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Tra|n|nq Needs /na|ys|s |TN/ starts w|th a qood |n|t|a| understand|nq of where your
staff |s today by assess|nq the|r tra|n|nq needs throuqh a proqress|ve and structured
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- consu|tancy serv|ce offered to he|p w|th course se|ect|on for your staff
- courses based on 8 core sk||| competenc|es and the 5 SKF know|edqe p|atforms
- qua||ty process deve|oped throuqh proven |ean 6 S|qma techn|ques
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For further |nformet|on on Pub||c Courses or to orqen|se en 0ns|te Course. E 0S 26 06S : rs.merket|nqCskf.com L www.skf.com.eu/tre|n|nq
The Power of Know|edqe Enq|neer|nq
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The Power of Know|edqe Enq|neer|nq
Bearing and Seals
Condition Monitoring
Lubrication
Power Transmission
Maint. Tools, Balancing
& ^lignment
Planning & Scheduling
and Spare Parts
Maint. Strat
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Eight core competencies
for training improvement
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AMMJ Contents
Asset Management and Maintenance Journal

February 2009 Issue
Maintenance Scheduling 6
Doc Palmer (USA)
Developing A Maintenance Strategy and 12
Setting Performance Targets
Simon Mills (UK)

Maintenance Strategies and ISO 17359 20
J ohn Speed and Stephen Teo (Australia)
What Is Equipment Reliability And How 28
Do You Get It? Part 2
Mike Sondalini, Howard Witt (Australia)
PAS 55:2008 - The Standard For Integrated, Life Cycle 34
Optimised Asset Management
J ohn Woodhouse (UK)
Mobile Fleet Budget and Availability Forecasting 36
Using RCM and Reliability Block Diagrams
J ason Apps and Mick Drew (Australia)
Risk Based Maintenance Management 40
In The Cement Industry
Turgut Allahmanli and J ohann Taylor
Core Principles of Reliability Centered Maintenance 44
Richard Overman (USA)
Production Data Analysis For Asset 50
Management Decisions
Nicholas Hastings and Melinda Hodkiewicz (Australia)
2009 Maintenance and Reliability Web Links 56
Len Bradshaw (Australia)
Maintenance News 62
Subscription Form 67
AMMJ Vol 22 No 1
COVER SHOT:
This issues cover image shows a resleepering
team departing at the end of another day.
J ohn Holland and Westrail have had over 10
years of working in collaboration to effectively
maintain the rail network. This issues cover
image is provided courtesy of the J ohn Holland
Group and Babcock & Brown Infrastructure.
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Tra|n|nq Needs /na|ys|s |TN/ starts w|th a qood |n|t|a| understand|nq of where your
staff |s today by assess|nq the|r tra|n|nq needs throuqh a proqress|ve and structured
approach to competency and sk||| assessment and where they need to be to atta|n
opt|mum p|ant performance.
The TN/ enab|es th|s cruc|a| understand|nq, by comb|n|nq SKF Re||ab|||ty Systems
exper|ence |n tra|n|nq and our know|edqe of ma|ntenance and re||ab|||ty.
- custom|sed courses throuqh on s|te & pub||c courses, PC & web based courses and
short courses
- l5 expert |nstructors who have 25- years |oca| and |nternat|ona| teach|nq exper|ence
- nat|ona| and |nternat|ona| accred|tat|on
- over S000 sat|sled customers who have part|c|pated |n 25 d|fferent courses
- consu|tancy serv|ce offered to he|p w|th course se|ect|on for your staff
- courses based on 8 core sk||| competenc|es and the 5 SKF know|edqe p|atforms
- qua||ty process deve|oped throuqh proven |ean 6 S|qma techn|ques
For further |nformat|on on Pub||c Courses or to orqan|se an 0n s|te Course.
E]dcZ0S 26 06S or:bV^ars.market|nqCskf.com
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The Power of Know|edqe Enq|neer|nq
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Bearing and Seals
Condition Monitoring
Lubrication
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Maint. Tools, Balancing
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Planning & Scheduling
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AMMJ
Asset Management and Maintenance Journal
A journal for all those interested in the maintenance, asset management,
monitoring, servicing and management of plant, equipment, buildings, facilities
and infrastructure.
Volume 22, No 1
February 2009
Published by:
Engineering Information Transfer Pty Ltd
Publisher and Managing Editor:
Len Bradshaw
Publishing Dates:
Published in February, April, J uly and October.
Material Submitted:
Engineering Information Transfer Pty Ltd accept
no responsibility for statements made or opinions
expressed in articles, features, submitted advertising,
advertising inserts and any other editorial
contributions.
Copyright:
This publication is copyright. No part of
it may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system or transmitted in any
form by any means, including electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher.
For all Enquiries Contact:
Engineering Information Transfer Pty Ltd
PO Box 703, Mornington,
Victoria 3931, Australia
Phone: (03) 5975 0083,
Fax: (03) 5975 5735,
E-mail: mail@maintenancejournal.com
Web Site: www.maintenancejournal.com
Submission of Articles or News
* Do you wish to contribute maintenance articles, news or papers to the AMMJ?
* Is your company engaged in asset management and maintenance activities of interest to our readers?
See our website at www.maintenancejournal.com for details of how to submit your articles or news
ISSN 1835-789X (Print)
ISSN 1835-7903 (Online)
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The Need For Scheduling
Why do we need formal scheduling? This is a legitimate question. If we have already established a
maintenance planning process, shouldnt we have reduced job delays? Shouldnt we have gradually
found out the tools and materials required by most equipment jobs? Shouldnt jobs with planned time
estimates insure that craft personnel dont spend too much time on jobs? Why do we need to invest the
additional time and effort to create a formal maintenance schedule?
Unfortunately, simply having maintenance planning without scheduling does not increase wrench time
(time spent actually on jobs in the feld). Delays occur not only during jobs, but between jobs as well.
Planning an individual job to have the proper skills, instructions, materials and tools helps reduce delays
during the execution of that job, but does not directly reduce any delays between jobs. You would think that
if craft personnel execute individual jobs more quickly, they would execute more jobs overall. Nonetheless,
actual experience shows that even with planning, wrench time does not improve much without formal
scheduling.
Several main keys help explain this phenomenon. These keys involve the past experience of assigning
work, the lure of urgent work and inadequate assignment methods.
First, many plants come from a background of having poor storerooms, inadequate bills of equipment,
and little, if any, formally planned work. Supervisors under these circumstances developed experience
knowing how many jobs a person might reasonably accomplish in a day. Against the obstacles of obtaining
parts and other problems, it might take all day long to fnish only one or two maintenance jobs. However,
with improved storerooms, planning and other maintenance aids, we often fnd these supervisors still
relying on their past experience and only assigning one or two jobs each day.
Second, the culture of maintenance remains in many plants to resolve plant emergencies and urgent work
only. There is never much pressure to work the non-urgent maintenance tasks diligently to keep ahead of
minor problems. These plants frequently have large backlogs of low-priority work, and the operators feel
that maintenance assigns hidden priorities of now, tomorrow or never. These plants see delays between
jobs after they complete the emergency work. Even in plants that do not think they are merely doing
urgent work, there is often a mind-set of not really having that much other work or a reluctance to assign
yet another low-priority job after the troops have victoriously conquered the latest emergency.
Third, the true assignment practices in many places are heavily drawn toward either assigning one job at
a time with the expectation that the craft personnel will come back for another job when fnished or not
assigning specifc jobs at all with a misapplication of the notion of empowerment. Assigning a single job at
a time ensures that peer pressure will wreak havoc with productivity. People who consistently fnish jobs
on time and go back for more work subject themselves to ridicule from slower people. At best, the most
conscientious people are resentful that they do more work than others. In addition, never knowing what
the next job will be stirs the imagination that the next job will be a worse job that the one in hand, which
encourages slowing down.
Many plants have also taken empowerment to the extreme of allowing technicians to pick what they
should be working on altogether. This practice brings out the worst of the second point about tackling
only reactive work. We would be better off from a productivity standpoint telling the technicians what their
assignments are and then empowering them to execute that work. These factors of relying too much on
past experience to assign work, primarily focusing on reactive work and other inadequate assignment
methods, work as powerful agents to keep wrench time low, even at plants with maintenance planning
functions.
Fortunately, with this information guiding us, we see that we need some method to determine how much
work we should execute. This method is formal scheduling. Instead of the question being, Why do we need
formal scheduling? the question should be How much work should we do next week? The answer is
best determined by having a formal scheduling method if we want to improve wrench time dramatically.
Maintenance Scheduling

Doc Palmer, palmerplanning@bellsouth.net
First Published at www.reliableplant.com (USA)

Maintenance Scheduling
Scheduling Needs A Planned Backlog
Having a formal scheduling method should improve wrench time dramatically. Formal scheduling
answers the question How much work should we do next week? Scheduling is a matter of control. The
responsibilities of management can be divided into Plan, Organize, Staff, Direct and Control. Unfortunately,
as with most management, maintenance management does a much poorer job with the responsibility of
control than with its other areas of responsibility.
The notion of control simply means comparing ones performance against a standard and making
adjustments, if needed. In maintenance, weve abdicated this responsibility by not having a standard
for productivity. We have expected craft persons to work hard to keep the plant running and keep the
backlog under control.
This expectation is somewhat of a standard for quality, but worthless for productivity. Nearly everyone
on the site knows whether we are doing a good job with plant availability, a quality standard. Indeed,
we would rather have everyone sit around and the plant run than everyone be running around and the
plant sit unavailable. Nevertheless, after quality, productivity must be addressed. First effectiveness, then
effciency.
Making a schedule for How much work should we do next week? provides an excellent and easy-to-use
standard for productivity. The schedule fgures how much work we should complete and then compares
this quantity against the amount of work we actually complete. Companies can make this schedule
creation and comparison easy or extremely complicated. Many maintenance organizations that advance
beyond planning to scheduling falter here when they make their scheduling too complex. This column
and the next few will discuss the proper principles to prepare and use a schedule as a control standard
to improve maintenance productivity.
The frst scheduling principle is the prerequisite of having a planned backlog. Maintenance planning
supports maintenance scheduling by providing estimates of job hours and craft skill levels required for
every work order. Planners must stay ahead of the crafts by planning enough work to provide a weeks
worth of work for scheduling. Typically, by adjusting the level of detail poured into job plans as more or
fewer work orders come into maintenance, planners can plan nearly the entire backlog on an ongoing
basis.
The estimated hours planned on work orders are entirely adequate for advance scheduling. Interestingly
enough, this is in spite of the time estimates not being very accurate on individual jobs due to the nature
of maintenance. A simple job planned for half a day might run into problems with rusted bolts or who
knows what and take all day. On the other hand, many times technicians complete these same jobs in an
hour or two. Maintenance is simply not as easily estimated as assembly line work.
Nonetheless, these actual hours vs. estimates have a very normal distribution (statistically speaking), and
a stack of work orders encompassing a weeks worth of work for a crew gives a very accurate estimate.
The bottom line we need to understand is that the actual hours worked for a 10-person crew on 400 hours
of planned work might be accurate to within 10 percent of the job plan estimates.
In addition to simply having the hour estimates, the planner must identify these hours by lowest qualifed
craft skill level. Instead of simply 20 hours, the estimate states 10 hours for mechanic, 10 hours for
helper. This allows the schedule to know which crafts to assign in the scheduling process. Furthermore,
note the crafts identifed in this example are not two mechanics for 10 hours each, even though this is
a mechanical job. By identifying one of the craft persons as a helper, the planner gives the scheduler
and crew supervisor the fexibility by allowing anyone to be the second person on the job. If the scheduler
came to the point of including the job and only had a mechanic and a welder left as a resource, yes, the
welder could be the helper.
The frst principle of scheduling simply states that maintenance plans must contain planned estimated
hours for the lowest-needed craft skills. Well, I must admit that, so far, this is pretty simple. Ive been told
that having written the industry handbook on planning and having talked exhaustively about it for more
than 13 years, we should expect a little rocket science. Sorry. While predictive maintenance might be high
tech and high value, planning and scheduling remains low tech and high value. Rest assured, though,
that it is high value.
This frst principle is the frst part of the framework we are establishing to build an advance schedule.
Well then use this schedule as a productivity standard to dramatically improve productivity.
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Is It OK To Break The Schedule?
The previous two sections explained scheduling as a specifc element needed for productivity and
identifed the frst principle of scheduling, needing a planned backlog. In this section, we move on to the
second of my principles of scheduling. This principle states that both the schedule itself and the priorities
of individual work orders are important.
The statement schedules and priorities are important seems so obvious; its almost overkill to include it
as a principle. Nevertheless, planning and scheduling isnt rocket science. Its mostly putting together a
framework of commonsense ideas. Let us review why productivity suffers at the feet of these issues.
Maintenance provides operations with equipment that operates. However, when equipment breaks,
maintenance swings into its secondary role to restore equipment into service. Unfortunately, many
maintenance forces (as well as the operations groups) see restoration as the primary maintenance role.
This perception leads to some bad behaviors. First, maintenance generally rushes to respond to urgent
maintenance work - the visible work of which everyone is aware - but never seems to start much of the
lower-priority work that might head off later urgent work. Many plants have enough visible work to make
maintenance feel productive (or at least effective). Second, the operations personnel feel that there
are only three true maintenance priorities: Now, Tomorrow or Never. Therefore, to get anything done,
operators believe they must declare a false urgency or not bother reporting something at all until later,
when it becomes really urgent.
In reality, the maintenance forces do have some extra time on their hands after urgent work. Yet, if they
were to work on lower-priority jobs, urgent work arises and interrupts them. This further discourages
maintenance from beginning lower-priority work. Overall, productivity suffers because there is usually not
that much visible work to keep everyone busy all the time.
Scheduling as a process encourages maintenance to begin lower-priority jobs to do enough work. This
goal of work created by a schedule is the key to productivity. Furthermore, we can advance productivity if
we can avoid job interruptions. This avoidance depends on operations not declaring false emergencies.
If we can put off a new job until next week, we can include it in next weeks work schedule and help us
meet our goal of work this week. If we can put off a new job until tomorrow (or later in the week), we can
avoid interrupting todays schedule, which has given each individual technician a goal of work. If we can
put off a new job until this afternoon, we can at least have a planner look at the job and see if we can
develop a scope and a parts list to give the technician a head start. We can also provide the supervisor
with craft skills and time estimates to allow work control. If we can put off a new job until we at least fnish
completing a current job-in-progress, we can avoid interrupting that low-priority job we fnally started.
To have operations avoid declaring false emergencies, management needs to emphasize the importance
of the schedule and the priority system. Management needs to have the maintenance crews start each
week with a goal of work. Management also needs to empower crew supervisors to challenge the priority
of new work to protect their schedules. When presented with a new emergency, the crew supervisor
asks the operator how long it can wait and then works it into the schedule as appropriate. Of course, if
the new work cant wait, management must allow crews to respond. It is OK to break the schedule for
the proper priority work. Finally, management needs to encourage operations to report that lower-priority
work without delay.
With all of this said, once maintenance productivity increases by working to a weekly schedule, the fear
of lower-priority work never getting done greatly decreases and abuse of the priority system lessens.
Experience shows that starting each crew with a weeks worth of work (schedules are important) and
allowing supervisors to interrupt these schedules (priorities are important) greatly increase productivity
for completing not only more maintenance work, but the right maintenance work.
A Week Is Enough For The Advance Schedule
The key period for advance scheduling of routine maintenance is only a single week. This does not
mean that the plant engineers and managers do not have longer-term projects under way and are not
looking at maintenance strategy several months or years in advance. It also does not mean that the plant
does not plan lengthy shutdowns in great detail. But after the glory of the shutdown fades, plants need
to consider productivity of routine, day-in and day-out maintenance. Down in the trenches, where the
crews, supervisors and planners live, a single week is all that it takes to control productivity of routine
maintenance.
10
Maintenance Scheduling
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
11
Maintenance Scheduling
As in most walks of life, setting goals helps achieve results. In routine maintenance, plants tend not to
give this enough attention as long as maintenance seems responsive to urgent plant needs. They do not
have a clear goal of maintenance productivity. Unfortunately, management noticing only maintenance
responsiveness leads to maintenance organizing its efforts around quick repairs and not preventing
problems in the frst place. Fortunately, maintenance usually has excess capacity in its staffng to handle
the emergency work and much of the proactive work to head off problems. The plant simply has to set a
goal of work to help maintenance focus on completing more proactive work.
As it turns out, setting a goal of a weeks worth of work for each maintenance crew provides an astonishing
increase in productivity. One wastewater plant reported that its electrical backlog disappeared after
starting weekly scheduling. A group maintaining buildings found it could do all of the usual reactive work
plus its preventive maintenance tasks after they set a goal for the week. A seasoned crew supervisor at
a power station exclaimed that he now understood his job in terms of completing work orders instead of
simply waiting for operations to call with problems.
These wonderful results are not due to brilliant new ways of managing maintenance. Instead, they are
due to simply setting a goal.
The goal of maintenance work is set at one week for several reasons. First of all, a single week is short
enough to allow supervisors to protect the schedule somewhat. Many new work orders might be able to
wait a week, but far fewer could be put off for several weeks. Second, a single week is short enough to
provide a reasonable goal.
If the schedule were, say, three weeks of work, what is the difference between three weeks of work and
the whole backlog? A goal that is too large is meaningless and tantamount to saying We need to get
busy. On the other hand, a single week is long enough to dampen out the effect of inaccurate job plan
estimates.
Maintenance is not routine assembly-line work where hours can be estimated with great precision. A
simple job estimated for three hours might take all day while another job estimated for a whole day might
be fnished before lunch. Fortunately, as many jobs exceed their estimates, other jobs will take less
time.
A weeks worth of work for a whole crew generally has great overall accuracy in the sum of the work order
actual vs. estimated hours. There are enough jobs, so the inaccuracies of individual estimates cancel out
each other.
A week is long enough to provide a reasonably estimated goal of work. In addition, a week is long enough
to include preventive maintenance tasks and other proactive maintenance activities in the goal. It is easier
to skip this proactive work if only scheduling day to day. Similarly, a week is long enough to consider
scheduling lower-priority work with higher-priority work for the same equipment. This is also harder to
accomplish if only scheduling day to day. Thus, the one-week time period strikes a good balance between
the advantages of shorter and longer advance schedules.
The form of the advance schedule is as uncomplicated as the concept of the goal. An advance schedule
is a simple list of work orders. The advance schedule dictates neither the day nor the person the crew
will use to work each work order in the following week. As simple as this list is, it provides the needed
goal that produces an impressive boost in maintenance productivity. As simple as it sounds, it cannot be
emphasized enough that the great productivity boost from planning and scheduling comes from the goal
provided by the weekly schedule.

Doc Palmer, CMRP, has nearly 25 years of industrial experience as a practitioner within the
maintenance department of a major electric utility. From 1990 through 1994, he was responsible
for overhauling the existing maintenance planning organization. The resulting success played
a role in expanding planning to all crafts and stations owned and operated by the utility.
Publisher McGraw-Hill sought out Doc Palmer to author the Maintenance Planning
and Scheduling Handbook, frst published in 1999 and now in an expanded second
edition (2006). This excellent handbook may be purchased from the AMMJ website at
www.maintenancejournal.com
Introduction
Cost Effective Maintenance Management is a goal for many companies. Obvious steps to achieving cost
effective maintenance include selecting appropriate maintenance strategies and techniques.
Many organizations try to carry out maintenance without implementing or managing some key stages. They
may then use Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in their attempt to quantify the cost effectiveness of their
chosen approach, but unless each stage has been carried out effectively, they usually fnd it diffcult or
impossible to measure the effectiveness of their maintenance.
Areas often neglected in the set-up process include defning availability and reliability requirements,
measuring performance correctly or even identifying assets satisfactorily. Factors such as fault and failure
modes, criticality and information management also need careful defnition.
One of the most cost-effective maintenance techniques is condition based maintenance, but it is often
implemented incorrectly, and therefore its effectiveness cannot be measured.
Using the wrong maintenance technique can waste time, money and resources, and often has no effect on
improving or maintaining availability. Incorrect or poorly defned performance targets can limit or prevent
measurement and hence management, control and optimisation.
Setting Up a Maintenance Program
When setting up a maintenance program, a number of
key stages must be carried out. A typical sequence of key
stages in implementing maintenance is shown in Figure 1
Many organizations try to carry out maintenance without
implementing or managing some of the above key stages.
They may then use Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
in their attempt to quantify the cost effectiveness of their
chosen approach, but unless each stage has been carried
out effectively, they usually fnd it diffcult or impossible to
measure the effectiveness of their maintenance.
Making Maintenance Measurable
Setting up a maintenance management system which
can then be measured and its cost effectiveness rated
depends on carrying out the key stages shown in Figure
1. Each stage has a number of steps which are necessary
for the design and implementation of subsequent steps.
Each step then allows the performance of the assets
being maintained to be measured, and the performance of
the maintenance management program.
The following quotations are appropriate to highlight the
importance of being able to measure the effectiveness of
any process.
Until you can measure something and express it in
numbers, you have only the beginning of understanding
- William Thomson [Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)
You cannot manage what you cannot measure
- Attributed to Bill Hewlett (1930-2001), Co-founder of Hewlett-Packard
Those who speak most of progress measure it by quantity and not by quality
- George Santayana [US (Spanish-born) philosopher (1863 - 1952)]
How you measure the performance of your managers directly affects the way they act
- Gustave Flaubert [French novelist (1821 1880)]
Developing A Maintenance Strategy
and Setting Performance Targets

Simon Mills, AV Technology Ltd, (UK)
Establish business requirements
Carry out reliability
& criticality audit
Select appropriate
maintenance strategy/task
Plan work, issue work
& carry out work
Record results & determine any
further maintenance action
Review & measure effectiveness
Carry out equipment audit
Implementing Maintenance
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 1 Overview of Typical
Maintenance Implementation Stages
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Implementation Phases
Setting up a maintenance program can be grouped in four phases which are:
Initial set-up Routine operation Obtaining useful KPIs Optimisation and Review
A typical example of some detail steps in each stage and their corresponding phase is shown in Figure 2. The
right hand columns, under the heading phase show the four main phases of the process.
The measurements or key performance indicators shown in Figure 2 Step 7 can only be measured if the
set-up and routine steps have all been carried out. For example, if assets are not labelled adequately and
uniquely, issued work and feedback cannot be done properly.
Figure 2 Example Detail of Typical Maintenance Management Set-up
Key: Setup =Initial program setup, Routine =Routine operation,
KPI =Key Performance Indicator, Optim. =Optimisation and Review
14
Maintenance Strategy and Performance Targets
Example Detail of Typical Maintenance Management Set-up Phase
Step Detail
S
e
t

u
p

R
o
u
t
i
n
e

K
P
I
O
p
t
i
m
.

1 Establish business requirements
1.1 What is the required availability y y
1.2 What is the required reliability y y
1.3 What is the expected life of the assets y y
1.4 What is the available budget y y
2 Carry out equipment audit
2.1 Identify assets & sub-assets y y
2.2 Create & test asset codes y y
2.3 Label assets & sub-assets y y y
2.4 Update database y y y
3 Carry out reliability & criticality audit
3.1 Estimated availability & reliability y y
3.2 FMECA, FMEA, FTA, Root cause failure analysis y y
3.3 Maintenance history, pareto analysis, reliability databases y y
4 Select appropriate maintenance strategy/task
4.1 Condition monitoring task y y
4.2 Inspection task y y
4.3 Preventive maintenance task y y
4.4 Corrective maintenance task y y
4.5 Re-design y y
5 Plan work, issue work & carry out work
5.1 Create/update job catalogue y y
5.2 Estimate/update resources y y
5.3 Create/update check-off lists y y
5.4 Schedule CBM, PPM, corrective or breakdown maintenance y y
5.5 Issue & allocate work y y
5.6 Carry out work y y
6 Record results & determine further action
6.1 Record results y y
6.2 Diagnose faults y y
6.3 Re-schedule work y y
6.4 Initiate further work y y
6.5 Feedback results y y
7 Review & measure effectiveness
7.1 Failure rate, MTBF, MTTR, Downtime y y
7.2 Availability & reliability y y
7.3 Percentage CBM, PPM, Corrective, Breakdown etc y y
7.4 Spares used y y
7.5 Actual budget expended y y
Maintenance Strategy and Performance Targets
15
Initial set-up
Initial set up includes the following steps:
Step 1. Establishing business requirements
Step 2. Carrying out an equipment audit
Step 3. Carrying out a reliability & criticality audit
Step 4. Selecting the appropriate maintenance strategy and combination of tasks.
Business Requirements
Business requirements such as required availability and reliability, the expected life of the asset and
budgetary constraints should be established before any decisions are made on maintenance. These
factors all directly infuence subsequent implementation steps, especially: Maintenance strategy, KPIs &
resources.
Equipment Audit
Assets need to be clearly identifed, codifed and labelled before subsequent steps are carried out such
as setting up the asset register, and implementing any CMMS. The importance of this step is often
overlooked. Without clear identifcation of assets most downstream activities are compromised.
Reliability and Criticality Audit
It is important to recognise that maintenance is primarily failure mode and criticality driven, and needs to
match the availability requirements of the business. Steps 1 to 3 are therefore important precursors to
being able to carry out Step 4. It is important to match the technique to failure mode and criticality.
Tools such as failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and failure mode effects and criticality analysis
(FMECA), reliability databases, reliability centred maintenance, and analysis of historic information can
be used.
16
Maintenance Strategy and Performance Targets
Selecting a Maintenance Strategy
Selecting an appropriate maintenance strategy and applying the optimum mix of tasks becomes a simpler
decision when failure modes are understood. For Example: The choice and level of maintenance care
applied to an asset will depend a number of factors including: Criticality, Required Availability, Expected
Failure Modes, Replacement Cost, Access, Lead time to Failure and Available Budget
Benchmark Findings
From recent facilities benchmark for a large multi-site organization the following was highlighted:
Generally poor standard of asset labelling
Felt pen notes on machine
Assets without labels
Dual pump sets with one label and number
Inconsistent label sizes and colours
Condition Based Maintenance
One of the most cost effective maintenance strategies is condition based maintenance. However it still
requires structured implementation and careful management.
The development of International Standards in the feld of condition monitoring and diagnostics has led
to a more formal approach to implementation. The parent Condition Monitoring Standard is ISO 17359
Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines General guidelines. It concentrates on guidelines for
condition monitoring and has recommendations for implementation procedures.
Effectiveness of CBM can only be assessed if each implementation stage is carried out properly. For
example: assets must be clearly identifed, codifed and labelled, and the feedback of information must be
done correctly.
A range of International Standards either issued or in development cover vibration CM, thermography,
acoustic techniques and oil monitoring. Certifcation of practitioners is also being covered by ISO
Standards.
Benchmark Findings
Recent benchmarks carried out for a variety of organisations revealed the following comments:
The majority of work done was either traditional time and task based PPM, on-failure,
or improvement-project remedial work.
There was little evidence of any signifcant initiatives into condition based maintenance.
There were assets at all sites which would clearly beneft from a condition-based approach.
Asset labelling quality, clarity and location needed improving.
Routine Operation
Routine operation includes the following steps:
Step 5. Plan work, issue work & carry out work
Step 6. Record results & determine further action
These are routine administrative activities and are opportunities to optimise time on task and reduce re-
keying of data.
Selecting/Evaluating a CMMS
Since the routine operation is a combination of repeat cyclical activities and reacting to unplanned failures,
the choice of strategy and the computerised maintenance management system (CMMS) or enterprise
resource planning (ERP) can greatly infuence whether administration is reduced or increased.
Remember: The result of the frst 4 implementation steps dictates the requirements for a CMMS or ERP
system, not the converse!
Benchmark Findings
A recent benchmark for a blue chip organisation revealed the following observations regarding their well
known leading CMMS:
Asset register validation incomplete
Spares & inventory module not in use
No housekeeping tasks in CMMS
Feedback on work completed was poor
Usage of parts & materials not recorded in CMMS
Task list modifcations were time consuming
CMMS data analysis features limited
CMMS had poor long term work planning features
Reporting & analysis very cumbersome
No use of paperless systems or PDAs
A benchmark on routine maintenance carried out by a contract facilities management provider for
a large multi-site service organisation concluded:
There was poor transferability of maintenance data
There was leakage of maintenance data
There was inconsistent sub-asset identifcation
Optimisation and Review
Step 7. Review & measure effectiveness
Setting up Useful KPIs
Once the previous steps have been carried out, the appropriate Key Performance Indicators can
be generated and used. These need to be factors which highlight whether the business objectives
are being met and then cascade down through the organisation to provide useful control and
measurement points.
17
Maintenance Strategy and Performance Targets
Maintenance Strategy and Performance Targets 1
KPI Hierarchy
The KPI hierarchy should be determined from the top down and not from the bottom up. This is because the
highest level indicators should be designed as measures of what are important to the business in order to
meet its goals and objectives. Using a top-down approach ensures that all indicators from the lowest functional
level up will support the overall business objectives that have been set for the company. If the indicators are
selected from the bottom upwards they may be conficting rather than supportive.
The KPI hierarchy can be best described as a pyramid comprising Business, Financial Performance, Effciency/
Effectiveness and Working/Functional Performance indicators as shown in Figure 3.
It can be useful to link the pyramid to
the responsible levels of management
in the company.
All KPIs should be linked to
corporate business goals.
Most departments or functions
cannot be evaluated
using a single KPI.
More often than not
multiple measures and
multiple forms of
measurement are
necessary.

Figure 3 KPI Hierarchy
Benchmark Findings
Recent benchmarks for a variety of organisations, some using
contract maintenance and some directly staffed noted the following:
Contractor incentives and KPIs needed review
KPIs did not encourage availability or reliability improvements.
Alignment of management objectives between departments needed review
KPIs were not performance related and needed review
Review
All steps will need revisiting periodically. Business requirements can change production output changes, raw
material price changes, replacement of obsolete plant, reinvestment etc. Assets failure modes change through
life. KPIs also need to be fexible to highlight weak areas and enable improvements easily to be tracked.
For example: Maintenance strategies may require modifcation if the expected performance or life of an asset
or system is changed by changes to the business.
Benchmarking
Benchmarking focuses on certain processes and evaluates their relative performance and is a useful technique
to highlight areas of strength and weakness in an organisation. Organisations may be initiating a maintenance
program, or have a mature system in place. The comments in the previous sub-sections all arise from recent
benchmark reviews. A typical benchmark summary chart is shown in Figure 4:
Benchmark Findings
A recent benchmark for a strategic aviation facility using contract facilities maintenance noted:
Lack of Maintenance Check-off Lists
No Verifable Manpower Resource Estimates
Limited Feedback of Work Done
Diffcult to Assess PPM Completion Rates
No Failure Rate Analysis
Leakage of Maintenance Data
This allowed little scope for maintenance optimisation and improvement, because measurement was virtually
impossible.
Board Level
Business Indicators
Senior Management
Business & Financial Indicators
Departmental Management
Efficiency & Effectiveness Indicators
Supervisors
Operational & Quality Indicators
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
19 Maintenance Strategy and Performance Targets
Figure 4 Typical Benchmark Summary Radar Chart
Key: The chart above shows 12 key focus areas compared on a relative assessment scale of 0 5
0 <1=uncontrolled 1 <2=reactive 2 <3=part control 3 <4=full control 4 5=fully optimised
Conclusion
To implement a successful maintenance management program and to be able to measure its cost effectiveness
requires a structured implementation and management scheme. It is frst necessary to implement a maintenance
program using a staged process containing key detail steps. The process should ensure that all key steps are followed.
Without clear defnition of requirements, achievements and feedback, measurement is not possible. Measurement of
effectiveness through monitoring key performance indicators is only possible if each stage has been completed.
Without measurement, management and optimisation is not possible.
Abbreviations
CBM =condition based maintenance
CM =condition monitoring / corrective maintenance
CMMS =computerized maintenance management system
ERP =enterprise resource planning
PdM =predictive maintenance
PPM =planned preventive maintenance
FMEA =failure modes and effects analysis
FMECA =failure modes effects and criticality analysis
FTA =fault tree analysis
KPI =key performance indicator
LTTF =lead time to failure
MTBF =mean time between failure
MTTR =mean time to repair
Optim. =optimization
References
PAS 55-1, Asset management. Specifcation for the optimised management of physical infrastructure assets
ISO 17359:2003, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - General guidelines
BS 5760-5:1991, Reliability of systems, equipment and components. Guide to failure modes, effect and criticality
analysis (FMEA and FMECA)
HB 10007, Reliability, Maintainability and Risk, Dr David J Smith, Butterworth-Heinemann
IEC 60300-1, Dependability management systems
Benchmarking Best Practices in Maintenance Management, Terry Wireman, Industrial Press Inc.
First Published in the Maintenance and Asset Management section of the ME Magazine Vol8 No5
A paper presented at ICOMS 2008 (Australia)
This article focuses on the development of maintenance strategies using guidelines from International
Standard ISO 17359, which links condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines, with the core elements
of Failure Modes Effects Analysis and Reliability Centred Maintenance approaches. The strategy includes
an extension of the identifcation of credible and likely failure modes to include the formulation of symptoms
that can be used to predict the onset of failure. By integrating the two, the outcome is a robust condition
monitoring program that better supports business needs.
INTRODUCTION
Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) is a commonly used technique for identifying maintenance activities
required to mitigate the risks associated with failure of assets important for meeting key business needs
(J ohn Moubray, Reliability Centred Maintenance, Industrial Press, 1997), It shares many of its preliminary
steps with another common technique called Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA). Both involve the
identifcation of failure modes and strategies that should be managed to prevent or control the impact of these
failure modes. Resulting maintenance strategies, developed by these processes tend to be logical and well
documented. Over the years, RCM has been applied to many applications, ranging from theoretical studies
on new equipment to experience and knowledge based analyses on existing and common equipment. The
outputs of RCM activities are focused on equipment that is critical to the production process and succinctly
addresses the reason why a maintenance task should be carried out.
Although somewhat controversial, RCM is perceived by many as a vital and necessary part of a companys
asset management strategy, that when consistently and correctly applied can deliver plant performance that
is in line with business needs. Intelligent formulation and correlation of data from an RCM methodology
can also provide a knowledge and information base from which to adjust maintenance strategies as these
business needs change. Ease of communication, access to information, increased sophistication in the
workforce, and knowledge of the principles of RCM/FMEA has resulted in the integration of these techniques
into day-to-day routines. Once the relative importance of assets has been established it is now a relatively
simple process to establish the failure modes and effects of particular types of machines, such as medium
voltage or high voltage electric motors, belt conveyors or slurry pumps to name a few.
One type of maintenance recommendation that can result from an RCM study is to apply maintenance on-
condition, which relies of some form of condition monitoring to detect the failure mode. However, in most
cases the detailed specifcation of the condition monitoring program required is carried out independently of
the RCM analysis. The publication of the ISO 17359 and the other related condition monitoring standards
links and facilitates the integration of these two processes.
CONDITION MONITORING HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Industry has been applying condition monitoring techniques for several decades. It is typically based on
a number of common technologies, such as vibration monitoring, thermography and oil analysis. The
typical approach is to measure these parameters and then identify various possible failure modes upon
the detection of a deviation of these parameters from the mean or baseline. However, in many cases a
technique and monitoring interval was selected without rigorous forethought, instead just being implemented
because it either seemed like a good idea or the interval was convenient. The downside of this approach
is that condition monitoring programs are not as focused or effective in supporting business objectives as
they could be.
The concept of condition monitoring has been around for a long time. At frst it involved the maintenance
crew and operators walking around the plant and looking for unusual noise or vibration. When any unusual
observation was made, the equipment would typically be stripped down to identify the problem. The more
experienced operator or maintenance practitioner might have some idea of the problem without an internal
inspection, based on observations, previous experience or personal knowledge.
The process became more systematic in the 1950s, including more measurements of actual parameters,
facilitated by the introduction of more robust and lower cost instruments for taking and recording
measurements. With the measurement of actual parameters, statistical studies could be made to defne
normal and abnormal levels, giving rise to charts and standards defning acceptable amplitudes for
commonly measured parameters.
MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES
AND ISO 17359
John Speed and Stephen Teo, PearlStreet (Australia)
From the 1960s to early 1980s, more accurate, robust and purpose built instrumentation for condition monitoring
was developed. A large number of different sensors for different measurements and data processing techniques
were refned, such as vibration analysis, oil analysis, thermography and electrical measurements. Additionally,
due to extensive R&D investment by instrumentation suppliers, new sensors and measurement techniques
were developed, including high frequency measurements (ultrasonics, acoustic emission and high frequency
vibration), eddy current probes and spectrometric oil analysis. The implementation of these technologies and
new techniques was leading condition monitoring into a new scientifc era, where many organisations invested
in and relied on using these technologies for condition monitoring. Expertise in interpretation of these new
measurements and techniques also developed, with numerous papers published on these subjects.
In the mid 1980s, the personal computer and electronic data collectors became economically available to
industry, making it possible to collect and manage a large amount of data in an effcient and cost effective
manner. Data storage and manipulation speed of these devices has rapidly increased in recent years, along
with improved programming and presentation of data. This rapid improvement in electronic technology has
had signifcant benefts for condition monitoring allowing large amounts of data to be collected, processed,
scanned for exception, diagnosed with the assistance of expert systems and reported via the internet achieving
effciencies in the speed of distribution never before achieved. Condition monitoring is still based on the core
technologies of vibration monitoring (and its various offshoot measurements), temperature measurements (now
mostly based on non contact thermography), and oil analysis (with various debris analysis techniques now
included), and some electrical and performance monitoring parameters. In some cases, these techniques
were applied independently of the others; however, the more recent trend is to integrate a number of the more
commonly monitored parameters to provide a more comprehensive coverage and to assist diagnosis with more
information available to the analyst.
Throughout all of these developments, the basic concepts of condition monitoring, especially in the mining
and mineral processing industry was still based on detecting an abnormal observation and then diagnosing
the possible problems. This diagnosis and interpretation of the data was generally expertise and experienced
based. Only the larger and more established condition monitoring groups could collect libraries of common
failure modes encountered to simplify future analysis on the same or similar equipment. However, for most, this
is inbuilt into the software or knowledge base used to analyse condition monitoring data, rather than part of the
initial design of the condition monitoring program.
21
Maintenance Strategies and ISO 17359
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Maintenance Strategies and ISO 17359 22

ISO 17359, frst issued in 2003, suggests a more rigorous approach to the design of a condition monitoring
program. Like RCM and FMEA, it is based on the identifcation of failure modes and thus can be seen
as an implicit link between the two, previously independent maintenance management techniques. This
paper describes the various elements of ISO 17359, its relationship to other applicable standards and how
collectively they promote a more effective approach to developing a condition monitoring program.
ISO 17359 AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS
ISO 17359 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines- General Guidelines (ISO 17359.2003(E)),
was frst issued in 2003 to provide general guidance for condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines.
It is the parent document for a group of standards covering the feld of condition monitoring and diagnostics.
This standard presents an overview of the procedure required to set up and operate a condition monitoring
program. It also introduces the concept of directing condition monitoring activities to detecting the onset and
progression of root cause failure modes, as well as describing the generic approach to setting alarm criteria
and carrying out diagnosis and prognosis of machine condition .
According to the standard, the frst steps towards the set up of a condition monitoring program is identifying
the equipment function, reliability, criticality and failure modes, which is the same as for conducting an RCM
or FMEA analysis. For measurable failure modes, condition monitoring is selected, otherwise corrective,
preventive or redesign alternatives are to be considered. The standard then requires the appropriate
parameter and measurement techniques to be selected. Thus, without even mentioning the term RCM, this
standard formalises the link between the design and execution of a condition monitoring program to the work
undertaken during a RCM study.
While not specifcally mentioned in the parent ISO standard, another technique called Failure Modes
Symptoms Analysis (FMSA) is required to complete the link between the failure mode analysis of the RCM
program to the design and execution of the condition monitoring program. The FMSA concept is described in
detail in an associated standard, ISO 13379 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines General
guidelines on data interpretation and diagnostics techniques (ISO 13379:2003(E)). In essence it states that
to to identify a particular failure mode or modes with a condition monitoring technique, good knowledge of the
symptoms of these failure modes is required. These symptoms should be properly documented to link the
results of condition monitoring back to the identifed failure modes.
Once the measurements and monitoring frequencies have been selected, then alert, alarm and trip criteria
must be set. ISO 13381-1 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines Prognostics Part 1:
General Guidelines (ISO 13381-1:2004(E)) suggests that the alert, alarm and trip limits are normally
determined historically from failure history and optimised over time. This is as an iterative process depending
on parameters such as production requirements, prognosis confdence level, lead time for spare parts and
trend extrapolation and projection. Guidelines on setting alert and alarm criteria for vibration monitoring
are contained in ISO 13373-1, ISO 10816 (all parts) and ISO 7919 (all parts). The absolute alert and alarm
criteria are linked to vibration severity and its impact on operating with the noted vibration amplitudes, while
for condition monitoring purposes, the level of deviation and rate of deviation from the normal conditions
are the main considerations. Similarly, alert and alarm criteria for tribology based condition monitoring are
contained in ISO 148301. While not referenced in ISO 17359 (published 2003), similar alert and alarm
criteria for thermography are contained in ISO 18434-1 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines
Thermography as this has been released very recently (ISO/DIS 18434-1:2005).
ISO 13379 also provides guidelines for data interpretation and diagnostics. The two different approaches
specifed in ISO 13379 are the:
Faults / symptom approach, and
The causal approach
The fault symptom approach utilises the association between different faults and the symptoms, e.g. unbalance
and resulting vibration at rotational speed. Alternatively, the causal approach will look for the root cause of the
problem. Hence, in the example mentioned, the root cause of the unbalance is important in determining and
planning proper corrective actions. Causal analysis requires an in depth knowledge of the equipment, and
the mechanism of fault initiation and propagation and thus is often more diffcult to apply.
The standard notes that the causal approach is used when the objective is to identify the root cause or the
development of a prognosis. It seems quite evident that both objectives are imperative in a good condition
monitoring program.
The concept of failure modes symptom analysis (FMSA) is also introduced in ISO 13379 (although not in its
parent standard, ISO 17359), both as a diagnostic/prognosis process and with the selection of the appropriate
monitoring techniques. The standard suggests that FMSA should be used in conjunction with existing FMECA
analysis that has already identifed and ranked possible failure modes.
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Maintenance Strategies and ISO 17359
The complete process of condition monitoring covers fve distinct phases:
Detection of problems (deviations from normal conditions)
Diagnosis of the faults and their causes
Prognosis of future fault progression (covering the all important question How long would it last?)
Recommendations and actions
Post-mortems (and a continuous improvement process)
Another relevant standard is ISO13381, which pertains to the prognosis of machine health. The standard
states that prognosis demands prophecies of future machine integrity and deterioration and there can be no
exactitude in the process requiring statistical or testimonial approaches to be adopted. The standardisation in
prognosis of machine health embodies guidelines, approaches and concepts rather than procedures or standard
methodologies (ISO 13381-1:2004(E) page v). Prognosis of future fault progression requires knowledge of the
probable failure modes, future duties, and a thorough understanding of the relationship between failure modes
and operating condition.
FMEA AND FMSA PROCESS
ISO 17359 calls for the identifcation of critical failure modes for the design of the condition monitoring programme.
The FMSA process links the FMEA/FMECA outcomes with the condition monitoring specifcation.
An example of the FMSA process for a conveyor head pulley bearing is shown in the spreadsheet on the following
page. The failure modes considered in this partial example is frstly spalling/faking and secondly fracture of
rolling element bearing raceways. Spalling and faking is a typical failure mode for a bearing at the end of its life.
A fractured raceway is a sudden premature failure of a rolling element bearing. Flaking and spalling of a bearing
would be considered more probable to occur than raceway fracture.
Where a formal detailed analysis has not been completed a simplifed approach to symptoms analysis of common
failure modes can be used. This approach considers the generic failure modes for common groups of machines.
The example shown in Table i and ii is applicable to low speed (<600 rpm) grease lubricated rolling element
bearings such a those ftted to conveyor pulleys. This information is used to determine the failure symptoms for
a general condition monitoring programme.
Table i Conveyor Pulley Bearing Failure Modes and Symptoms Analysis
Table ii - Conveyor Pulley Bearing Failure Causes and Symptoms Analysis
Failure
Modes
Wear
Surface
Fatigue /
Damage
Fracture
Corrosion
(internal)
Came loose Seized Up
Symptoms
Differential
movement
between
rotating
and
stationary
component
Internal
vibration and
noise at
bearing freq.
developing in
stages
Internal
vibration
and noise at
bearing freq.,
developed
suddenly
Relatively lower
level internal
noise and
vibration
Significantly
increased
operating
temperature
and differential
movement
Rotating speed
affected or stops
Required
CM and
intervals
Visual
(monthly)
Vibration /
Bearing
Signals
(monthly)
Vibration /
Bearing Signals
(twice a week)
Bearing Signals
(2 monthly)
Temperature /
visual
(daily)
Visual
(daily)
Causes of
failures
Excessive
Vibration
Insufficient
Bearing
Clearances
Lack of
Lubrication
Contaminated
Lubrication
Over
Lubrication /
Wrong
Lubrication
Excessive
Clearances or
Backlash
Symptoms
High
Vibration
Excessive
temperature
Excessive
bearing signals
/ high
temperatures in
worst case
Purged grease
is contaminated
Abnormal
temperature
and bearing
noise
Diff. movement
between rotating
and stationary
components
Required
Checks
Vibration Temperature Bearing Signals
Inspect purged
grease
Temperature
and Bearing
Signals
monitoring
Visual
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
Maintenance Strategies and ISO 17359
25
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CASE STUDY 1
CONVEYOR PULLEY BEARING CONDITION MONITORING AND FAULT ANALYSIS
This case study is included as an example where a conveyor pulley bearing was monitored using the primary
techniques listed in the pulley bearing example of the simplifed FMSA analysis. The two exceptions from the
specifcation were that temperature monitoring was carried out monthly in conjunction with the routine vibration
and all bearing signal monitoring was carried out on a monthly basis.
The detection of the problem became evident when the routine bearing signal monitoring indicated a sudden
increase in amplitude, which exceeded normal variations. A follow up check confrmed that a step increase in
signal amplitude had occurred.
Frequency analysis of the bearing signal was carried out as part of the diagnostic process which indicated the
fault was related to the bearing inner raceway. Causal analysis and prognosis based on the data and previous
experience indicated the failure mode to be a spalled section with a possible fracture on the inner raceway that
would very quickly progress to a more serious fracture condition. Hence, the maintenance recommendation was
for prompt corrective action.
Following requests from the maintenance department more detailed waveform analysis of the bearing signal
had also indicated that the fault was localised to one cross section of the inner raceway, further supporting the
diagnosis of a fracture rather than an area of spalling. This provided the maintenance department with further
clarifcation that the fault detected was not only related to spalling of the bearing and emphasised the need for
prompt action. The prognosis for this fault was the high possibility of further progression of the cracked section
leading to the inner race spinning on the shaft and rapid failure within the next few days.
The bearing was immediately changed out and an inspection showed a cracked inner raceway. It should also be
noted that while the failure mode symptoms analysis required that bearing monitoring should be carried out twice
a week to properly detect internal fractures, the detection of this particular fault served to reinforce the equipment
owners consideration that monthly monitoring was suffcient to manage the balance between cost and risk.
However, there are other examples where monthly monitoring has failed to detect fractured raceways and while
these failures are not common they can occur with sometimes catastrophic consequences.
CASE STUDY 2
VIBRATION ANALYSIS ON TWO DIFFERENT FANS
This case study is included to illustrate that carrying out an FMEA and subsequent symptoms analysis will not
always provide the correct root cause of a failure mode without a thorough knowledge of the equipment. It also
shows that local operational knowledge is also a very important factor in the investigation.
Fan #ABC was operating in a chemical plant, handling exhaust gases with waste products which was known
to deposit scale on the gas handling equipment. Fan #XYZ was operating in a mineral processing plant which
handles corrosive products.
Both fans were showing gradual increases in vibration amplitudes. While the overall amplitudes of vibration were
low by vibration severity standards, at around 3 to 4 mm/s rms, the change in vibration was signifcant to indicate
that there were defnite changes in the conditions of both fans. Frequency analysis indicated that the change in
vibration on both fans was at fan rotational speed, with increases noted across both fan bearings. This indicated
that the reason for the increasing vibration was due to unbalance.
Fan #ABC had a scrubber upstream of the process which would usually prevent the fan from scaling up
excessively. The failure of the scrubber was a known previous occurrence and in this case, both the failure mode
(fan unbalance) and root cause (scrubber failure) was successfully detected and diagnosed. The scrubber was
repaired and the fan cleaned prior to the vibration becoming excessive enough to cause a failure.
Fan #XYZ had a special alloy impeller which was resistant to the corrosive product. The fan had been the subject
of a general failure mode study (FMEA) for the purpose of optimising plant maintenance. Fan unbalance was not
considered to be a likely failure mode due to the corrosion resistant impeller. Following further investigations to
assess if there were any other possible causes of the increasing vibration it was planned to have the fan shut
down over a maintenance window to inspect the fan for causes of the increased unbalance vibration. Prior to the
shut down the fan suffered a failure which turned out to be due to loss of the fasteners on the impeller which, it
was subsequently determined were not constructed of the same corrosion resistant alloy. Incorrect fasteners
were installed due to lack of quality control which was not factored into the failure modes analysis. This is a good
example of defects being unwittingly introduced into the plant.
Maintenance Strategies and ISO 17359
26
It can be seen that in both cases, the basic detection of increased vibration and general fault symptom analysis of
fan unbalance was successfully carried out. The causal analysis was more diffcult; however, it can be seen to be
the difference between the successful detection and rectifcation of the problem and almost undetected failure in the
other case. It should be noted that casual analysis is carried out in almost all instances of fan unbalance vibration
as many fans and blowers suffer from product scale build up which can be corrected on line rather than a shut down
to confrm the diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS
The introduction of failure modes analysis and RCM provides a solid foundation for the development of maintenance
strategies. While the output of many FMEA and RCM studies has called for condition monitoring to be implemented,
the publication of ISO 17359 has links failure modes analysis to the detailed specifcation and execution of a
condition monitoring programme. A number of associated standards also document the critical process of failure
modes symptom analysis, casual analysis and prognosis of machine health, all of which are basic requirements for
a successful and effective condition monitoring programme.
Although many condition monitoring practitioners are already familiar with the concepts of failure modes analysis
and RCM and have already applied these processes to their work, the introduction of these standards reinforces
these best practises and explains to the wider asset management community how the different components can be
better integrated.
REFERENCES
J ohn Moubray, Reliability Centred Maintenance, Industrial Press, 1997
ISO 17359 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines- General Guidelines Ref ISO 17359.2003(E)
ISO 13379 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines General guidelines on data interpretation and
diagnostics techniques Ref ISO 13379:2003(E)
ISO 13381-1 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines Prognostics Part 1:
General Guidelines Ref ISO 13381-1:2004(E)
Maintenance Strategies and ISO 17359
27
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PART 2 Getting More Reliable Equipment
(See October 2008 issue of the AMMJ for Part 1 of this article What Is Equipment Reliability)

When Machines and Equipment Fail We Replace Parts
When we do Preventive Maintenance or Breakdown Maintenance, we replace parts and/or lubricant in a
machine and then put the equipment back into service. The new parts start their life, while the parts not
replaced continue theirs. There is also the very real possibility that parts which were minimally stressed
before the invasive maintenance become stressed due to poor maintenance, and even that some of the
new parts installed are stressed during assembly. Now within the machine there are old parts still in good
health, parts that have accumulated stress and approaching end-of-life, distressed parts ready to fail from
accumulated overloads, and new parts starting into service with their inherent design limitations. What is
the reliability of the whole machine now?
We know that equipment reliability depends on individual part reliability. The distressed parts have a very
poor reliability (likely to fail soon); while the new parts should have much higher reliability, (likely to fail
sometime in the future). Overall, the equipment is no more reliable that the most distressed part. What
could you do right now to improve the reliability of the distressed part?
You could stop the equipment and replace that part with new. The Operations Group would be very unhappy
to learn that the equipment again needs to stop. Also, you must know which parts are in distress, else you
may replace the wrong ones and the equipment will still fail soon. There is another thing you can do reduce
the chance of overstressing the part. If the chance of excess stress is substantially reduced, the distressed
part has a greater prospect of lasting longer. Lowering the stress on machine parts greatly improves the
odds for higher equipment reliability.
This can be as simple as improved housekeeping, such as keeping breathers clear of dust to prevent lubricant
contamination and cleaning rubbish/rags and dust/dirt build-up off electric motors, bearing housings and
gearboxes to improve heat loss. You can also use CM to monitor the stress from rough operation induced
by poor operating practices and bring the likely implications on production to the attention of Operations and
Plant Managers.
Measuring the Rate of Equipment Failure
Parts working together form a series system we call machines. When any working part fails, the machine
fails. You can draw the failure rate curve for a machine from the rate of its parts failure.
Figure 6 shows the life of an imaginary machine with three working parts. An example could be the bearing,
seal and shaft in a bearing housing of a centrifugal pump or an electric motor. The bottom chart shows the
Hazard Rate curve of the individual green, blue and red parts. Such curves represent numbers of parts
expected to fail in a period from particular circumstances. The blue part has wear-out characteristics and
is replaced on breakdown. The red part has an infant mortality characteristic. Sometime it fails early, other
times it is later. The green part is characterised by a life of random failures that can happen at any time.
When a parts fails (shown by an explosion), the machine also fails.
The top chart refects the whole machines rate of failure, which is the sum of its parts failure rates. The more
often they fail, the higher the machines failure rate. When parts do not fail, the rate falls. The machines
failure rate curve is called ROCOF - Rate of Occurrence of Failure. The ROCOF is representative of the
reliability of the machine design, the quality of manufacture, the precision of its installation, its production
abuse, the purchasing and storage quality control, along with the standard of maintenance and workmanship
care. Figure 6 tells you what to do to prevent equipment failures you must frst stop parts failures.

The ROCOF curve for a machine refects what happens to its parts, and moves up and down as parts fail.
When we take the parts failure history of many identical machines we get the mean, or steady average
ROCOF shown in Figure 7. Figure 7 also lists many of the reasons why equipment and machines fail during
their lives.
What is Equipment Reliability and
How Do You Get It - Part 2
By Mike Sondalini and Howard Witt (Australia) www.lifetime-relability.com
Figure 6 Machine Failures are the Accumulated Effect of Its Parts Failures
First parts fail and then machines stop. The solution to equipment reliability is to improve parts lifetime reliability.
The limiting (maximum) reliability of parts is set by their design. Once a part is in a machine, we are limited to its
characteristic performance. At best, it will behave as its design allows. This is the limit to how much reliability you
can get from a part without redesign.
With ideal maintenance and no operational over-stressing we can achieve the design limits and get the designed
equipment reliability. We can even do better than the design limit, and lower the equipment failure rate, if we
de-rate equipment and use lower loads or more benign environments on the parts.
Figure 7 ROCOF Curve for a Machine (i.e. a System of Parts) Design
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
29
What is Equipment Reliability
z(t)
Time or Usage Age of Part
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When a part fails it is replaced and starts a new life. But
the machines life does not start from new. It continues to
accumulate time from the second it was first put to work
and the parts not replaced continue to age and degrade.
R
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ROCOF
Time or Usage Age of System
A machines rate of occurrence of failure (ROCOF)
changes as its parts do, or do not fail.
With more parts,
ROCOF
becomes
approximately
constant
The failure
curve for a
machine has a
special name
ROCOF
Rate of
Occurrence of
Failure.
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Mean of Many
Systems
(machines)
A Single System
(machine)
Time or Usage Age of Parts
Time or Usage Age of System
Defective parts
Poor assembly
Manufacture error
Poor start-up
Operating overload
Aging of some parts
Local environment degradation
Operator error
Poor operating practices
Poor maintenance practices
Poor design choice
Many aging parts
Many parts degraded
What is Equipment Reliability 30

Figure 8 Improving the Reliability of Machines and Equipment
In practice industrial equipment failures are typically more frequent than expected for their design limits. This
higher failure rate can be caused through wrong installation, bad operating or housekeeping practice, bad
supply chain and stores management or less than ideal maintenance. Fortunately, the induced failure rate
of machines is highly malleable depending on your choice of the applied maintenance policies, the operating
policies, purchasing and stores practices, installation accuracy and the assembly precision of the machines
parts. You may have limits on purchase options and you may be stuck with the equipment you have, but
correct care, operation and maintenance of what you have is totally within the control of every business.
Figure 8 shows what happens to the ROCOF when parts failures are removed.
Stop the Risk of Excessive Stress and You Stop Equipment Failures
How long will your equipment last before the next failure? You cannot possibly know with certainty because
it depends on the chance its parts will survive to a point in time. The best you can offer is a guess. I bet that
you did not know you are gambling the future of your business when you work in Engineering, Operations
or Maintenance. Reliability worsens and plant availability falls if you do not understand the game you are
playing. But to turn the odds in your favour you only need to control what stresses you permit your equipment
parts to experience. Risk is a combination of the consequence and likelihood of specifed outcomes. It is
usually calculated by the following equation.
Risk ($/yr) = Cost of Failure ($) x Chance of an Occurrence (/yr) Eq. 2
Thus risk is a quantifed guess/estimate of how much attention should be given to a set of potential outcomes/
scenarios (e.g. failures). Regardless of values estimated by Equation 2, you will be hit with a cost every time
the failure happens. After a very bad event people may or may not be understanding of your view that you
paid the issue as much attention as was appropriate for the risk.
Restating: to reduce risk we must frst reduce the chance of a bad event, because once it happens you will
pay the full price of that occurrence. If you do not want to incur the associated cost penalty you must not just
guess, but be confdent, that the chance of a failure event is truly very low. Conversely, if you want benefcial
events to happen (e.g. like winning a lottery / having well lubricated parts), you must provide for the chance of
the good occurrence (i.e. buy a lottery ticket / rigorously follow good lubrication management practices).
Variation and the Need for Accuracy
We can greatly reduce the risk of bad events through our choice of actions and our degree of diligence in doing
them. Laser aligning shafts is far more accurate compared to using a straight edge. Using laser alignment
greatly improves the chance that the shafts will run more concentrically. But the risk to the equipment remains
Time or Usage Age of Parts
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Time or Usage Age of System
Better quality control
More training
Precision assembly
Precision installation
Do more preventive maintenance
Better operator training
Total Productive Maintenance
Precision Maintenance
Better design/material choices
Machine protection devices
More parts on PM
Better materials
When we remove
parts failure by
changing our policies
and using better
practices, the old
ROCOF reduces to
the new ROCOF
Old ROCOF
New ROCOF
Remove Causes of
Parts Failure
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
31 What is Equipment Reliability
high if the alignment is not done correctly and the fnal operating shaft positions are out of tolerance. Our policy
decision is good use laser alignment but if the implementation is poor the machine still fails early from higher
stresses induced in the working parts than their design limits. Using good policy, like laser alignment, without
also controlling the quality of the execution does not guarantee improved reliability. Variation in performing the
alignment must also be controlled.
Figure 9 shows a curve representing variability in a parameter and associated outcomes (a normal distribution,
though other shapes are encountered) following some action such as maintenance. An example where this curve
applies would be the dimensions of a shaft or bearing where both undersize and oversize lead to bad outcomes.
Another example is over torque or under torque on a bolt, where either could lead to failure.
Figure 9 Variability in Outcomes
With the solid black curve the individual or team doing the action intend to aim at the acceptable range of values,
but lack of precision and poor control over quality lead to excessive variability in the parameter. Generally they get
it right, but not always. Quite often they end-up with the parameter value either too high or too low. With the purple
dashed line they are no less precise but get more bad outcomes because their target value for the parameter is
too high. Such curves help us to understand the extent of the risk placed on our equipment parts by our activities.
If we know which outcomes cause our parts to fail, and which extend their life, we will want to ensure we do those
occurrences that lead to good lifetime reliability and prevent those that cause increased chance of failure.
Figure 10 Control the Chance of an Equipment Failure Event
Acceptable
Outcome
N
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E
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Only accept this range of outcomes
because they produce negligible risk
X X
Very Bad Outcome Very Bad Outcome
Value of a Critical Parameter
N
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o
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E
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Only accept this range of outcomes
because they give very low risk
Acceptable
Outcome
Very Bad Outcome Very Bad Outcome
Value of a Critical Parameter
What is Equipment Reliability 32
To reduce the chance of equipment failure you need to prevent situations where its parts are overstressed,
or experience fatigue, or suffer contamination. Focus your efforts on removing the causes of bad-chance
to equipment parts. If there is no bad event a part continues its natural life unchanged. With the chance of
bad occurrences reduced; equipment risk falls, reliability rises and money is not spent.
We want to create the situation shown in Figure 10, where controls are applied intentionally to reduce the
range of outcomes to those that are benefcial. Such controls give more accuracy and precision to achieving
the parameters outcome. This exactness leads to reduced chance of failure. The change in performance of
the individual or team represented by the move from Figure 9 to that of Figure 10 indicates use of appropriate
discipline, skill and motivation to work to the target range.
Control the Chance of Overstress and Fatigue Occurrences and You Control Reliability
Figure 11 identifes many strategies available to control the risk placed on equipment parts. Those from the
left-hand column reduce chance of failure. Those on the right only reduce cost of failure, but the chance
remains unchanged. Notice in Figure 11 that Condition Monitoring (CM), as it is usually done, does not
reduce the chance of failure. It only spots impending failure and lets you turn the repair work into a planned
job instead of a breakdown. The failure has already been initiated, and if it is not addressed in time your
equipment breaks down.
Figure 11 Various Risk Management Methods
Figure 12 shows the effect on availability depending on your business focus in using CM. When failures
badly affect production equipment CM is used to observe tell-tale performance parameters and react to
their rate of deterioration. Used this way CM improves reliability by extending operating life right up to
near-failure. But condition monitoring can also be used as a tool to stop failures, and not only a tool to spot
failures. Depending only on the time when you start condition monitoring it becomes a tool to reduce the
chance of parts failing. When CM is used to also gather information on the chance of failure, it becomes
a tool to optimize plant availability. With it you confrm that variation has been controlled to the precision
outcomes you want for parts installation, lubrication and workmanship. You use it to prove the starting
quality of work performed and the starting machine condition. You do this proof-testing as part of the
maintenance or installation work.
For example, check for poor alignment or soft-foot with vibration analysis when re-commissioning. If
vibration levels are too high after assembly, identify the cause and rectify it before letting the equipment go
into service. Test for poor electrical connections (hot spots) with a thermography camera before handing the
equipment back for operation. Take an oil sample when the equipment is running at operating temperature
and get the start-up wear particle count. In this way, CM is used to prove the equipment has been set-up
with the best chance of achieving high reliability. It is the evidence you need to prove to people that risk is
truly minimised. As a direct consequence you will get lower operating costs and gain plant availability.
x Engineering and Maintenance Standards
x Standard Operating Procedures (ACE 3T SOPs)
x Failure Mode Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
x Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
x Hazard Identification (HAZID)
x Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA)
x Precision Maintenance (shaft alignment, oil
particle filtration, deformation prevention, etc)
x Training and Up-skilling
x Quality Management Systems
x Planning and Scheduling
x Continuous Improvement
x Supply Chain Management
x Total Quality Control
x Design and Operations Cost Totally Optimised
Risk (DOCTOR)
x Defect and Failure True Cost (DAFTC)
x De-rate/Oversize Equipment
x Reliability Engineering
x Preventive Maintenance
x Corrective Maintenance
x Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
x Non-Destructive Testing
x Vibration Analysis
x Oil Analysis
x Thermography
x Motor Current Analysis
x Prognostic Analysis
x Emergency Management
x Computerised Maintenance Management
System (CMMS)
x Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
x Risk Based Inspection (RBI)
x Operator Watch-keeping
x Value Contribution Mapping (Process step
activity based costing)
x Logistics, stores and warehouses
x Maintenance Engineering
Chance Reduction Strategies
remove opportunity for failure to start
Consequence Reduction Strategies
reduce the loss after a failure has started
Risk = Chance x Consequence
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
33 What is Equipment Reliability
Figure 12 - Using Condition Monitoring To Figure 13 - Condition Monitoring can be
Control Risk Of Low Reliability Used to Optimize Availability


Condition Monitoring is used to spot bad-chance starting checks if plant and equipment is set-up in a state to
deliver high reliability. By using CM in this way you optimize availability, because for a small maintenance cost to
do the CM, you reduce the chance of equipment failure from undetected defects.
Maintenance done this way makes money for the company by stopping the business-wide costs that would have
resulted from the failure. By guaranteeing high reliability at the start, your failure avoidance delivers drastically
lower operating costs. This effect on operating cost of using CM as an optimising tool is shown in Figure 13.
Through persistent use of Condition Monitoring to measure work quality and achieve start-up precision you will build
knowledge and improve workmanship standards that bestow plant and equipment in excellent condition. You will
deliver low operating risk to parts and the maximum chance of a highly reliable and long, trouble-free equipment
lifetime.
Summary and Conclusion
It is appropriate to draw together the key issues on equipment reliability that is in the article.
1. The reliability of a part is the chance it will survive in-service for a required length of time.
2. The level of equipment reliability has immediate infuence on your business proftability through the direct and
business-wide consequential impacts of failure.
3. Reliability is malleable by the design, selection, manufacturing, storage, operating and maintenance standards
you allow.
4. Plant and equipment are a series arrangement of individual parts. Such confgurations carry high equipment risk,
since any cause of a working parts failure can stop the equipment.
5. The reliability of equipment depends on the reliability of its individual parts. For high equipment reliability each
part must have far higher reliability than needed for the equipment.
6. If you reduce the chance of parts failure by any suitable means (many of which are in the control of an operations
management, operators and maintainers) you lower risk and increase equipment reliability.
7. Prove that the precision standards needed for high parts reliability are present at start-up.
Getting high equipment reliability is mostly within the power of every business. You improve equipment reliability,
and hence business proft, by choosing the policies, using the methods, and adopting the standards that reduce the
chance of bad events happening or that increase the chance of benefcial outcomes.
You can use condition monitoring as a tool to detect the onset of failure. But you get far greater worth from it, if you
also use it to ensure that the high quality work and precision standards which produce long lifetime reliability are
present for your machine parts at the start of their lives.
Mike Sondalini and Howard Witt www.lifetime-relability.com
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
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C
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Availability
CM is also used
to reduce chance
of failure
CM is used onl y
to extend
equipment life
to failure
There is, at last, a consensus-developed, clear defnition of good asset management and what needs to be
done to maximize asset life cycle value-for-money.
PAS 55 was originally developed by a multi-industry consortium of 26 organisations to address the growing
need for clarity in terminology and for better defnition of the requirements for responsible governance in the
management of critical infrastructure. Since its publication in 2004, there has been a rapid increase both in
awareness of asset management as a professional discipline, and in recognition of the value of such joined-up
thinking. Public services, utilities, transport, manufacturing, mining, oil & gas, defense, pharmaceutical, process
and heavy engineering companies have come to recognize that long-term thinking, risk-based decisions and
other attributes of professional asset management are core to their businesses. Certifcation against PAS
55 has even been adopted in some industries (e.g. electricity & gas networks) as a regulatory requirement
to demonstrate asset management competency. PAS 55 thus provides tangible evidence of systematic,
cross-disciplinary and optimized management that correctly blends responses to short term requirements with
sustainable long term performance.
In contrast to the simplistic view that asset management is just maintenance by another name, many
organisations have recognized that the real requirement is for a more rigorous and joined-up approach to
all aspects of the asset life cycle: from the recognition of requirements to design, acquisition, construction,
commissioning, utilization or operation, maintenance, renewal, modifcation and/or ultimate disposal. This
involves juggling competing requirements of asset exploitation (utilization) and asset care (maintenance), of
initial capital investment and downstream operating costs, performance and risks, of short-term and long-term
performance and other trade-offs or compromises. Such a joined-up approach requires clear understanding of
corporate priorities, clear criteria for defning criticality, risk-based decision methods, cross-functional teamwork,
long term planning and a range of other enablers.
PAS 55: 2008 has built upon the original 21-point checklist through the inputs of over 50 organisations in 15
industry sectors in 10 countries. Published this month, the new standard has a bigger glossary, revised structure
and clarifes many of the requirements for risk management, life cycle planning and other key processes, with
appropriate focus on data, information and human factors. Following the Deming Cycle of Plan-Do-Check-Act
(and aligned to other management standards such as ISO9000, 14000, 18000 etc) the revised PAS 55 clarifes
how to integrate the top down pressures on an organization (e.g. competing stakeholder expectations) with
the bottom up realities and opportunities. It provides a common language for technical or engineering staff to
converse with fnancial managers and business leaders. And it provides the framework for understanding how
all the parts ft together.
The components of the standard
PAS 55 is a Publicly Available Specifcation a BSI standard with the
same status as OHSAS 18000. It comprises:
Defnition of terms in asset management
Requirements specifcation for good practices
Guidance for the implementation of such good practices.
It is published in two parts: Part 1 is the checklist of what needs to be
in place, while Part 2 provides extensive guidance and illustrations
of what should be done to achieve the requirements of Part 1. The
combination enables organisations to test, to identify weaknesses,
and to plan improvements. It provides an objective standard across all
aspects of good asset management, ranging from the development of
life cycle strategies and plans for capital investments, asset utilization,
maintenance, renewal and disposal - and the cost/risk/performance
optimisation of the whole picture. Most of all, it is a defnition of the
integrated approach required to make the most of an organizations
assets, to meet conficting stakeholder demands and to deliver best
value-for-money in a sustainable manner. PAS 55 is thus the checklist
and benchmark to assure customers, owners, employees, regulators
and other stakeholders that the business is in good hands.
It is also used to identify and delivery very signifcant tangible
performance improvements. Organisations who have adopted
it quote benefts such as 30% reduction in the total cost of asset
ownership, 25% improvement in service delivery, higher reliability,
better regulator and customer relations and a range of other core
business improvements.
Publicly Available Specifcation PAS 55 is published by British Standards and is distributed and supported
worldwide through the Institute of Asset Management (www.theIAM.org).

By J ohn Woodhouse, TWPL email: john.woodhouse@twpl.com
PAS 55:2008 - The Standard For Integrated,
Life Cycle Optimised Asset Management
BSI PAS 55
A clear, internationally recognized
defnition of what good asset man-
agement really means.
28-point checklist for good prac-
tices in life cycle planning, cost/risk
optimisation & joined-up thinking.
Developed over 6 years, by over
50 public and private organisations
in 10 countries and 15 sectors.
The hallmark for demonstrating
competent governance of critical
infrastructure.
Applicable to all sectors and all
asset types.
Extensive glossary and defnitions
of key terms.
Detailed guidance and examples
of good practice.
Computerised Maintenance Management Software,
thats easier to use, than it is to say.
Barry Johns, 52 Technician & MEX Expert
You dont need an IT degree to get our maintenance software working for your business. MEX Maintenance Softwares user-friendly interface makes
it easy for any staf member to operate, helping your company to run more efciently, at a price your business can aford. From logging work orders to
managing your asset register, maintenance reports and inventory, MEXs intuitive format will assist you in monitoring your equipment, reducing
breakdowns, keeping costs in check and giving you complete control of your assets. Put simply, MEX gets the job done.
See why MEX is Australias top selling and best value for money maintenance software by downloading a free trial at mex.com.au, or
email sales@mex.com.au, or call Chris Carter for an obligation free chat on +61 3392 4777.
A paper presented at ICOMS 2008 (Australia)
Mobile feet size and vehicle model selection can signifcantly impact mine throughput. Both existing mines
and new or expanding mines can derive beneft from modeling the feet to determine optimal servicing
regimes and major planned rectifcation/replacement work.
This paper presents a Reliability Centered Maintenance and Reliability Block Modeling approach to
evaluating optimal service regimes and feet sizes. Once complete the models can be used to predict
budgets, maintenance labour and resource requirements and spares usage.
Introduction
Mobile equipment such as shovels, trucks, and excavators which are successively commissioned over a
number of years creates a feet of vehicles with varying ages. For machines with dominant wear-out failure
characteristics, it is important to understand the forecasted availability profle of the entire feet given that
each machine is at a different stage of its wear-out life.
By initially conducting a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) study, all the likely & the dominant failure
modes are identifed and analysed. Also, by completing this process, the maintenance strategy for the
machine can be formulated or identifed. This is particularly important for mobile equipment in comparison
to fxed plants, as there is typically little online maintenance that can be done for mobile equipment.
Once the failure characteristics of each major component have been analysed and the equipment
maintenance strategy created, then this information can be used to construct a Reliability Block Diagram
(RBD) model. This model takes into account the impact of each failure mode identifed in the RCM process
to the overall availability of the machine.
Once an availability profle of a machine has been derived, then it can be replicated to represent each
vehicle in the feet. By assigning each vehicle with its age, then the availability profle of each machine,
overlaid on top of each other can be plotted. This plot then provides an overview availability plot of the entire
feet, given the wear-out life and expected maintenance outages of each mobile vehicle.
Reliabilty Centered Maintenance (RCM)
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a systematic approach that focuses on preserving function
rather than preserving the asset. It addresses only failures that matter using a logical process for making
maintenance decisions.
During this process, the mobile equipment is broken down to the lowest maintainable item. The failure
causes for each maintainable item are then identifed and analysed. If reliable failure/maintenance history is
available, then this can be used to establish the failure rate or expected life of each failure cause. However,
more often than not this information is not readily available or its accuracy is not very reliable.
In such cases this information can be estimated based on technical, operational and maintenance experience
on similar machines, as well as general engineering knowledge. The maintenance strategy for each
failure cause identifed must also be derived. These strategies may be predictive maintenance, preventive
maintenance or a run-to-fail strategy.
As part of the RCM process, the failure effect or failure consequence is assigned to each failure cause. It
is important to identify the failure causes that have a potential impact on the availability of the equipment so
that the vehicle can be correctly modeled when the data is transferred into the Reliability Block Diagram.
Mobile feet maintenance is service based maintenance and is typically quite mature, application of RCM
provides refnement of the current strategies, and generates complete and concise documentation to ensure
the strategies are delivered.
Reliabilty Block Diagrams (RBD)
Reliability Block Diagrams (RBDs) are a tool used to carry out a system availability analysis and produce
performance predictions. They are made up of series and parallel relationships that represent equipment
redundancy levels. The RBD can predict downtime, number of interruptions and the Mean Time Between
Failures (MTBF).
MOBILE FLEET BUDGET AND
AVAILABILITY FORECASTING
J ason Apps & Mick Drew, ARMS Reliability Engineers (Australia)
The information collated during the RCM process can be utilised to create the Reliability Block Diagram (RBD)
model. In this exercise, any failure cause that has no impact on the equipment availability are disregarded.
Applying to Mobile Fleet
The application of reliability modeling to mobile feet naturally has the beneft of duplication. Only one of each
vehicle type needs to be modeled which can then be duplicated to represent the feet. Different ages can then
be assigned to the different vehicles, to generate a truly representative prediction, over any future time period.
Example Analysis
This method of analysis has been applied to several new mines and mine expansions. The following represents
a typical application of RCM and RBD modeling to a mobile feet.
The study begins by collating as much information that is available, including equipment lists and recommended
service sheets. As much information from existing vehicles(including similar models) is also collectedincluding
work order history, current service plans and performance data. This information is used to develop a Desktop
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) model using the simulation software package RCMCost.
The functional asset hierarchy was built using RCMCost based on area: system: subsystem: maintainable item
relationships. This step is necessary as a precursor to the implementation of the Computerised Maintenance
Management System (CMMS) such that it can be electronically uploaded when appropriate. With the asset
hierarchy developed the next stage of the process was to defne equipment functions, functional failures and
failure modes. This was predominately completed using available information and where available equipment
experts and/or manufacturers and suppliers. The input of these specialists is necessary to overcome the lack
of maintenance history and assist in the collection of original equipment manufactures (OEM) maintenance
manuals. RCMCost provided the capability to fully document the available knowledge and simulate the impact
of the maintenance tasks on the lifecycle costs and risk levels. The simulations provide for rapid analysis, and
allowed a lot of modelling to occur outside of meetings, ensuring meeting times were minimized yet effective.
Once the desktop model is complete the ARMS reliability engineer worked with appropriate specialists to reality
check and challenge the model results. This is carried out by frst examining the criticality Pareto chart that is
developed in RCMCost. The criticality Pareto ranks the failure modes based on total cost which includes any
business costs associated with failure, labour cost, spares cost and equipment cost. Figure 1 below shows this
criticality Pareto chart. It identifes the critical failure modes impacting on performance and cost.
Using the criticality Pareto chart, the high cost failure modes were examined in detail by carrying out a
validation of the failure mode information. Once validation was complete the criticality Pareto identifed areas
for improvement. The type of recommendations made for improvement included root cause analysis (RCA),
equipment redesign and maintenance strategy optimization. The criticality Pareto chart was also confgured to
display failure modes which had a safety risk greater than the exposure threshold.
The second method used to challenge the model results was to examine the historical maintenance costs
(where available) and compare to the budget prediction using RCMCost. The goal of this was not primarily
to ensure the budget prediction matched the historical spend but rather to clearly understand the reasons
37
Mobile Fleet Forecasting
0 4000000 8000000 12000000 16000000 20000000 24000000 28000000 32000000 36000000
Total cost contribution
Lack of Grease.
Hydraulic pressure oil
filters
Lack of pump oil
Broken or damaged
grease line
Oxidation of Engine oil
Engine oil filter blockage
Final Drive Breather
Blockage
Final Drive Breather
Blockage
High pressure filter fills
with contamination
High pressure filter fills
with contamination
Hidden Frame cracking
Minor Frame cracking
Blocked Injectors
Blocked breather in
Hydraulic Tank
Aged Final Drive Oil
Aged Final Drive Oil
Failure of Engine Coolant
Low Tyre Pressure
Failed fire detection wire
Lack of Nose Cone
Lubrication
I
D
Figure 1 Failure mode criticality Pareto based on total cost.
Mobile Fleet Forecasting 3
for any discrepancies in the results. Using RCMCost the budget prediction could be interrogated at many
levels including system, sub-system, individual asset and individual failure mode level. This ability to
challenge the budget predictions in such detail was something that was previously unattainable.
Outcomes
With all validation and reality
checking of the model complete
the reporting of budget predictions
was quite simple. RCMCost
enables the budget predictions to
be displayed both in tabular and
graphical forms.
Figure 2 shows the overall budget
profle over 10 yrs. Note the
variation across the profle which
accounts for equipment aging
characteristics, major equipment
replacements and overhauls.
These profle plots represent the
typical outputs for one vehicle.
The budget profle can also be
confgured to show the separation
of labour, equipment and spares
costs as shown in fgure 3
The chart in fgure 4 shows the
budget profle separated into
the proportion of breakdown,
preventative and inspection cost.
Both breakdown maintenance
costs and secondary action costs
as a result of inspections have
been included in the budget
prediction to refect a true zero
based budget.
To model the full mobile feet,
multiple vehicles can be quickly
created by click and drag type
functionality to duplicate items.
Initial ages can then be entered
against each item such that the
feet profle can be generated
taking into account the varying
ages of each vehicle.
Figure 5 shows the profle
of required resources matched to
vehicle ageing and growing feet
size over the frst 3 years.
Figure 6 shows the feet availability
profle. As the vehicles age the
availability drops as equipment
items age and require more
major maintenance. The profles
are typically generated by both
calendar time and operating hours.
The modeling can be extended to
predict throughput of the mine
given the full feet and cycle times.
Maintenance Budget - Overview
$0
$500,000
$1,000,000
$1,500,000
$2,000,000
$2,500,000
$3,000,000
$3,500,000
C
o
s
t
Total Labour $2,423,963 $2,759,068 $2,793,541 $2,870,130 $2,987,567 $3,098,170 $3,062,856 $2,890,909 $2,917,602 $3,116,662
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 2 Overall cost profle over 10 years
Maintenance Budget - Category Type
0
500000
1000000
1500000
2000000
2500000
3000000
3500000
C
o
s
t
Total Spare 1547584.8 1811071.55 1828272.35 1892098.9 1997225.55 2113425.05 2076234.2 1937377.9 1939007.7 2104622
Total Equipment 19116 23112 23772 26172 27336 29664 26652 25320 27756 28224
Total Labour 857262.65 924884.344 941496.293 951859.315 963005.893 955080.549 959970.092 928211.236 950838.188 983815.651
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 3 Cost profle over 10 years showing the separation of
labour, equipment and spares.
Maintenance Budget - Work Type
$0
$500,000
$1,000,000
$1,500,000
$2,000,000
$2,500,000
$3,000,000
$3,500,000
C
o
s
t
Total_inspection $421,704 $428,896 $428,949 $429,005 $428,927 $428,864 $428,967 $428,930 $428,862 $429,046
Total_preventive $1,985,074 $2,285,514 $2,330,603 $2,374,532 $2,494,152 $2,616,408 $2,542,147 $2,389,933 $2,379,349 $2,554,930
Total_corrective $17,186 $44,658 $33,989 $66,592 $64,488 $52,898 $91,742 $72,046 $109,392 $132,686
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 4 Cost profle over 10 years showing the proportion of
breakdown, preventative and inspection work.
Mobile Fleet Forecasting
39
Uploading Into A CMMS
For existing feets or for new mines or expansions that proceed, naturally the maintenance plans developed as
part of the modeling process can be uploaded via a portal into the CMMS. Both Master Data such as Asset
hierarchy, spare parts and BOMS can be uploaded, along with maintenance plans, strategies and work instruction
documentation.
Conclusion
The paper has presented a Reliability Centered Maintenance and Reliability Block Modeling approach to evaluating
optimal service regimes and feet sizes which can be applied to new, expanding or existing mines. Once complete
the models can be used to predict budgets, maintenance labour and resource requirements and spares usage.
The paper shows through the breadth of results available, the beneft in applying an RCM and RBD approach to
feet modeling. The outcomes can help ensure that the mines throughput goals are achieved at least cost and most
effcient maintenance regimes for the feet.
Figure 6 Availability Profle Figure 5 Resource profle
Business Improvement
Any changes in the
economical environment
have a very direct impact
on the cement industry.
Signifcant swings in
demand cause equivalent
swings in maintenance
focus. Irrespective of the
demand-supply situation,
there is the continuous
pressure on business
improvement and business solutions are adjusted to adapt to the changed business environment. With
Maintenance making up a huge portion of the total operational budget, it remains the prime budget
item to be used or abused to refect good business performance.
Maintenance improvement unfortunately means different things to different people, especially in the
above context. Companies exploring growth opportunities see Maintenance as one mechanism to
improve capacity through improved availability and will invest in good maintenance. If you are struggling
to make your sales targets, Maintenance is
often seen as only a cost item and it is almost
indiscriminately undermined in cost cutting
exercises.
Sustainable Maintenance cost reduction can
only be achieved by investing in pro-active
maintenance based on reliability engineering
principles. Short-sighted cost-cutting will often
have the immediate and expected short term
cost reduction result, but total cost will inevitably
start creeping up and then accelerate, and it
then needs a bold management team to step
in and correct the situation.
The organisation can choose to pursue
maintenance improvement (towards the
right of the graph), by investing in pro-active
maintenance, or commit organisational suicide
(towards the left), by executing indiscriminate
cost cutting. This principle has been proven again and again in the cement industry. This graph portrays
a scenario where the organisation starts of from an approximate 80% reactive maintenance program to
an 80% pro-active maintenance program.
This transformation process typically takes about 3 to 4 years to achieve with the frst real benefts
manifesting after about 6 months. The team commitment is the most important factor behind the speed
of the transformation process. Most of the basic continuous improvement mechanisms can already be
established within 6 months.
This maintenance improvement process requires a focus on Total Cost of Maintenance to drive the
correct decision-making. Maintenance total costs are made up by the following main components:
Risk Based Maintenance
Management in the Cement Industry

Turgut Allahmanli and J ohann Taylor GHD Pty Ltd
Business Improvement
Business Environment
(Demand/Supply situation)
Business Improvement
(Main drivers)
Limited Demand /
Excess Capacity
Limited Capacity /
Excess Demand
Making capacity
available to benefit
from additional sales
Cost saving efforts to
improve margins
Business Solution
(Typical)
Improve Maintenance
Expansion
Market Improvement
Maintenance Improvement
Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8
Reactive Costs
Proactive Investment
Total Cost
$
Time

Lost Productivity Material Labour Equipment Infrastructure Overheads Energy
Business Environment
(Demand/Supply Situation)
Business Solution
(Typical)
Business Improvement
(Main Drivers)
Limited Capacity or
Excess Demand
Market Improvement
Limited Demand or
Excess Capacity
Improved Maintenance
Expansion
Cost Saving Efforts to Improve
Margins
Making Capacity Available to
Beneft From Additional Sales
Reactive Costs
Proactive Investment
Total Costs
Time
$
Maintenance Improvement
It is strange how lost productivity is a primary consideration for investment decisions, but almost always
ignored when evaluating maintenance investment. It is probably because once operational, lost productivity,
the biggest contributor, is not refected as a cost component in any fnancial statement or report.
Maintenance Maturity in the Cement Industry
Cement plants are not too
different from other heavy
industry and mining
industry operations in
terms of Maintenance
Management Maturity.
The following two charts
present a case study of
cement plants assessed
on maintenance best
practices, and actual
performance against
these best practices.
Plants are ordered in
terms of their assessment
average scores.
The Best of the Best
score is determined by
taking only the best score
in each key performance
area irrespective of the
plant. All it means is that
somebody has already
achieved this score.
The proposed Best
Appropriate Practice
target to be achieved
within a two to three year
period is not much above
the Best of the Best score,
which indicates that this
is quite achievable.
The assessment is based on a framework of key performance areas, which contains a collection of more than
3000 verifcation points and criteria. The direct reliability engineering key performance areas (Work Planning
and Execution Control and Maintenance Program Management areas are typically the lower scoring areas,
a major concern as this combination largely determine the maintenance cost situation.
Success of Reliability Engineering in the Cement Industry
Reliability Engineering and the application of methodologies such as Reliability Centered Maintenance
(RCM), supporting reliability, is far from entrenched as routine operational practices with most cement plant
operators at a low maturity level scoring between 30% and 40%. This scale is a relative and absolute scale,
where Boeing and Airbus should be very, very close to 100% when assessed on the frameworks reliability
engineering components. The main impediments in achieving an acceptable performance in Reliability
Engineering identifed during these assessments, can be grouped into the following areas:
Inadequate Business focus and Management Support
Reliability improvement is almost always poorly supported or disrupted by every cost or head cutting exercise.
Direct maintenance costs (infrastructure, labour and materials), are driven down while lost productivity costs
are not acknowledged and it escalates.
Poor Maintenance Process Design
The processes governing maintenance activities such as work planning and execution control, maintenance
program management being the main ones, are often poorly defned and established. In most cases, detailed
and complete procedures do not exist and if so, they are not the result of a designed process. How people do
maintenance is based on legacy, passed on from one role to another in a very ineffective manner.
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
41 Risk Based Maintenance Management in the Cement Industry
Maintenance Improvement
Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8
Reactive Costs
Proactive Investment
Total Cost
$
Time
Maintenance Management Assessment Results
0%
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Actual Performance
Continuous improvement through Forward Planning, Work Order Review, Failure Analysis, Change Control
and Performance Analysis is not integrated into the maintenance processes to the effect that the same poor
legacy schedules are maintained in the system, and the same failures are fxed time and time again.
Inadequate Competencies and Skills
People competencies and skills are not maintained effectively and new individuals are pushed into their
roles with little formal alignment which should be based on competency and skills matrices, which again
should be based on the formal business process requirements. This cause signifcant drift in practices,
which does not provide any basis for continuous improvement. This situation is compromised by high staff
turnover and the often remoteness and relative small size of typical cement plants, which does not justify the
width in numbers. Reliability Engineering related training, if done, is often limited to typical RCM tool training,
and not the required Maintenance Program Management Training, which provides the complete framework
for reliability improvement.
Roles and Responsibilities not aligned
Roles and responsibilities are not designed to focus on reliability. The focus is on maintaining the plant, but
not the maintenance program. Engineers are not involved in the maintenance of the maintenance program
and often do not see any of the work orders going through the system, not always realising that these work
orders form the basis of the reliability plan for the plant and equipment and determine the maintenance cost
outcome. This situation is perpetuated at supervisory levels where these individuals are too busy killing fres
and are not contributing to improving the maintenance program.
Non-integrated Computerised Maintenance Management Systems
Generally, systems are poorly implemented with inadequate data confgurations, work defnition, integration
into business processes and system training.
Reliability Centered Maintenance The Return on the Investment
Effective reliability based maintenance presents a very signifcant opportunity in reducing costs. On top of
the economical beneft, the associated safety, environmental, statutory and corporate governance benefts
are very signifcant. Not only is an auditable process available to proof compliance, but the reduced risk
profle can lead to reduced insurance premiums.
The greater percentage functional failures associated with cement plant and equipment assets display
failure behaviour which are ideally suited for the application of RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) or
equivalent risk based maintenance program development and review methodologies, without compromising
safety or the environment.
These ratios are indicative of an exceptional pro-active maintenance program supporting very high
availabilities. The predictability of failure patterns supported by coordinated and planned downtime for
maintenance also makes Usage Based Maintenance more applicable than would normally be expected.
Risk Based Maintenance Management in the Cement Industry 42
Maintenance Type
Description of
Maintenance Type
Application of
Maintenance Type
Typical Ratios
based on
number of
Standard Tasks
Condition Based
Maintenance
Maintenance based on
condition where scheduled
Condition Monitoring Tasks
identify deficiencies and
activates Work Arising Tasks
to support the corrective
maintenance work
x Evident condition or
performance
x Adequate warning time
x Cost-effective
x Safe and environmentally
friendly
50%
Usage Based Maintenance
Scheduled Corrective
Maintenance done at regular
intervals of usage to prevent
unacceptable failure
conditions
x Predictable age determination
x Cost-effective
x Safe and environmentally
friendly
35%
Run to Failure Maintenance
Maintenance where
Scheduled Failure Finding
Tasks identify failed conditions
and activates Work Arising
Tasks to support the corrective
maintenance work
x Cost-effective
x Safe and environmentally
friendly
15%
Economical Benefit with Maintenance Improvement
7
18
25
30
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Ti me [months]
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[
%
]
Economical Benefit
[% Improvement]
Log. (Economical Benefit
[% Improvement])
Based on GHDs
experience with
ma i n t e n a n c e
improvement projects
done at cement
plants (with RCM or
equivalent risk based
methodol ogi es ) ,
it was shown that
an 80% pro-active
maintenance program
with at least a 30%
total cost improvement
was readily achievable
within an 18 to 30
month period. This
was typically the case
based on relative low
reliability engineering maturity, which has a starting point of an 80% reactive maintenance program. Taking into
account the effect of diminishing returns, starting of at a higher level of maturity will yield reduced, but still very
signifcant returns. The following graph shows the typical result of achieved economical benefts through the
application of RCM methodologies as part of a structured maintenance improvement programme.
The accurate measurement of this improvement is often complicated by the level of information available at the
start of the process as the historical allocation lost productivity costs, labour and materials etc. is not always
accurate or complete.
Reliability Improvement Project Components
The following are the typical project deliverables supporting Maintenance and Reliability Improvement:
A managed, integrated Improvement Programme
Management team as the steering committee
Formal Project plan with timelines, responsibilities, activity details down to auditable level
Regular project review and progress management
Maintenance Program Management Training:
RCM or other risk based equivalent methodology
Failure Analysis
Maintenance Work Planning and Execution Control
Maintenance Processes
Maintenance Performance Management
Maintenance Information Management
Establish effective Maintenance Processes
Review and develop procedures
Implement procedure requirements
Establish effective KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) to measure improvement
Optimisation of the applied CMMS (Computerised Maintenance Management System)
Focussed review of the Maintenance Program
Start with highest criticality items (based on Criticality Analysis)
Apply RCM methodology systematically
Activate revised or new schedules as they are developed
Conclusion
Reducing maintenance cost as part of a continuous and sustainable process can be a very effective process
in the cement industry as the failure behaviour of the equipment as applied is effectively managed with basic
RCM tasks. The only real threat to this process, and unfortunately this is quite a real threat, is the continued
commitment of the management teams.
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
43 Risk Based Maintenance Management in the Cement Industry
Economic Beneft
(% Improvement)
Log. (Economical Beneft
{% Improvement})
Economic Beneft With Maintenance Improvement
Time (Months)
Summary: Reliability-Centred Maintenance (RCM) has become a staple in the maintenance and
reliability community, but it is also shrouded in confusion. Much of this confusion stems from the way in which
it was developed and marketed. This paper cuts through the confusion to highlight the CORE Priniciples of
RCM. These principles are not based on any particular process or technique. They are not meant to sell a
program. The CORE Priniciples of RCM focus on the basic principles of why RCM works and what it does.
CORE is an acronym that is used to describe these fundamental precepts. The participant will take away a
clear understanding of the fundamentals of plant equipment failures and how to deal with them. They will
also have the basic information they need to understand and evaluate the various RCM options in order to
make an informed decision regarding which process to use.
INTRODUCTION
The late 1970s ushered in a new era of asset maintenance and management when the United States
Department of Defence published the seminal report entitled Reliability-Centred Maintenance (RCM) by F.
Stanley Nowlan and Howard F. Heap. Entire industries have grown from this one report. One of those is the
RCM consulting industry. The Nowlan and Heap report identifed a new way of thinking about equipment
maintenance. New industries started to apply these philosophies, which gave rise to the RCM consulting
industry. Each consultant attempted to apply his or her own interpretation or modifcation to the original
philosophies. The result has been that there are now many different defnitions of RCM. Some of which are
even contradictory. This paper attempts to explain the CORE Priniciples of RCM upon which every version
of RCM is based. If the reader understands these CORE Priniciples, every variation of RCM will make
sense. The paper is not meant to provide an alternative method of RCM. The goal is to give the reader an
understanding of the basic underlying principles of any RCM based program.
MAINTENANCE THROUGH THE AGES
Fix It When It Fails Age
Prior to WWII, industrial equipment was relatively simple and generally over-designed which made it
reliable and easy to repair. That does not mean that there were not problems with the equipment, but when
there were problems, the downtime did not matter as much. Equipment was run until something broke, and
then it was fxed. Skilled mechanics were able to fx anything and get it working even if it meant changing
the design. There was really no need for systematic maintenance beyond the occasional cleaning, servicing,
and lubrication.
Overhaul and Replace Age
WWII through the 1960s saw big increases in mechanization and equipment became more complex. Industry
began to put more reliance on machines to perform the manufacturing process rather than manufacturing
being performed by hand. In order to keep the machines running and prevent down time, it became
important to maximize equipment life. A periodic overhaul was the predominant philosophy for preventing
equipment failure. It was believed that overhauling equipment on a scheduled basis could retain reliability.
This was particularly true in the commercial aviation industry. During the overhaul and replace age the cost
of maintenance relative to operating cost rose sharply along with the growth of maintenance planning and
control systems.
Failure Warning Age
In the late 1960s and early 1970s the aviation industry began to focus on looking for signs of imminent
failure to predict when equipment would breakdown. Manufacturing quickly followed suit. Predictive
maintenance became predominant and is currently used throughout the world to maximize asset life.
Interestingly, the word predictive used in this context is somewhat of a misnomer. The various predictive
maintenance technologies do not predict when failure will occur, but only that the equipment is in the process
of failure and that failure will occur in the relatively near future. However, predictive is the industry-accepted
term. There were two primary factors driving the need for predictive maintenance: First, the realization that
overhauls were not as effective as they needed to be in preventing failures and second, the increased cost
of failure due to safety and environmental regulations. Studies showed that there was less of a connection
between operating age and failure than previously thought. This all led to an explosion of new maintenance
concepts and techniques such as vibration analysis, thermography, ultrasound, motor current analysis, and
a plethora of others.
CORE PRINCIPLES OF
RELIABILITY-CENTERED MAINTENANCE
Richard Overman, Core Principles (USA)
A Paper from ICOMS 2008
LITERATURE REWVIEW
There have been numerous books, articles, and papers written over the years about RCM. The books are written
by RCM consultants to describe their approach to RCM. Each approach is different in their execution but they all
rely on the same or similar underlying principals. Articles and papers published on RCM are generally descriptions
of parts of the books or applications of the authors process to a particular plant or equipment. The important point
to this paper is that the various books and publications have led to RCM having different meanings to different
people.
In their seminal work, Nowlan and Heap describe RCM as a logical discipline for the development of scheduled
maintenance programs.
1
Other descriptions of RCM have surfaced over the years. Below is a list of some of the
various descriptions.
Reliability-centered Maintenance: a process used to determine what must be done to ensure that any
physical asset continues to do what its users wanted it to do in its present operating context.
2

RCM is the best way to develop a maintenance improvement program.
3
RCM uses a cross-functional team to develop a complete maintenance strategy designed to ensure
inherent design reliability for a process or piece of equipment.
4

RCM is to identify components whose functional failures can cause unwanted consequences to ones
plant or facility.
5

With the exception of the last one, all of these defnitions are essentially the same. For some reason, Neil Bloom
departs from the traditional defnition of RCM and even states that what everyone else calls RCM are not RCM,
but that is a different paper.
Along with variation in defnitions come variations in the processes that are called RCM. Jack Nicholas has
categorized the various processes as Classical, Variants, and Derivatives
6
. The result is that RCM has come
to mean different things to different people. This paper does not present an RCM process or a particular RCM
philosophy but returns to the primary or CORE Priniciples of RCM. The CORE Priniciples of RCM are the underlying
principles upon which all of the different RCM processes are based.
CORE PRINCIPLES
Components Fail
The C of the CORE Priniciples of RCM
is that components fail. It is an undisputed
fact that, without intervention, everything
will eventually fail. The time to failure can
be very short or very long depending on
how the component is designed and
how it is used. As asset managers, it is
important that we understand how each
of our assets will fail. Nowlan and Heap
identifed six failure characteristics as
shown in fgure 1.
7

Figure 1 also provides the results of
three studies that identify the percentage
of components that fail by each of the
six failure characteristics. These failure
characteristic curves have become the
basis for all of the RCM processes.
One of the fundamentals of RCM is the
identifcation of the component failure
modes and the characteristic of each.
The goal of RCM is recognition of the
fact that without some intervention,
every component will fail and to identify
the appropriate intervention.
The data in fgure 1 is the results of 3 studies performed by United Airlines (UAL) in 1968 on the Boeing 707 aircraft,
the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on feets of jet aircraft (known as the Broberg
study in 1973, and a study on surface warships for the U.S. Navy in 1993 known as the MSP study.
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
45
Core Principles of RCM
UAL Broberg
MSP
1968 1973 1982
4% 3% 3%
2% 1% 17%
5% 4% 3%
7% 11% 6%
14% 15% 42%
68% 66% 29%
Failure Characteristics
Figure 1 Failure Characteristic Curves
System MMH DT CMA
Compressed air 1287 182 68
Hydraulics 523 720 123
Material feed 108 500 202
Power Generation 356 48 1
Core Principles of RCM 46

The six failure characteristics are various combinations of three basic failure characteristics; infant mortality,
random, and wear-out. The curves are drawn using time on the X axis and the conditional probability of
failure on the Y axis. Infant mortality (represented by a downward curve at the beginning or left end of the
graph) occurs within a relatively short period of time after the component is put into service. Infant mortality is
generally driven by usage (when the component is overloaded or used beyond it design capability) or human
error (usually the result of improper manufacturing or installation) and not driven by design. The interventions
for infant mortality failures involve ensuring that manufacturing, installation, and start-up processes are
adequate and are followed.
Random failure (represented by a horizontal line on the graph) can be from usage, design, or human error.
In most cases random failures are from latent defects in the material or unexpected overload due to external
events. As fgure 1 shows, the vast majority of component failures are random failures. Random failure
intervention involves looking for a warning or indication that the component is in the process of failing.
Wear-out failures (represented by an upward curve at the right end of the graph) are primarily a function of
design. Components susceptible to wear-out have a higher probability of failure as they age. The intervention
is to remove the component from service before its wear-out age.
While it is intuitively obvious that components will fail and it is possible to intervene in some way to try to
prevent all failures, it is equally intuitively obvious that no company can afford the cost of intervening to try to
prevent all failures. The primary purpose of the RCM process, then, is to identify the appropriate intervention.
So simply recognizing that components fail is not suffcient to develop a strategy for dealing with those
failures.
Operational Impact
The O of the CORE Priniciples of RCM is that every component failure has some degree of operational
impact (not to be confused with operational consequences) .
The operational impact addressed in this section is not the same as the operational consequences used in most RCM methods. RCM
separates failures into Safety, Environmental, Operational, and Economic consequences. Each consequence is treated differently and
evaluated using different criteria. However, they all have an impact on the operation of the company to varying degrees.
Each failure has both direct and indirect impact on operations. The direct operational impact ranges from
shutting down the process to none. The indirect operational impact is to drain resources to clean up an
environmental spill, to deal with safety issues, or simply to make repairs. Broken down to its most fundamental
basis, every failure requires the use of resources that could be more effciently and effectively used to increase
the value of the company. Hence, the fundamental axiom is that every failure has an operational impact. The
goal of the RCM process is to evaluate, categorize, prioritise, or otherwise understand the operational impact
of the failure in order to identify the appropriate intervention.
It is noted that one result of the RCM analysis may be that the component should be run-to-failure so the
appropriate intervention is no intervention. This is the case when there are no safety or environmental impact
and the run-to-failure option is the most cost effective option.
There are various methods for performing the evaluation, categorisation, and prioritisation. Each company
will need to use a method that works for them. A method that has worked for other companies is suggested
below. It may work for you.
This method of prioritisation of RCM analyses
is to evaluate systems within the plant based
on metrics available in the computerized
maintenance management system (CMMS).
The example below uses Maintenance
Man-hours (MMH), Down time (DT) and
Corrective Maintenance Actions (CMA).
Table 1 gives the number of hours (for MMH
and DT) and events (for CMA) for each
system over the last year. Again, the metrics
and the time period will vary based on the
situation. This is used to illustrate the process.
Once the data is gathered, the systems are
ranked in each metric from worse to best and
given a ranking score as shown in table 2.
The scores are added together to calculate a
fnal ranking score. The lowest score is the top
priority. Table 2 assumes each metric is of equal
weight. You can also use weighting factors if
some metric is considered more important
System MMH DT CMA
Compressed air 1287 182 68
Hydraulics 523 720 123
Material feed 108 500 202
Power Generation 356 48 1
System MMH DT CMA TOTAL
Compressed air 1 3 3 7
Hydraulics 2 1 2 5
Material feed 4 2 1 7
Power Generation 3 4 4 11

Table 1 Prioritisation data
Table 2 Prioritisation ranking
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
47 Core Principles of RCM
than others. Table 2 shows that the hydraulics system is the highest priority followed by either the compressed air
system or the material feed system (other considerations can be used to decide between these two systems). The
power generation system is the lowest priority.
Categorisation is usually performed at the failure mode level. Failure modes are generally categorized as to their
impact on safety, the environment, operations, and cost. They are also identifed as to whether they are hidden or
evident. Again, defnitions and methods may vary. The important point is that the analyst must know how the failure
impacts the organization.
The problems, then, are that components fail and they impact operations. But that knowledge, by itself, is not
suffcient to identify the appropriate intervention. There needs to be a logical way of organizing and evaluating all
of the information to make sound intervention decisions.
Reliability Engineering Solution
The R and E of the CORE Priniciples of RCM is that there are Reliability Engineering solutions. Reliability
Engineers have used analytical techniques like the Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and
stochastic analyses for years prior to the development of RCM so it was only logical to apply these techniques to
the issue of failure prevention intervention.
The FMECA provided a simple logical method for identifying the failures and evaluating the operational impact.
Every component failure leads to the loss of a function, which affects the process. The FMECA process identifes
and documents the functions, functional failures, and failure modes of the component and the effects of the failure
at various levels. The criticality analysis provides a means of categorizing and prioritising the failure modes. The
importance of the FMECA to the RCM process cannot be understated because understanding the failures and their
operational impact is crucial to developing the appropriate intervention. It can be rightly said, a good FMECA will
not guarantee a good RCM analysis but a bad FMECA will guarantee a bad RCM analysis.
8
While the FMECA is a great existing Reliability Engineering tool for understanding the operational impact of failures,
it is not suffcient for developing intervention schemes. To be sure, the FMECA is the foundation of the RCM
process but is not the sum total of the process.
9
Stochastic analysis is the other Reliability Engineering tool that needs to be employed. The most common stochastic
analysis used in RCM is the Weibull analysis. With limited data, a Weibull analysis can identify which of the failure
characteristic curves is most applicable to the failure mode. With knowledge of the failure characteristics, the RCM
analyst can identify which of the possible failure prevention interventions is most likely to be of value. For example,
if the components failure mode has an infant mortality failure characteristic, a scheduled overhaul/replacement
intervention would not work and would be counterproductive. Similarly, applying a predictive maintenance
intervention technique is more appropriate for a random failure characteristic. A wear out characteristic would
beneft from either a predictive maintenance or overhaul/replacement intervention. Stochastic techniques also
provide information necessary to determine the interval at which the intervention should occur.
When quantifed data is available, it should be used as much as possible. Other sources of data are the operators
and maintainers of the equipment, supervisors, original equipment manufacturers, and subject matter experts.
Below is a brief overview of the failure intervention techniques and how they are used. Various RCM processes
differ on the details, but this general description is applicable to most if not all of the RCM processes in use today.
Infant Mortality
Infant mortality issues are best addressed in the design process. Electronic equipment can also beneft from
burning in the component, which means using the equipment for a period of time before installation to get it
beyond the infant mortality region. Finally, one major source of infant mortality is the installation process. Good
installation procedures and practices are the best interventions.
Random Failures
The key to preventing random failures is monitoring the component to detect signs that it is in the process of
failure. This can be done with the human senses, i.e. hearing, vision, smell, feeling, or tasting (which is not done
much if at all). In addition, many technologies have been developed to aid the human senses. These are called
predictive maintenance technologies. Examples are vibration analysis, thermography, ultra sound, motor current
analysis, and many more. The premise of all of these is to fnd the component in what is called the potential failure
condition. The potential failure condition is the point where it can be detected that the component failure mode is
in process, but it has not yet reached functional failure. How often the intervention is performed is generally based
on an estimate of the interval between potential and functional failure. The idea is to keep checking because the
component starts to fail randomly. However, once it starts down the failure process, we can fnd warning signs.
A WORD OF CAUTION: Some practitioners are starting to say that once a predictive maintenance task is performed
six times and nothing is found, the task can be changed or deleted. This is very wrong and refects a lack of
understanding of the principles of failure. Remember that the component can start down the failure path at any time
either right after installation or 10 years later. Because it is random, we do not know when that will occur.
Core Principles of RCM 4
The predictive maintenance task is only going to fnd the warning sign after it has started down the failure
path. Therefore, we need to continue to check. Lets say, for example, that the component is monitored by
vibration analysis once a month. The 6 times philosophy implies that you can delete or change the interval
on the vibration analysis every 6 months. What if the component starts down the failure path after a year
in service and the vibration analysis is stopped after 6 months? It will fail without seeing the warning signs.
Worse yet, what if the interval is continually lengthened? Lets say, it is increased to every 3 months after 6
times with no failure, then to 6 months a couple years later, but the interval between potential and functional
failure is about 4 months. This all means that after the interval is increased to 6 months, the component
can start down the failure path and progress to functional failure without the opportunity to see the warning
signs. The bottom line is that the maximum predictive maintenance interval is the interval between potential
and functional failure. The actual predictive maintenance interval should be more often depending on the
criticality.
Wear Out
The wear out failures can be protected by either a scheduled removal (either replace or overhaul) or by
monitoring. Even though a component may have a wear out age, some of the population can fail randomly
before the wear out age. The RCM principles are to try to get as much life out of the equipment as possible
so an inspection or predictive maintenance technology is generally preferable to an overhaul or removal. In
some cases, the overhaul or removal can be more cost effective. Unless shown otherwise, the overhaul or
removal is generally assumed to be less preferable than predictive maintenance. It is also important to keep
in mind the risk of human error leading to less reliability after the overhaul or installation.
CONCLUSIONS
Every asset manager must recognize that the frst two principles of the CORE Priniciples of RCM will occur.
Components will fail and there will be an operational impact to that failure. The decision they have to make is
to what level are they going to apply the Reliability Engineering solution. Some asset managers do not apply
the Reliability Engineering solutions at all. These managers are using a run-to-failure philosophy and have
a reactive maintenance program. On the other end of the spectrum, maintenance managers have rigorously
applied the Reliability Engineering solutions to develop a proactive maintenance program. The vast majority
of asset managers are somewhere in-between.
No matter which RCM process is used, all of the CORE Priniciples of RCM must be applied to identify the
appropriate failure prevention intervention. The Component failure must be understood, the Operational
impact assessed, and Reliability Engineering tools applied. Not applying these principles leads to surprise
failures, some of which can be catastrophic and disastrous. Each of the many RCM processes available
today apply the CORE Priniciples or RCM to varying degrees. The degree to which all of the CORE Priniciples
of RCM are applied is indicative of the overall beneft of the process. If the CORE Priniciples of RCM are
applied superfcially, there is likely to be some beneft, but it will be limited. A more rigorous application of
the CORE Priniciples of RCM will provide enhanced benefts. It has also been shown
10
that the degree to
which the CORE Priniciples of RCM are applied affect the cost of the analysis. The corollary is that the more
a company is willing to invest in the process, the more beneft they can expect.
REFERENCES
1 F. Stanley Nowlan & Howard H. Heap, Reliability-Centered Maintenance, 1978, Public Domain, P. vii
2 J ohn Moubray, Reliability-centered Maintenance II, 1997, Industrial Press, P.7
3 Anthony M. Smith & Glenn R. Hinchcliffe, RCM Gateway to World Class Maintenance,
2004, Elsevier, P. XIX
4 Doug Plucknett, RCM Blitz Three Day Overview Training, 2006, Reliability Solutions, P.14
5 Neil Bloom, What is RCM Anyway, Uptime, Oct 2007, P. 64
6 J ack R. Nicholas & R. Keith Young, Advanced Reliability & Maintenance,
2006, Maintenance Quality Systems, Chapter 3
7 Management Brief with Instructor Notes, NAVAIR, Public Domain, Slide 11
8 A quote the author has used many times in RCM training courses
9 A detailed explanation of the FMECA for RCM can be found in, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
for the Reliability -Centered Maintenance Process, Richard Overman, Reliability Magazine, Dec 2002.
10 J ack R. Nicholas & R. Keith Young, Advanced Reliability & Maintenance, 2006, Maintenance Quality
Systems, PP. 3-1-26, 3-1-27, 3-1-28. Note that J ack and Keith do not make judgments of how rigorously
the CORE Priniciples of RCM are applied but it can typically be said that classical RCM is the most
rigorous application, variants are a medium application, and derivatives are the least rigorous application
of the CORE Priniciples of RCM.
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This paper is concerned with the analysis of daily production data from industrial plant as an aid to the
management of production assets. A method of analysis by means of a cumulative plot of production
level against numbers of days, on Weibull probability scales, has been developed by Barringer [1]. In this
paper we examine whether a similar analysis using linear scales can be used, thus avoiding the need for
Weibull software, and we examine the performance measures used in the Weibull approach in comparison
to general statistical measures. We conclude that the basic cumulative plot can be generated using a
spreadsheet. However, the various performance indicators arising from the analysis require the use of
fairly complex formulas within the spreadsheet, whereas in the Weibull case, related indicators can be read
directly from the graph. Thus there are advantages and disadvantages to both approaches. By either
method, the plotting technique is seen as having value in providing a number of useful asset performance
indicators. These indicators include a value for the demonstrated production capacity; a value for the
percentage of days with low output, which can indicate the need for root cause failure analysis; and a
value for the variability of production which can be used in evaluating asset operating and maintenance
strategies. The results also form a basis for comparing the performance of different assets in terms of
production capacity and variability.
INTRODUCTION
This paper relates to the use of cumulative plots of production data in
process plants to assist plant management personnel, including process
managers, maintenance managers and reliability engineers, to make
asset management decisions. In particular the techniques presented
assist with the following:
Estimation of a mean daily and demonstrated maximum production
performance for the plant;
Estimation of the variability of production;
Understanding the importance of reducing variability of production;
Assisting with maintenance strategy relating to the use of preventive
and pro-active maintenance;
Comparison of performance between production facilities;
Stabilisation of production levels.
Cumulative production plots have previously been used by Barringer [1],
using the Weibull distribution as a basis for analysis. Our aim here is to
examine the possibility of using a distribution free method of analysis,
using an Excel spreadsheet, and to compare this with the Weibull based
approach. The paper will also serve as a general introduction to the use
of these plots.
PRODUCTION DATA
Process plants are often expected to operate 7 days per week and produce
a steady output of product, measured in appropriate units, such as tonnes.
In practice there is variability in the level of production, and days of low or
zero production occur for various causes, such as scheduled maintenance,
plant failures, run-up, wind-down or demand limitations. The management
of process plants requires the monitoring of production quantities as an
indicator of action necessary to keep production at desired levels in terms
of production rate and production variability.
Production data for process plants is normally available in the form of a
daily record of units of product produced. Figure 1 shows an example
PRODUCTION DATA ANALYSIS
FOR ASSET MANAGEMENT
DECISIONS
Nicholas A. Hastings, Centre for Integrated Engineering Asset Management, QUT, Australia
Melinda R. Hodkiewicz, University of Western Australia,
Date Tonnes
1/02/2006 90948
2/02/2006 27152
3/02/2006 69824
4/02/2006 63534
5/02/2006 85923
6/02/2006 85753
7/02/2006 88952
8/02/2006 82695
9/02/2006 92423
10/02/2006 87222
11/02/2006 68610
12/02/2006 91615
13/02/2006 82434
14/02/2006 86428
15/02/2006 28473
16/02/2006 22850
17/02/2006 57939
18/02/2006 100619
19/02/2006 95577
20/02/2006 96935
21/02/2006 60727
22/02/2006 80571
23/02/2006 90957
24/02/2006 73918
25/02/2006 85442
26/02/2006 84112
27/02/2006 58462
28/02/2006 0
1/03/2006 46694
Figure 1
Daily Production Data
of such data over a period of one month. Daily production is also analysed over longer periods, for example a
period such as 1, 2 or 5 years. For these longer series of data, cumulative plots provide a method of extracting
management information from what is otherwise an excess of detail.
CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION PLOT USING EXCEL
In a cumulative distribution plot the daily production data are detached from the calendar dates and are sorted
by increasing daily production. The cumulative percentage of days when production is less than or equal to the
corresponding production levels is calculated and plotted against production in tonnes (or other suitable units).
Figure 2 shows a cumulative production distribution plot created using Excel, for data similar to that of Figure 1,
but extending over an 18 month period. Figure 3 shows a range of results which can be calculated from the data
using Excel functions. Useful management information which can be deduced from this analysis is discussed
in the ensuing sections.
ALL DAYS ANALYSIS
Mean Daily Production. The mean daily production for all days in the range of the data is calculated. The
mean daily production (all days) shown in Figure 3 is 74,182 tonnes. This quantity is useful in creating realistic
production plans. It also provides a benchmark against which possible future improvements may be measured.
Variability of Daily Production. In process plants, reduction of variability is important, because a process with
low variability results in lower stockpiles for a given throughput. This observation is based on queueing theory
and is an example of the application of the Pollaczek-Khintchine formula [2]. Business costs can be reduced
by reducing variability in processing time because smaller stockpiles mean less capital tied up in inter-process
stocks. Also, reduced variability leads to improvements in planning, due to greater certainty regarding the level
of production output. Such improvements can lift the overall performance of a plant.
The standard deviation and coeffcient of variation of the daily production are calculated using conventional
statistical methods and Excel functions. From Figure 3 we see that the standard deviation (all days) is 31,916
tonnes and the coeffcient of variation (all days) is 0.43. These quantities provide an indication of the variability
of daily production across all days and provide a benchmark for comparisons of, and reductions in variability.
Also shown in Figure 3 is the Maximum Production on any day, which in this case is 111,893 tonnes. Although
high levels of production may appear to be advantageous, they are often achieved at the expense of overworking
plant components. Management should review this aspect and in many cases will fnd that higher average rates
of production and lower levels of variability can be maintained more readily if extreme levels of production on
individual days are avoided.
CUMULATIVE PLOT ZONES
The cumulative production graph (Figure 2) typically aligns into three zones as follows:
Zero Production Days Low Production Days Good Production Days

Zero Production Days
In Figure 2 we see that the number of days with zero production was about 10% of the total. Whether this is a
concern depends on operating circumstances. Zero production days can result from many causes, including
planned maintenance, breakdowns, lack of demand or lack of input materials or resources. If it is the practice
to have a shut-down one day per month plus two weeks per year, the fgure of 10% would be mostly accounted
for. On the other hand, if 100% operation was expected, then the 10% loss would be signifcant. Either way, the
fgure of zero production days is readily visible and can be assessed in relation to expectations. If down days
are planned, whether on a regular or an opportunistic basis, and have been found to advantageous in terms
of equipment reliability and production planning, then we may accept the observed result, but if the number of
Zero Production Days is above expectations then management needs to investigate the cause and take steps to
remedy the situation.
Low Production Days
The cumulative plot, as typifed by Figure 2, enables us to identify a percentage of days when production is low
and a percentage when production is good. Looking at Figure 2 we can see that on most days the plant produces
between 70,000 and 110,000 tonnes of product. However, there is a range of days, between about the 10% level
and the 25% level in Figure 2, where the production is in the range from a few hundred tonnes to less than 70,000
tonnes. This is the Low Production section. The transition point between Low and Good production days is
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
51
Production Data Analysis For Asset Management Decisions
52
referred to as the Cut-Back Point. The division between Low Production Days and Good Production Days is
subjective, but is normally easy to recognise. We note, however that although we have observed this division
in the data that we have analysed, there is no guarantee that it will occur in every type of plant.
The user will need to examine the cumulative plot graph and identify the cut-back point and enter it into
the spreadsheet at the corresponding cell. In Figure 3 the cut-back point has been entered as 25%. The
spreadsheet will then calculate the cut-back point production level, which in Figure 3 is 67,600 tonnes. The
spreadsheet, which shows the total number of days, will then also calculate the number of Good Days.
Management should investigate the Low Production days and try to reduce their number. Techniques such
as Pareto Analysis and Root Cause Analysis can be applied with the aim of identifying and subsequently
eliminating equipment defects. Also, operating losses due to run-up and wind-down times, or other operational
causes, can be identifed and addressed. One of the main advantages of the cumulative plotting technique is
that it provides a basis for indicating the extent of the Low Production Days (referred to by Barringer as Crash
and Burn) and a basis for checking progress in reducing the production loss that these days represent.
Figure 3 Calculated Results from Figure 2 Data.

Figure 2 Cumulative Distribution of Daily Production
Number of
days
Cut-back point
%
MDR Level % Mean Daily
Production
all days
Standard
Deviation
all days
Coefficient
of Variation
all days
Maximum
Production
538 25% 70% 74182 31916 43.0% 111893
No of
Good days
Cut-back point
production
Maximum
Demonstrated
Rate (MDR)
Mean Prod
Good days
St Dev
Good Days
Coef Var
Good Days
404 67600 94054
90396 9605
10.6%
Unit 1 Daily Production
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
100.00%
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000
Tonnes
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

%

o
f

D
a
y
s
.
.
.

Production Data Analysis For Asset Management Decisions
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
53
Good production days.
The Good Production Days are represented by the steep part of the curve in Figure 2, and amount to 75%
of days in this case. Several features of the Good Production Days are of interest to management. This
includes the Maximum Demonstrated Rate and the Mean, Standard Deviation and Coeffcient of Variation for
Good Production Days. We calculate these quantities using Excel functions and standard statistical techniques
and they are shown in Figure 3.
When we are running a process plant it may be desirable to accept some zero production days for planned
maintenance and other zero or low production days may occur for operational reasons. Statistical parameters
based on all days, will not normally represent the reality of how the plant can operate on Good Days, that is,
days when there are no zeroes or cut-backs. We therefore go on to consider measures based on how the plant
runs on good production days.
Maximum Demonstrated Rate.
The Maximum Demonstrated Rate is the level of production which can be achieved on good production days,
not as an overall maximum, but as a practical working fgure of sustainable performance. We propose that the
Maximum Demonstrated Rate be determined by the production level which is achieved or exceeded on 30% of
days. This is equivalent to the 70% level in Figure 2. The spreadsheet allows the user to enter a different level
if they wish. In Figure 3 the Maximum Demonstrated Rate is shown as 94,054 tonnes. In practice this means
that we are identifying 94,054 tonnes as a level which management can set as a reasonable target value, and
also one which the operators need not strive to exceed.
Ideal Situation
Process plant normally have a nameplate production capacity, but design or process modifcations may affect
the relevance of this, although it will still provide a reference point, even if only of a historic nature. The ideal
situation would be one where there were no Zero or Low Production days and where the production on Good Days
was constant (that is with zero coeffcient of variation), and at or above the nameplate capacity. In a less than
ideal, but realistic, situation where maintenance down-days and other factors occur, the parameters developed
here allow management to relate actual performance to the ideal, and provide pointers to, and measures of,
improvements in asset management.
A factor which we consider signifcant, is that operators have a tendency to try to achieve very high production
quantities when the plant is running well, in order to offset past or possible future shortfalls. This practice can
be counter productive, in that it can lead to overloading of the equipment, causing excessive wear, failures and
damage, leading to greater production loss in the long run. The elimination of defects causing low productiondays
and aiming for low variability on good production days are sound management strategies.
Figure 4 Frequency Distribution of Daily Production
0
60
120
180
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
Production/ day
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

d
a
y
s
Reliability-
improvement focus
(eliminate defects)
Production-improvement
focus
(reduce variability)
Production Data Analysis For Asset Management Decisions
54
FREQUENCY PLOT
Figure 4 shows a frequency histogram of the data from Figure 2. This is produced using the Excel Frequency
function. It shows the number of days when certain tonnage/day production levels have been achieved.
Overlaid on the frequency distribution are two lines, their location is based on judgement but indicates that
days of zero or low tonnage are targets for investigation for the reliability engineers or others responsible for
long-term strategy development. This may include a review of shutdown strategy and the development of
maintenance tactics targeted at the elimination of causes of unscheduled down time.
On the right, we note that although the Maximum Demonstrated Rate for this plant is approximately 94,000
tons, there are many days where actual production exceeds this by a considerable margin. There may be
a number of reasons for this and management will want to understand factors that may produce the values
shown here, such as existence of excess capacity, and what limits the achievement of a more consistent
and higher daily tonnage. The investigation of these issues is often the domain of the process engineers and
operations groups as they seek to reduce the variability in day to day production throughput.
WEIBULL PLOT
Weibull plotting involves using software such as RelCode [3] to create a graph similar to Figure 2, but using
Weibull probability scales. An example of a Weibull plot for the same data as Figure 2 is shown in Figure
5. The vertical scale label includes the word Failures as Weibull analysis is normally applied to reliability
data, but in this application the vertical variable is the same as in Figure 2, that is the percentage of days with
production less than or equal to the corresponding number of tonnes. With Weibull plotting the horizontal
scale is logarithmic and zero production days cannot be plotted directly. The practice is to enter a small
positive number representing the production on these days. RelCode software will ft a curve to the data
as shown in Figure 5. In ftting this line, it will determine the cut-back point between the fatter and steeper
portions of the curve. Weibull analysis of production data will usually give a bi-Weibull distribution [4] and
this is the case in Figure 5.
The frst part of the bi-Weibull gives a relatively fat line which indicates the low production days and then
there is a steeper section indicating good production days. In Figure 5, as in Figure 2, the fatter part of
the plot indicating the low production days, runs from about 10% to 25% of days, and the steeper part
representing the good production days is from about 25% onwards. The logarithmic nature of the horizontal
scale tends to emphasise the distinction between low and good production days, relative to a plot on linear
scales.
Bi-Weibull ftting provides parameters known as Beta, Eta and Gamma. In Figure 5 the values are Beta=7.99
and Eta=93,188 tonnes, Gamma =0. The Beta value gives an indication of the variability of production on
the good production days. The higher the Beta value, the lower the variability. Ideally, the Beta value
should be higher than 40, whilst a value around 100 represents perfection. If manual methods are used for
data ftting, or if different algorithmic methods are used for different applications, inconsistency may occur
in terms of judgement regarding the cut-back point between the fatter and steeper sections, and the Beta
value.
The Eta + Gamma value is the production level which is exceeded on 36.2% of days. This is a somewhat
arbitrary choice based on mathematical properties of the Weibull distribution, and represented by a dotted
line on Weibull plots. This value is used as the Maximum Demonstrated Rate (MDR) in the Weibull method.
In Figure 5, therefore, the MDR is 93,188 tonnes.
SPREADSHEET VERSUS WEIBULL
In initiating this study we thought that an Excel based analysis would be inherently simpler than a Weibull
analysis, since Excel software is widely available and many people are familiar with its use. We have shown
how Excel can be used to provide the same type of analyses as that given by the Weibull approach. However,
the resulting spreadsheet is quite complex and involves reliance on an element of judgement in determining
the cut-back level. The Weibull method already has the graphics and the calculation of the parameters built
in, particularly when the software includes an automatic ft of the bi-Weibull distribution. This results in an
objective method of estimating a Maximum Demonstrated Rate and a measure of variability given by the
Weibull Beta value. Regardless of which technique is used, we conclude that the cumulative production
plotting technique is a valuable aid to management of process plants.
CONCLUSION
Cumulative plots of production data are a valuable tool for managers of process plants. This paper presents
a method of creating cumulative production data plots using spreadsheet techniques, and gives an example
of the same data plotted using Weibull analysis. Both methods provide measures of daily production,
including mean and maximum demonstrated rates.
Production Data Analysis For Asset Management Decisions
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
55
The methods lend themselves, both visually and analytically, to the identifcation of the extent of zero and low
production days, forming a basis for applying such techniques as Pareto Analysis and Root Cause Analysis in
improving reliability. The methods also provide measures of the variability of production. This includes the coeffcient
of variation which applies across all the data, and the Weibull Beta value which applies to good production days.
The importance of reducing variability is indicated by results from queueing theory which show that reducing
production variability also reduces stockpile size. The methods also can be applied to forming comparisons of
plant performance, which may be used to compare differing operating or maintenance strategies, to compare plant
performance in different time periods, or to make comparisons across a range of plants.
REFERENCES
1. Barringer H. Paul, and Roberts Woodrow T. J r, Process Reliability: Do You Have It? What is it Worth to
your Plant to Get It. AIChE National Spring Meeting 2002, New Orleans, LA, USA. www.barringer1.com
2. Cooper Robert B., Introduction to Queueing Theory 2nd Edition, North-Holland 1981, ISBN 0-444-01065-3.
3. RelCode Weibull Analysis Software. Albany Interactive Pty Ltd. www.albanyint.com.au
4. Evans M.A., Hastings N.A.J . and Peacock J .B., Statistical Distributions, 3rd edition, Wiley
Nicholas A. Hastings, CIEAM, QUT, Australia n.hastings@cieam.com
Melinda R. Hodkiewicz, University of Western Australia, Melinda.hodkiewicz@uwa.edu.au
Figure 5 Weibull Plot
Production Data Analysis For Asset Management Decisions
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management.
Idhammar Systems Ltd www.idhammarsystems.com
Idhammar Systems keeps industry moving and improving with acclaimed manufacturing effciency solutions.
Our products include leading European Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS), and leading edge OEE
Management Systems delivering real-time, accurate performance data to maximise assets and drive continuous
improvement.
IFCS inc. http://www.mysenergy.com
Senergy EAM / CMMS automate and control all the operations of the maintenance process. It satisfes all the
needs concerning Preventive, Conditional and Corrective Maintenance, in order to increase the productivity of
the maintenances team. It intervenes at all levels of management of the maintenance activities, and satisfes
the requirements of standards (ISO,HACCP,PEP,etc.)

Infor Global Solutions http://www.infor.com/solutions/eam/
Infor EAM enables manufacturers, distributors, and services organizations to save time and money by
optimizing maintenance resources, improving equipment and staff productivity, increasing inventory effciency,
and strengthening their ability to collect on warranty-related claims. Infor EAM software includes reporting tools
that enable better decision-making to help improve future asset performance management and proftability
Infrared Thermal Imaging, Inc www.itimaging.com
ITI offers infrared inspection services for industrial and commercial applications. Our services can be tailored to
meet your facilities specifc needs for electrical distribution systems, fxed fred equipment, steam air decoking,
or infrared detection on VOC gases.
Initiate Action www.InventoryProcessOptimization.com
High levels of MRO inventory are a symptom of the way inventory is controlled, supplied, accessed, purchased
and managed. Addressing this through traditional optimization alone does not resolve these greater issues.
What is needed is Inventory Process Optimization.
InterPlan Systems Inc www.interplansystems.com
Offers software, training and consulting solutions for estimating, planning, scheduling and managing refnery
and petrochemical processing plant shutdowns, turnarounds and outages.
Industrial Precision Instruments www.ipi-infrared.com & www.ipi-inst.com
The Infared Specialists: Visit our website for details on a wide range of infrared cameras, training and
accessories. We offer equipment to suit all budgets, expert advice and unparalleled service.
iSolutions International Pty Ltd www.isipl.com
iSolutions AMT software is the leading Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Equipment Management tool for mining
and other asset intensive industries. Our fagship product, AMT, is used on over 200 mine sites globally to
increase uptime and reduce maintenance costs for mobile and fxed assets.
KDR Creative Software Pty Ltd www.kdr.com.au
Facilities Maintenance Management System (FMMS) is CMMS software that assists enterprises to maintain
assets in the light of asset condition and required performance outcomes. Standard functionality such as
Facility Register, J ob Functions, J ob Scheduling can be extended to sophisticated PM Scheduling, Budgets,
Risk Analysis, KPIs, Supply Management and more.
Maintenance and Reliability Web Links
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Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
Lawson Software www.lawson.com
The Lawson M3 Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) application is specifcally designed for organisations
where asset reliability and availability is crucial to the success of your business. Lawson M3 EAM is a pre-
confgured, best-of-breed maintenance solution that provides asset data management, preventive maintenance,
work order control, diagnostics management and statistical analysis which can enhance the management of
your operational assets.
Lifetime Reliability Solutions www.lifetime-reliability.com
Lifetime Reliability is the website for people who want to combine Engineering Asset Management, Quality
Management and LEAN business process waste elimination together in production plant and equipment
reliability and maintenance solutions. The website articles explain the quality needs of equipment parts and
precision maintenance methods for long lifetime reliability.
Local Government Asset Management Wiki http://lgam.wikidot.com
The Local Government Asset Management (LGAM) wiki is a free site created for the use of and to promote
collaboration between Local Government Asset Management practitioners. It is a place to post asset related
information of interest to Councils, and to search for information already posted.
MACE Consulting (Aust) www.macecg.com.au
MACE is a specialist asset management and maintenance engineering professional services company. MACE
assists its clients to solve or manage complex business problems in an innovative, practical and effcient
manner. The aim of MACE is to promote the good practice and management of physical assets. MACE is
focused on outcomes and achievement of all goals and recommendations.
Mainpac www.mainpac.com.au
Mainpac Solutions address all business environments. Functionality available include, operational assets
defnition, maintenance planning, inventory, purchasing, work order request, project management integration,
work safety, fnancial assets, contract/contractor management, PDA integration.
Maintenance Experts Pty Ltd (MEX) www.mex.com.au
Maintenance Experts are the leading CMMS software provider in Australia with over 4000 users around the
globe. The CMMS software MEX offers you superior functionality and fexibility with modules such as; Work
Orders, Asset Register, History, PM, Invoicing, Reports, Stores, Downtime, Security and more. MEX allows
you to effciently and effectively track your assets/equipment.
MaintSmart Software CMMS with Reliability Analysis http://www.maintsmart.com
MaintSmart maintenance management software (CMMS) provides work orders, PMs, equipment failure
analysis, inventory/purchasing, asset management, reliability analysis and skill analysis. MaintSmart manages,
analyzes and reports on your entire maintenance operation. Automatically print PMs, work orders and more
based on schedules and events.
Mobious http://www.ilearninteractive.com
The Mobius Web site describes the vibration analysis and shaft alignment training products and course dates,
plus it has free presentations on vibration analysis and shaft alignment
Monash University www.gippsland.monash.edu/science/mre
Find out about our postgraduate programs leading to the masters degree in maintenance and reliability
engineering. Hundreds around the world have graduated from these programs, available only by off-campus
learning ( distance education) to learners in any country. Study one or two units per semester.
Net Facilities http://www.netfacilities.com
Net facilities is a complete computerized maintenance management system. Our asset tracking software will
tell you when preventive maintenance is overdue so that you can take action before something goes wrong.
It manages work orders, work fow distribution, vendor collaboration, inventory management, budget tracking,
and preventative maintenance for facility, property and school management.
OMCS International www.omcsinternational.com
OMCS specialises in reliability improvement programs based on simplicity. We supply cultural change
programs supported by rapid analysis techniques and customised software applications developed in-house.
Customers range in standards from the winners of the North American Maintenance Excellence Awards to
those at the very beginning of their reliability journey.
Oniqua www.oniqua.com
The Oniqua Analytics Suite software solution provides a platform for continuous improvement of reliability,
maintenance, inventory and procurement activities across the Enterprise helping them to save millions of
dollars in improved asset performance. Our services arm, Oniqua Content Services, provides outsourced
master data standardization and optimization services throughout the World.

Orbisoft Task Management Software www.orbisoft.com
Use Orbisofts latest award-winning Task Manager 2007/8(tm) task management software to get organized
and manage all asset management related tasks effortlessly. Task Manager 2007 can be used personally or
in a team environment to track personal and shared tasks, projects, recurring asset maintenance tasks and
more. Free trial download at www.orbisoft.com
Maintenance and Reliability Web Links
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Perspective CMMS http://www.pemms.co.uk
Perspective CMMS is an independent consultancy that provides assistance to maintenance and IT people
tasked with selecting and implementing a Computerised Maintenance Management system.
Plant Maintenance Resource Center www.plant-maintenance.com
The Plant Maintenance Resource Center is the premier web resource for industrial Maintenance professionals.
It includes links to maintenance consultants, CMMS and maintenance software, CMMS vendors, maintenance
conferences and conference papers, articles on maintenance, and many other valuable resources.
Projetech, Inc. www.projetech.com
Projetech provides full service eMaintenance(r), Maximo Hosting, Maximo System Administration and is an
IBM Business Partner that provides IBM Certifed Maximo training. We also do Maximo implementations,
upgrades, assessments, and more!
Pronto Software www.pronto.com.au
Pronto Software is a leading provider of fully integrated ERP solutions designed to meet the evolving needs of
the FM industry. PRONTO-Xi Maintenance Management improves asset performance and reduces disruptive
breakdowns and maintenance costs, ensuring an accelerated return on your IT investment.
PT Maintama Servisindo Mandiri http://www.maintama.com/index.htm
PT MAINTAMA Servisindo Mandiri is Maintenance Management Service Company based in Indonesia.
We specialise in CMMS software implementations, training and support. Our services include maintenance
effectiveness audits, CMMS evaluations, maintenance training for planners and supervisors, safety management
using a CMMS. We are a distributor of CMMS from Australia.
Pulse Mining Systems Pty Ltd www.pulsemining.com.au
Pulse Mining Systems specialise in providing fully integrated ERP solutions to the Mining Industry. The software
has been developed by mining people for mining people. Maximise your investment with an organisation that
knows your business
Revere Inc. http://www.revereinc.com/
Revere, Inc.provides the IMMPOWER and IMMPOWER SP software applications for CMMS/EAM and
Shutdown and Turnaround planning and management. Reveres focus is to provide software-based solutions
and complementary products to companies where asset management is mission-critical and the capital assets
are essential to generating revenue
Ross Francis Consulting www.rossfrancis.com.au
Asset Management and Maintenance consulting including business strategy, business reviews & audits, asset
condition assessment, performance improvement, reliability, shutdown & project management, design review,
commissioning, business processes & procedures development, systems implementation, outsourcing &
contracting and training, coaching & mentoring.
Rushton International www.rushtonintl.com
Rushton International provides maintenance management consulting and maintenance management software
for mines, feets and facilities worldwide. The website also contains maintenance articles and tips, and free
maintenance software demos.
Shire Systems www.shiresystems.com
Practical software, priced to raise a smile not make your eyes water! With 10 000+customers, Shire is
price leader and UK No 1 provider of CMMS. Use our fast pay-back maintenance, quality, safety and HACCP
management solutions to increase profts, enforce compliance and curb risk. Mega usability; nano cost.
SIRF Roundtables www.sirfrt.com.au
SIRF Roundtables provides opportunities for representatives from member organisations to come together to
meet and learn from each other. SIRF Rt does this through a number of forums and events conducted throughout
the year across Australia and New Zealand. These forums and events include Roundtable meetings, Common
Interest Work Group meetings (CIWGs), National Forums and other events like the Australian Maintenance
Excellence Awards, and Workshops conducted by visiting experts.
SIRF Roundtables Root Cause www.rca2go.com & www.rcart.com.au
www.rca2go.com
Worlds best practice Root Cause Analysis documentation tool. Totally fexible tool with the functionality to
document a spectrum of processes including 5 why, RCA, FMECA, 6 Sigma DMAIC, RCM and PMO. Simple,
Intuitive, and affordable with free two month trial.
www.rcart.com.au
Keep up with Root Cause Analysis initiatives and training, case studies and excellence awards. The best way
to reduce maintenance cost is to eliminate the need for the work in the frst place. Learn how to beat budget
constraints and skill shortages by understanding how the SIRF Root Cause Analysis method can identify the
root cause of failures and increase your reliability and improve quality.
Maintenance and Reliability Web Links
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Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
SKF Reliability Systems www.skf.com.au
No single company in the world offers the breadth of services available today from SKF, or the depth of real-world
application expertise we bring to the table. SKFs Integrated Maintenance Solutions program applies the right mix
of technology and service to help optimise capital operations and reduce Total Cost of ownership of assets. For
more information on SKF Reliability Systems integrated approach, contact your local SKF representative, or visit
the web site.
SKILLED Group www.skilled.com.au/clients/maintenance-trades.aspx#AssetGuardian
Asset Guardian is a leadingedge maintenance management system, allowing clients to easily manage all
tasks associated with their maintenance operations. The system has been designed with todays maintenance
departments in mind - designed to allow your maintenance personnel to Do Maintenance NOT Data Entry!
Smartpath Software www.smartpath.com.au
Smartpath is a specialist asset and maintenance management software provider. Our fagship software suite, Loc8,
provides comprehensive asset management, maintenance management, workforce management, help desk and
in-feld mobility functions. Our software is a Web 2.0 application designed for enterprise organisations and service
providers. Available in Software-as-a-Service and perpetual editions.
SMGlobal Inc www.smglobal.com
SMGlobals FastMaint CMMS is preventive maintenance management software for small to mid-size maintenance
teams. It is used worldwide for plant maintenance, facility & building maintenance, resort & restaurant maintenance,
feet maintenance and more. Download a 30-day trial from the website.
SoftSols (Asia/Pacifc) www.getagility.com/au
Agility is a simple browser based CMMS solution that provides all the features required tor easily manage breakdown
and preventive maintenance work orders and the associated spare parts and resources, for small maintenance
departments through to multi-site corporate businesses.
System Improvements, Inc. http://www.taproot.com and http://www.equifactor.com
System Improvements, Inc. is the exclusive provider of the TapRooT/ EquifactorEquipment Troubleshooting and
Root Cause Failure Analysis courses offered globally and web/pc software with built-in expert systems for stopping
human errors that contribute to equipment failures as well as Heinz Blochs equipment troubleshooting tables.
TechnologyOne www.technologyone.com.au
TechnologyOne Works and Assets is a project management and asset maintenance solution for infrastructure
intensive organisations requiring sophisticated project management and billing capability. Fully integrated with
fnancials, HR Payroll and Property and Rating, Works and Assets Modules provide a single solution to manage
Capital projects, service delivery and asset performance.

Techs4biz Australia www.pervidi.com.au
Pervidi is a suit of products that automate paper based activities including inspections, maintenance, repair, service,
tracking assets, and managing work orders. Pervidi combines software, PDAs and web portals. The most advanced
CMMS PDA applications in the marketplace yet they are intuitive & easy to use! Offces in Australia, Canada, USA
The Asset Partnership www.assetpartnership.com
The Asset Partnership is amongst Australias leading consulting organisations. We specialise in helping a diverse
range of clients make effcient and effective use of their investments in physical assets.
The Online Workshop Pty Ltd www.theonlineworkshop.com.au
SmartAsset ODC overlays your current EAM, ERP (such as SAP) or CMMS to overcome user acceptance and
training issues and deploys asset maintenance functions from those products in the familiar Microsoft Outlook
interface.
Third City Solutions Pty Ltd (AMPRO) www.thirdcitysolutions.com.au
Third City Solutions is one of Australias fastest growing CMMS providers. With our increasing presence in Australia
and around the world, AMPRO will meet your maintenance management needs in Scheduling and Recording of
all your maintenance functions. With all modules youll need, including Assets, J obs, Recurring J obs, Inventory,
Inspections and more as standard.
UE Systems http://www.uesystems.com
UE Systems manufactures and supports portable and fxed ultrasound instruments for condition monitoring and
energy conservation (mechanical, electrical and leak detection) programs. Youll fnd detailed application and
product information, plus charts and graphs, and links to improve your inspection programs.
Vibration Institute of Australia http://www.viaustralia.com.au
Vibration Institute offers basic, intermediate and advanced vibration training courses around Australia and New
Zealand. The courses and exams follow the ISO and ASNT standards.
Warp Systems Pty Ltd www.warp.com.au
Warp Systems is an Australian owned Value Added Distributor providing hardware, software & services around best
of breed mobile computing and UC products in the market. We provide products from market leading manufacturers
to specialist in the mobility space such as Motorola, Zebra, M3 Mobile, Honeywell, Swyx, J anam & Koamtac.
Maintenance and Reliability Web Links
60
If your organisation books for 7 or more days of training the cost is only $595
per person per day for all delegates that you register on these seminars
DAY 1 - Course One
Planned Maintenance & Maintenance People
The What, When & Who of Maintenance
(For Maintenance & Non Maintenance Personnel)
DAY 2 - Course Two
Maintenance Planning, Control and Systems
Maintenance Planning, Work Management and Execution,
Reporting and History, Asset Data Management, Stores, & CMMS/EAMs/ERPs
(For all maintenance personnel and others associated with maintenance planning/work control/work performance/reporting etc)
DAY 3 - Course Three
Maintenance Management and Asset Management
An Introduction To Maintenance and Asset
Management Activities & Techniques.
New Topic for 2009 of Mean Maintenance
(For Maintenance & Non Maintenance Personnel)
Venues
Mel bour ne
18-20 May 2009
Br i sbane
3-5 August 2009
Sydney
19-21 October 2009
THE MOST SUCCESSFUL AND MOST
RECOGNI SED MAI NTENANCE RELATED SEMI NARS
* As well as Maintenance Personnel, why not also send your Operations Personnel
* For further information contact Ph 61 (3) 59750083 or email mail@maintenancejournal.com
Mai nt enanc e
2009 Semi nar s
Special Discounts
Now Available
Presented By
Len Bradshaw
Organised By
Engineering Information
Transfer Pty Ltd
and the Asset Management
and Maintenance J ournal
Each Delegate Receives:
Detailed Seminar Slides in
Hard Copy
A CD of Hundreds of mb of
Maintenance Related Facts,
Techniques, Products, Systems
and Software.
Dozens of back issues of
the Asset Management and
Maintenance J ournal
The CD Includes CMMS,
EAM, and Reliability
conference proceedings from
reliabilityweb.com and IMMC
conferences.
Maintenance News
Encouraging Best Practice in Tight Financial Times
Maintenance seems to be at the end of the lash when the fnancial whip cracks. We know that highly reliable
plant at the lowest sustainable cost comes from the best people, well trained and highly motivated to achieve a
focused task. In the good times we cant get enough people and we cant spare them for training. In the tough
fnancial times we cant afford to lose the best and we still cant spare them for learning and development. We
know that the failure to train and improve peoples knowledge is a lot more expensive than not investing, but it
can be hard to justify the expenditure to senior management in diffcult times.
The Industrial Maintenance Roundtable was created to foster and support a Community of Best Practice that
shares knowledge and experience. It delivers highly effective training and encouragement at a very low cost as
it is based on bringing practitioners, at all points in their career, together to learn from each other. Members see
and share pockets of excellence at each others sites and in Roundtable meetings and forums. A number of
sites use their single subscription to the Roundtable as a means of training, encouraging and recognising their
people when across the board funding restraints prevent other forms of training and development.
This year the Industrial Maintenance Roundtable is introducing a range of web based seminars provided by
best practice practitioners on a broad range of subjects for members. This free service to members is designed
to provide additional training, encouragement and inspiration even when discretionary spending and travel have
been eliminated. The web seminars will be presented by local best practice member practitioners as well as
international specialists. The Roundtable Network provides four peak events during the year to being together
the crme de la crme from all of the Roundtable networks around Australia and New Zealand. The frst of
these will be in March and will be focused on Planning 4 Reliability. The National Forum will be less than half
the cost of similar events by commercial conference organisations and this year will bring World famous authors
Doc Palmer and Ron Moore to Australia along with key note speakers Fred Delahunty from New Zealand and
Rio Tintos Mark Quinn along with best practice practitioners from around Australia and New Zealand.
www.sirfrt.com.au or Anna Civiti on 03 9697 1103
Groundbreaking thermal imaging radiometric camera from NEC-Avio
Now available from the regions leading thermal imaging suppliers,
Infratherm, the all-new NEC-Avio Thermo Shot F30 Series sets a new
benchmark in thermal imaging radiometers. The F30 Series has all
the features of a digital camera together with the quality and high-
performance that has made NEC-Avio the most trusted name in the
market.
The groundbreaking F30 is a perfect tool for professionals and a cost-
effective solution for all working thermographers. Weighing just 300g
(including batteries), the F30 is ultra-light, and the smallest hand-held
thermal imaging radiometer on the market. Highly portable, it is a
mere 100x65x45mm and can easily slip into the users shirt pocket.
With the F30, operators can toss away the manual. An extremely simple icon menu system is used to navigate
the camera. The performance of the F30 is outstanding. It is a true Point n Shoot camera. No focusing is
required at a distance of 1.3m to infnity. Plus, it can focus on objects as close as 10cm, ensuring crisp thermal
images of even the smallest parts.
Designed with fexibility in mind, the F30 lets users take and store thermal as well as visible images simultaneously.
Images can be captured in a jpeg format including temperature data and opened on any PC. Whats more, a
hot-shoe allows users to add an external viewfnder, LED light or other camera accessories to their F30. For
the operators convenience, the F30 can use 3 re-chargeable AA-sized batteries or AA-sized alkaline batteries,
so that power is always at hand. Standard accessories with the F30 include an AC Adapter, Power Cable,
Rechargeable Batteries and Charger, Viewer Software, SD Card and a Soft Carry Case. The F30 truly sets a
new benchmark in thermal imaging capability. For more information on the NEC-Avio Thermo Shot F30 series
call Infratherm, the experts in thermal imaging solutions on 61 2 4579 7334 or email info@infratherm.com.au
New Tritex Multigauges
Dorchester based, Tritex NDT have developed a new range of triple echo ultrasonic thickness gauges for
measuring metal thickness to check for corrosion on pipelines, storage tanks and other industrial applications
where corrosion occurs. The new Tritex Multigauges have been designed for robustness, simplicity of use
and most importantly, accuracy. The range includes the Multigauge 5500, designed for hands free use when
climbing on staging, scaffolding or when accessing large storage tanks by rope. The Multigauge 5600 has been
developed for most common thickness gauging applications on pipelines. All probes have IPR (Intelligent Probe
Recognition), which automatically adjusts settings in the gauge at the same time as transmitting recognition
data - the result is a perfectly matched probe and gauge for enhanced performance. Thats not all; the AMVS
(Automatic Measurement Verifcation System) ensures only true measurements are displayed, even on the
most heavily corroded metals. Tritex Triple Echo also signifcantly reduces preparation time as it eliminates the
need to remove surface coatings, just the metal is measured. www.tritexndt.com
Leak Tag Employee Awareness Programs Stop Energy Waste in Compressed Air Systems
Good leak management strategy is vital to maintaining optimum total systems performance. Leaks are a
signifcant waste of energy in a system, often wasting as much as 20%-30% of compressor output. They also
have a negative effect on equipment performance. When implemented, Leak Tag Programs signal a serious
commitment of management and transmit lucid instructions to everyone involved. Every plan is different; usually
based on size of the system and number of employees. Typical elements in a program are: a leak tag board,
colored leak tags, posters, decals, incentives, booklets and instructions. www.awarenessIDEAS.com
Apollo Launches New Root Cause Analysis Website
Root cause analysis users can now stay abreast of cutting-edge trends, participate in idea-sharing and even
debate best practices through the new website of Apollo Associated Services at www.apollorca.com. As
a leading provider of root cause analysis training, consulting and investigations, Apollo along with its sister
company Artemis Investigations works with a wide variety of top-tier companies, providing broad experience,
rich case studies, and compelling data on which to base the new website.
The new site includes: 1. Blogs where RCA users can connect to share best practices, debate approaches,
analyze failure events in the news, and even ask for quick advice from Apollo consultants. 2. Practical ideas
about RCA program development that apply to new and mature programs alike. 3. Instructional videos on a
variety of practical topics to be added soon.
The science of thermography explained by FLIR
FLIR Systems, infrared cameras, has published a free 28-page guide to IR thermography useful for both the
experienced and novice user of the technology. Available by logging onto FLIR Systems Australia website,
www. fir.com.au, the booklet, called IR Thermography Primer, has been created to satisfy demand from FLIR
customers who want to know more about the concept and basics of IR Thermography, how it works and its
many applications for temperature measurement. Thermography, as described in Primer, is a technology that
allows you to see thermal energy or heat. Thermography can be used in any circumstances where thermal
patterns can be used to fnd something such as to diagnose a condition such as poor electrical connection
or to detect a fever by measuring high temperature. The full-colour pocket-size booklet which can also be
downloaded at fir.com.au - explains the important functions inherent in an infrared camera and techniques for
improving temperature measurement performance and useability. info@fir.com.au www.fir.com.au
New two-in-one Extech EX600 Clamp Meters
Extech Instruments - a FLIR Systems company and a major supplier of test and measurement equipment for
the industrial marketplace has released its patented EX600 Series True RMS Clamp Meters featuring an IR
thermometer for locating hot spots and NCV. These four unique clamp meters (EX612, EX613, EX622, EX623)
also feature dual thermocouple inputs for T1, T2, and T1-T2 differential temperature measurement. Providing
True RMS measurements, the EX600 series brings maximum accuracy to the measurement of AC Voltage
and Current. A unique, all-in-one solution for both electrical and HVAC professionals, the EX600 Series DC A
clamp meter function for HVAC fame rod measurements. Other powerful features of the EX600 series include:
a built-in non-contact voltage detector with LED alert and Data Hold plus Peak Hold of current surges during
startup. For high resolution over wider ranges, the EX600 series provides 40,000 count clamp meter functions
for DC Voltage, Resistance, Capacitance and Frequency. These clamp meters can measure motor capacitors
to 40,000F and feature a 1.4 (36mm) jaw opening for conductors up to 500MCM. The EX613 and EX623 also
provide a DC Current function ideal for automotive, heavy equipment and marine applications.
www.extech-instruments.com.au
OPTALIGNsmart EX: Intrinsically safe goes High-Tech
Prftechnik, the inventors of Laser Shaft alignment have now released the OPTALIGNsmart EX. Intrinsically
safe, this unit incorporates the latest technology in a modular design, allowing you to tailor it to suit your
requirements. Prftechniks patented Continuous SWEEP measurement mode is standard, ensuring quick
and accurate results from a single continuous rotation of as little as 40. With 18 languages built in, work-fow
assistant and colour Graphic display, the OPTALIGNsmart EX offers ease of use for all experience levels. For
more information visit: www.aquip.com.au or call Kathryn on (+618) 9472 0122.
Maintenance News 63
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
IFS strengthens its maintenance suite with constraint-based scheduling for defence
Managing planning in large maintenance shops is a challenge for both feet operators and service providers within
the aerospace & defence industry. The constraint based scheduling tool for work orders is designed to effectively
plan, release and execute work on the shop foor. Releasing the work in synchronisation with all other tasks, having
the correct tools in place, releasing work only when spare parts are accessible and ensuring that the necessary
skills are available as needed are just some of the challenges planners deal with on a daily basis. The suite allows
companies to monitor continuously the effects of changes to the predicted date of releasing a unit back to service.
Unlike in the manufacturing industry, maintenance shop operations have high variability, as new work packages
are often added and changed.
The decision-making process is greatly improved by having a simulation tool that advises on whether extra work
can be accommodated without jeopardising the delivery date. The tool can also aid in the Lean MRO (Maintenance,
Repair and Overhaul) programs that many organisations are undergoing. Often such initiatives are point initiatives,
achieving optimisation in one area of operation. With IFS maintenance planning tool, the entire value stream is in
focus to achieve the highest possible throughput and identify the bottlenecks.
Currently, many defence organisations are outsourcing maintenance and modifcation programs to the industry on
availability and capability contracts. The industry has a lot to gain by improving the turnaround times by introducing
more sophisticated planning, said Alastair Sorbie, CEO at IFS. This focused product development is aimed at
supporting one of our global strategies targeted on the Performance Based Logisitics (PBL) market, typically where
we supply logistics solutions where payments for repairs and services are dependent on how well the repair shops
perform in terms of waiting times Sorbie concluded. www.IFSWORLD.com.
Pipe Sensor With LED Digital Indicator
The LED option adds a high intensity red LED digital indicator to our Pipe Sensor for displaying local temperatures.
This can be very useful in retroft work when glass thermometer wells are re-used for HVAC sensors. Previously
it was either expensive or impractical to shut down a section of the physical plant while an extra well was welded
in. Now we have combined two sensors in the same sheath one connected to the indicator and one thermistor or
RTD of your choice to connect to the control panel. If an RTD is used it can optionally be connected to a 4-20mA
transmitter located in the same housing. www.process-news.com
When mobile and wireless video communication means better MRO
It happens every day. Something goes wrong, alarms sound, the control panel lights up , and the technical guy on
duty cant fx the problem. What to do?
With a view to resolving this sort of problem more effciently, Audisoft Technologies has developed a mobile and
wireless remote video assistance system called Frontline Communicator: a lightweight communication system that
can provide good quality, two-way, real-time, hands-free audio and visual communication between a technician in
the feld and a specialist anywhere in the world. Connecting to almost any IP network: 3G, WiFi, MESH, Satellite...
Frontline Communicator allows mobile in-the-feld workers to wirelessly access experts knowledge, assistance and
guidance in no timefrom almost anywhere in the world !
For experts, its like being on-site without the pains and cost of business travels. For feld workers, its like having
the expert right beside him/her no matter its location. Frontline Communicator also allows geographically dispersed
teams to communicate and share the same fle, video or images amongst each other in real-time. Reap the
rewards of a mobile and wireless Video MRO world www.audisoft.net/en/Industries/Industries.html
Smart asset management software has global potential
A Melbourne-based company is attracting international attention for its new asset management software that makes
it easier to manage assets and integrates seamlessly with existing Microsoft products. Since launching its Facilities
Maintenance Management System (FMMS) in 1991, KDR Creative Software has assisted many organisations in
Australia and throughout the world to better manage their physical assets, save money and keep their workplaces
safe. But while FMMS proved popular for many years, its technology was ageing and the product was becoming
less competitive. In late 2006 founder of KDR Creative, Kevin Ramsey, formed The Online Workshop to redevelop
FMMS using Microsoft .NET technology into a new product called SmartAsset.
Perhaps the most impressive aspects of SmartAsset are that its complex asset management functionality works
within the Microsoft Offce suite of products, as well as being deployable in Windows, a web browser or a PDA.
With SmartAsset users can review asset confguration, current maintenance activities, work history and future work
requirements. They can also navigate with pictorial asset schematics and Virtual Earth for GPS-based visibility of
geographically dispersed assets.
Our aim is to provide sophisticated functionality via tools most users are already familiar with, explained CEO
and founder of The Online Workshop, Kevin Ramsey. With SmartAsset activities such as asset navigation and
review, maintenance planning, task assignment, job execution and feedback, parts utilisation, time recording and
presentation of analytical data can all be performed using Outlook, Projects, Excel and Word.
SmartAsset also integrates with enterprise resource planning (ERP) software from global leaders SAP and
Maintenance News
64
Oracle. This is generating a lot of interest from customers that have already invested millions of dollars in ERP.
By implementing SmartAsset as an overlay they can gain access to simple, comprehensive functionality within an
environment they already use for most of their working day,
With a product development centre located in Melbourne, and sales and support offces in Brisbane, Colorado,
and Beijing, The Online Workshop is serious about taking SmartAsset to Asian and US markets. In May 2008 the
company won an iAward from the Australian Information Industry Association for SmartAsset, and the products
market potential was boosted even further when it received the prestigious 2008 Microsoft Offce Business
Applications Solution of the Year. The Online Workshop is currently rolling out SmartAsset to its frst major customer,
Antarctica New Zealand, a government organisation based in Christchurch with assets spread across New Zealand
and at the Scott Antarctic Base. www.theonlineworkshop.com.au
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. Selects Meridium to Improve and Optimize Inspection Program
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) has licensed Meridium software for its Kochi and Mumbai refneries.
BPCL, is a leading player in the petroleum sector in India, with its core business in refning crude oil and marketing
petroleum products. Meridium was chosen, along with a leading system integrator from India, to provide a confgured
system that meets the key requirements and operational goals of BPCLs inspection group.
With an objective of migrating from conventional documentation and reporting and improving the effciency and
effectiveness in the management of integrity of their critical assets, BPCL turned to Meridium for an effective inspection
and corrosion management system that aligned with BPCLs business objectives as well as their inspection and
monitoring plans.
According to BPCL Kochi Refnerys executives, Our ultimate goal is to reduce equipment failures by strategically
managing our risk using Meridiums rigorous analytical capabilities to calculate the probability and criticality of
failures.
In order to meet the immediate and growing needs of their Asset Integrity program, BPCL will implement Meridium in
two phases. BPCL will institute an overall comprehensive inspection management system; then, building upon the
success of that initiative, the company will capitalize on the improving data with Meridiums Risk Based Inspection
solution. This approach will enable both BPCL Kochi and Mumbai Refneries to enhance the mechanical integrity and
reliability of their static equipment while building and maintaining a constantly improving, comprehensive inspection
data structure. www.meridium.com
MicroMain Asset Tracking Expands Mobile Capability with Tablet PC or Ultra Mobile PC
With MicroMains Asset Tracking software, used with MicroMains computerized maintenance management system
(CMMS) maintenance organizations are able to track assets from purchase through changes and moves. MicroMain
Asset Tracking also makes it easy for companies to take inventory of existing assets in multiple locations, noting
current condition as well as nameplate data, specifcations, and additional asset details such as meter readings.
Many customers use the software to count and identify new assets in new buildings. Others update information for
existing assets, such as location or current condition. All data entered with MicroMain Asset Tracking is uploaded
to the MicroMain database for ongoing maintenance managementincluding work orders, inspections, preventive
maintenance scheduling, and other activities related to maintaining those assets. Because the software is run
detached from the MicroMain database, it can be used with a Tablet PC or Ultra Mobile PC. Maintenance technicians
can then download current asset data from the database to their mobile PC before taking the device on-site to
asset locations, such as offce buildings, campuses, sports arenas, hospitals, retirement communities, parks, or
manufacturing plants. Using the simple interface, the technicians enter data for new assets and update existing
asset records. After completing the inventory or update, they then upload the data to the MicroMain database.
Maintenance technicians have the option of scanning barcodes to select assets with MicroMain Asset Tracking.
Using the software, maintenance staff also can assign barcodes or control numbers to assets. Using barcodes
saves time with data entry and increases accuracy. www.micromain.com
SEW talks life-cycle energy savings at seminar
At SEWs Driving towards industrial energy savings seminar SEW-Eurodrive urged industry to consider the total
life-cycle cost of both the motor and the complete drive system. The technical seminar highlighted how correct sizing
and selection of individual drive-train components can optimise system performance, increase energy savings
and reduce operating costs. Seminar presenters Engineering manager, Frank Cerra, and strategic marketing and
product manager, Darren Klonowski, provided attendees with an in-depth analysis of electric motor application
energy use and highlighted where energy saving could be made.
A potential saving of up to 2.2 per cent can typically be realised just by incorporating high-effciency motors into
the application, said Cerra. But this is really just the tip of the iceberg. A further 9 per cent can be achieved by
implementing accurate drive confguration and speed control matched to the application, while a staggering 20 per
cent saving can be obtained by optimising the mechanical portion of the drive system.
While Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS2006) compliance is important, it is perhaps more important
Maintenance News
65
Vol 22 No 1 AMMJ
Maintenance News 66
to look beyond the motor itself and consider the drive-train as a whole. By optimising the entire drive solution-
-from the gearbox, motor, and the drive electronics, through to the driven machine--enormous savings can be
realised.
These energy savings obviously translate into fnancial saving, and contribute to the reduction in greenhouse
gas emissions, said Cerra. This will become even more important with the likely introduction of the carbon
emissions trading scheme, when businesses will be held accountable for their energy wastage.
Installing a high-effciency motor is the easy part, said Klonowski, who went on to explain that a signifcant
portion of energy wastage was a result of ineffcient operation of the drive application. It is not uncommon to
see conveyers running fat out with nothing on them. By confguring the drive to speed up, slow down or switch
off according to throughput demand, enormous amounts of energy can be saved. Similar energy savings can be
made by sizing the drive-train components correctly and reducing the use of ineffcient transmission elements,
such as vee-belts and pulleys.
According to Cerra it is the energy consumption of the selected drive technology that has a decisive infuence on the
operational costs. During the life-cycle of a drive system, it is the energy component that constitutes the majority
of the total life-cycle cost, he said Optimising the energy effciency of each individual system component and
combining the drive technology to match the specifc application will achieve a signifcant economic beneft.
Unfortunately drive system purchasing decisions are often made solely on capital cost, without taking the ongoing
operating expenses into account, continued Klonowski. There needs to be mindset shift within the Australian
industrial sector to consider the total cost of ownership of the drive application. Purchases should not be made
purely based on capital costs. www.sew-eurodrive.com.au
New ISO standard tackles recyclability of earth-moving machinery - ISO 16714:2008
Over the years, earth-moving machinery reaching the end of its useful life has signifcantly contributed to the total
volume of waste needing to be treated or disposed of. For this reason, end-of-life recycling has today become a
market requirement and an integral phase of a machines life cycle. To ensure environmentally sound treatment of
a machine and all its components when the time comes, it is essential that eventual recovery issues are already
taken into account during the design phase, along with safety, emissions, fuel consumption and other design
considerations. ISO 16714:2008, Earth-moving machinery Recyclability and recoverability Terminology
and calculation method, will provide manufacturers with a much needed and internationally agreed tool to
evaluate the ability and potential of new machines to be recovered and/or recycled. www.iso.org
Meridiums New Asset Health Monitoring Solution
Meridiums Asset Health Indicator (AHI) solution is an extension to Meridiums Asset Strategy Management
application and provides the ability to defne and manage health indicators for asset strategies ensuring that all
aspects of equipment conditions are monitored for effectiveness.
Asset Health Indicators provide visibility to critical aspects of asset and strategy conditions so owners can be
alerted and notifed when thresholds are exceeded. Asset Health Indicators can leverage data from existing
Meridium APM sources in addition to sources which are interfaced to Meridium, such as enterprise asset
management and condition/health monitoring systems. Asset Health Indicators are defned with high and low
criteria for warning and alarm conditions, triggering personnel to take follow-up action.
According to J oe Nichols, Meridium VP Product Strategy, The focus of AHI is to connect the asset strategy with
critical indicators and data that can identify when strategies are not meeting expectations in order to trigger alerts
for appropriate corrective actions.
AHI can monitor information from existing Meridium data sources (such as readings from Operator Rounds)
and results of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), as well as excursion events from external condition/health
monitoring programs and process historians. Alerted when Asset Health Indicators have reached pre-determined
thresholds, key individuals within an organization can respond proactively and quickly to emerging problems with
an asset strategy, thus averting lost production or catastrophic failures.
Also included in this latest 3.3.1 version of Meridiums APM solution are:
SAP Interfaces - The new APM SAPInterfaces for Meridium include nine new integration
scenarios built upon Meridiums SAP Integration Services, which ensure Meridium business processes
stay in synch with SAP Asset Management processes.
Meridium Web Client - Meridium has greatly extended the capabilities of its web-based functionality
to enable basic Meridium workfows to be conducted completely through a web browser.
Operator Rounds Bar code scanning is now supported during route execution for asset verifcation
and measurement location data collection.
Thickness Monitoring While not a new solution, Meridium Thickness Monitoring now features
reengineered user interfaces and enhanced usability, which has streamlined many of the tasks that
engineers perform while managing thickness inspections and asset corrosion. www.meridium.com
Mail this form to: Engineering Information Transfer P/L, PO Box 703, Mornington, VIC 3931 Australia or Fax 03 59755735
or email: mail@maintenancejournal.com ABN: 67 330 738 613 Phone: 03 59750083 www.maintenancejournal.com
Prices are in Australian Dollars and are valid until Dec 2009. For Australia prices are inclusive of GST taxes. This form may be photocopied.
AMMJ PRI NT Ver si on Please Tick Required Box 1 year 2 years
Print Version Subscription (includes postage anywhere in the World): Aus$170 Aus$300
(Please note that due to delivery diffculties we are unable to take PRINT AMMJ subscriptions for India)
Special Offer (Australia Only)
For the cost of a single subscription to the PRINT version of the AMMJ we will send to Australian subscribers, at no extra cost, up to
5 copies of the Journal that you can distribute to other staff in your organisation.
Please circle total No. of PRINT copies required per issue:
(Up to 5 copies for Australian subscribers only)
eAMMJ ELECTRONI C Ver si on 1 year 2 years
eAMMJ Annual Subscription for Single Site Usage: Aus$100 Aus$180
May be distributed throughout a single site of your organisation
eAMMJ Annual Subscription for Multiple Sites: Aus$300 Aus$560
May be distributed to any site within your World wide corporation
Email Address for delivery of eAMMJ : ______________________________________________________________________
Start Issue: For new subscriptions please indicate when you wish to start your subscription
February April July October
Name: Position:
Company Name:
Address:
Phone: Fax:
Met hod of payment Total to pay: Aus$_____________
ECheque - Made payable to Engineering Information Transfer P/L
EElectronic funds transfer - Please email to obtain eft details
(Aus$18 will be added to all eft payments made from outside of Australia)
ECharge to credit card - Mastercard Visa Card
Expiry Date _____________
Name on card Signature
AMMJ Subscription Form
Asset Management and Maintenance Journal
1 2 3 4 5
Machinery Fault Prediction &Protection
New Products for 2009
Machinery Fault Prediction &Protection
New Products for 2009
CSI 9420
Wireless Vibration Transmitter
A wireless Vibration Transmitter that connects quickly,
easily and economically to any machine. It delivers
vibration information over a highly reliable, self
organizing wireless network for use by operations and
maintenance personnel.
Checkline TI-CMX
Dual Coating and
Thickness Gauge
The new Checkline TI-CMX measures
both coating and wall thickness quickly
and accurately from only one side.
When switched to Pulse-Echo mode,
the TI-CMX automatically measures and
eliminates the coating from the wall
thickness measurement, enabling the
user to locate the finest corrosion and
pitting - without removing the coating.
CTC MMXMOD3
Expandable MAXX
box modules
Buy the modular MAXX box
with 3,6,9 or 12 inputs and
add more in the future with
the quick release DIN Rail.
3 inputs per module
(+ve, -ve and shield).
N
E
W
N
E
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Connects to plant
control system (DCS)
2 channel (vib or temp)
Peakvue Technology
N
E
W
N
E
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Checkline TI-25S
Ultrasonic Wall
Thickness Gauge
The TI-25S provides fast accurate
readings of wall thickness up to
200mm. It Contains 8 preset
velocities of the most common
materials and has the facility to
store 2 custom velocities for
specific site requirements.
Exceptional Value at $2490
CSI 9830
High Resolution
Infrared Camera
640x480 resolution detector
LasirX sighting technology
Video out jack
High resolution visible image
Brighter flash/Torch
IR/Visible image Fusion
Routing in camera
Visual and IR image alignment
CSI 9210
Machinery Health
Transmitter
A revolutionary four wire, field
mountable, intelligent device, that
tightly integrates machinery health
into the process automation
environment.
4, 8 or 12 channel
User configurable alarms
Event capture
Peakvue technology
Vibration l Alignment & Shims l Ultrasonics l Measure & Test l Oil Analysis l Balancing
Infrared Thermography l Strobes & Tachs l Transducers l Thickness Gauges
VIC OFFICE
Phone: 03 9237 7577
Fax: 03 9761 5090
QLD OFFICE
Phone: 07 3902 9900
Fax: 07 3390 7212
NSW OFFICE
Phone: 02 4951 8455
Fax: 02 4953 8266
WA OFFICE
Phone: 08 9318 8904
Fax: 08 9318 8914
SA OFFICE
Phone: 0400 113 607
info.msc@sigenergy.com
www.maintsys.com.au
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NewProductsfor2009_advert_PRINT.qxd:A4 advert 13/1/09 5:21 PM Page 1

Ifyourorganisationbooksfor7ormoredaysoftrainingthecostisonly$595
perpersonperdayforalldelegatesthatyouregisterontheseseminars

DAY 1 - Course One
Planned Maintenance & Maintenance People
TheWhat,When&WhoofMaintenance
(For Maintenance & Non Maintenance Personnel)
DAY 2 - Course Two
Maintenance Planning, Control and Systems
MaintenancePlanning,WorkManagementandExecution,
ReportingandHistory,AssetDataManagement,Stores,&CMMS/EAMs/ERPs
(For all maintenance personnel and others associated with maintenance planning/work control/work performance/reporting etc)
DAY 3 - Course Three
Maintenance Management and Asset Management
AnIntroductionToMaintenanceandAsset
ManagementActivities&Techniques.
NewTopicfor2009of MeanMaintenance
(For Maintenance & Non Maintenance Personnel)
Venues
Mel bour ne
18-20 May 2009
Br i sbane
3-5 August 2009
Sydney
19-21 October 2009

THE MOST SUCCESSFUL AND MOST
RECOGNI SED MAI NTENANCE RELATED SEMI NARS
* As well as Maintenance Personnel, why not also send your Operations Personnel
Mai nt enanc e
2009 Semi nar s
Special Discounts
Now Available
Presented By
Len Bradshaw
Organised By
Engineering Information
Transfer Pty Ltd
and the Asset Management
and Maintenance J ournal
Each Delegate Receives:
Detailed Seminar Slides in
Hard Copy
A CD of Hundreds of mb of
Maintenance Related Facts,
Techniques, Products, Systems
and Software.
Dozens of back issues of
the Asset Management and
Maintenance J ournal
The CD Includes CMMS,
EAM, and Reliability
conference proceedings from
reliabilityweb.com and IMMC
conferences.
Cour se One
Pl anned Mai nt enanc e And
Mai nt enanc e Peopl e
The What, When and Who of Maintenance

1 . Consequenc es of Good or
Bad Mai nt enanc e
The direct and indirect costs of Maintenance. The real cost of failures and cost of downtime.
What do you cost and what are you worth.
Effect of too little or too much planned maintenance.
The need to provide and prove due care of your assets.
Do you identify/record real maintenance costs and how do you respond and control those costs.
2 . Mai nt enanc e Ac t i vi t i es
The different activities performed in maintenance - emergency, corrective, preventive,
predictive, condition based,detective, proactive maintenance, and designing for maintenance.
Possible problems associated with fxed time replacement of components.
Understanding what are failures in maintenance.The different failure types and how
they affect what maintenance should be used.
What maintenance is needed. Basic rules in setting inspection and PM frequencies.
A brief introduction to maintenance planning,control and systems
3 . I nspec t i ons & Condi t i on
Based Mai nt enanc e
What inspection and preventive/predictive techniques are now available in maintenance.
A look at the wide range of inspection and condition monitoring techniques
Basic visual inspections, oil analysis, vibration monitoring, thermography, acoustic emission,
boroscopes, fbre optics, alignment techniques, residual current, etc.
Discussion 1: What techniques for repair, inspections & Condition Monitoring are used
in your plant. Are they successful? If not why not?
4 . The Peopl e and St r uc t ur es
I n Mai nt enanc e

People - The most important assets in maintenance or are they ?
The different organisational structures used for maintenance activities.
Restructured maintenance;fexibility, multiskilling and team based structures.
What motivates people to work with the company rather than against it.
Are competent people managing, supervising, planning and doing the maintenance work.
Are teams achievable in your organization? How far can you go.
Utilising non maintenance resources.
TPM - Total Productive Maintenance.
Administrative responsibilities for teams.
Recruitment and Reward methods.
Maintenance Outsourcing/Contracting - for and against.
Is this the time for MEAN Maintenance?

Discussions 2: Are your organisations using the right people and structures in maintenance?
People issues in 2009 and beyond.
Who should attend this 1 day seminar?
Planners, Team Leaders, Team Members, Supervisors,Tradesmen, Operations Personnel,
Technicians, Engineers,Systems Managers, and others interested in maintenance of plant and assets.
Who should attend this 1 day seminar?
Planners, Team Leaders, Team Members, Supervisors, Tradesmen, Operations Personnel,
Technicians, Engineers, Systems Managers, Stores Personnel and others interested in maintenance of plant and assets.
Cour se Two
Mai nt enanc e Pl anni ng, Cont r ol
and Syst ems
Maintenance Planning, Planners and Computerised
Maintenance Management Systems/EAMs/ERPs
1 . Mai nt enanc e Pl anni ng and
Cont r ol - The Over vi ew
The different processes and techniques involved with maintenance planning,control,and use of a CMMS.
The move towards Asset Management Systems and beyond the traditional CMMS.
Links to other management systems,control systems, GIS, GPS, Internet, Intranet,
Web based systems. Asset Service Providers and Managed Service Providers.
Benefts & Problems associated with implementation and use of a CMMS/EAM/ERPs.
Systems and Devices that improve maintenance information, control and analysis.
2 . Mai nt enanc e Pl anni ng and Cont r ol - The Det ai l s
Equipment coding,inventory and asset registers.Using the asset technical database.
Identifying & controlling rotables.Asset and task priority or criticallity
Introduction to maintenance plan development. PMs and repair proceedures.
Maintenance requests. Quick work request/work order logging.
A PM becoming a Corrective task. The small job.
Backlog and frontlog fles.Opportunity maintenance.
Resource justifcation.Backlog fle management.
PM routines. Scheduling PMs and corrective maintenance.
Determining the weekly work. How much work?
Maintenance planning coordination meeting. Who attends and what is decided.
Work order issue, work in progress. reporting back - automating this process.
Feedback and history required. Automating the reporting process.
Reports and performance measures.
Performance measures for plant,maintenance, people and planning.

Discussion 1: The Planning and the CMMS/EAM/ERP in your organisation - its strengths & weaknesses.
3 . Mai nt enanc e Pl anni ng
and Pl anner s
An Example of how the best plan and their Maintenance Activities.
Pro-active Maintenance Planning.
Who should be the planner. Responsibilities/duties of the planner.
Full time or part time planners. Planner to Maintenance Personnel ratio.
Planners interaction with Supervisors, Technicians, etc.
Value of effective planning and planners.
Planning in different environments - failure response, team structures, etc.
4 . Mai nt enanc e St or es
Store objectives. Introduction to stock control methods.
Impact of maintenance type on stock requirements.
Who owns the stores? Who owns the parts? User alliances. Consignment stock.
Improving and monitoring service levels from your maintenance store.
Cour se Thr ee
Mai nt enanc e Management
and Asset Management
This seminar introduces the wide range of Maintenance Management activities and techniques
that may be applied within your organisation and the contribution Maintenance can make to
company proftability and competative advantage. Even if you are not directly involved in the use of
these techniques it is still important that you have at least an understanding of what can be done and
what can be achieved. Entirely new topic for 2009 is Mean Maintenance.
1 . Busi ness & Or gani sat i onal Suc c ess Vi a Bet t er Mai nt enanc e
The key role that maintenance plays in achieving business success.Maintenance as a proft creator.
Maintenance in Good or Bad business times. Proving your worth. Reducing Direct or Indirect maintenance costs.
Mean Maintenance - beyond Lean Maintenance to the new topic for 2009 of Mean Maintenance.
Maintenance Impact on Safety, Insurance and Legal Costs. Risks of poor or under resoursed maintenance.
Maintenance based on corporate objectives.
Discussion1: Business approach to maintenance and Managements understanding of Maintenance.
2 . Ac hi evi ng Bet t er Mai nt enanc e
Common features of the best maintenance organizations in the world. What is Maintenance Excellence.
Maintenance excellence awards in Australia and overseas
2.1 The Best Peopl e:
Leadership, recruitment, training, fexibility, motivation, teams, TPM, performance,
rewards, core skills and outsourcing. Matching people and structures to your organisation.
2.2 The Best Par t s Management :
Stores management, stores objectives, vendor and user alliances, internet spares, parts optimisation,
improved parts specifcations, automated stores, stores personnel..
2.3 The Best Mai nt enanc e Pr ac t i c es:
Better Corrective, Preventive, Predictive, and Proactive maintenance.
Using downtime data to minimise the impact of downtime.
Using failure data to optimise maintenance activities using Weibull analysis.
Moving through Preventive / Predictive to Proactive Maintenance. Earning time to think and develope.
Discussion 2: Discussions on Maintenance Parts, People and Practices
3 . Anal yt i c al Met hods I n Mai nt enanc e
Maintenance Plan Development and Optimisation Software. What they do and what can be acheived.
Example of how to collect, use, and understand maintenance data.
Fine tuning PM activities. Can we use MTBF? Timelines, Histograms, Pareto Analysis, Simulation.
4 . Asset Li f e I ssues
Introduction to Plant Design considerations that improve reliability, availability and maintainability.
Introduction to life cycle costing of assets.
Plant replacement strategies; LCC strategies - software tools.
Better maintenance specifcations of machines.
5 . Mai nt enanc e St r at egi es For The Fut ur e
Setting Strategies: From Policy Statements, Audits, Benchmarking, Gap Analysis and Objectives through to
Maintenance Performance Measures.
Examples of Maintenance Objectives and Performance Measures.
Sources of information on maintenance and reliability performance measures/standards.
Who should attend this 1 day seminar?
Maintenance Team Members,Technicians,Planners,Engineers,Supervisors and Managers;plus Production Supervisors/Managers &
Accounts/Financial Managers,and others interested in maintenance of plant and assets.
The semi nar i s pr esent ed by Len Br adshaw
Len Bradshaw is a specialist in maintenance management and maintenance
planning control and an international consultant in this feld. Len has
conducted over 300 courses for in excess of 9,000 maintenance personnel,
both in Australia and overseas. He is managing editor of the AMMJ . He has
a Masters Degree in Terotechnology (Maintenance Management) and has
held several positions as Maintenance Engineer in the UK and other overseas
nations. Len has conducted maintenance management courses for all levels
of maintenance staff from trades personnel to executive management.
Semi nar Fees NEW SPECI AL DI SCOUNT RATES
AUS $695 for booking one day of training.
AUS $660 per person per day for organisations that book for 2 to 6
days of training. Example - one person attending all 3 seminars.
AUS $595 per person per day for organisations that book for 7 or
more days of training. Example - three persons attending all three
seminars will be eligible for this great discount.
The course fees are inclusive of GST and also include Seminar material as well
as lunch and refreshments. Course fee does not include accommodation, which if
required is the delegates own responsibility.
Confrmation A confrmation letter will be sent to each delegate.
Ti mes The seminars start at 8:00am and end at 3:45pm, each day.
Registration is from 7:45am on the frst day the delegate attends the seminars.
2009 VENUES AUSTRALIA
Mel bour ne: 18 - 20 May 2009
Rydges On Swanston Hotel
701 Swanston St,
Melbourne VIC
Web: www.rydges.com
Br i sbane: 3 - 5 August 2009
Royal On The Park Hotel
Cnr Alice & Albert Street
Brisbane, QLD
www.royalonthepark.com.au
Sydney: 19 - 21 Oc t ober 2009
Swiss-Grand Resort and Spa
Corner Beach Road and Campbell Parade
Bondi Beach NSW
www.swissgrand.com.au
For Fur t her I nf or mat i on
Phone EIT (03) 5975 0083 Fax (03) 5975 5735
or email to: mail@maintenancejournal.com
or visit www.maintenancejournal.com
Engineering Information Transfer P/L ABN 67 330 738 613
REGI STRATI ON FORM Course Venue
Please Tick Course Please Tick Venue
CourseOne:
Pl anned Mai nt enanc e and Mai nt enanc e Peopl e
CourseTwo:
Mai nt enanc e Pl anni ng Cont r ol and Syst ems
CourseThree:
Mai nt enanc e and Asset Management

Name of delegate ________________________________________ Position _________________________________
Company______________________________________________________________________________________
Address_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Email _________________________________________________________________________________________
Name of approving offcer ____________________________________Phone _________________________________
Position _________________________________________________ Fax __________________________________
Met hod of payment Fee payable $_________________
eCheque - enclosed made payable to Engineering Information Transfer Pty Ltd

eElectronic funds transfer - Please email to obtain details from: mail@maintenancejournal.com
eCharge to my credit card Mastercard Visa Card
Expiry Date_______________
Name on card___________________________________Signature ___________________________
1 . Fax the completed registration
and provide credit card payment
details. Fax: 03 59 755735
2. Or mail the completed registration form together
with your cheque made payable to:
Engineering Information Transfer Pty Ltd
P.O. Box 703, Mornington, VIC 3931, Australia
3. Or Email and Indicate courses/ dates/
venue required/ personnel to attend and
provide details of method of payment to:
mail@maintenancejournal.com
How do I Regi st er ?
Melbourne
Brisbane
Sydney
Canc el l at i ons: Should you (after having registered) be unable to attend, a substitute delegate is always welcome. Alternatively, a full refund will be made for cancellations
received in writing 14 days before the seminar starts . Cancellations 7 to 14 days prior to the seminar dates will be refunded 40% of the registration fee, in addition to receiving a set of
seminar notes. There will be no refund for cancellations within 7 days of the seminar dates. This registration form may be photocopied.
4. Or send a formal company
Purchase Order and we will invoice
your organisation on that Purchase
Order.
Planning4Reliability
National Forum - 24th & 25th March 2009 - The MCG, Melbourne
Accommodation
Mantra on Jolimont: Attractive rates have been secured at the Mantra on
Jolimont for the nights of the 23rd and 24th March starting from $149 inc GST
room only. You can contact the hotel direct on (03) 9940 2100 and quote code
P4R09 to receive this rate. (approx 5 minute walk to MCG)
Rydges on Swanston: We have also negotiated rates at the Rydges on
Swanston for the workshop delegates for the nights of the 25th March $180 and
26th March $249 inc GST. Contact the hotel on (03) 9347 7811 and quote code
P4R09ROS.
Grand Prix Post Accommodation: Negotiated rates are also available post
conference for the Grand Prix at both venues. For more information please refer to
our website at www.sirfrt.com.au. Minimum stays apply due to the Grand Prix. 30
days prior to the event dates room blocks held by SIRF Rt are released and rooms
are subject to availability.
NB: The Victorian Government has not confirmed the Grand Prix into Melbourne as yet.
We still await the final announcement, which should be known in November.
Post Conference Workshop with Doc Palmer:
Maintenance Planning and Scheduling to be held at the Rydges on Swanston
Maintenance Planning and Scheduling should dramatically improve productivity of maintenance. For example a group of 30 maintenance technicians
should be performing the work of 47 persons when aided by a single planner. Yet most maintenance organisations do not have a planning function and
most that do are frustrated. The author of McGraw-Hills Maintenance Planning and Scheduling handbook, Doc Palmer, reviews the fundamentals and
then leads class exercises to illustrate the principles and techniques to achieve success. The workshop not only covers the theory and vision, but the
nuts and bolts of how planning and scheduling work.
This workshop allows class participants to take specific practices home to their
own organisations. Participants should be able to implement a new planning
organisation or dramatically improve an existing planning organisation.
Participants will learn about;

Principles of effective planning


Principles of effective scheduling
Proactive versus reactive work
How to avoid typical industry frustration
with planning
Well planned, properly scheduled & effectively
co-ordinated work can deliver...
Reduced unplanned downtime
Less reactive maintenance
Better utilisation of resources and trades people
Fewer interruptions to operations
Higher quality and reduced process variability
Improved safety
Better use of your CMMS, no matter what type
Note: to receive this rate (*) delegates need to
register together under the same booking and
invoice.
Registration Costs: Prices ex GST
2 Day Main Forum
1-2 delegates
3 or more delegates*
Post Conference
Workshop
Member
$1050
$ 945
$1650
Non Member
$1780
$1602
$2200
To register, visit www.sirfrt.com.au
Please log onto www.sirfrt.com.au and click on the "Register for
Events Online" in the left column of the homepage.
From there you can click on the National Forums in the blue
menu box, select Planning4Reliability and fill in the information to
register your attendance.
Online registration is preferred however a hard copy will be
available on the website or phone in your booking to Anna.
Anyone unable to register online please contact:
National Forum Manager: Anna Civiti I Mobile: 0417 514 170
Office: 03 9697 1103 I Email: anna.civiti@sirfrt.com.au

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2 Day National Forum
A FOCUS ON ...
Planning and Scheduling
To Deliver Reliability
Post Forum Workshop
with Doc Palmer from the US
Author of the Planning and Scheduling Handbook
Disclaimer: Information included in the brochure is correct at the time of printing. The organisers have made every attempt to ensure the information
contained within is correct. The organisers reserve the right to change any part of the program without notice if deemed necessary. Speakers are
subject to change without notice.
Cancellation: Full refund if written cancellation 14 days prior to the event. A 50% refund if written cancellation 7-14 days prior to the event. No refund if
cancellation with less than 7 days notice. A substitute is welcome to replace a delegate who is unable to attend.
Work and planning flow
Control of planning and indicators
CMMS
Planning and projects predictive
maintenance, PM and outages

Conference Venues
The 2 day main conference will take place at the MCG 24th
and 25th March. Entry is via Gate 3 from the corner Jolimont
Street and Jolimont Terrace.

The post workshop Maintenance Planning and Scheduling is
to be held at the Rydges on Swanston located 701 Swanston
Street Melbourne
The forum presented by Practitioners for Practitioners
Welcome to the 3rd...
Planning4Reliability National Forum
Planned and scheduled maintenance effectively reduces downtime,
disruption to operations and interruptions to production. Saving cost
and maximising production.
For it's third year now Planning4Reliability will come to Melbourne Tuesday
24th and Wednesday 25th March 2009 with a post conference workshop
featuring Doc Palmer from the USA, author of the Maintenance Planning and
Scheduling Handbook.
The forum provides a platform for both members and non members to meet
and network on best practices and proven methods in the areas of
maintenance planning and scheduling. They learn from practitioners what
works and what doesn't and are able to take these ideas and adapt them
back into their own operation.
The forums are presented By Practitioners For Practitioners from a wide
range of industry backgrounds. Attendees join together to share experience
and knowledge amongst themselves and discuss real life case studies.
Attendees are left inspired to show leadership in implementing methods and
techniques they learn over the 2 days at the conference.
With over 15 presentations and an exhibition of industry specific solutions it
will provide the ideal location for learning and networking. We are also
running 2 streams to maximise attendee choice of topics.
By attending the forum you will have the opportunity to learn from amongst
the country's best industry practitioners and interact with peers with similar
problems and challenges. The aim is to share experiences and learn proven
techniques.
We look forward to your participation and seeing you at the forum.
Bill Holmes
National Forum Facilitator
Maintenance Managers
Maintenance Planners
Schedulers
Team Leaders
Maintenance Supervisors
Maintenance Co Ordinators
Planning and Reliability Engineers
Trades people that do their own planning
Learn from practitioners on best practice
in the workplace
Hear from leading industry specialists
Network amongst peers
Take back proven ideas to apply in your
workplace
Learn techniques to co ordinate the
maintenance schedule with production
and operations
Doc Palmer
Meet the author of the Maintenance
Planning and Scheduling handbook.
Doc will run a workshop where
attendees can delve into greater depth
and meet others in similar roles

Key Case Studies
Listening to practitioners present their
case studies and stories. These are
practical and of which are applied in
industry today. Attendees will be able to
relate to them and apply in their own
operation.

Extensive Networking Opportunities
As you network over the 2 days at the
forum there will be endless opportunities
to meet the other delegates and
speakers. You will be able to compare
notes and learn of what others are doing
in promoting best practice.

Access to the Papers
The papers presented at the forum will
be made available on the SIRF Rt
website. All attendees have access to
these.

Roundtable Discussions
The forum runs a roundtable discussion
session where a number of topics are
generated from the interest of the
attendees. Attendees can join their table
of interest where they can further
discuss the topic of interest

Exhibition
The accompanying exhibition will bring
together leading suppliers to showcase
their product and/or service. This is a
valuable time to meet suppliers and
establish of how they can benefit your
organisation
Key Features:
Why attend:
Who should attend:
National Forum Exhibitors:
Our Presenters...
BY PRACTITIONERS FOR PRACTITIONERS
Doc Palmer: International Keynote Author of Maintenance Planning and Scheduling handbook
Fred Delahunty: International Keynote ABB New Zealand The Power of Attitude - We Have a Choice
Mark Quinn: Keynote Rio Tinto Coal Aligning Operators and Maintainers for OptimumPlanning
and Scheduling Performance
Ron Moore: International Keynote The RM Group Planning For Reliability
Peter Horsburgh: Tarong Energy Implementing a Systemto Eliminate Chronic Defects at
Tarong Energy
Tony Toledo: Rio Tinto Developing the Right Structure to Support Remote
Planning Operations
Randeep Agarwal: Origin Energy Asset Management Strategy Development -
"A Road Mapping Process"
Rick Terpstra: CSR Implementing the "CSR Way" Planned Maintenance
Systemas a National Standard
Dean Smith: Genesis Managing the Knowledge and Upgrading the Skills
Paul Stafford: Sunrice Production &Maintenance Alignment &Teamwork Delivering
Improved Levels of Satisfaction and Plant Reliability
Chris Bird: Onesteel Work Management - Capability Through Control
David Washbrook: Qenos A User Friendly Portal to Bring all the Information Together
for Operators and Maintainers
Keynote Presenters...
Fred Delahunty - Fred is an electrician and has spent most of his working life on heavy industry sites. He is currently employed
in the Pulp and Paper Industry by ABB at Kawerau in the Bay of Plenty, some 35 kms from Whakatone, where ABB provide a
full service maintenance contract to one of the country's major pulp mills. Fred's activity away from work has taken him and his
family overseas to places like Zimbabwe and he has had a number of speaking engagements in America and Australia. He is a
great sports fan in Rugby, Athletics, Cycling and still competes when time permits in multi sport events. Fred says that a positive
attitude in the workplace and in the workforce leads to a safe place of work and hopes that the experience he has had will be of
benefit to all.
Doc' Palmer - is author of the Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Handbook published in 1999 and now in its 2nd edition
(2005). 'Doc' Palmer has over 25 years of industrial experience as a practitioner primarily within the maintenance department of
the Jacksonville Electric Authority, a major United States electric utility. From 1990 through 1994, Palmer was responsible for
overhauling the existing maintenance planning organisation. The resulting success played a role in expanding planning to all
crafts and stations owned and operated by the utility. 'Doc' Palmer consults, mentors, and trains companies internationally for
maintenance planning success. 'Doc' Palmer is a professional engineer with a master's degree in business administration. He is
also a CMRP, Certified Maintenance and Reliability Professional.
Ron Moore - Managing Partner of the RM Group, is an internationally recognised authority on reliability and manufacturing
strategies. His efforts principally focus on improving reliability of manufacturing plants, and therefore, increasing production
capacity and reducing operating and mainenance costs. This is done through the strategic planning and implementation of
various operations and maintenance practices, sysytems, and technologies. Ron is the author of "Making Common Sense
Common Practice: Models for Manufacturing Excellence", now in its 3rd edition, and of "Selecting the Right Manufacturing
Improvement Tools - What Tool? When?" Ron has over 30 years experience working in the industrial manufacturing field and
was formerly the president of a predictive maintenance technologies supplier.
Mark Quinn - Manager Asset Management for Rio Tinto Coal Australia (RTCA). Mark leads a team of asset management
professionals that provide strategic direction and support to seven operating sites, and emerging new projects, across NSW and
Queensland. Marks previous role was Manager Maintenance at Tarong Mine and prior to that Mark has held roles at all levels
including Manager Maintenance at Kelian Mine (Indonesia), roles in planning, project management, maintenance improvement
and leadership. After commencing his career as an apprentice fitter/machinist Mark later returned to studies and gained
engineering, maintenance management and statutory qualifications. Mark and his wife Karen have two adult children and spend
most weekends sailing on their 33' yacht. Marks other interests include playing sax in a community jazz band and riding his
Triumph Bonneville.

SKF Public Course Locations
January
SUN 4 11 18 25
MON 5 12 19 26 Australia Day
TUE 6 13 20 27
WED 7 14 21 28
THU 1 NewYears Day 8 15 22 29
FRI 2 9 16 23 30
SAT 3 10 17 24 31
April
SUN 5 12 Easter Sunday 19 26
MON 6 13 Easter Monday 20 27
TUE 7 14 21 28
WED 1 8 15 22 29
THU 2 9 16 23 30
FRI 3 10 Good Friday 17 24
SAT 4 11 Easter Saturday 18 25 Anzac Day
May
SUN 31 3 10 17 24
MON 4 Labour Day (QLD) 11 18 25
TUE 5 12 19 26
WED 6 13 20 27
THU 7 14 21 28
FRI 1 8 15 22 29
SAT 2 9 16 23 30
June
SUN 7 14 21 28
MON 1 8 15 22 29
TUE 2 9 16 23 30
WED 3 10 17 24
THU 4 11 18 25
FRI 5 12 19 26
SAT 6 13 20 27
July
SUN 5 12 19 26
MON 6 13 20 27
TUE 7 14 21 28
WED 1 8 15 22 29
THU 2 9 16 23 30
FRI 3 10 17 24 31
SAT 4 11 18 25
August
SUN 30 2 9 16 23
MON 31 3 Bank Holiday (NSW) 10 17 24
TUE 4 11 18 25
WED 5 12 19 26
THU 6 13 20 27
FRI 7 14 21 28
SAT 1 8 15 22 29
September
SUN 6 13 20 27
MON 7 14 21 28 Queens Birthday (WA)
TUE 1 8 15 22 29
WED 2 9 16 23 30
THU 3 10 17 24
FRI 4 11 18 25
SAT 5 12 19 26
October
SUN 4 11 18 25
MON 5 Labour Day (NSW, SA) 12 19 26
TUE 6 13 20 27
WED 7 14 21 28
THU 1 8 15 22 29
FRI 2 9 16 23 30
SAT 3 10 17 24 31
November
SUN 1 8 15 22 29
MON 2 9 16 23 30
TUE 3 10 17 24
WED 4 11 18 25
THU 5 12 19 26
FRI 6 13 20 27
SAT 7 14 21 28
December
SUN 6 13 20 27
MON 7 14 21 28 Boxing Day Holiday
TUE 1 8 15 22 29
WED 2 9 16 23 30
THU 3 10 17 24 31
FRI 4 11 18 25 Christmas Day
SAT 5 12 19 26 Boxing Day
February
SUN 1 8 15 22
MON 2 9 16 23
TUE 3 10 17 24
WED 4 11 18 25
THU 5 12 19 26
FRI 6 13 20 27
SAT 7 14 21 28
March
SUN 1 8 15 22 29
MON 2 Labour Day (WA)
Labor Day (VIC)
9 Adelaide Cup (SA)
Eight Hours Day (TAS)
16 23 30
TUE 3 10 17 24 31
WED 4 11 18 25
THU 5 12 19 26
FRI 6 13 20 27
SAT 7 14 21 28
Bearing Failure Analysis
QUEENSLAND
Mt Isa
24 February
Bearing Lubrication
QUEENSLAND
Mt Isa
25 February
Bearing Technology
& Maintenance
NEW SOUTH WALES
Bathurst
5-7 May
Dubbo
15-17 September
Newcastle
4-6 August
Smithfeld
3-5 March
15-17 June
13-15 October
1-3 December
NORTHERN TERRITORY
Darwin
16-18 June
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
6-8 July
1-3 December
Cairns
8-10 September
Emerald
2-4 June
10-12 November
Gladstone
24-26 March
16-18 June
20-22 October
Lismore
30 June-2 July
Mackay
11-13 August
Mt Isa
12-14 May
6-8 October
Pom
21-23 April
Toowoomba
18-20 February
22-24 September
Townsville
24-26 November
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Mt Gambier
31 March-2 April
13-15 October
Whyalla
16-18 March
15-17 September
Wingfeld
17-19 February
2-4 June
25-27 August
17-19 November
VICTORIA
Ballarat
19-21 May
Bendigo
17-19 August
Gippsland
22-24 September
Oakleigh
21-23 April
14-16 July
19-21 October
8-10 December
Wagga
16-18 June
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Albany
17-19 March
Bunbury
13-15 October
Kalgoorlie
2-4 June
8-10 December
Perth
17-19 February
11-13 May
4-6 August
17-19 November
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Lae
25-27 August
Condition Based
Maintenance 1
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
21-22 September
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
2-3 November
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Wingfeld
25-26 May
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
11-12 May
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
16-17 March
17-18 August
Dynamic Motor
Monitoring/Introduction
to DC Motor Monitoring
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
10-13 November
Introduction to Static
Testing & Dynamic
Motor Monitoring
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
19-22 May
Improving Bearing
Reliability in Fans
For further information
about this course email
rs.marketing@skf.com
Improving Bearing
Reliability in Pumps
For further information
about this course email
rs.marketing@skf.com
Improving Crusher
Reliability
NEW SOUTH WALES
Newcastle
22-23 September
Smithfeld
1-2 July
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
21-22 April
Mt Isa
25-26 August
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Wingfeld
26-27 March
15-16 September
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
1-2 April
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
23-24 June
Infrared
Thermography 1
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
25-29 May
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
1-5 June
Optimising Asset
Management through
Maintenance Strategy
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
15-18 September
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
21-24 July
Ultrasonic Inspection
& Testing 1
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
6-10 July
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
12-16 October
Lubrication in Rolling
Element Bearings 1
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
22-23 October
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
14-15 July
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
9-10 July
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Whyalla
23-24 March
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
14-15 May
Machinery Lubrication
Technician 1
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
14-17 July
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Whyalla
21-24 July
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
5-8 May
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
11-14 August
Machinery Lubrication
Technician 2
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
10-13 November
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
13-16 October
Oil Analysis 1
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
14-17 September
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Wingfeld
17-20 March
Oil Analysis 2
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
27-30 April
Precision Shaft
Alignment
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
10 November
QUEENSLAND
Mt Isa
23 July
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Wingfeld
12 May
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
28 April
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Kalgoorlie
18 August
Perth
16 June
Proactive Maintenance
Skills
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
21-25 September
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
2-6 November
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Wingfeld
25-29 May
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
11-15 May
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
16-20 March
17-21 August
Predictive Maintenance
for Electric Motors 1
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Wingfeld
14-17 July
Root Cause Bearing
Failure Analysis
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
5-6 August
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
8-9 September
Toowoomba
16-17 June
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Whyalla
7-8 July
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
28-29 July
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Kalgoorlie
14-15 October
Perth
4-5 March
30 September - 1 October
Selecting & Maintaining
Power Transmission Systems
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
21-22 July
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
18-19 August
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Mt Gambier
1-2 September
Wingfeld
5-6 May
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
23-24 June
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
7-8 April
Static Motor Testing/
Introduction to DC Motor
Testing
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
8-11 September
Vibration Analysis 1
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
17-19 March
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
23-25 June
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
19-21 May
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
21-23 April
Vibration Analysis 2
NEW SOUTH WALES
Smithfeld
23-27 November
QUEENSLAND
Archerfeld
23-27 February
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
9-13 November
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
19-23 October
Vibration Analysis 3
VICTORIA
Oakleigh
10-14 August
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth
7-11 September
Introduction to Bearing
Housings and Seals
For further information
about this course email
rs.marketing@skf.com
BFA CM1 RCF
PT
SMT
UI1
VA1
VA2
VA3
ML1
ML2
OA1
OA2
OAM
PSA
PMS
PME
DMM
ST
BRF
BRP
CR
LB1
BL
BTM
SKF Reliability Systems
Training Calendar
2009
For further information on Public Courses or to organise an Onsite Course: P 03 9269 0763 E rs.marketing@skf.com W www.skf.com.au/training The Power of Knowledge Engineering
BFA
BTM BTM
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UI1
UI1
UI1
UI1
UI1
VA2
VA2
VA2
VA2
VA2
IR1
BHS
Queens Birthday
(All except WA)
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
RCF
PT PT
PT PT PT
PT PT
PT PT PT
SMT
SMT
SMT
SMT
UI1
UI1
UI1
UI1
UI1
VA1
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VA1
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VA2 VA2
VA2 VA2
VA2 VA2
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VA2 VA2
VA3
VA3
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VA3
VA3
ML1 ML1
ML1
ML1
ML1 ML1
ML1
ML1
ML1 ML1
ML1
ML1
ML1 ML1
ML1
ML1
ML2 ML2
ML2 ML2
ML2 ML2
ML2 ML2
OA1
OA1
OA1
OA1
OA1
OA1
OA1
OA1
OA2
OA2
OA2
OA2
OAM OAM
OAM OAM
OAM OAM
OAM OAM
PSA
PSA
PSA PSA
PMS
PMS
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PME
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DMM
DMM
DMM
DMM
ST
ST
ST
ST
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
IR1 IR1
IR1 IR1
IR1 IR1
IR1 IR1
IR1 IR1
LB1
LB1
LB1
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LB1
LB1
LB1
BL
BTM
BTM
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CM1
CM1
Foundation Day
(WA)
CM1
CM1
BTM
BTM
BTM
BTM
BTM
BTM
CM1
CM1 BTM BTM
BTM
BTM BTM
BTM
BTM
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CR
CR
BTM
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RCF
RCF
LB1
LB1
BTM
BTM
BTM
BTM
BTM
BTM
PT
PT
PSA
CM1
CM1 BTM
BTM
BTM
CR
CR
BTM
BTM
BTM
PMS
PMS
PMS
PMS
PMS
BTM
BTM
BTM
CM1
CM1
BTM
BTM
BTM
Melbourne
Cup (VIC)
PMS
PMS
PMS
PMS
PMS
PSA
CM1
CM1