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1.0 General Unlike other physical objects, optical parts have typically been a part of some other assembly or product, i.e., a microscope, a telescope, a camera, a measuring device, etc. Thus, the drawing practices for such optical parts have been considered to be “product peculiar;” unlike the universe of other products usually identified within the engineering and manufacturing fields. However, highly special- ized optical parts are appearing in increasing num- bers within many other products used in industry. Some examples are alignment measuring instru- ments, leveling devices, optical tools, industrial photographic products, projection devices (com- parators), and document reproduction machines.

1.1 The manufacturer of optical parts applies con- siderable judgement and expertise above and be- yond the stated requirements of the related drawing or specification in producing the part. Unless such parts are described precisely as intended, it may not be possible to produce the optical parts as accu- rately as required. The purpose of this section, therefore, is to provide guidance and general prac- tices for the design definition of the required optics and related documentation. The manufacturing complexities of optics in general place severe limitations on the kind and amount of design infor- mation that can be provided without placing undue constraints on the optics manufacturer. In recogni- tion of this fact, the guidelines in this section should enable an OEM (original equipment manufacturer), which includes optics in its designs, to acquire the necessary optical parts with confidence.

2.0 References American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard Optical Parts Y14.18-1986

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard Dimensioning & Tolerancing, 1982

MIL-STD-34 General Requirements for Optical Elements and Optical Systems

3.0 Definitions

The following figures provide a graphical overview of the commonly used abbreviations to define various characteristics of some of the more common lens types. These abbreviations are not inclusive and cover only a limited number of lens designs. See Figure 1 for definitions of abbreviations used in Figures 2,3 &4.

3.1 Apertures

3.1.1 Clear Aperture The clear aperture is the portion of element surface filled with the image-forming beam.

The clear aperture is the portion of element surface filled with the image-forming beam. GENIUM PUBLISHING

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Page 2 March 1991* DRAFTING MANUAL Optical Parts update 38 3.1.2 Mount Aperture The mount aperture

3.1.2 Mount Aperture The mount aperture is the mechanically tolerance portion of the element surface. Unless otherwise stated, the mount aperture is the same as the clear aperture.

3.1.3 Coating Aperture

Unless otherwise stated, the coating aperture is the

same as the mount aperture.

3.1.4 Wedge Element

A

wedge element may be a window, filter, reticle,

or

other element depending on its specification and

function. Aside from the mechanical features of size, the optical deviation should be provided and tolerance to a specified wavelength of light (Figure

5).

3.1.5

Prism

A right angle prism is an element generally used to

achieve a 90 bend in the light path. A variation of this is a prism cube constructed by cementing two

of this is a prism cube constructed by cementing two Figure 5. Wedge Element right angle

Figure 5. Wedge Element

right angle prisms with appropriate interference coating on the hypotenuse surface (Figure 6).

3.1.6 Reticles Reticles are centering or aiming markings usually etched on a piano element. (Figure 7).

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3.1.7 Windows Filters, Flat Mirrors Windows, filters, and flat mirrors are similar to single lens elements. They differ from each other principally by materials and applied coatings.

4.0 Specifying Requirements for Optical Parts

4.1 Conventional Practices

In general, the conventional practices described elsewhere in this manual are also applicable to drawings of optical parts, assemblies, and optical systems.

4.2 Dimensioning Practices

Dimensions and tolerances for optical parts should

be expressed in metric. The bilateral method of Tolerancing is preferred.

4.2.1 Mechanical Tolerances The mechanical tolerance should indicate the allowable departure from the specified dimensions insofar as it affects size but not irregularity toler- ances of geometric shape. See Par. 4.2.2. The mechanical tolerance should be specified in the same units of measure as the dimension to which it is applied.

4.2.1.1 Control of Chamfers/Bevels/Chips In addition to normal tolerances, it is frequently necessary to apply tolerances to chamfers and dispersion of chips. When such tolerances are specified, Figure 8 provides some acceptable prac- tices. Chamfers and dispersion chip size may be called out on the detailed part or in the title block of the drawing. Since glass characteristics frequently result in chipping throughout the manufacturing cycle, it may be desirable to specify on the drawing an acceptable level of such chipping. A note may be used for this purpose, such as: “Edge chips shall not exceed 15% of the total perimeter or be larger than 0.5 max. width.”

“Edge chips shall not exceed 15% of the total perimeter or be larger than 0.5 max.

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1991* DRAFTING MANUAL Optical Parts U p d a t e 3 8 4.2.2 Irregularity Tolerance

4.2.2 Irregularity Tolerance

The irregularity tolerance specifies the allowable deviation from the geometric shape. Such deviation is expressed in fringes, also called birefringes, each of which is equivalent to 10 microinches. The deviation applies to the entire surface unless other- wise noted. Where necessary the wavelength of the test light used should also be specified.

4.2.3 Mechanical Surface Characteristics

Machined surface characteristics are normally specified in the same values as for other mechanical machined surfaces described elsewhere in this manual,

4.3 Optical Surfaces

4.3.1 Spherical Optical Surfaces

Spherical optical surfaces should be dimensioned in the form of a radius with both a mechanical toler- ance and an irregularity tolerance per Par. 4.2.2.

4.3.2 Flat Optical Surfaces

Flat optical surfaces should be dimensioned as in Figure 5. Irregularity tolerances should be ex- pressed in fringes.

4.3.3 Aspheric Surfaces Aspheric optical surfaces are dimensioned by indicating the algebraic equation of the curve of the surface as a defined deviation from that surface. Surface coordinates may also be used for this purpose. Tolerances should be specified and the axis of the aspheric contour clearly defined.

4.3.4 Parabolic Surfaces

Parabolic surfaces are dimensioned by showing the orientation of the axis and the location of the foci. See Figure 9.

4.3.5 Hyperbolic and Elliptical Surfaces

Hyperbolic and elliptical surfaces should be dimen- sioned by delineating the orientation of the major axis and the semi-major and semi-minor diameters.

4.4 Pictorial and Descriptive Representations of Optical Parts

4.4.1 Single Lens

A single lens is depicted by a sectional view as in Figure 10. Hidden lines are omitted in simple

configurations; however, complex configurations are described using as many views as may be neces- sary. Glass hatching is optional.

4.4.2 Prisms

As many views as may be necessary should be used to describe a prism (Figure 6).

4.4.3 Cemented Elements

When cemented elements are required, an assembly drawing should be prepared in accordance with Figure 11. The optical parts are listed in the form of a generic parts list. However, the elements may be listed and described in a parts list format above the -, title block or on a separate parts list that is refer-

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4.4.4.1 Wedges Wedges are drawn as shown in Figure 5. In addition to the thickness,
4.4.4.1 Wedges
Wedges are drawn as shown in Figure 5. In addition
to the thickness, the optical deviation should also be
provided and tolerance at a specified wavelength
of light.
4.4.4.2 Reticles

enced on the drawing. Suggested parts list forms and arrangements are described elsewhere in this manual.

4.4.4 Piano Elements

A piano element may be a window, filter, reticle, or other element not previously described. Some piano

elements are defined in the following paragraphs.

Drawings for reticles should contain as many views as may be required to present all the necessary details. Reticle markings should be shown on the drawing and be fully portrayed and dimensioned. Enlarged views of the markings may be used if necessary. It is usually necessary to specify certain processes such as etchings and pattern deposit for manufacturing control of the item. Additional notes required for proper control of the reticle markings are shown in Figure 7.

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4.4.4.3 Windows and Filters

Windows and filters are described in Figure 12. Where a special orientation of an element is re- quired, as in the case of a polarizing filter or beam splitter window, the required orientation should be stated in the field of the drawing note describing the orientation and permissible deviation limits.

4.4.4.4 Flat Mirrors

Flat mirrors are drawn in a manner similar to that shown in Figure 5 except that specifications may be different.

in Figure 5 except that specifications may be different. Figure 12. Filter Element 4.4.4.5 Coatings, Cementing,

Figure

12.

Filter

Element

4.4.4.5 Coatings, Cementing, and Sealing

Surfaces applied to a specification should reference the document and point of application. If a specifi- cation is nonexistent, then the necessary informa- tion such as coating material, method of application, thickness, light characteristics, color, etc., should be provided. If the thickness of the coating is to be expressed in wavelengths, the color or wavelength of the test light should be specified.

4.4.4.6 Notes on Figures

The notes shown on the various figures in this section are intended for reference only. They may or may not be applicable to the lens described in the figures. Moreover, they may be placed on the drawing in a manner consistent with the internal practices of the originator of the drawing.

4.5 Orientation

4.5.1 Optical System Drawings

Optical system drawings should be oriented so that the light is assumed to enter from the left side of the drawing. The same practice should be observed for optical elements and components (Figure 13).

4.5.2 Complex Optical Systems

The optical elements and components of complex systems should be displayed as they appear on the system drawing except that they may be rotated clockwise to bring the optical axis horizontal on the drawing. If the light does not enter from the left, the appropriate direction should be indicated by arrows along the optical axis (Figure 14).

5.0 Selected Optical Formulas

Following are some of the more common formulas frequently used. Five variables, U, V, D, M, and F define the system in the first order analysis. See Figure 15. Each of the following three pairs of variations fixes the system, U & V, D &M, or M & F. Select the pair most important to the application

at hand.

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Where: FC = focal length of combination the two lenses
Where: FC
= focal length of combination
the two lenses

5.1 Lens Pairs The following formulas may be used to combine lenses in pairs to obtain focal lengths other than those in a catalog. In this manner on ecan demon- strate principles much more easily and economic- ally than by fabricating special focal lengths for prototypes

F1 = focal length of first lens F2 = focal length of second lens d = distance between principle planes of

The above are first order relationships and as such are only approximations. They are sufficiently accurate, however, for the majority of situations. The degree of sophistication required to make the transition from thin lens to thick lens analysis is beyond the scope of this section.

5.2 Glass Plates When glass plates, filters, or prisms are introduced into a converging beam of light, the focus shift must be taken into consideration. The focus shift is computed as follows:

Where: N1 = index of the medium surrounding the glass plate (usually air: N1 = 1.0) N2 = index of the glass plate t = thickness of the glass plate

by rule of thumb then, the image if further from the lens by t/3 when flat plate is inserted in the beam. -

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5.3 Relative Aperature = F Number The f number of a lens is defined by the ratio of the effective focal length of the lens divided by the diameter of clear aperature of the lens. It is a meas- ure of the amount of illumination that can pass through the lens. It is expressed as

that can pass through the lens. It is expressed as Where: N.A = numerical aperature Where;

Where:

N.A = numerical aperature

lens. It is expressed as Where: N.A = numerical aperature Where; n = index of refraction

Where;

n = index of refraction of the medium between the object and objective (of a microscope) usually air (n = 1.0) =the half angle of the cone of light entering the objective

=the half angle of the cone of light entering the objective 5.4 Diopter The diopter is

5.4 Diopter

The diopter is the unit of power of the lens that is most used in the opthalmic branch of the optical industry. It is defines as the reciprocal of the lens focal length stated in meters. It is computer as follows:

Where: N = index of the glass R= radius in mm DS = surface diopter

5.4.2 Prism Diopter

A prism diopter power of 1.0 indicates a beam deviation of 1Omm at a distance of 1 meter

1 prism diopter = 0.573 beam deviation

of 1 meter 1 prism diopter = 0.573 beam deviation Millidiopter 5.5 Effective Focal Length -

Millidiopter

meter 1 prism diopter = 0.573 beam deviation Millidiopter 5.5 Effective Focal Length - EFL This

5.5 Effective Focal Length - EFL This is defined as the second focal point with parallel incident light.

as the second focal point with parallel incident light. 5.4.1 Surface Diopter - DS This is

5.4.1 Surface Diopter - DS

This is the quantity measured with diopter gauges. The measurement can be converted to the surface radius as follows:

measured with diopter gauges. The measurement can be converted to the surface radius as follows: GENIUM