Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 59

Design and Construction of Driven Pile

Foundations—Lessons Learned on the


Central Artery/Tunnel Project
PUBLICATION NO. FHWA-HRT-05-159 JUNE 2006

Research, Development, and Technology


Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296
FOREWORD
The purpose of this report is to document the issues related to the design and construction of
driven pile foundations at the Central Artery/Tunnel project. Construction issues that are
presented include pile heave and the heave of an adjacent building during pile driving.
Mitigation measures, including the installation of wick drains and the use of preaugering, proved
to be ineffective. The results of 15 dynamic and static load tests are also presented and suggest
that the piles have more capacity than what they were designed for. The information presented in
this report will be of interest to geotechnical engineers working with driven pile foundation
systems.

Gary L. Henderson
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development

NOTICE
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation
in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of
the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or


manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the
objective of the document.

QUALITY ASSURANCE STATEMENT


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve
Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards
and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its
information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to
ensure continuous quality improvement.
Technical Report Documentation Page
1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No.
FHWA-HRT-05-159
4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date
Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations— June 2006
Lessons Learned on the Central Artery/Tunnel Project 6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No.


Aaron S. Bradshaw and Christopher D.P. Baxter

9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Work Unit No.


University of Rhode Island
Narragansett, RI 02882 11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH61-03-P-00174
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Office of Infrastructure Research and Development Final Report
Federal Highway Administration January 2003–August 2003
6300 Georgetown Pike 14. Sponsoring Agency Code
McLean, VA 22101-2296

15. Supplementary Notes


Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative (COTR): Carl Ealy, HRDS-06
16. Abstract
Five contracts from the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) project in Boston, MA, were reviewed to document issues
related to design and construction of driven pile foundations. Given the soft and compressible marine clays in the
Boston area, driven pile foundations were selected to support specific structures, including retaining walls,
abutments, roadway slabs, transition structures, and ramps. This report presents the results of a study to assess the
lessons learned from pile driving on the CA/T. This study focused on an evaluation of static and dynamic load test
data and a case study of significant movement of an adjacent building during pile driving. The load test results
showed that the piles have more capacity than what they were designed for. At the site of significant movement of an
adjacent building, installation of wick drains and preaugering to mitigate additional movement proved to be
ineffective. Detailed settlement, inclinometer, and piezometer data are presented.

17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement


Driven piles, heave, CAPWAP, static load test, No restrictions. This document is available to the public
Boston tunnel through the National Technical Information Service,
Springfield, VA 22161.
19. Security Classif. (of this report) 20. Security Classif. (of this 21. No. of Pages 22. Price
page)
Unclassified Unclassified 58
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized
SI* (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS
APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS
Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
LENGTH
in inches 25.4 millimeters mm
ft feet 0.305 meters m
yd yards 0.914 meters m
mi miles 1.61 kilometers km
AREA
2 2
in square inches 645.2 square millimeters mm
2 2
ft square feet 0.093 square meters m
2 2
yd square yard 0.836 square meters m
ac acres 0.405 hectares ha
2 2
mi square miles 2.59 square kilometers km
VOLUME
fl oz fluid ounces 29.57 milliliters mL
gal gallons 3.785 liters L
ft3 cubic feet 0.028 cubic meters m3
3 3
yd cubic yards 0.765 cubic meters m
3
NOTE: volumes greater than 1000 L shall be shown in m
MASS
oz ounces 28.35 grams g
lb pounds 0.454 kilograms kg
T short tons (2000 lb) 0.907 megagrams (or "metric ton") Mg (or "t")
TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)
o o
F Fahrenheit 5 (F-32)/9 Celsius C
or (F-32)/1.8
ILLUMINATION
fc foot-candles 10.76 lux lx
fl foot-Lamberts 3.426 candela/m2 cd/m2
FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS
lbf poundforce 4.45 newtons N
lbf/in2 poundforce per square inch 6.89 kilopascals kPa

APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS


Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
LENGTH
mm millimeters 0.039 inches in
m meters 3.28 feet ft
m meters 1.09 yards yd
km kilometers 0.621 miles mi
AREA
2 2
mm square millimeters 0.0016 square inches in
m2 square meters 10.764 square feet ft2
2 2
m square meters 1.195 square yards yd
ha hectares 2.47 acres ac
2 2
km square kilometers 0.386 square miles mi
VOLUME
mL milliliters 0.034 fluid ounces fl oz
L liters 0.264 gallons gal
3 3
m cubic meters 35.314 cubic feet ft
3 3
m cubic meters 1.307 cubic yards yd
MASS
g grams 0.035 ounces oz
kg kilograms 2.202 pounds lb
Mg (or "t") megagrams (or "metric ton") 1.103 short tons (2000 lb) T
TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)
o o
C Celsius 1.8C+32 Fahrenheit F
ILLUMINATION
lx lux 0.0929 foot-candles fc
2 2
cd/m candela/m 0.2919 foot-Lamberts fl
FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS
N newtons 0.225 poundforce lbf
2
kPa kilopascals 0.145 poundforce per square inch lbf/in
*SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380.
(Revised March 2003)

ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1


ROLE OF DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATIONS ON THE CA/T PROJECT ......................... 1
OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................... 3
SCOPE ................................................................................................................................ 3

CHAPTER 2. DRIVEN PILE DESIGN CRITERIA AND SPECIFICATIONS.................... 5


SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS ......................................................................................... 5
DESIGN CRITERIA AND SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................ 9
Pile Types .................................................................................................................... 9
Preaugering Criteria................................................................................................... 10
Pile Driving Criteria .................................................................................................. 10
Axial Load and Pile Load Test Criteria..................................................................... 13

CHAPTER 3. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODS .................................... 15


EQUIPMENT AND METHODS ..................................................................................... 15
CONSTRUCTION-RELATED ISSUES.......................................................................... 19
Pile Heave.................................................................................................................. 19
Soil Heave.................................................................................................................. 21
Summary.................................................................................................................... 27

CHAPTER 4. DYNAMIC AND STATIC PILE LOAD TEST DATA .................................. 29


LOAD TEST METHODS................................................................................................. 29
Dynamic Load Test Methods..................................................................................... 29
Static Load Test Methods .......................................................................................... 30
LOAD TEST RESULTS................................................................................................... 33
Dynamic Results and Interpretation .......................................................................... 35
Comparison of CAPWAP Data ................................................................................. 38
Static Load Test Data................................................................................................. 39
Comparison of Dynamic and Static Load Test Data ................................................. 41

CHAPTER 5. COST DATA OF DRIVEN PILES................................................................... 43

CHAPTER 6. LESSONS LEARNED ....................................................................................... 45

REFERENCES............................................................................................................................ 47

iii
LIST OF FIGURES
Page

Figure 1. Locations of selected contracts from the CA/T project................................................... 2


Figure 2. Soil profile at the contract C07D1 site as encountered in Boring EB3-5........................ 6
Figure 3. Soil profile at the contract C07D2 site as encountered in Boring EB2-149.................... 7
Figure 4. Soil profile at the contract C08A1 site as encountered in Boring EB6-37...................... 7
Figure 5. Soil profile at the contract C09A4 site as encountered in Boring IC10-13. ................... 8
Figure 6. Soil profile at the contract C19B1 site as encountered in Boring AN3-101. .................. 8
Figure 7. Typical pile details for a 30-cm-diameter PPC pile. ..................................................... 11
Figure 8. Typical pile details for a 41-cm-diameter PPC pile with stinger. ................................. 12
Figure 9. Single-acting diesel hammer. ........................................................................................ 16
Figure 10. Double-acting diesel hammer...................................................................................... 17
Figure 11. Single-acting hydraulic hammer.................................................................................. 17
Figure 12. Typical pile driving record. ......................................................................................... 18
Figure 13. Site plan, piling layout for the arrivals tunnel at Logan Airport. ................................ 19
Figure 14. Site plan showing locations of piles, building footprint, and geotechnical
instrumentation. ................................................................................................................ 22
Figure 15. Settlement data obtained during first phase of pile driving......................................... 23
Figure 16. Settlement data obtained during second phase of pile driving. ................................... 25
Figure 17. Multipoint heave gauge data obtained during second phase of pile driving. .............. 25
Figure 18. Pore pressure data obtained during second phase of pile driving. .............................. 26
Figure 19. Inclinometer data obtained during second phase of pile driving................................. 27
Figure 20. Example of CAPWAP signal matching, test pile 16A1-1........................................... 30
Figure 21. Typical static load test arrangement showing instrumentation. .................................. 31
Figure 22. Load-displacement curves for pile toe, test pile 16A1-1............................................. 37
Figure 23. CAPWAP capacities at end of initial driving (EOD) and beginning
of restrike (BOR). ............................................................................................................. 39
Figure 24. Deflection of pile head during static load testing of pile 12A1-1. .............................. 40
Figure 25. Distribution of load in pile 12A1-1. ............................................................................ 40
Figure 26. Deflection of pile head during static load testing of pile 14........................................ 40
Figure 27. Distribution of load in pile 14. .................................................................................... 40
Figure 28. Deflection of pile head during static load testing of pile IPW. ................................... 41
Figure 29. Distribution of load in pile IPW. ................................................................................. 41

iv
LIST OF TABLES
Page

Table 1. Summary of selected contracts using driven pile foundations. ........................................ 2


Table 2. Summary of pile types used on the selected CA/T contracts. ........................................ 10
Table 3. Summary of pile types and axial capacity (requirements identified in the selected
contracts). ....................................................................................................................... 13
Table 4. Summary of pile driving equipment used on the selected contracts............................... 15
Table 5. Summary of pile spacing from selected contracts. ......................................................... 21
Table 6. Maximum building heave observed during pile driving................................................. 23
Table 7. Summary of pile and preauger information.................................................................... 34
Table 8. Summary of pile driving information. ............................................................................ 34
Table 9. Summary of CAPWAP capacity data............................................................................. 35
Table 10. Summary of CAPWAP soil parameters........................................................................ 38
Table 11. Summary of static load test data. .................................................................................. 39
Table 12. Summary of dynamic and static load test data. ............................................................ 42
Table 13. Summary of contractor’s bid costs for pile driving. ..................................................... 43
Table 14. Summary of contractor’s bid costs for preaugering...................................................... 43

v
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Pile foundations are used extensively for the support of buildings, bridges, and other structures to
safely transfer structural loads to the ground and to avoid excess settlement or lateral movement.
They are very effective in transferring structural loads through weak or compressible soil layers
into the more competent soils and rocks below. A “driven pile foundation” is a specific type of
pile foundation where structural elements are driven into the ground using a large hammer. They
are commonly constructed of timber, precast prestressed concrete (PPC), and steel (H-sections
and pipes).

Historically, piles have been used extensively for the support of structures in Boston, MA. This
is mostly a result of the need to transfer loads through the loose fill and compressible marine
clays that are common in the Boston area. Driven piles, in particular, have been a preferred
foundation system because of their relative ease of installation and low cost. They have played
an important role in the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) project.

ROLE OF DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATIONS ON THE CA/T PROJECT

The CA/T project is recognized as one of the largest and most complex highway projects in the
United States. The project involved the replacement of Boston’s deteriorating six-lane, elevated
central artery (Interstate (I) 93) with an underground highway; construction of two new bridges
over the Charles River (the Leverett Circle Connector Bridge and the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker
Hill Bridge); and the extension of I–90 to Boston’s Logan International Airport and Route 1A.
The project has been under construction since late 1991 and is scheduled to be completed in
2005.(1)

Driven pile foundations were used on the CA/T for the support of road and tunnel slabs, bridge
abutments, egress ramps, retaining walls, and utilities. Because of the large scale of the project,
the construction of the CA/T project was actually bid under 73 separate contracts. Five of these
contracts were selected for this study, where a large number of piles were installed, and 15 pile
load tests were performed. The locations of the individual contracts are shown in figure 1 and
summarized in table 1. A description of the five contracts and associated pile-supported
structures is also given below.

1. Contract C07D1 is located adjacent to Logan Airport in East Boston and included
construction of a part of the I–90 Logan Airport Interchange roadway network. New
roadways, an egress ramp, retained fill sections, a viaduct structure, and retaining walls were
all constructed as part of the contract.(2) Driven piles were used primarily to support the
egress ramp superstructure, abutments, roadway slabs, and retaining walls.

2. Contract C07D2 is located adjacent to Logan Airport in East Boston and included
construction of a portion of the I–90 Logan Airport Interchange. Major new structures
included highway sections, a viaduct structure, a reinforced concrete open depressed
roadway (boat section), and at-grade approach roadways.(2) Driven piles were used to support
the boat section, walls and abutments, and portions of the viaduct.

1
C8A1
C19B1

C7D1/D2
I-93

I-90
C9A4

Figure 1. Locations of selected contracts from the CA/T project.(3)

Table 1. Summary of selected contracts using driven pile foundations.


Contract Location Description
C07D1 Logan Airport I–90 Logan Airport Interchange
C07D2 Logan Airport I–90 Logan Airport Interchange
C08A1 Logan Airport I–90 and Route 1A Interchange
C09A4 Downtown I–93/I–90 Interchange, I-93 Northbound
C19B1 Charlestown I–93 Viaducts and Ramps North of the Charles River

3. Contract C08A1 is located just north of Logan Airport in East Boston and included
construction of the I–90 and Route 1A interchange. This contract involved new roadways,
retained fill structures, a viaduct, a boat section, and a new subway station.(2) Both vertical
and inclined piles were used to support retaining walls and abutments.

4. Contract C09A4 is located just west of the Fort Point Channel in downtown Boston. The
contract encompassed construction of the I–90 and I–93 interchange, and the northbound
section of I–93. Major new structures included surface roads, boat sections, tunnel sections,
viaducts, and a bridge.(2) Piles were used to support five approach structures that provide a
transition from on-grade roadways to the viaduct sections. Piles were also used to support
utility pipelines.

5. Contract C19B1 is located just north of the Charles River in Charlestown. The contract
included the construction of viaduct and ramp structures forming an interchange connecting
Route 1, Storrow Drive, and I–93 roadways. Major new structures included roadway
transition structures, boat sections, retaining walls, and a stormwater pump station.(2) Piles

2
were used to support the ramp structures that transition from on-grade roadways to the
viaduct or boat sections.

OBJECTIVES

The overall objective of this report is to document the lessons learned from the installation of
driven piles on the CA/T project. This includes review and analysis of pile design criteria and
specifications, pile driving equipment and methods, issues encountered during construction,
dynamic and static load test data, and cost data for different pile types and site conditions.

SCOPE

This report consists of six chapters, the first of which presents introductory and background
information about the contracts where significant pile driving occurred. The second chapter
discusses the criteria and specifications used for pile design and construction on the CA/T
project. The third chapter documents the equipment and methods used for pile driving. Major
construction issues encountered during driving, such as pile and soil heave, are also discussed.
The fourth chapter presents the results of pile load tests performed on test piles using static and
dynamic test methods, including a discussion of axial capacity, dynamic soil parameters, and pile
driving criteria. The fifth chapter presents the unit costs for pile driving and preaugering for the
different pile types used, as identified in the original construction bids. Finally, the sixth chapter
summarizes the important findings of this study.

3
CHAPTER 2. DRIVEN PILE DESIGN CRITERIA
AND SPECIFICATIONS

This chapter presents the pile design criteria and specifications used on the CA/T project in
contracts C07D1, C07D2, C08A1, C09A4, and C19B1. These include information on the types
of piles used, capacity requirements, minimum preaugering depths, and testing requirements.
The subsurface conditions on which the design criteria were based are also discussed.

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

Representative soil profiles from each of the contract sites are shown in figures 2 through 6
based on the interpretation of geotechnical borings. (See references 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10)

As shown in figures 2 through 5, the conditions encountered at sites in East Boston (C07D1,
C07D2, and C08A1) and in downtown Boston (C09A4) are similar. The subsurface conditions at
these locations typically consisted of fill overlying layers of organic silt, inorganic sand or silt,
marine clay, glacial soils, and bedrock. The subsurface conditions shown in figure 6 for the
C19B1 site in Charlestown, however, were different from the other four sites. Organic soils and
marine clays were only encountered to a limited extent at the site. Also, the thickness of the fill
layer was greater relative to the other sites.

The physical properties and geological origin of the soils encountered at the contract sites are
described below.(11-12)

Bedrock: The bedrock in the area consists of argillite from the Cambridge formation. The
condition of the bedrock varies considerably with location, even within a given site. Evaluation
of rock core samples indicates that the rock is typically in a soft and weathered condition and
contains a significant amount of fracturing. However, hard and sound bedrock was found at some
locations.

Glacial Soils: The glacial soils were deposited during the last glaciation approximately 12,000
years ago. These deposits include glacial till, and glaciomarine, glaciolacustrine, and
glaciofluvial soils. Till is characterized by a mass of unsorted debris that contains angular
particles composed of a wide variety of grain sizes, ranging from clay-sized particles to large
boulders. Glaciomarine or glaciolacustrine deposits generally consist of clay, silt, and sand,
whereas glaciofluvial deposits contain coarser grained sand and gravel. The glacial soils are
typically dense in nature as indicated by high standard penetration test (SPT) resistance, and the
piles were typically terminated in these deposits.

Marine Soils: Marine soils were deposited over the glacial soils during glacial retreat in a
quiescent deepwater environment. The marine clay layer, as shown in figures 2 through 5, is the
thickest unit in the profile, but was encountered only to a limited extent at the Charlestown site.
The clay is generally overconsolidated in the upper portions of the layer and is characterized by
relatively higher strengths. The overconsolidation is a result of past desiccation that occurred
during a period of low sea level. By comparison, the deeper portions of the clay layer are much

5
softer and penetration of the SPT split spoon can sometimes occur with just the weight of the
drilling rods alone.

Inorganic Soils: Inorganic silts and sands are typically encountered overlying the marine soils.
These soils were deposited by alluvial processes.

Organic Soils: The organic soils that are encountered below the fill generally consist of organic
silt and may contain layers of peat or fine sand. These soils are the result of former tidal marshes
that existed along the coastal areas.

Fill Soils: Fill material was placed in the more recent past to raise the grade for urban
development. The fill layer is highly variable in its thickness and composition, ranging from silts
and clays to sands and gravels. The consistency or density is also variable as indicated by the
SPT blow counts. The variability in the fill is attributed to the characteristics of the particular
borrow source material and the methods of placement.

SPT N Value
ET2-C2
1 10 100
0
Fill
5
Organic Silt
Sand
10

15

20
Depth (m)

25
Marine Clay

30

35

40

Sand (Glaciofluvial)
45
Glacial Till
50 EB3-5
Bedrock
55

Figure 2. Soil profile at the contract C07D1 site as encountered in Boring EB3-5.

6
SPT N Value
923
1 10 100
0
Fill

5 Organic Silt

Sand

10

15
Depth (m)

Marine Clay

20

25

30
Silt(Glaciomarine)

35
EB2-149
Bedrock
40

Figure 3. Soil profile at the contract C07D2 site as encountered in Boring EB2-149.

SPT N Value
ET2-C2
1 10 100
0
Fill

Silt and Sand


10

20
Marine Clay

30
Depth (m)

40

50 Sand and Gravel


(Glaciofluvial)

60

EB6-37 Bedrock
70

Figure 4. Soil profile at the contract C08A1 site as encountered in Boring EB6-37.

7
SPT N Value
12A1-1
1 10 100
0
Fill

5 Organic Silt

10

15

20
Depth (m)

Marine Clay
25

30

35

40
Sand and Silt
(Glaciofluvial)
45
IC10-13 Bedrock
50

Figure 5. Soil profile at the contract C09A4 site as encountered in Boring IC10-13.

SPT N Value
IPW
1 10 100 Organic Silt
0

5
Granular Fill

10
Depth (m)

Sand

15
Gravel
(Glaciomarine)

20
Glacial Till

AN3-101
Bedrock
25

Figure 6. Soil profile at the contract C19B1 site as encountered in Boring AN3-101.

8
DESIGN CRITERIA AND SPECIFICATIONS

The variable fill and compressible clay soils encountered at depth necessitated the use of deep
foundations. Driven piles were selected, and design criteria and specifications were developed
for their installation, ultimate capacity, and testing. Because the CA/T project was located in
Massachusetts, the design criteria were required to satisfy the regulations given in the
Massachusetts State building code.(13) The technical content of the State code is based on the
1993 edition of the Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA) national building code.

The specifications that were used for each CA/T contract are contained in two documents of the
Massachusetts Highway Department (MHD). The first document includes the general
requirements for all CA/T contracts and is entitled Supplemental Specifications and CA/T
Supplemental Specifications to Construction Details of the Standard Specifications for Highways
and Bridges (Division II) for Central Artery (I-93)/Tunnel (I-90) Project in the City of Boston.(14)

The specifications pertaining to individual contracts are covered in a second document


concerning special provisions.(15) The special provisions are necessary given the uniqueness of
the environmental conditions, soil conditions, and structure types found in each contract. The
special provisions present specific details regarding the pile types, pile capacity requirements,
and minimum preaugering depths.

Information selected from the specification regarding pile types, preaugering criteria, pile driving
criteria, and axial load and test criteria is highlighted below.

Pile Types

Two types of piles were specified on the selected contracts of the CA/T: (1) PPC piles, and
(2) concrete-filled steel pipe piles. The PPC piles were fabricated using 34.5- to 41.3-megapascal
(MPa) (28-day strength) concrete and were prestressed to 5.2 to 8.3 MPa. The design drawings
of typical 30-centimeter (cm)- and 41-cm-diameter square PPC piles are shown in figures 7 and
8, respectively.

To prevent damage to the pile tips during driving in very dense materials, the PPC piles were
also fitted with 1.5-meter (m)-long steel H-pile “stingers.” In the 41-cm-diameter PPC piles, an
HP14x89 section was used as the stinger. The stingers were welded to a steel plate that was cast
into the pile toe, as shown in figure 8. Stingers were used intermittently on the 30-m-diameter
PPC piles, consisting of HP10 by 42 sections.

The concrete-filled steel pipe piles were 31 to 61 cm in diameter, with wall thicknesses ranging
from 0.95 to 1.3 cm. The piles were driven closed-ended by welding a steel cone or flat plate
onto the pile tip prior to driving. Once the pile was driven to the required depth, the pile was
filled with concrete.

A summary of the pile types used on the CA/T is given in table 2, along with the estimated
quantities driven. The quantities are based on the contractor’s bid quantities that were obtained
directly from Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff. As shown in table 2, the 41-cm-diameter PPC piles
were the dominant pile type used, accounting for more than 70 percent of the total length of pile
driven.

9
Table 2. Summary of pile types used on the selected CA/T contracts.

Pile Type Estimated Length of Pile Driven (m)


C07D1 C07D2 C08A1 C09A4 C19B1 Total
32-cm pipe - - - - 5,550 5,550
41-cm pipe - - - 5,578 - 5,578
61-cm pipe - - - - 296 296
30-cm square PPC 7,969 3,981 792 3,658 2,177 18,577
41-cm square PPC 32,918 19,879 8,406 14,326 6,279 81,808

Preaugering Criteria

Preaugering was specified for all piles that were installed in embankments or within the specified
limits of adjacent structures. Settlement problems observed at the Hilton hotel (contract C07D1)
initiated the use of preaugering to reduce the potential for soil heave caused by pile installation.
Soil heave is discussed further in chapter 3. The required depth of preaugering varied depending
on the contract and pile location, but ranged from 7.6 to 32.0 m below the ground surface.

Pile Driving Criteria

The specifications required that a Wave Equation Analysis of Piles (WEAP) be used to select the
pile driving equipment. The WEAP model estimates hammer performance, driving stresses, and
driving resistance for an assumed hammer configuration, pile type, and soil profile. The
acceptability of the hammer system was based on the successful demonstration that the pile
could be driven to the required capacity or tip elevation without damage to the pile, within a
penetration resistance of 3 to 15 blows per 2.5 cm.

The pile driving resistance criteria estimated from the WEAP analysis was also used as the initial
driving criteria for the installation of the test piles. Additional WEAP analyses were required for
changes in the hammer type, pile type or size, or for significant variations in the soil profile. It
was also specified that the WEAP analyses be rerun with modifications to the input parameters
to match the results obtained from the dynamic or static load test results. Modifications to the
driving criteria could be made as appropriate, based on the results of the pile load tests.

10
11

1 foot = 0.30 m
1 inch = 25.4 mm
Figure 7. Typical pile details for a 30-cm-diameter PPC pile.
12

1 foot = 0.30 m
1 inch = 25.4 mm
Figure 8. Typical pile details for a 41-cm-diameter PPC pile with stinger.
Axial Load and Pile Load Test Criteria

The required allowable axial capacities that were identified in the special provisions are
summarized in table 3. Allowable axial load capacities ranged from 311 to 1,583 kilonewtons
(kN). Lateral load criteria were not identified in the selected contracts.

Table 3. Summary of pile types and axial capacity


(requirements identified in the selected contracts).
Required Allowable Axial
Pile Type
Capacity (kN)
32-cm pipe 890
41-cm pipe 1,583
61-cm pipe 311
30-cm square PPC 356–756
41-cm square PPC 534–1,379

The axial capacity of the piles was verified using pile load tests, which were specified in section
940.62 of the general specifications.(14) The required ultimate capacities for the load tests were
specified by applying a minimum factor of safety of 2.0 to the required allowable values. A
factor of safety of 2.25 was specified in contract C19B1, which is consistent with the
recommended American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
criteria for piles designed and evaluated based only on a subsurface exploration, static analysis,
WEAP analysis, and dynamic pile testing.(16)

Dynamic load testing was required for test piles and for a portion of the production piles to
monitor driving-induced stresses in the piles, evaluate hammer efficiency and performance,
estimate the soil-resistance distribution, and evaluate the pile capacity during initial installation
driving and restrikes. A waiting period of 12 to 36 hours (h) was required after pile installation
before restrike tests could be performed.

Static load tests were required for test piles to confirm that the minimum specified allowable
capacity was achieved and to better estimate or establish higher allowable design capacities.
Section 1817.4.1 of the Massachusetts State building code says that the load reaching the top of
the bearing stratum under maximum test load for a single pile or pile group must not be less than
100 percent of the allowable design load for end-bearing piles. Therefore, the specifications
required that the static load test demonstrate that 100 percent of the design load was transferred
to the bearing layer. If any of the test criteria were not met, the contractor was required to
perform additional static load test(s).

13
CHAPTER 3. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

This chapter presents a description of the equipment and methods used during pile driving
operations at the CA/T project in the selected contracts. This includes a general overview of
impact hammers, how a pile is installed, and how to tell when a pile has reached the desired
capacity. Construction issues associated with pile driving during this project are also presented.
Pile heave was identified as an issue during construction of the arrivals tunnel at Logan Airport,
which required a significant number of piles to be redriven. At another site at the airport, soil
heave resulting from pile driving caused significant movement of an adjacent building and
required changes to the installation process, including preaugering the piles to a depth of 26 m.

EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

Impact hammers were used to drive all of the piles for the CA/T project. An impact hammer
consists of a heavy ram weight that is raised mechanically or hydraulically to some height
(termed “stroke”) and dropped onto the head of the pile. During impact, the kinetic energy of the
falling ram is transferred to the pile, causing the pile to penetrate the ground.

Many different pile driving hammers are commercially available, and the major distinction
between hammers is how the ram is raised and how it impacts the pile. The size of the hammer is
characterized by its maximum potential energy, referred to as the “rated energy.” The rated
energy can be expressed as the product of the hammer weight and the maximum stroke.
However, the actual energy transferred to the pile is much less a result of energy losses within
the driving system and pile. The average transferred energies range from 25 percent for a diesel
hammer on a concrete pile to 50 percent for an air hammer on a steel pile.(17)

Three types of hammers were used on the selected contracts: (1) a single-acting diesel, (2) a
double-acting diesel, and (3) a single-acting hydraulic. The manufacturers and characteristics of
the hammers used in these contracts are summarized in table 4, along with the pile types driven.
Schematics of the three types of hammers are shown in figures 9 through 11.

Table 4. Summary of pile driving equipment used on the selected contracts.


Rated
Make and Model Type Action Energy Pile Types Driven Contracts Designation
(kN-m)
Delmag™
Diesel Double 153.5 41-cm PPC C07D1 I
D 46-32
C07D1,
HPSI 2000 Hydraulic Single 108.5 41-cm PPC II
C07D2
31-cm PPC, 41-cm C08A1,
ICE 1070 Diesel Double 98.5 III
PPC, 41-cm pipe C09A4
HPSI 1000 Hydraulic Single 67.8 41-cm PPC C19B1 IV
Delmag D 19-42 Diesel Single 58.0 32-cm pipe C19B1 V
Delmag D 30-32 Diesel Single 99.9 32-cm pipe C19B1 VI

A single-acting diesel hammer (figure 9) works by initially raising the hammer with a cable and
then releasing the ram. As the ram free-falls within the cylinder, fuel is injected into the

15
combustion chamber beneath the ram and the fuel/air mixture becomes pressurized. Once the
ram strikes the anvil at the bottom of the cylinder, the fuel/air mixture ignites, pushing the ram
back to the top of the stroke. This process will continue as long as fuel is injected into the
combustion chamber and the stroke is sufficient to ignite the fuel.

Figure 9. Single-acting diesel hammer.(17)

A double-acting diesel hammer (figure 10) works like the single-acting diesel hammer except
that the system is closed at the top of the ram. As the ram rebounds to the top of the stroke,
gasses are compressed in the bounce chamber at the top of the hammer. The bounce chamber
temporarily stores and redirects energy to the top of the ram, allowing the stroke height to be
reduced and the blow rate to be increased. Bounce chamber pressure is monitored during pile
driving because it is correlated with hammer energy. The stroke of the hammer, and thus the
energy, is controlled using the fuel pump. This is effective for avoiding bouncing of the hammer
during the upstroke, which can lead to unstable driving conditions and damage to the hammer.(17)

A single-acting hydraulic hammer (figure 11) uses a hydraulic actuator and pump to retract the
ram to the top of the stroke. Once the ram is at the top of the stroke, the ram is released and free-

16
falls under gravity, striking the anvil. An advantage of hydraulic hammers is that the free-fall
height, and thus the energy delivered to the pile, can be controlled more accurately.

Figure 10. Double-acting diesel hammer.(17) Figure 11. Single-acting


hydraulic hammer.(17)

In preparation for driving, a pile is first hoisted to an upright position using the crane and is
placed into the leads of the pile driver. The leads are braces that help position the piles in place
and maintain alignment of the hammer-pile system so that a concentric blow is delivered to the
pile for each impact. Once the pile is positioned at the desired location, the hammer is lowered
onto the pile butt. A pile cushion consisting of wood, metal, or composite material is placed
between the pile and the hammer prior to driving to reduce stresses within the pile during
driving.

Once the pile is in position, pile driving is initiated and the number of hammer blows per 0.3 m
of penetration is recorded. Toward the end of driving, blows are recorded for every 2.5 cm of
penetration. Pile driving is terminated when a set of driving criteria is met. Pile driving criteria
are generally based on the following: (1) the minimum required embedment depth, (2) the
minimum number of blows required to achieve capacity, and (3) the maximum number of blows
to avoid damage to the pile. All information that is associated with pile driving activities (e.g.,
hammer types, pile types, pile lengths, blow counts, etc.) is recorded on a pile driving log.

17
A typical pile driving log is shown in figure 12. This particular record is for the installation of a
24-m-long, 41-cm-diameter PPC pile installed at the airport as part of contract C07D2. A
hydraulic hammer with an 89-kN ram and a 1.2-m stroke was used. The number of blows per 0.3
m of driving was recorded from an embedment depth of 9.5 m to a final depth of 16.5 m. At a
depth of 16.5 m, the hammer blows required to drive the pile 2.5 cm were recorded in the right-
hand column of the record. Driving was stopped after a final blow count of 39 blows per 2.5 cm
was recorded.

Once a pile has been installed, the hammer may be used to drive the pile again at a later time.
Additional driving that is performed after initial installation is referred to as a redrive or restrike.
A redrive may be necessary for two reasons: (1) to evaluate the long-term capacity of the pile
(i.e., pile setup or pile relaxation), or (2) to reestablish elevations and capacity in piles that have
been subject to heave. Both of these issues were significant for the CA/T project, and they are
discussed in the next section.

Figure 12. Typical pile driving record.

18
CONSTRUCTION-RELATED ISSUES

Pile Heave

Pile heave is a phenomenon where displacement of soil from pile penetration causes vertical or
horizontal movement in nearby, previously driven piles. Pile heave generally occurs in
insensitive clays that behave as incompressible materials during pile driving.(17) In these soils,
the elevation of adjacent piles is often continuously monitored during driving to look for heave.
If a pile moves in excess of some predetermined criterion, the pile is redriven to redevelop the
required penetration and capacity. From a cost perspective, pile heave is important because
redriving piles can require significant additional time and effort.

Pile Layout and Soil Conditions

Of the contracts reviewed, pile heave was an issue during construction of the arrivals tunnel at
Logan Airport (contract C07D2). The location of the C07D2 site is shown in figure 1. A plan
view of the arrivals tunnel structure showing the pile locations is shown in figure 13. The tunnel
structure is approximately 159 m in length and is located where ramp 1A-A splits from the
arrivals road. The tunnel was constructed using the cut-and-cover method, and thus a portion of
the overburden soil was excavated prior to pile driving.

Figure 13. Site plan, piling layout for the arrivals tunnel at Logan Airport.(18)

Approximately 576 piles were driven beneath the alignment of the tunnel structure. The piles,
consisting of 41-cm-diameter PPC piles, were designed to support a concrete mat foundation in
addition to a viaduct located above the tunnel. They were generally installed in a grid-like
pattern, with a spacing of approximately 1.2 m by 1.8 m center to center (figure 13).

The general subsurface conditions based on borings advanced in the area prior to excavation
consist of approximately 3 to 6.1 m of cohesive and/or granular fill, overlying 1.5 to 3 m of
organic silt and sand, overlying 12.2 to 42.7 m of soft marine clay, overlying 0.9 to 2.8 m of
glacial silts and sands, underlain by bedrock.(6) Excavation was accomplished into the clay layer,

19
resulting in a clay layer thickness of about 6.1 m at the southeastern end of the structure to
around 3.7 m at the northwestern end.(19)

The piles were designed for end bearing in the dense glacial silts and sands, and were preaugered
to about the bottom of the marine clay layer to minimize heave and displacement of these soils.
The preauger depths were approximately 30 to 70 percent of the final embedment depths of the
piles. Preaugering was done using a 46-cm-diameter auger, which is the equivalent circular
diameter of the 41-cm square pile. The piles were driven using an HPSI 2000 hydraulic hammer.

Field Observations

Pile heave was monitored during construction by field engineers. As described in the
Massachusetts State building code and project specifications, piles identified with vertical
displacement exceeding 1.3 cm required redriving. According to field records, 391 of the 576
piles (68 percent) installed required redriving. Of those 391 piles, 337 piles (86 percent) were
driven in one redrive event, 53 piles (14 percent) required a second redrive event, and 1 pile
required a third redrive event. The impact on the construction schedule or costs was not
identified. Despite the use of partial preaugering, a significant portion of the piles showed
excessive heave and required substantial redrive efforts. Heave is attributed to the displacement
of the underlying glacial soils that were not preaugered.

Pile heave issues were not identified on the other CA/T contracts. Since partial preaugering was
used on the majority of these contracts, the difference may be related to the spacing between
piles. Table 5 summarizes the pile spacing used on the selected contracts. As shown in table 5,
the pile spacing of 1.2 m used at the arrivals tunnel structure is significantly less than the spacing
used for structures of comparable size. Therefore, it is anticipated that a pile spacing of greater
than about 1.8 m may limit pile heave to within the 1.3-cm criterion.

20
Table 5. Summary of pile spacing from selected contracts.
Contract Structure Foundation Bent Spacing (m) Pile Spacing (m)
Slab 2.7 2.7
Ramp ET
C07D1 Pile cap 1.4 1.4
Egress Ramps Pile cap 1.8 1.8
Pile cap 1.8 1.2
C07D2 Arrivals Tunnel Pile cap 1.8 1.2
Pile cap 1.4 1.2
South Abutment Pile cap 3.05 1.82.4
C08A1 East Abutment Pile cap 1.1–2.7 1.4–2.6
West Abutment Pile cap 1.1–2.1 1.4–2.7
Utilities Pile cap 2.0–2.7 1.8
Slab 3.7 5.6
Pile cap 1.4 2.6
Approach No. 1
C09A4 Pile cap NA 1.4
Pile cap NA 1.5
Approach No. 2 Slab 4.57 3.1–4.6
Approach No. 5 Slab 3.7–4.9 2.1–4.3
NS-SN Slab 3.7 4.9
C19B1 Ramp CT Slab 3.1 4.6
Ramp LT Slab 2.9–3.2 2.4–3.1
NA = not applicable or available

Soil Heave

Soil heave caused by pile driving was primarily responsible for the significant movement
observed at a building adjacent to the construction of the east abutment and east approach to
ramp ET at Logan Airport (contract C07D1). Shortly after the start of pile driving, settlement in
excess of 2.5 cm was measured at the perimeter of the building and cracking was observed on the
structure itself. These observations prompted the installation of additional geotechnical
instrumentation, installation of wick drains to dissipate excess pore pressure generated during
pile driving, and preaugering of the piles to reduce soil displacement. Despite these efforts,
heave continued to a maximum vertical displacement of 8.8 cm. (See references 20, 21, 22, and
23.)

Pile Layout and Soil Conditions

The location of the project in relation to the building is shown in figure 14. The portion of the
east approach that is adjacent to the building consists of two major structures, including an
abutment and a pile-supported slab. Both structures are supported by 41-cm-diameter PPC piles.
The layout of the pile foundation system is also shown in figure 14. The piles for the slab are
arranged in a grid-like pattern with a spacing of about 2.7 m center to center. A total of 353 piles
support the structures.

21
Figure 14. Site plan showing locations of piles, building footprint,
and geotechnical instrumentation.

Prior to construction activities, five deformation monitoring points (DMPs) were installed along
the front perimeter of the building closest to the work area. The DMPs consisted of 13-cm-long
hex bolts fixed to the building. These points, designated DMP-101 through DMP-105, were
monitored for vertical movement. The DMPs were monitored initially by the contractor and
subsequently monitored by an independent consultant.

The subsurface conditions based on borings advanced in the area consist of approximately 3 to
4.6 m of fill, overlying 3 to 6.1 m of organic silt and sand, overlying 27.4 to 33.5 m of soft
marine clay, overlying 6.1 to 12.2 m of glacial silt and sand, underlain by bedrock. The piles
were designed as end bearing piles to be driven into the dense underlying glacial materials. The
glacial soils were encountered at depths of approximately 39.6 to 45.7 m below the ground
surface and bedrock was encountered at a depth of approximately 48.8 m.

Field Observations (Phase I Pile Driving)

Pile driving for the east approach was executed in two phases. The first phase began on April 5,
1995, and concluded on June 10, 1995. The second phase began on July 13, 1995, and concluded
on August 17, 1995. The piles were driven using a Delmag D46-32 single-acting diesel hammer.
The extent of the first phase of pile driving is shown in figure 15. This first phase of work was
performed no closer than 27.4 m from the building. The majority of the piles for the slab were
installed from the west side of the site working toward the east during the periods of April 5 to
April 23, and May 15 to June 2. The majority of the piles for the abutment were installed at the
west end of the site during the period of April 23 to May 15.

22
Settlement data obtained by the contractor during the first phase of pile driving are shown in
figure 15. On April 21, 1995, after approximately 2 weeks of pile driving on the west side of the
site, initial heave displacements of 0.9 and 0.7 cm were measured in DMP-102 and DMP-103,
respectively. Notable heave was observed at DMP-101 and DMP-104 on May 1, which
registered displacements of 1.3 and 0.8 cm, respectively. An initial heave displacement of 0.4 cm
was measured in DMP-105 on May 9. The heave increased steadily to maximum values as pile
driving commenced toward the east side of the site.

6
Phase I
5 DMP 101
Vertical Heave (cm)

4 DMP 102
DMP 103
3 DMP 104
2 DMP 105

1
0
-1
-2
1/25 2/8 2/22 3/8 3/22 4/5 4/19 5/3 5/17 5/31 6/14 6/28
Date

Figure 15. Settlement data obtained during first phase of pile driving.

A summary of the maximum heave values attributed to the first phase of driving is given in
table 6. The greatest amount of heave occurred in DMP-103, which was centrally located relative
to the pile grid. On June 2, 1995, 1 week before completion of construction, the heave measured
in DMPs 101 through 103 began to level off and subside.

Table 6. Maximum building heave (in cm) observed during pile driving.
Construction
DMP 101 DMP 102 DMP 103 DMP 104 DMP 105
Phase
Phase I 2.5 3.5 4.3 3.8 1.6
Phase II 3.6 4.8 5.3 3.7 1.3

As a result of the excessive heave (greater than 2.5 cm) observed in the first phase of pile
driving, mitigation measures were implemented for the second phase of work. This was critical
considering that the second phase involved driving piles even closer to the building. The
geotechnical consultant recommended three approaches to limiting heave based on schedule and
cost constraints.(24) These included: (1) installation and monitoring of pore pressures in the clay
during driving and adjusting mitigating measures as appropriate; (2) installation of wick drains
between the Hilton and the work area to intercept and aid in the reduction of pore pressures
beneath the Hilton that may be generated from pile driving; and (3) based on the performance of
the wick drains, preauger phase II piles to limit soil displacement.

23
Field Observations (Phase II Pile Driving)

Prior to the start of the second phase of pile driving, three double-nested vibrating wire
piezometers (VWPZ) were installed to measure pore pressures. These piezometers were installed
in close proximity to three of the existing deformation monitoring points (DMP-102 through
DMP-104). Additional instrumentation was also installed following the start of the second phase
of work, including a multipoint heave gauge (MPHG) to measure vertical movement with depth
and an inclinometer to measure lateral movement. The locations of the additional geotechnical
instrumentation are shown in figure 14.

The second phase of pile driving began on July 13, 1995, and concluded on August 17, 1995.
The extent of the work area is also shown in figure 14. Pile driving generally progressed from the
west side of the site toward the east. The location of the second phase of work was no closer than
15.2 m from the existing building.

Shortly after the start of driving, 200 wick drains were installed from July 20 to July 28, 1995,
around the western and northern perimeters of the work area. The drains were installed through
the clay layer at a spacing of 1.2 m center to center.

Settlement data for the second phase of work, shown in figure 16, demonstrate that heave began
to increase at DMP-101 through DMP-104 approximately 1 week after the start of pile driving.
Based on the review of initial settlement data, preaugering was implemented from August 4,
1995, through the completion of construction. Preaugering was accomplished using a 41-cm-
diameter auger to a depth of 26 m, which is approximately 50 to 60 percent of the pile’s final
embedment depth. The auger diameter is 11 percent less than the 46-cm equivalent circular
diameter for a 41-cm square pile.

As shown in figure 16, heave continued to increase even after preaugering was initiated. Net
heave values of 3.3 to 13.5 cm (table 6) were observed from the start of preaugering to the
completion of pile driving, resulting in total heave values ranging from 2.6 to 8.8 cm.

24
10
Phase I Phase II
9
8

Vertical heave (cm)


Begin preaugering
7
Install wick drains
6
5 DMP 101
DMP 102
4
DMP 103
3 DMP 104
2 DMP 105
1
0
4/5 4/19 5/3 5/17 5/31 6/14 6/28 7/12 7/26 8/9 8/23
Date

Figure 16. Settlement data obtained during second phase of pile driving.

Data from the multipoint heave gauge showed that the magnitude of the heave was relatively
constant within the upper 30 m, as shown in figure 17. However, vertical displacement decreases
dramatically below this depth to approximately zero at the bedrock depth of approximately 50 m.
The maximum heave of approximately 5.1 cm at a depth of 3 m below the ground surface is also
consistent with the maximum value of 5.3 cm recorded at DMP-103.

Vertical Heave (cm)


-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
Fill
10 Silt and Sand
Initial Depth (m)

20
Marine Clay
30

40 8-Aug
11-Aug Glacial Soils
50 18-Aug
Bedrock
60

Figure 17. Multipoint heave gauge data obtained during second phase
of pile driving.

25
The excess pore pressures recorded during the second phase of pile driving are presented in
figure 17. The six gauges shown in figure 18 correspond to three pairs (55894–55895,
55896–55897, and 55898–55899) located adjacent to DMP-102, DMP-103, and DMP-104,
respectively. There was an increase in the excess pore pressures throughout the pile driving, with
maximum values ranging from 0.6 to 12.8 m of head with an average of 5.9 m. The greatest head
was measured in VWPZ-55896 at a location nearest DMP-103. These data suggest that the wick
drains were not effective in dissipating all excess pore pressures generated during pile driving.

16
Excess Pore Pressure Head (m)

14
12
55894
10
55895
8 55896
6 55897

4 55898
55899
2
0
-2
6/28 7/5 7/12 7/19 7/26 8/2 8/9 8/16 8/23
Date

Figure 18. Pore pressure data obtained during second phase of pile driving.

The inclinometer data that were obtained adjacent to the building are shown in figure 19. These
data showed increasing lateral movement in the direction of the building during pile driving. The
maximum net lateral deformations were relatively constant with depth within the upper 30 m of
the profile. A maximum deformation of approximately 6 cm was recorded at a depth of
approximately 34 m. Similar to the vertical deformations, the lateral deformations decreased
sharply below this depth to zero at the bedrock depth. These data suggest that the lateral
deformations are of the same magnitude and behavior as the vertical deformations.

26
Lateral Deformation (cm)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
Fill
10 12-Aug Silt and Sand
16-Aug
20 18-Aug

Depth (m) Marine Clay


30

40

Glacial Soils
50
Bedrock
60

Figure 19. Inclinometer data obtained during second phase of pile driving.

Summary

Soil heave was recognized early on as a potential problem and following phase I driving in
contract C07D1, several mitigation efforts were initiated. These included installing wick drains
to promote rapid dissipation of excess pore pressures and preaugering piles through a portion of
the soft clay layer to a depth of 26 m. Additional instrumentation was installed, including
piezometers, MPHG, and an inclinometer. Despite these efforts, heave during phase II pile
driving continued to increase to a maximum displacement of 8.8 cm. The piezometer data
indicate that the wick drains were not effective in rapidly dissipating pore pressures generated
during pile driving. The deformation data indicated that soil heave can still occur in piles that are
preaugered over a portion of their embedded depth.

27
CHAPTER 4. DYNAMIC AND STATIC PILE LOAD TEST DATA

This chapter presents the methodology and results of dynamic and static pile load test data for
the selected contracts. At least two static load tests were performed per contract, and the results
of 15 tests are presented herein. The Pile Driving Analyzer® (PDA) was also used on these piles
for comparison, and analyses were performed periodically during production pile installation.
Issues related to design loads and load test criteria are discussed, including factors of safety and
load transfer requirements. A comparison is made between the results of the static load tests and
the CAse Pile Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP®) analyses. The CAPWAP data suggest that
the quake values generally exceed the values typically recommended in wave equation analyses.
A review of the literature is presented to evaluate the significance of this finding. High blow
counts recorded during the end of driving also suggest that the majority of the estimated pile
capacities from CAPWAP are conservative.

LOAD TEST METHODS

Dynamic Load Test Methods

Approximately 160 dynamic pile load tests were performed to evaluate pile capacity, driving
stresses, and hammer performance during the installation of test piles and production piles. The
data presented in this report were obtained from project files. (See references 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,
30, 31, 32, 33, 34.)

The PDA was used to record, digitize, and processes the force and acceleration signals measured
at the pile head. These signals were used to estimate static capacity using the Case Method, a
simplified field procedure for estimating pile capacity, as well as the more rigorous CAPWAP.
The dynamic load test results discussed in this report are primarily from the CAPWAP analyses.
A description of the fundamentals of dynamic testing, including CAPWAP, is presented in
Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations (Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
report no. FHWA-HI-97-013).(17) The dynamic testing was carried out in general accordance
with project specifications section 940.62.C,(14) Dynamic Load Tests, and D4945-89 of the
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). D4945-89 is entitled “Standard Method
for High Strain Testing of Piles.”(35)

CAPWAP is an iterative curve-fitting technique where the pile response determined in a wave
equation model is matched to the measured response of the actual pile for a single hammer blow.
The pile model consists of a series of continuous segments and the total resistance of the
embedded portion of the pile is represented by a series of springs (static resistance) and dashpots
(dynamic resistance). Static resistance is formulated from an idealized elastoplastic soil model,
where the quake parameter defines the displacement at which the soil changes from elastic to
plastic behavior. The dynamic resistance is formulated using a viscous damping model that is a
function of a damping parameter and the velocity.

First, the forces and accelerations acting on the actual pile during initial impact are recorded with
a strain gauge and accelerometer mounted at the pile head. The measured acceleration is used as
input to the pile model along with reasonable estimates of soil resistance, quake, and damping

29
parameters. The force-time signal at the pile head is calculated using the model and is compared
to the measured force-time signal. The soil-resistance distribution, quake, and damping
parameters are subsequently modified until agreement is reached between the measured and
calculated signals. An example of a comparison between a measured and calculated force signal
from one of the test piles is shown in figure 20. Once an acceptable match is achieved, the
solution yields an estimate of ultimate static capacity, the distribution of soil resistance along the
pile, and the quake and damping parameters.

2500

2000

Measured
Force (kN)

1500 Calculated

1000

500

0
0 20 40 60 80
Time (ms)

Figure 20. Example of CAPWAP signal matching, test pile 16A1-1.(33)

Static Load Test Methods

Static load tests were performed during the test phase of each contract to verify the design
assumptions and load-carrying capacity of the piles. Telltale rods installed at various depths
within the piles were used to evaluate the load transfer behavior of the piles with regard to the
surrounding soil and bearing stratum. The static tests were carried out in general accordance with
project specifications section 940.62.B.4,(14) Short Duration Test, and the ASTM’s D1143-81,
which is entitled “Standard Test Method for Piles Under Static Axial Compression Load.”(36) The
static load test data presented in this report were obtained from the project files. (See references
37 through 50.)

Static loads were applied and maintained using a hydraulic jack and were measured with a load
cell. A typical load test arrangement is shown in figure 21. Reaction to the jack load is provided
by a steel frame that is attached to an array of steel H-piles located at least 3 m away from the
test pile. Pile head deflections were measured relative to a fixed reference beam using dial
gauges. Telltale measurements were made in reference to the pile head or the reference beam
using dial gauges. Pile head and telltale deflection data were recorded for each loading
increment.

30
Figure 21. Typical static load test arrangement
showing instrumentation.(51)

An excerpt from the loading procedures for short-duration load test section 940.62 is given
below(14):

a) Apply 25 percent of the allowable design load every one-half hour up to the
greater of the following: [two alternatives are described; the most general is
200 percent of the design load]. Longer time increments may be used, but each
time increment should be the same. At 100 percent of the design load, unload
to zero and hold for one-half hour; then reload to 100 percent and continue 25
percent incremental loads. At 150 percent, unload to zero and hold for one-half
hour; then reload to 150 percent and continue 25 percent incremental loads. In
no case shall the load be changed if the rate of settlement is not decreasing
with time.

b) At the maximum applied load, maintain the load for a minimum of one hour
and until the settlement (measured at the lowest point of the pile at which
measurements are made) over a one-hour period is not greater than 0.254 mm
(0.01 inch).

c) Remove 25 percent of the load every 15 minutes until zero load is reached.
Longer time increments may be used, but each shall be the same.

d) Measure rebound at zero load for a minimum of one hour.

31
e) After 200 percent of the load has been applied and removed, and the test has
shown that the pile has additional capacity, i.e., it has not reached ultimate
capacity, continue testing as follows. Reload the test pile to the 200 percent
design load level in increments of 50 percent of the allowable design load,
allowing 20 minutes between increments. Then increase the load in increments
of 10 percent until either the pile or the frame reach their allowable structural
capacity, or the pile can no longer support the added load. If failure at
maximum load does not occur, hold load for one hour. At maximum achieved
load, remove the load in four equal decrements, allowing 15 minutes between
decrements.

The capacity of the test piles was selected as the greater capacity defined by two failure criteria.
The first criteria establishes the allowable design capacity as “50 percent of the applied test load
which results in a net settlement of the top of the pile of up to 1.3 cm, after rebound, for a
minimum of one hour at zero load.” The second criterion uses Davisson’s criteria as described
below.

The Davisson offset limit load criterion was used on the project to define the ultimate capacity,
or failure, of the test piles.(52) The ultimate load is interpreted as the point at which the
displacement of the pile head meets a limit that is offset to the elastic compression line of the
pile. For piles less than 61 cm in diameter, the limit is defined by the following linear
relationship:

S f = S e + (0.38 + 0.008D )
(1)

where,

Sf = Movement of pile top (cm).


D = Pile diameter or width (cm).
Se = Elastic compression of total pile length (cm).

The elastic compression in this case refers to the pile deflection that would occur if 100 percent
of the applied load was transferred to the toe of the pile (i.e., zero shaft friction), and is given by
the following equation:

QL
Se =
AE (2)

where,

Q = Applied load.
L = Total length of pile.
A = Cross-sectional area of the pile.
E = Modulus of elasticity of the pile.

The average load in the pile at the midpoint between two telltale locations was estimated from
the elastic shortening of the pile using the following equation:

32
D1 − D 2
Q avg = AE
ΔL (3)

where,

A = Area of pile.
E = Modulus of elasticity of the pile.
D1 = Deflection at upper telltale location.
D2 = Deflection at lower telltale location.
ΔL = Distance between the upper and lower telltale locations.
Both equations 2 and 3 require the modulus of elasticity of the pile. The specifications require
that the elastic modulus be determined via compression tests performed on representative
concrete samples (ASTM C 469-87a). However, this method is not really applicable to the
concrete-filled steel pipe piles. It was common practice on the CA/T project to use the upper
telltale and pile head deflections to calculate the modulus of the pile using equation 3. This
approach was justified by assuming that any preaugering that was performed prior to pile
installation would reduce the shaft friction, especially near the pile head. In some cases, the
elastic modulus of the PPC piles was determined from a combination of telltale and compression
test data using engineering judgment.
LOAD TEST RESULTS
More than 160 dynamic tests were performed on the selected contracts to evaluate pile capacity
during both the testing and production phases. Of these 160 tests, the results of 28 tests are
presented in this report because they correspond to static load tests on 15 piles. Information
about each pile tested is shown in table 7, and pile driving information is presented in table 8.

33
Table 7. Summary of pile and preauger information.
Test Pile Preauger Preauger
Contract Pile Type
Name Depth (m) Diameter (cm)
ET2-C2 C07D1 41-cm PPC 0 NA1
ET4-3B C07D1 41-cm PPC 0 NA
375 C07D2 41-cm PPC 9.1 45.7
923 C07D2 41-cm PPC 24.1 45.7
I90 EB SA C08A1 41-cm PPC NI2 40.6
14 C08A1 41-cm PPC 27.4 40.6
12A1-1 C09A4 31-cm PPC 30.5 45.7
12A2-1 C09A4 31-cm PPC 32.0 45.7
16A1-1 C09A4 41-cm PPC 30.5 45.7
I2 C09A4 41-cm PPC 30.5 40.6
3 C09A4 41-cm pipe 24.4 40.6
7 C09A4 41-cm pipe 24.4 40.6
IPE C19B1 32-cm pipe 7.6 30.5
IPW C19B1 32-cm pipe 12.2 30.5
NS-SN C19B1 41-cm PPC 8.2 40.6
Notes:
1. NA = Not applicable.
2. NI = Data not identified.

Table 8. Summary of pile driving information.


Recorded
Minimum
Test Pile Hammer
1 Embedment Penetration Permanent
Test Type Transferred
Name Type2 Depth (m) Resistance Set (cm)
Energy (kN-m)
(blows/2.5 cm)
ET2-C2 EOD I 47.5 NI3 7,7,7 0.36
34DR – – 58.0 11 0.23
ET4-3B EOD II 41.1 NI 8,7,10 0.25
NI – – 50.8 14 0.18
375 EOD II 16.8 50.2 12,13,39 0.08
7DR – – 54.2 > 12 < 0.20
923 EOD II 32.9 46.1 7,7,7 0.36
7DR – – 51.5 >8 0.33
I90 EB SA EOD III 46.6 25.8 12,10,10 0.25
1DR – – 25.8 13 0.20
14 EOD III 45.4 25.8 10,10,16 0.15
1DR – – 23.1 21 0.13
12A1-1 EOD III 41.8 20.7 4,4,5 0.51
1DR – – 28.6 >7 > 0.36
12A2-1 EOD III 38.7 15.3 3,4,4 0.64
1DR – – 18.6 8 0.33
16A1-1 EOD III 43.3 24.4 6,7,7 0.36
3DR – – 17.1 11 0.23
I2 EOD III 37.2 27.1 4,4,4 0.64
1DR – – 19.0 5 0.51

34
Table 8. Summary of pile driving information (continued).

Recorded
Minimum
Test Pile Hammer Embedment Penetration Permanent
Test Type1 Transferred
Name Type2 Depth (m) Resistance Set (cm)
Energy (kN-m)
(blows/2.5 cm)
3 EOD III 39.6 57.1 11,12,14 0.18
1DR – – 49.9 30 0.08
7 EOD III 38.1 49.8 11,11,11 0.23
3DR – – 50.2 > 16 < 0.15
IPE EOD V 19.5 39.6 5,5,5 0.51
1DR – – 53.0 7 0.36
IPW EOD VI 22.6 43.3 5,5,5 0.51
1DR – – 59.7 8 0.33
NS-SN EOD IV 13.4 27.1 8,15,16 0.15
7DR – – 24.4 26 0.10
Notes:
1. EOD = End of initial driving, #DR = # days before restrike.
2. Hammer types: I = Delmag D 46-32, II = HPSI 2000, III = ICE 1070, IV = HPSI 1000, V = Delmag D
19-42, VI = Delamag D 30-32.
3. NI = Data not identified.

Dynamic Results and Interpretation

Dynamic tests were performed both at the end of initial driving of the pile (EOD) and at the
beginning of restrike (BOR), typically 1 to 7 days (1DR, 7DR, etc.) after installation. In most
cases, the dynamic tests were performed before the static load tests. Test piles ET2-C2 and ET4-
3B, however, were dynamically tested during a restrike after a static load test was performed.
The ultimate capacities of the 15 test piles as determined by CAPWAP analysis are summarized
in table 9. The table lists when the test was performed, as well as the predicted shaft and toe
resistance.

Table 9. Summary of CAPWAP capacity data.


Recorded Ultimate Capacity2 (kN)
Test Pile Penetration
Test Type1
Name Resistance Shaft Toe Total
(blows/2.5 cm)
ET2-C2 EOD 7,7,7 NI3 NI NI
34DR 11 (2,028) (1,219) (3,247)
ET4-3B EOD 8,7,10 NI NI NI
NI 14 (1,744) (1,975) (3,719)
375 EOD 12,13,39 (890) (3,336) (4,226)
7DR > 12 (1,245) (3,514) (4,759)
923 EOD 7,7,7 667 1,904 2,571
7DR >8 (1,664) (1,708) (3,372)
I90 EB SA EOD 12,10,10 934 712 1,646
1DR 13 (1,156) (1,112) (2,268)
14 EOD 10,10,16 (449) (2,237) (2,687)
1DR 21 (894) (1,926) (2,820)
12A1-1 EOD 4,4,5 685 979 1,664

35
Table 9. Summary of CAPWAP capacity data (continued).

Recorded
Test Pile Penetration
Test Type1 Ultimate Capacity2 (kN)
Name Resistance
(blows/2.5 cm)
1DR >7 (1,103) (743) (1,846)
12A2-1 EOD 3,4,4 316 845 1,161
1DR 8 1,023 431 1,454
16A1-1 EOD 6,7,7 956 1,063 2,015
3DR 11 (983) (876) (1,859)
I2 EOD 4,4,4 400 1,130 1,530
1DR 5 1,526 489 2,015
3 EOD 11,12,14 (983) (2,086) (3,069)
1DR 30 (1,228) (1,690) (2,918)
7 EOD 11,11,11 (80) (2,740) (2,820)
3DR > 16 (983) (1,984) (2,962)
IPE EOD 5,5,5 489 1,334 1,824
1DR 7 645 1,535 2,180
IPW EOD 5,5,5 778 1,223 2,002
1DR 8 1,290 1,468 2,758
NS-SN EOD 8,15,16 (583) (1,806) (2,389)
7DR 26 (858) (1,935) (2,793)
Notes:
1. EOD = End of initial driving, #DR = # days before restrike.
2. Values shown in parentheses denote conservative values.
3. NI = Data not identified.

Many of the capacities are listed in parentheses, which indicates that the values are most likely
conservative (i.e., the true ultimate capacity is larger). It is recognized in the literature that
dynamic capacities can be underestimated if the hammer energy is insufficient to completely
mobilize the soil resistance.(53) Specifically, research has shown that blow counts in excess of 10
blows per 2.5 cm may not cause enough displacement to fully mobilize the soil resistance.(53,54)
As shown in table 8, the majority of the piles during restrike exceeded 10 blows per 2.5 cm and
are thus likely to be lower than the true ultimate capacity of the piles.

The conservativeness of the CAPWAP capacities in certain piles can be illustrated by comparing
the load versus displacement curve at the toe evaluated with CAPWAP to that obtained in a static
load test. The toe load-displacement curves from test pile 16A1-1 are shown in figure 22. Blow
counts of seven blows per 2.5 cm were recorded for this pile during initial driving. The static
load test data shown in figure 22 were extrapolated from the telltale data. As shown in figure 22,
the maximum resistance mobilized by the pile toe from CAPWAP is approximately 1060 kN. At
least 1670 kN were mobilized in the static load test; however, the ultimate value is actually
higher since failure was not reached.

36
Load at Pile Toe (kN)
-1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000
0.0

0.5
Displacement (cm)

1.0

1.5

Static load test


2.0
CAPW AP (EOD)

2.5

Figure 22. Load-displacement curves for pile toe, test pile 16A1-1.

Soil quake and damping parameters obtained from the CAPWAP analyses are summarized in
table 10. It is often assumed that the quake values are approximately 0.25 cm in typical wave
equation analyses. The toe quake values in this study range from 0.25 to 1.19, with an average of
1.6 cm. Large toe quake values on the order of up to 2.5 cm have been observed in the
literature.(55,56) However, the quake values in this study appear to be within typical values.(57)

37
Table 10. Summary of CAPWAP soil parameters.
Test Pile Quake (cm) Damping (s/m)
Test Type1
Name Shaft Toe Shaft Toe
ET2-C2 EOD – – – –
34DR 0.43 0.84 0.72 0.23
ET4-3B EOD – – – –
- 0.56 0.36 0.89 0.82
375 EOD 0.64 1.19 0.33 0.07
7DR 0.51 0.86 0.23 0.20
923 EOD 0.38 1.14 0.72 0.43
7DR 0.23 0.81 0.46 0.43
I90 EB SA EOD 0.13 0.89 0.16 0.56
1DR 0.38 0.56 0.69 0.69
14 EOD 0.25 0.76 0.39 0.43
1DR 0.25 0.41 0.59 0.43
12A1-1 EOD – – – –
1DR 0.38 0.56 0.75 0.16
12A2-1 EOD – – – –
1DR 0.25 0.51 0.49 0.33
16A1-1 EOD – – – –
3DR 0.25 0.10 1.41 1.15
I2 EOD 0.25 0.51 0.75 0.26
1DR 0.13 0.25 0.46 0.10
3 EOD 0.48 0.64 0.13 0.10
1DR 0.15 0.56 0.33 0.10
7 EOD 0.23 0.64 0.46 0.10
3DR 0.25 0.36 0.52 0.10
IPE EOD 0.25 0.69 0.62 0.23
1DR 0.38 0.89 0.59 0.23
IPW EOD 0.38 0.64 0.43 0.23
1DR 0.25 0.36 0.59 0.20
NS-SN EOD 0.30 0.91 0.52 0.33
7DR 0.13 0.46 0.72 0.49
Notes:
1. EOD = End of initial driving, #DR = # days before restrike.
2. s/m = seconds/meter.

Comparison of CAPWAP Data

A comparison between the EOD and BOR CAPWAP capacities is shown in figure 23. The line
on the figure indicates where the EOD and BOR capacities are equal. Data points that are plotted
to the left of the line show an increase in the capacity over time, whereas data that fall below the
line show a decrease in capacity. In the four piles (12A2-1, I2, IPE, and IPW) where the soil
resistance was believed to be fully mobilized for both the EOD and BOR, the data show an
increase of 20 to 38 percent occurring over 1 day. The overall increase in capacity is attributed to
an increase in the shaft resistance.

38
6000
Fully Mobilized
BOR Lower Bound
5000
EOD and BOR Lower Bound

Capacity at BOR (kN)


4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Capacity at EOD (kN)

Figure 23. CAPWAP capacities at end of initial driving (EOD) and


beginning of restrike (BOR).

Static Load Test Data

Static load tests were performed on 15 piles approximately 1 to 12 weeks after their installation.
The test results are summarized in table 11. In general, two types of load deflection behavior
were observed in the static load tests (figures 24 through 27).

Table 11. Summary of static load test data.


Maximum
Time After Pile Maximum Pile Head
Test Pile Name Applied Load
Installation (days) Displacement (cm)
(kN)
ET2-C2 13 3,122 1.7
ET4-3B 20 3,558 2.4
375 15 3,447 1.6
923 33 3,447 2.4
I90 EB SA 23 3,781 1.6
14 6 3,105 2.2
12A1-1 30 1,512 1.4
12A2-1 24 1,014 0.5
16A1-1 17 3,612 2.6
I2 6 3,558 1.7
3 9 3,959 2.4
7 10 3,167 2.0
IPE 84 2,384 1.3
IPW 10 2,891 4.1
NS-SN 30 2,535 1.3

Test pile 12A1-1 (figure 24) represents a condition where the axial deflection of the pile is less
than the theoretical elastic compression (assuming zero shaft friction). This pile was loaded to

39
1,557 kN in five steps and at no point during the loading did the deflection exceed the estimated
elastic compression of the pile. This behavior is attributed to shaft friction, which reduces the
compressive forces in the pile and limits the settlement. The significant contribution of shaft
friction is also apparent in the load distribution curve shown in figure 25, which shows the load
in the pile decreasing with depth. This behavior is typical of test piles ET2-C2, ET4-3B, I90-EB-
SA, 12A1-1, 12A2-1, I2, and 3.

Load (kN) Load in Pile (kN)


0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000
0.0 0

0.5 5

Depth Below Ground Surface (m)


10
1.0
15
Deflection (cm)

1.5 20

2.0 25

30
2.5
Test Data
35
Elastic Compression
3.0 Davisson's Line 40

3.5 45

Figure 24. Deflection of pile head during Figure 25. Distribution of load in
static load testing of pile 12A1-1. pile 12A1-1.

Test pile 14 (figure 26) represents a condition where the axial deflection is approximately equal
to the theoretical elastic compression. This suggests that more of the applied loads are being
distributed to the toe of the pile with less relative contribution of shaft friction. This is apparent
in figure 27, which shows negligible changes in the load within the pile with depth. This
behavior is typical of test piles 375, 923, 14, 16A1-1, 7, IPE, and IPW.

Load (kN) Load in Pile (kN)


0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000
0.0 0

5
Depth Below Ground Surface (m)

0.5
10
1.0
Deflection (cm)

15
1.5
20
2.0
25

2.5 Test Data


30
Elastic Compression
3.0 Davission's Line
35

3.5 40

Figure 26. Deflection of pile head during Figure 27. Distribution of load in pile 14.
static load testing of pile 14.

40
Of the 15 static load tests, only one test pile (IPW) was loaded to failure according to Davisson’s
criteria. These data are shown in figures 28 and 29. This pile showed a significant increase in the
deflection at approximately 2,580 kN, subsequently crossing the Davisson’s line at
approximately 2,670 kN at a displacement of around 2.5 cm. The telltale data obtained near the
toe of the pile indicated that the pile failed in plunging.

Load (kN) Load in Pile (kN)


0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000
0.0 0
Test Data 2
0.5

Depth Below Ground Surface (m)


Elastic Compression
1.0 4
Davisson's Line
6
1.5
Deflection (cm)

8
2.0
10
2.5
12
3.0
14
3.5
16
4.0 18
4.5 20

Figure 28. Deflection of pile head during Figure 29. Distribution of load in pile IPW.
static load testing of pile IPW.

All test piles achieved the required ultimate capacities in the static load tests. The required
ultimate capacities were determined by multiplying the allowable design capacity by a factor of
safety of at least 2.0, as specified in the project specifications. A slightly higher factor of safety
of 2.25 was used in contract C19B1. Three of the 15 static tests did not demonstrate that
100 percent of the design load was transferred to the bearing soils. Two of the piles (12A1-1 and
12A2-1) could not transfer the load to the bearing soils because of the high skin friction
(figures 24 and 25). Test pile I2 could not demonstrate load transfer because the bottom telltale
was not functioning.

Comparison of Dynamic and Static Load Test Data

The capacities determined by CAPWAP and from the static load tests are summarized in
table 12, along with the required ultimate capacities. Of the 15 test piles, only one pile (IPW)
was loaded to failure in a static load test. Likewise, only four BOR CAPWAP analyses and eight
EOD CAPWAP analyses mobilized the full soil resistance. This means that the true ultimate
capacity of the majority of the piles tested was not reached, and this makes a comparison of static
load test and CAPWAP results difficult.

Test pile IPW was brought to failure in the static load test. Coincidentally, it is anticipated that
the CAPWAP capacities for this pile also represent the fully mobilized soil resistance because of
the relatively low blow counts (i.e., < 10) observed during driving. Based on a comparison of all
data for pile IPW, its capacity increased by approximately 35 percent soon after installation,
yielding a factor of safety of approximately 3.0. Note that this pile was preaugered to a depth of
approximately half of the embedment depth. The capacity of 2,669 kN determined in the static

41
load test is slightly less than the restrike capacity of 2,758 kN. However, this difference is partly
attributed to modifications that were made to the pile after the dynamic testing, but prior to static
testing. These modifications included removal of 0.6 m of overburden at the pile location and
filling of the steel pipe pile with concrete, both of which would decrease the capacity of the pile
measured in the static load test.

Table 12. Summary of dynamic and static load test data.


Required Required Required CAPWAP Ultimate Ultimate Capacity
Test Pile Allowable Minimum Ultimate Capacity1 (kN) From Static Load
Name Capacity Factor of Capacity
EOD BOR Test (kN)
(kN) Safety (kN)
2
ET2-C2 1,379 2.00 2,758 NI (3,247) (3,122)
ET4-3B 1,379 2.00 2,758 NI (3,719) (3,558)
375 1,379 2.00 2,758 (4,226) (4,759) (3,447)
923 1,379 2.00 2,758 2,571 (3,372) (3,447)
I90 EB SA 1,379 2.00 2,758 1,646 (2,268) (3,781)
14 1,379 2.00 2,758 (2,687) (2,820) (3,105)
12A1-1 756 2.00 1,512 1,664 (1,846) (1,512)
12A2-1 507 2.00 1,014 1,161 1,454 (1,014)
16A1-1 1,245 2.00 2,491 2,015 (1,859) (3,612)
I2 1,245 2.00 2,491 1,530 2,015 (3,558)
3 1,583 2.00 3,167 (3,069) (2,918) (3,959)
7 1,583 2.00 3,167 (2,820) (2,962) (3,167)
IPE 890 2.25 2,002 1,824 2,180 (2,384)
IPW 890 2.25 2,002 2,002 2,758 2,669
NS-SN 1,112 2.25 2,504 (2,389) (2,793) (2,535)
Notes:
1. Capacities shown in parenthesis denote values that are conservative (dynamic load tests) or where failure was
not achieved (static load tests).
2. NI = Data not identified.

42
CHAPTER 5. COST DATA OF DRIVEN PILES

This chapter presents a summary of the costs associated with pile driving operations on the CA/T
project. The costs presented in this report were obtained directly from the contractor and
represent the contractor’s bid estimates identified in the individual contracts. The primary
purpose of the cost data is to document the approximate cost of pile driving on the CA/T project;
however, the data may also be useful to design engineers for planning purposes.

The contractor’s bid costs for pile driving are summarized in table 13 by pile type. Unless noted,
the costs in table 13 do not include costs for preaugering or costs associated with the
mobilization or demobilization of the contractor’s equipment. Steel pipe piles had the highest
unit costs, ranging from $213 per meter for the 81.3-cm pile to $819 for the 154.9-cm pile. Unit
costs for the PPC piles were lower, ranging from $72 to $197 per meter for the 30-cm PPC piles
and $95 to $262 per meter for the 41-cm piles. As one would expect, the unit costs tended to
decrease with the increasing size of the contract. The contractor’s bid costs for preaugering are
summarized in table 14. Preaugering was not performed in contract C07D1, and preaugering
costs were not identified in the contract C07D2 bid. As shown in table 14, the additional cost of
preaugering ranged from $33 to $49 per meter.

Table 13. Summary of contractor’s bid costs for pile driving.


Estimated
Estimated Cost of Cost per meter
Contract Pile Type Length of Pile
Installation of Pile1
Installed (m)
C19B1 32-cm concrete-filled steel pipe 550 $1,183,650 $213.19
C09A4 41-cm concrete-filled steel pipe 5,578 $1,647,000 $295.27 2
C19B1 61-cm concrete-filled steel pipe 296 $242,500 $819.26
C08A1 30-cm square PPC with stinger 792 $156,000 $196.97
C19B1 30-cm square PPC with stinger 2,177 $285,720 $131.24
C09A4 30-cm square PPC 3,658 $600,000 $164.02 2
C07D2 30-cm square PPC with stinger 3,981 $289,510 $72.72
C07D1 30-cm square PPC with stinger 7,955 $652,500 $82.02
C19B1 41-cm square PPC with stinger 6,279 $824,000 $131.23
C08A1 41-cm square PPC with stinger 8,406 $2,206,400 $262.48
C09A4 41-cm square PPC with stinger 14,326 $3,290,000 $229.65 2
C07D2 41-cm square PPC with stinger 19,879 $2,396,800 $120.57
C07D1 41-cm square PPC with stinger 32,918 $3,132,000 $95.15
Notes:
1. Unit costs include the costs of materials and labor for pile driving only. Preaugering is not included unless
otherwise noted. See table 14 for preaugering unit costs. Mobilization and/or demobilization costs are not
included.
2. Unit costs include the costs of preaugering.

Table 14. Summary of contractor’s bid costs for preaugering.


Preaugering Estimated Total Estimated
Estimated
Contract Depth Range Preaugering Depth Cost of
Cost per meter
(m) (m) Preaugering
C08A1 0 to 30.5 2,134 $70,000 $32.80
C19B1 0 to 30.5 3,712 $182,655 $49.21

43
CHAPTER 6. LESSONS LEARNED

This chapter presents a summary of the lessons learned from driven piles on the CA/T project.
The conclusions presented below are based on the evaluation of field records, project
specifications, and pile load test data compiled from the project files. Five contracts were
evaluated, including three located in East Boston/Logan Airport, one located in downtown
Boston, and one located in Charlestown. Significant findings are summarized below:

• The dominant pile type used on the CA/T project was a 41-cm square PPC pile. Based on the
contractor’s bid estimates, the PPC piles were also the most economical pile type.
• Pile heave in excess of the 1.3-cm criteria was identified on one cut-and-cover tunnel
structure requiring 445 restrike events for the 576 piles used in the structure. The heave
occurred even though preaugering of the marine clay layer was performed. Pile heave issues
were not identified at other structures where the pile spacing was greater than about 1.8 m.
• Installation of displacement piles in contract C07D1 caused excessive movement of an
adjacent structure. Despite the use of wick drains and partial preaugering, vertical
displacement continued up to 8.8 cm. The wick drains were not effective in rapidly
dissipating excess pore pressures from pile driving.
• The heave issues observed in contract C07D1 prompted the use of preaugering on subsequent
contracts. Preaugering was performed over a portion, generally 30 to 70 percent, of the final
pile embedment depth.
• Pile capacities evaluated using dynamic methods were conservative in hard driving
conditions (i.e., penetration resistance greater than 10 blows per 2.5 cm) where the soil
resistance may not be fully mobilized.
• Quake values from CAPWAP analyses ranged from 0.25 to 1.19 cm, with an average value
of 0.64 cm. These values are higher than the values typically used in wave equation analyses;
however, they are within the range of published values.
• Comparison of CAPWAP data evaluated at the end of initial driving and during restrike
shows that the capacity of the piles increased over time by at least 20 percent from an
increase in shaft resistance.
• Only 1 out of 15 piles tested in a static load test was brought to failure according to
Davisson’s criteria, because the specifications did not specifically require that the pile be
brought to failure.
• Three of the 15 piles did not successfully demonstrate that 100 percent of the design load was
transferred to the bearing soils. Two piles did not meet the criteria because of high shaft
friction, and the third did not meet the criteria because of a malfunctioning bottom telltale.
• Comparison of dynamic and static load test capacities was only possible on one pile (IPW),
which reached the Davisson’s failure criteria in the static load test. CAPWAP and static
capacities were in good agreement for this pile.

45
REFERENCES

1. Massachusetts Turnpike Authority (2000), Project Summary, http://www.bigdig.com/thtml/


summary.htm.

2. Massachusetts Turnpike Authority (2000), Project Contract Lists, http://www.bigdig.com/


thtml/contlist.htm.

3. Massachusetts Turnpike Authority (2000), Maps and Plans, http://www.bigdig.com/thtml/


maps01.htm.

4. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1991), Central Artery (I-93)/Tunnel (I-90) Project,


Geotechnical Data Report, South Bay Interchange, Design Sections D009B/D009C, Boston,
MA.

5. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1992), Central Artery (I-93)/Tunnel (I-90) Project,


Geotechnical Data Report, South Bay Interchange, Design Section D009A, Boston, MA.

6. Haley and Aldrich, Inc. (1991), Final Geotechnical Data Report, Central Artery
(I-93)/Tunnel (I-90) Project, Design Sections D007C and D007D (C07D2), Boston, MA.

7. Haley and Aldrich, Inc. (1996), Final Geotechnical Report, Central Artery (I-93)/Tunnel
(I-90) Project, Design Section D008A, Boston, MA.

8. Maguire Group, Inc., and Frederic R. Harris, Inc. (1995), Final Report on Soil Stabilization
and Testing Program, Central Artery (I-93)/Tunnel (I-90) Project, D009A, Boston, MA.

9. Maguire Group, Inc., and Frederic R. Harris, Inc. (1995), Supplemental Geotechnical Data
Report, Central Artery (I-93)/Tunnel (I-90) Project, Design Section D009A, Boston, MA.

10. Stone and Webster, Inc. (1996), Final Geotechnical Data Report, Central Artery
(I-93)/Tunnel (I-90) Project, Design Section D019B, I-93 Viaducts and Ramps North of
Charles River, Boston, MA.

11. Barosh, P.J.; Kaye, C.A.; and Woodhouse, D. (1989), “Geology of the Boston Basin and
Vicinity.” Civil Engineering Practice: Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers, 4(1),
39-52.

12. McGinn, A.J., and O’Rourke, T.D. (2003), Performance of Deep Mixing Methods at Fort
Point Channel, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

13. Commonwealth of Massachusetts (1997), The Massachusetts State Building Code, Users
Guide to 780 CMR (6th Edition), William F. Galvin, Boston, MA.

47
14. Massachusetts Highway Department (1996), MHD Supplemental Specifications and CA/T
Supplemental Specifications to Construction Details of the Standard Specifications for
Highways and Bridges (Division II) for Central Artery (I-93)/Tunnel (I-90) Project in the
City of Boston [Section 940 covers driven piles], September 3, 1996.

15. Massachusetts Highway Department (1998), Special Provisions to Construction Details for
the Standard Specifications for Highways and Bridges and the Supplemental Specifications
(Division II) for Central Artery/Tunnel Project I-93 Viaducts and Ramps North of Charles
River (C19B1) in the City of Boston [Section 940 covers driven piles], April 29, 1998.

16. AASHTO (2002), Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, Washington, DC.

17. FHWA (1998), Design and Construction of Driven Foundations, Report No. FHWA-HI-97-
013, Washington, DC.

18. Massachusetts Highway Department (1996), Pile Layout Plan: I-90 Logan Airport
Interchange Arrivals Road, Tunnel, Contract C07D2, Drawing No. S-1162.

19. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (1997), Letter to RDA Construction Regarding
Dynamic Load Test Results, Arrivals Tunnel: Round 1, May 5, 1997.

20. Massachusetts Highway Department (1995), Interoffice Memorandum to File Regarding


Hilton Heave, June 5, 1995.

21. Massachusetts Highway Department (1995), Interoffice Memorandum to Lauren Cragg


Regarding Hilton Heave, June 28, 1995.

22. Massachusetts Highway Department (1995), Interoffice Memorandum to File Regarding


Hilton Heave, August 3, 1995.

23. Massachusetts Highway Department (1995), Interoffice Memorandum to File Regarding


Hilton Heave, August 23, 1995.

24. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1995), Letter to FST/TYLI Regarding D007D (C07D1) I-90
Logan Airport Interchange, Contract No. 93096, East Approach to Ramp E-T Pile Driving,
July 10, 1995.

25. Field Measurements, Inc. (2000), Letter to R.A. Francoeur Marine, Inc., Regarding Pile Load
Test Program, Dynamic Load Test Results, CA/T Contract C08A1, August 24, 2000.

26. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (1997), Letter to RDA Construction Regarding
Arrivals Tunnel Test Program, Dynamic Test Results (Piles 258 and 375), C07D2, May 30,
1997.

48
27. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (1997), Letter to RDA Construction Regarding
Ramp 1AA Test Program, Dynamic Test Results (Piles 923, 955, and 999), C07D2,
October 9, 1997.

28. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (1998), Letter to P.A. Frisco Regarding Dynamic
Pile Testing Results, NS-SN Transition Structure, CA/T C19B1 Project, October 7, 1998.

29. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (2000), Letter to P.A. Frisco Regarding Dynamic
Pile Testing Results, LT Wall Structure Indicator Piles, CA/T C19B1 Project, September 27,
2000.

30. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (2001), Letter to Modern Continental Construction
Regarding Dynamic Pile Testing Results, CT Wall Structure Indicator Pile IPW, CA/T
C19B1 Project, March 23, 2001.

31. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (2002), Letter to R.A. Francoeur Marine, Inc.,
Regarding Static Load Test Report for Pile 14, C08A1, 1ANB-A/D West Abutment,
September 6, 2002.

32. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1998), Letter to Slattery/Interbeton/J.F. White/Perini


Regarding Dynamic Pile Testing Results, October 9, 1998.

33. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1999), Letter to Slattery/Interbeton/J.F. White/Perini


Regarding Dynamic Pile Testing Results, CA/T Contract C09A4, Approach No. 5, July 26,
1999.

34. Perini Corporation (1994), Letter of Transmittal Containing CAPWAP Results, Contract
C07D1, May 2, 1994.

35. ASTM (1996a), “Standard Test Method for High-Strain Dynamic Testing of Piles,” D4945-
89, 1996 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

36. ASTM (1996b), “Standard Test Method for Piles Under Static Axial Compression Load,”
D1143-81, 1996 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West
Conshohocken, PA.

37. Field Measurements, Inc. (2000), Letter to R.A. Francoeur Marine, Inc., Regarding Pile Load
Test Program, Compression Pile Load Test Results, Pile I90EB South, CA/T C08A1,
September 19, 2000.

38. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (1997), Letter to RDA Construction Regarding Static
Load Test Report, Pile 375, C07D2 Arrivals Tunnel, East Boston, MA, June 10, 1997.

39. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (1997), Letter to RDA Construction Regarding Static
Load Test Report, Pile 923, C07D2 Ramp 1A-A, East Boston, MA, November 4, 1997.

49
40. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (1998), Letter to P.A. Frisco, Inc., Regarding Static
Load Test Report, Test Pile NS-SN Transition Bridge, C19B1, November 4, 1998.

41. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (2000), Letter to Modern Continental Construction
Regarding Static Load Test Results, CA/T C19B1, LT Retaining Wall, December 20, 2000.

42. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (2001), Letter to Modern Continental Construction
Regarding Static Load Test Results for Pile IPW, CA/T C19B1, CT Retaining Wall, April 3,
2001.

43. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (2002), Letter to R.A. Francoeur Marine, Inc.,
Regarding Static Load Test Report for Pile 14, C08A1, 1ANB-A/D West Abutment,
September 6, 2002.

44. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1998), Letter to Slattery/Interbeton/J.F. White/Perini


Regarding Compression Load Test Pile, Utility Foundations (Test Pile 3), July 13, 1998.

45. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1998), Letter to Slattery/Interbeton/J.F. White/Perini


Regarding Compression Load Test Pile, Utility Foundations (Test Pile 7), July 26, 1998.

46. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1998), Letter to Slattery/Interbeton/J.F. White/Perini


Regarding Compression Load Test Pile, Approach 1 (Pile 12A1-1), November 9, 1998.

47. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1998), Letter to Slattery/Interbeton/J.F. White/Perini


Regarding Compression Load Test Pile, Approach 2 (Pile 12A2-1), November 2, 1998.

48. GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (1999), Letter to Slattery/Interbeton/J.F. White/Perini


Regarding Compression Load Test Pile, Approach 5 (Indicator Pile 2), August 11, 1999.

49. McPhail Associates, Inc. (1994), Pile Load Test Report, Pier ET2, Logan Airport Egress
Ramps, Contract C07D1, East Boston, Massachusetts.

50. McPhail Associates, Inc. (1994), Pile Load Test Report, Pier ET4, Logan Airport Egress
Ramps, Contract C07D1, East Boston, Massachusetts.

51. Geosciences Testing and Research, Inc. (1997), Letter to RDA Construction Regarding Static
Load Test Frame/Instrumentation, Contract C07D2, January 13, 1997.

52. Davisson, M.T. (1972), “High-Capacity Piles.” Proceedings of Lecture Series on Innovations
in Foundation Construction, Chicago, IL, 81-112.

53. Rausche, M.F.; Goble, G.G.; and Likins, G. (1985), “Dynamic Determination of Pile
Capacity.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 111(3), 367-383.

54. Fellenius, B.H.; Riker, R.E.; O’Brien, A.J.; and Tracy, G.R. (1989), “Dynamic and Static
Testing in Soil Exhibiting Set-Up,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 115(7).

50
55. Authier, J., and Fellenius, B.H. (1980), “Quake Values Determined From Dynamic
Measurements,” Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Application of
Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, Stockholm, Sweden, 197-216.

56. Likins, G.E. (1983), “Pile Installation Difficulties in Soils With Large Quakes,” Symposium
on Dynamic Measurements of Piles and Piers, Philadelphia, PA, May 1983.

57. Liang, R.Y., and Zhou, J. (1997), “Probability Method Applied to Dynamic Pile-Driving
Control,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 123(2), 137-144.

51