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Calc 2 Lecture Notes

Section 8.8

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Section 8.8: Applications of Taylor Series Big idea:. A main use of Taylor series is for obtaining approximate values of functions, their integrals, or solutions to differential equations. Big skill: You should be able to find the Taylor series of a function and use it to compute approximate values for that function or its integral. Taylor Series expansion of f(x) about x = c: f ( k) ( c) k f ( x) = ( x c) k! k =0 1. Application #1: Finding approximate values of a function. Key: Pick an expansion point close to the value you want to compute Practice: Compute sin(1.234567) to a precision of 10-11.

2. Application #2: Conjecturing the values of a limit. This is not always correct to do Key: Plug in the Taylor series, then simplify. sin ( x ) Practice: Evaluate lim x0 x

Practice: Evaluate lim

x0

cos ( x 2 ) 1 + 0.5 x 4 x8

Calc 2 Lecture Notes

Section 8.8

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3. Application #3: Approximating a definite integral. Key: Plug in the Taylor series, then integrate.
0.5

Practice: Approximate

sin ( x ) dx
2 0

4. Application #4: Finding solutions to differential equations. This technique is called the Method of Froebenius when applied to certain second-order differential equations.
k Key: Assume that a differential equation has a solution of the form y ( x ) = bk x . k =0

Substitute this solution into the differential equation, collect like terms, then use the recursion formulas you get to solve for the coefficients. Practice: Apply this technique to the differential equation y + 2 xy = 0

5. Application #5: Defining special functions, like the Bessel functions of order p, which 2 2 2 are the solutions of the differential equation x y + xy + ( x p ) y = 0 , where p is a nonnegative integer: k 1) x 2 k + p ( J p ( x ) = 2k + p k !( k + p ) ! k =0 2 Practice: Find and graph the Taylor polynomial P4(x) for J1(x).

Section 8.8

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6. Application #6: The Binomial Series.

n n nk k n Recall that ( a + b ) = a b , where k =0 k 3 Practice: Compute ( 2 + 3 x )

n n! . = k k !(n k )!

Notice that the binomial coefficient can be re-written as: n n! = k k !(n k )! =

1 2 3 4 K ( n k ) ( n k + 1) ( n k + 2 ) K ( n 1) n k !( 1 2 3 4 K ( nk) )!
k factors 6 4 4 4 4 44 7444444 8 n ( n 1) K ( n k + 2 ) ( n k + 1)

k!

Using this last representation of the binomial coefficient, we have: Theorem 8.1: The Binomial Series r k r For any real number r, ( 1 + x ) = x for -1 < x < 1. k =0 k This expands out to give: r ( r 1) 2 r ( r 1) ( r 2 ) 3 r ( r 1) ( r 2 ) ( r 3) 4 r r x + x + x +K ( 1+ x) = 1+ x + 1! 2! 3! 4! Practice: Find the MacLaurin series for 1 + x and use it to approximate sqrt(17).

Calc 2 Lecture Notes

Section 8.8

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7. Application #7: Proving the euler formula, eix = cos(x) + isin(x) (Note: the formula can also be proven using a complex integral and defining z cos(x) + isin(x).)

8. Application #8: Evaluating series. Example: Use the Maclaurin series for f ( x ) = k2 =6 k k =1 2