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Chiller Plant Control

What We Will Cover



Factory-integrated controls on chillers Chiller plant control strategies Tracer control features Reliability and serviceability Chiller plant optimization Additional discussion

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Trane AdaptiView Control System


4th Generation Microprocessor Chiller Control Adaptive control
Reliable operation through difficult operation conditions

Feed-forward control
Accurate and stable control under the most dynamic system transients

Sophisticated diagnostics Fast restarts Operator tested informative display Multiple open protocol communication options

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Trane AdaptiView Control System


Feed-forward Control Feed-forward control enables the chiller to respond faster to load changes Feed-forward control uses flow change and entering water
temperature as an indication of load change

It proactively compensates for load changes

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Trane AdaptiView Control System


Feed-forward Control
PID

Feedback

Typical Controller ? 42

Feedforward

UC800

Feedback

Trane UC800/AdaptiView 56

Return Water Temp Evaporator Flow 40

DP 627 gpm
5 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

Trane AdaptiView Control System


Variable Flow Compensation

Directly measures chilled water flow Enhances leaving water temperature control during
rapid flow rate changes of up to 50%/min.
>30 % /min commercial control 10% /min precision process control

Auto-tunes control gains to maintain stability and


accuracy over chillers full range of flow rates.

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

What Do Customers Really Care About ?



Reliable chilled water flow Operating cost (energy efficiency) Operator safety Environmental awareness Reduced maintenance cost

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Tracer Chiller Plant Control


Repeatability performance from plant to plant
Maximize the use of pre-engineered features Minimize on-site customization

Flexibility supports a variety of:


Plant layouts Chiller types Control strategies

Maximized energy savings


Load matching Chiller tower optimization Distributed pump pressure optimization Thermal ice storage Minimize manual intervention

Minimized operational costs


Minimize manual intervention, but anticipate it Maintain chilled water flow and temperature Minimize service surprises

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Chiller Plant Control

Chiller Plant Control


Load Determination Chiller Sequencing User Interface System Optimization

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Plant Layout Flexibility


Constant Flow

CW Return Temp

UC P2 UCP2

Chiller #2
UC P2 UCP2

CW Supply Temp

Chiller #1

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Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Plant Layout Flexibility


Variable Flow - Decoupled
UC P2 UCP2

Chiller #2

UC P2 UCP2

Production

SUPPLY

Chiller #1 Bypass Line

Air Handling Units


Distribution

Pressure Differential Controller or Transmitter

Variable-Speed Drive

DE MAND

Control Valves

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Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Plant Layout Flexibility


Variable Primary Flow
UC P2 UCP2

Variable-Speed Drive
UC P2 UCP2

Flow Meter Bypass Line

Production

Differential Pressure Sensor or Transmitter Air Handling Units

PPLY SU

DE MAND

Distribution

Control Valves

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Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Pre-engineered Features

Load determination Capacity matching Rotation Chiller setpoint control Failure recovery User interface

Installation and operating reliability and efficiency


13 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

Load Determination
(when to add or subtract a chiller)

What is the optimal sequencing for chillers? Should I run one chiller at 100% or two chillers at 50%?

The givens
whether you run one chiller or two The building load does not change The outside wet bulb temperature does not change When you run two chillers You may double the number of pumps You may double the number of tower cells

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Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

One Chiller at 100%? or Two Chillers at 50%?


Constant Speed Centrifugal Chiller Unloading at constant condenser water temperature
1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 kW/ton 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0 20 40 60 Percent Load 80 100

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Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Capacity Matching
(turn the right chiller on) Dependent on chiller plant design

Normal Base Pea Swing Custom

- identical chillers - heat recovery/super efficient - back up/alternate energy source/inefficient - match the load! - mix and match/nested CPC objects

Reduce operating costs


16 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

U C P2 U C P2 450 Ton Chiller (Swing) 900 Ton Chiller (Normal-2)

900 Ton Chiller (Normal-1)

450

900 1350 Building Load (Tons)

1800

2250

Reduce operating costs


17 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

Flexible Rotation
Which chiller is next?

Schedule based Run-time Manual operator decision Customized


Number of starts Other?

Reliable chilled water

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Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Unload Before Start


Keep chillers online

Ride out flow transients on startups

Deals with less sophisticated chiller controllers

Variable flow / multiple pump systems Low supply water temperatures

Reliable chilled water


19 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

Failure Recovery
Keep chilled water flowing

No manual intervention required Follow the standard sequence Multiple failure inputs

Chiller level System level

Reliable chilled water


20 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

Intuitive User Interface


Minimize training time Minimize undesirable manual control Maximize operator efficiency

Reduced Operational Costs


21 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

Chiller - Tower Optimization


Tower Setpoint Optimization

Load Condenser water

Load Condenser water

temperature Wet bulb


Tower design

temperature
Chiller design

22

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Chiller - Tower Optimization


ChillerTower Interaction
400

Total Energy Consumption, kW


300

Chiller
200

Optimal control point

100

Tower

0 72 74 76 78 80 82 84

Condenser Water Temperature, F


23 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

Chiller - Tower Optimization


North America
350K
Control Strategy

Annual Operating Cost, $ USD

300K 250K 200K 150K 100K 50K 0

55F Lvg Tower Optimal Control Design ECWT

Mexico City

Orlando

San Diego

Toronto
2010 Trane

24

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

Distribution Pumping
Critical Valve Pressure Control

Critical valve reset Benefits


Reduced pump energy Better coil control Extend pump life

Pressure Differential Air Handling Units Controller or Transmitter

Control Valves

Reduce operating costs


25 Introduction to Trane Control Systems 2010 Trane

Chiller Plant Dashboard Details


System and Chiller Status

Pump Status System Efficiency System Load

Chilled Water Temps

Tower Water Temps

Pump Flow Daily Average Metrics


26 Introduction to Trane Control Systems

Pump Pressure
2010 Trane

Summary
Key points to remember Integrated chiller controls
Factory quality; better performance, efficiency and serviceability; lower risk

Performance
Temperature control; reliability; extended equipment life; automatic failure response

Efficiency
Lower energy and maintenance costs

Sustainability
Maintain performance over time Document performance

27

Introduction to Trane Control Systems

2010 Trane

Thank you!

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