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Climate

Climate is complex interactions between the atmosphere, ocean and land. Changes in
climate may be due to natural processes or to persistent anthropogenic changes in
atmosphere or in land use.

Thermal inversion.
Thermal enversion is air pollution problem for mega cities of temperate and cold
climate.
Under normal conditions hot pollutant gases rise as they come into contact with
colder air masses at high altitudes, under certain circumstances air temperature
may increase with altitude and an inversion layer forms a hundred of meters above
the ground. This inversion layer may then trap pollutants close to the emission
source and act as a heat cover prolonging the inversion.
These conditions are of greatest concern when wind speeds are low.

Green house effect


Earth’s atmospheric receives short ware energy from the sun, some of this energy
is reflected back into space, but some is absorbed by the earth’s surface and
clouds and reradiated as heat, several gases absorbs this heat and warm the
atmosphere. This warning is essential for life on earth which is called Greenhouse
effect.

The greenhouse effect is the warming that results when the earth's atmosphere
traps the sun's heat. It is created by carbon dioxide, methane, and other
atmospheric gases, which allow sunlight to reach the earth but prevent heat from
leaving the atmosphere. These heat-trapping gases are often called greenhouse
gases.

Fuel burning and other human activities are increasing the amount of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere. Many scientists believe such an increase is intensifying
the greenhouse effect and raising temperatures worldwide. This increase in
temperature, called global warming, may cause many problems. A strong greenhouse
effect could melt glaciers and polar icecaps, flooding coastal areas. It could
also shift rainfall patterns, creating more droughts and severe tropical storms.

In recent years earth has begun to warm more quickly. Several greenhouse gases are
responsible for this global warming. The developing world accounts for about 1/3
of all green house gas emission.

We all live in global greenhouse. The air, cloud, soil, vegetation and structures
that surrounds us and absorb and re-emit radiant energy across the electro
magnetic spectrum that arrives from the sun.

Major “Green House Gases”.


Major Green House Gases are:
Water vapours
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Ozone
Nitrous oxide
Others – chlorofluro carbons (CFCs)
CFCs are dangerous because it consumes protective ozone layer.
Ozone layer prevents harmful U/V rays to reach on earth.

Carbon dioxide and greenhouse effect:


Increasing concentration CO2 of causes global warming and climatic changes. CO2 is
one of the no. Of gases in the earths atmosphere constitutes 0.034%. As its
atmospheric concentration increases temperature of the earths surface increase.
Because CO2 permits much of incoming solar radiation to reach the earth it traps
outgoing radiation slowing down the cooling of earth’s surface.
Some regions warning much more than average.
Polar region will warm more than equatorial.

Global Warming
Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the earth’s near
surface air and ocean in the recent decade and its project continuation. The
global average air temperature near the earth’s surface rose 0.74 (+ -) 0.18 c
during the 100 yrs ending in 2005. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPPC) concludes most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperature
since the mid -20th century is very likely due to observed increase in the
anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentration via the greenhouse effect. Natural
phenomena such as solar variations combined with volcanoes probably had a small
warming effect from pre industrial times to 1950 and a small cooling effect from
1950 onward

Causes of global warming


1. The increasing patterns of green house gases e.g. water vapours, methane,
CO2 and chlorofluro carbon.
2. Impact of green house gases on depletion of ozone layer which prevents U/V
rays reaching on earth.
3. Air pollution problems in mega cities.

Chlorofluro carbon.
1. It is man-made chemical compound containing chorine, fluorine, carbon and
hydrogen.
2. They are less flammable, corrosive and directly injurious to human health.
3. They are used as refrigerants in chillers, freezers, home and automobile air
conditioners also used as solvents to clean integrated circuits, metals, clothes
used as blowing agents in manufacture of both flexible and rigid foams for
furniture, packing insulations. Propellants in deodorants.
4. Majority CFC produced in U.S. (1/3)
5. CFC are trace gases contribute to atmospheric warming.
6. CFC - effect on ozone depletion and its impact on plant and animal life. By
acting chemically on toposphere- (nearest layer) where CFC remains stable up to
100 yr and some fraction of CFC will work on stratosphere under influence of
sunlight they break down releasing atom of chlorine and chlorine breaks up ozone
molecule which is protecting layer of earth from damaging
7. CFC problems will be difficult to reverse global climate may warm atmosphere
5-6 times faster in next 100 yrs.

Prof Joshi Sonopant G


SYMBIOSIS PUNE