irregular in morals. His home was known as Holland House. King political career he took a pro-French stance. because Bischoffswerder often encouraged the Prussian king to war against the revolution. Frederick William II. Of that association of visionaries and impostors.

46 46. and an immaterial world. that the only known practical result of such visionary practices on the events of the political world. It is.org/ stream/foreignreminisce00hollrich/ foreignreminisce00hollrich_djvu. Illuminati of Bavaria 19 .Henry Richard Lord Holland. Some odious and many ludicrous instances of the delusions practiced to engage the King in the war. though I neither recollect the details. and their progress.archive. Foreign Remisces (N. at least. Some years afterward it became a fashion or an artifice among the servile apologists of tyranny. were circulated and credit ed throughout Europe.Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati which were very versatile and changeable. and not unfrequently as mysterious and unintelligible as his belief in necromacy. in all likelihood. I believe they were entirely distinct in their origin. and the notorious prevalence of such superstitions in all the courts of Germany rendered the stories probable enough. and nearly as many of similar artifices to wean him from the prosecution of it. first with free-masonry.Y. popery. but there could hardly be so much exagger ation without some truth. A complete copy is at http://www. and all their ramifications. to connect the sect of Illumines. magic. considerably heightened by public report. was to prevail on many petty. for the purpose of rescuing the institutions of monarchy. whimsical. Many. no doubt. to inflict the calamities of war on mankind.& London: Harper. and one important court of Germany. 1851) at 52-53. sufficiently to justify my recording them as facts. and most. were invented . their objects. and afterward with the disorganizing and irreligious principles of the revolutionary clubs in France. and nobility from destruction. nor have examined the authorities on which they rested.txt (accessed 1/2/09).

But always the king was like a puppet due to his credulity for the mysticism of the lodge. as it originated in a Protestant nation (i. R. 2006) at 109. Henry Fox aka Lord Holland recorded what he learned from his international crowd. which will prove important. R. Rene Alleau. King Thus. Sometimes for war. Illuminati of Bavaria 20 . Leveghi.. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969). Notice again this is not linking Wöllner to the Illuminati.”47 Yet. Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee.”50 47. Bischoffswerder “was initiated into Strict Observance masonry under the ceremonial name of Eques a Grypho.James Van Horn Melton.) When Freemasonry was losing energy. it was dying out soon thereafter. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969).History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity Part 1 of Free and Accepted (Kessinger reprint) at 492. 48. Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans.René Alleau. then came along “an order known as the Strict Observance. in his scholarly work on the occult origins of Nazism.e. or “For Concord. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. Sometimes against it. claiming succession from the Templars. Leveghi. Freemasonry was viewed suspiciously in Germany. Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans. supplanted Freemasonry. Bischoffswerder manipulated the king of Prussia using the German Illuminati at Berlin. 2006) at 109.”49 Much later “Members of the Order [at Berlin] associated with the Illuminati. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 77.”48 Alleau says this particular Concord lodge linked up to the Strict Observance — the Templars. 49. Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee.René Alleau. Specifics On Lodge Of Bischoffswerder: Templar Origins The lodge which I believe is where the Illuminati came to predominate was founded actually in the 1760s at Berlin.Assassination of Gustavus III. England. 50. explains that the lodge’s German name was Zur Eintracht.

Glenn Alexander Magee. Bischoffswerder and Wöllner had initiated the future heir to the Prussian throne — Freidrich Wilhem — into their Rosicrucian lodge.”53 As we saw previously. Leveghi.René Alleau.55 51. he was stationed in Bavaria in the “Potator War” with Austria. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 77 (mid-1780 is based on the one year anniversary stated by Melton being August 1781). The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 266-67. when Cagliostro was initiated in 1780 within a Strict Observance lodge.James Van Horn Melton.R. Book of the Rosicruciae (Rosicrucians) (2005) Vol. mention is frequently made that Bischoffswerder belonged to this Concord (now Templar) lodge as well as the Rosicrucians. 52. Illuminati of Bavaria 21 . that Bischoffswerder (probably at Hamburg) joined a Rosicrucian Order. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969). 54. other than using the Templar myth.Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Part of Bischoffswerder’s transformation toward the Illuminati might have taken place when in 1778 until the mid1780. R. 55. Meanwhile. it was in that time. In the Rosicrucian lodge at Hamburg. 3 at 107. Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee. Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition (2001) at 250. This must have been true as well for the Berlin branch. one of the key differences from ordinary masonry in this sect. Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans. 53.James Van Horn Melton. This is thus where the Illuminati were — in this Strict Observance lodge.51 Yet. 2006) at 109. was that the Strict Observance had “unknown superiors.52 Going back to the Strict Observance. he was told the superiors of the Order belonged to an inner circle known as the Illuminati.54 Involved in this same lodge was Ferdinand of Brunswick. at Christmas eve 1779. in 1781. Swinburne Clymer.

King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. Book of the Rosicruciae (Rosicrucians) (2005) Vol. he was a soldier. 3 at 107.Georges Lefebvre. quoted in Albert Pike. supra. His father was a Lutheran minister. XI at 64. “Prince Henry. he was a stablemaster and chamberlain to a duke. brother of Henry. after the latter came to the throne. 57. and the Hereditary Prince [Freidrich W.” (Biographie Universelle.R.59 “Bischoffswerder. He left being a pastor to become a specialist writer on agriculture.” The Encyclopædia Britannica (Cambridge. at 78. The Rosicrucians. at 77. and Wöllner had been an “ordained” minister. was not active in matters of the church. the Crown Prince now King. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. but later became a Prussian calvary officer. supra. 1910) Vol. supra. Wöllner issued the “Edict on Religion” signed by the king “which attempted to impose stricter standards of orthodoxy on Prussian Protestant clergy.”57 Religious tests were imposed.“Frederick William II. Wöllner’s biography is the only one that suggests conservatism. The French Revolution (2001) at 76.Assassination of Gustavus III. Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (2003 reprint) at 166-67.James Van Horn Melton. Bischoffswerder’s background was that he had initially studied law.] took lessons from him in political economy. when the old king died.”60 His only official post in the kingdom after 1786 was that he was Adjutant-general on the king’s military staff. 58. In 1786. He was “a minister of religion” in his early life. 60. King Now between the two men. at 268. he was hoping his friend. unlike Wollner. would place him at the head of the religion department “for the purpose of saving millions of souls from perdition and bringing back the whole country to the faith of Jesus Christ. The Rosicrucians. There was no sign of any esoteric studies.Christopher McIntosh. This was the origin of the favor he enjoyed with that Prince. Illuminati of Bavaria 22 . Swinburne Clymer. Thereafter. took him into his Council.Christopher McIntosh. 61.”58 By contrast.56 Later in 1788. By Hugh Chisholm 59.61 56. Johann Christopher von Wöllner was born in 1732.

e. in 1783. Wöllner had been an ordained minister of religion as a young man. Illuminati of Bavaria 23 . in 1783. 2006) at 110. As mentioned previously. as condemning the Illuminati Order. Alleau is also referring to a decission on November 11. The issue of the Bavarian Illuminati came up at a lodge. apparently the Rosicrucian Berlin lodge.” and it instead it would recognize all masons “except the Illu62.. In the quote above. R. not Bischoffswerder.Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Wöllner’s next action around 1783 corroborates his conservatism and rejection of the Illuminati was sincere. It would not use a new Templar rite. in 1783. 63.63 Notice this spoke of Wöllner.” the Three Globes dissented and refused to agree.62According to Alleau. the exposures started to take place in Bavaria on the Illuminati.René Alleau.See “Bavarian Investigation & Suppression Decrees” on page 1 et seq. 1783 by the regular Mother lodge of Prussian Freemasonry. of the national ‘Mother Lodge’ [i. It “refused to conform to the rectified Templar system. Gold und Rosenkreuz (1929).. There is no guarantee that Bischoffswerder shared the negative sentiments expressed by Wöllner.became freightened by the persecution that had been exercised against the “Illuminati of Bavaria. What happened was that in light of the 1782 decision at Wilhemsbad to essential “subvert the Strict Observance. Leveghi..” The taking of the position. Wöllner denounced the Illuminati in 1783 in the Rosicrucian context: Wöllner. Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans.” which he presented as a revolutionary sect and “devouring wolves” and “assassins of the spirit. The Three Globes. within standard Freemasonry] of the ‘Three Globes’ against the Illuminati is testimony to the power of the ‘Rosicrucian party’ of Wöllner in Germany masonry at the end of the 18th Century. relying upon Arnold Marx’s book. Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee.

King minati” freely across systems. Dictionnaire de la Francmaçonerìe (1987).“Illuminés.Christopher McIntosh. he did not seem to have a mind of his own. supra. Ed.Moses W. Illuminati of Bavaria 24 . Conclusion There is a repetitious identification of Illuminati at Berlin as being under Bischoffswerder’s influence. he became the Grand Master of the Mother Lodge Zu den drei Weltkugeln (The Three Globes). Wöllner’s conservative leanings are evident in the fact that “in 1791. at 80. supra. The Rosicrucians. Neither time is there a reference to Wöllner.Christopher McIntosh. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. Despite this disagreement. Where was King Friedrich William in all this? He insisted upon twice having two bigamous marriages by 1789 with both wives in his life simultaneously.68 But other than his listening to either of these two lodge brothers. supra. Redding. Meanwhile. Le origini. 66. 64. 65. at 80.64 The Three Globes were very serious about this.67 He did allow himself to be persuaded to conservative decrees on religion proposed by Wollner. Three Globes would still accept Duke Ferdinand as Grand Master.”66 This means he was moving toward supporting the Freemasons.”65 Whether Concord refused to use the rectified Templar rite adopted at Wilhemsbad is not known. The Rosicrucians.Alleau.” Daniel Ligou. On that date. Illustrated History of Freemasonry (1997) at 430. and no othe name is referenced. supra. at 604. 67. at 109. not the Templar Rite. Ligou implies that this is directed at the Rosicrucians of Munich and Vienna where they allegedly were influential. 68.Assassination of Gustavus III. it issued a warning that at Berlin had arisen the Illuminati — a “masonic sect which wants to sap the Christian religion and to make Masonry a political system.

1792. Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1. Each time the Illuminati are connected to Bischoffswerder. The evidence appears that only Bischoffswerder had previously been in the Strict Observance system. Lord Holland. 1792 The French king’s minister. The Jacobins under Brissot’s influence at the time spoke out in the Assembly. when we learn that Bischoffswerder was giving pill recipes proximate to Leopold’s death. 1792 First. said again the Illuminati were serving Bischoffswerd. The king felt compelled to dismiss de Lessart on March 9. This system had turned itself over to the Illuminati at Wilhemsbad. Henry Fox. Fox clearly said this was the “German Illuminati. then we can put two-and-two together. and everyone in the world regarded Bischoffswerder as an Illuminatus. de Lessart. sent letters to Austria that were conciliatory in tone. one of the problem kings to France’s future was eliminated on March 1.” meaning the order of Weishaupt. They accused de Lessart of treason and began impeachment proceedings against him. In sum. Bischoffswerder in 1780 had spent over a year stationed in Bavaria on a war assignment against Austria. It would appear likely that Emperor Leopold was killed by poisoning himself using a recipe from Bischoffswerder that was designed to kill him. for the greater advantage of dominating the king via the lodge. King Louis of France decided to put the Brissotins in all minister positions as an offer of conciliation to stop these Jacobin critiques. pretending to tolerate what Wollner was doing. There is every reason to believe he was playing along.Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1. not Wöllner. The ministry now included a Swiss banker Illuminati of Bavaria 25 . we quoted Comte de Vaudreuil in 1790 saying the Illuminati are serving Bischoffswerder. 1792 and all the other ministers on the 10th. Two weeks later Gustavus II would be taken care of by pistol shot. As a result.

70. Citizens--A Chronicle of the French Revolution (N.Assassination of Gustavus III. an unemployed factory inspector (Interior Minister). a soldier (Minister of War). William Doyle. Consider also that outside France despotism is in 69. and Sweden who were now amassing to attack France despite the king’s protestations that he was not asking for these foreign nations to help him. the true reason for all this Jacobin rhetoric was that the Brissotin-led Jacobins wanted war to cause an overthrow of the French king and then conquer its neighbors in a world crusade. at 180.000 troops at the frontier. the Jacobins acted entirely fearless of Prussia. The king apparently imagined that the Brissotins would not want war if they were now in power. when one considers that in decreeing war you are also decreeing the death of several thousand men. The pretext was that Austria sent letters to General Bender in the Netherlands (Belgium) that Bender should assist the Elector of Tiers if the French invaded Tiers. 1989) at 593-95.Y. Mailhe called for a declaration of war to liberate all of Europe. but consider also that you are perhaps decreeing the liberty of the entire world . He said: Humanity will doubtless suffer. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. Then. a close friend of Mirabeau and Brissot (Minister of Finance). Roland. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. King named Clavière. Austria. Rather. supra. . 70 Deputy Mailhe’s speech in April revealed once more that the Jacobins did not want war merely to satisfy wounded French pride that someone thought France belligerant enough to attack Triers. Simon Schama. .69 King Louis miscalculated. Illuminati of Bavaria 26 . These three men were all for war. and Dumouriez. . upon the slightest of pretexts Jacobin deputies demanded war with Austria.: Vintage Books. Amazingly. The Austrians had put 50.

Citizens. and more fortunately. at 77 fn. Illuminati of Bavaria 27 .Taine.C. He has asked their help in June 1791. Blanning. The French Revolution in Germany — Occupation and Resistance in the Rhineland 1792-1802 (Oxford: Clarendon Press. quickly!”72 One deputy. No evidence at King Louis’ trial in December 1792 ever showed otherwise."73 Louis XVI was compelled to read the declaration of war. . 74. but to take over all Europe. but consistently begged them not to intervene after the October 1791 elections because it would make matters worse.W. .71 The Assembly of France declared war on April 20. Cloots arrived handing out maps that showed all of Europe carved up in departments. Clootz alias Anarcharsis at the Jacobins made a speech on April 21st where he claimed that the purpose of this war was not defensive. beginning with Holland. Savoy. 1986) at 63. 71. II. We require enemies. which he did so in a faultering voice. warned in dissent that "we shall earn the reputation of being an aggressive and restless people who disturb the peace of Europe and disregard treaties and international law. Belgium and Savoy.Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1. . will the suit of plebians against the nobles be decided . supra. .74 Talleyrand now became the foreign ambassador on behalf of General Dumouriez to make this war come about. He said: "the more extensive the seat of war the sooner. 1792 at this juncture. Becquet. at 597. T. And yet. . and quickly. Tuscany. King Louis had not asked for their help this time. 72. 73. Schama. The Brissotin Jacobins thereby put the king in a conflicting situation where he was fighting nations which claimed they were allies of the true majority of French who wanted the Constitution of September 1791. 1792 its death-throes and that a prompt attack will precipitate its final agony.

The Brissotin-led Jacobins could fearlessly talk of wiping out their enemies. the Brissotin-led Jacobins knew the war leadership would fall to the Duke of Brunswick. These plans of war were very successful. and sending them fleeing. In the next chapter. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold.Assassination of Gustavus III. we shall discuss how the war was manipulated so as to cause the Revolution in France. there was nothing to fear from armies under Brunswick’s control approaching them. 1792. and thus by the time they declared war in April 1792 at Paris. Illuminati of Bavaria 28 . These Jacobins knew their opponent would act as their secret allies and merely pretend to attack so that the Jacobins could bring about a revolution at home. King Analysis of the Call to War After their allies knocked off Gustavus III on March 16.