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CI 402 Unit Inquiry Lesson Standards: MS-LS10b: Design and conduct an investigation to generate evidence that unicellular organisms;

like multicellular organisms, survive by obtaining food and water, disposing of waste and having an environment in which to live. Learning Objectives Students should be able to successfully design an experiment. Assessment Criteria Students will exhibit this through passing the approval checkpoint which requires the experiment to have a functional and correct procedure, independent variable, dependent variable, and a hypothesis. Students might say or write that anaerobic bacteria survive in conditions without oxygen and aerobic bacteria need oxygen. Students will exhibit this by the assessment of the video. They will also exhibit this by the poster project and going through the app for the iPad. Students need to realize that bacteria are diverse in terms in how they live and the types of environments they thrive due to the fact that some species of bacteria use different chemicals for their processes.

Students should be able to explain the difference between anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. Students should realize that bacteria are very diverse.

Prior Knowledge: 1. Students have learned about the basic needs and requirements of life and survival for organisms. 2. Students have familiarity with the scientific method and developing a hypothesis. Also, students can identify and create independent variables to test in an experiment. 3. The students have experience writing a formal lab report. Materials: 1. Nutrient solutions for each bacterium species pre-made into agar plates. 2. 4 types of bacteria in solution (see lesson plan) 3. 5 iPads

5E Instructional Model: Engage Students will be engaged by having to create their own experimental design and then conduct it. The second trial will also allow them to modify their design and then conduct it again. The online personality quiz and the iPad application will also keep the students engaged while having them learn that bacteria are diverse in terms of how and where they live. Explore Students will explore the concept of the necessities of survival a bacterial cell needs. Bacteria are diverse in terms of the specific chemicals (oxygen, no oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) that they need and students will explore this concept through the video assigned for homework and the lab. Explain After exploring the concept, students should be able to explain how bacteria are diverse and discuss the different environments that many bacteria live in. Elaborate Students should be able to elaborate and discuss the specific ways bacteria vary in how they live. Students should be able to discuss nitrogen fixing bacteria, methanogens, and the difference between anaerobes and aerobes. Evaluate Students will be evaluated on: 1. Lab safety and procedure etiquette. 2. Understanding of the scientific method and scientific experimental design 3. Ability to differentiate between an anaerobic bacteria and aerobic bacteria given the conditions each culture best grew 4. Ability to discuss the environments and importance of nitrogen fixing bacteria and methanogens. 5. With methanogens, the ability to characterize the kingdom they come in Instructional Sequence: 15 minutes Day 1 Introduction: Start off the lesson by asking the following questionsFirst ask them what they think we, as humans, need to survive? Possible Answers: o Water, food, oxygen (air), chemicals, energy, reproduction, etc. Now ask them what other organisms, like plants, need to survive? Possible Answers: o Water, soil, sunlight, bees, chemicals, etc. Now as them what they think bacteria need to survive? Possible Answers: o Water, food, oxygen (air), chemicals, energy, reproduction, etc. Now ask them if they think all bacteria need the exact same the same set of conditions to survive like all humans and most plants? Have the students discuss in pairs for about two or three minutes and then each pair will present what they came up with, even if it is the same. Tell the students that they need to use support for their claims, even if they are just predictions. Introduction of the Lab: Tell the students that they will be experimenting with different types of microorganisms to see which ones can survive in certain conditions. Tell them that they will be answering the overall question:

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What does the bacterial cell need to survive? Tell them that they will be working in groups of two or three to design an experiment1 that tests under which conditions their species of bacteria can survive. 20 minutes Review of Experimental Design: Review (see footnote 1) the scientific method and the terminology of a scientific experiment with the students. Give them an experiment that has been completed (perhaps have them take out one of their old labs or give them an example lab, which may be in the form of a scientific paper/article) and have the students individually find the hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable, control group (and its treatment), and experimental group (and its treatment). First ask them to list, as a class, the components to the scientific method. Then hand out the publication or have them take out an old lab (make sure it is the same lab for everyone- this could be a time to pass out an old lab done in class). o Have the students find the hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable, control group (and its treatment), and experimental group (and its treatment) individually for about three minutes. o After that time is up, go over what students found for each one. Do not tell the students which one is right or even wrong. Let multiple students say what they got (because there will be different ones) and explain why they think it is theres; then say the right one. Tell the students that the next day will consist of forming groups and designing an experiment about the overall question mentioned above. Then they will conduct those experiments. Tell them they will have class time tomorrow to work out a design with their group and that tonights homework will serve as a way to give them some information and concepts about different ways bacteria use the environment to survive. 05 minutes Wrap-Up2: Tell the students that tonights homework will be a video that they have to watch. Tell them that it is crucial to watch the video not just because there will be an assessment on the information but also because the information will be useful in designing their experiments for the next class. Also inform the students that their group cannot begin any of the activities if one person did not watch the video. Hand out the notes worksheet that goes with the flipped video that students will have to complete as part of their assignment. Total Time: 50 minutes Homework: Watch the flipped video

This is following the assumption that the students have done labs before and know what the terms independent variable, dependent variable, hypothesis, procedure, etc. imply in a scientific experimental context. I would do a lesson on the scientific method and experiments at the beginning of the year to bring everyone on the same page. 2 If there is an absent student, email the video to them and the directions of the homework assignment ASAP. Include in the email the direction to send back a confirmation email to ensure that the student got the link/understands the assignment. To be double sure, ask one of the students in the class to get the information to the absent student as well.

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Day 23 Introduction: Start off the class by telling the students that they will need to meet with their group to: 1. Compare notes of the video 2. Formulate a hypothesis 3. Design an experiment Designing the Experiment4: Students will spend class time to design their experiments. The goal of the experiment is to determine which nutrient solution is best for their unknown bacterial species. There will be one unknown species: one methanogen, one nitrogen fixer, one anaerobe, and one aerobe. Students will research each species for homework to be able to recognize them in their experiments. Students will have to design their experiments so that they will be able to test their species against all environments to see which plate it grows the best or at all. (Ideally, the student would design their experiment so that they would attempt to grow their unknown species on each nutrient solution in the agar plate-one for methanogen, one for the nitrogen-fixer, etc.) Tell the students that one species of bacteria can grow in many diverse environments and so it is important to test for all the nutrients to best determine the unknown species given. Tell the students that they should think about the different environments that bacteria can grow that they learned from the video and how they can try to re-create that in the lab. Tell the students that they need to make sure that all variables are accounted for except for the one they are testing for (growth) in their design of the experiment. Have the students run by their designs before going with their experiment. Assessment: When students start coming up to the teacher to get their design approved, have them write an answer to the following questions while the teacher is going over the design (have one question on half-sheets of paper and then give a different one to each student): What are the two kingdoms of bacteria? Which of the two is larger? Which one does a methanogen fall into? How do bacteria reproduce (say the term)? Which kingdom does methane-producing bacteria belong in? And are they anaerobic or aerobic? Running the Experiment: Once they have their design, the students can start making the plates for their experiments. They will have to follow relatively the

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It would be best to plan for Day 2 to be on a Friday, this way the bacteria can grow on the plate over the weekend and it would save class time for waiting for the growth. It will be even better if it the next Monday was no school! The teacher can plan ahead and maybe use this unit during Martin Luther King. Jr. holiday or some other holiday where Monday is given off of school. 4 Be sure to emphasize that they will be making all plates at once so they would need to test their unknown for all the possibilities and not expect to try one plate and see if they can figure it out and then try another. Tell the students that there might be time for another trial (there will be!) but that trial is used for confirmation/repeat of the first trial and not a way to make a two-step process.

same procedure as the demonstration lab. The students will make the plate and then store for the weekend to allow the bacteria to grow for a couple days before looking at it. Total Time: 50 minutes Teacher Homework: Come in during the weekends to make sure that the plates are growing something as according to their experimental design. Day 3 20 minutes Gathering Results : Begin the day by letting students go straight into viewing their plates. Tell the students that they have to record their observations and results, along with drawing out the growth (or lack thereof) of each plate. 15 minutes Second Trials: Based off of the results of the first trial and the fact that all of the bacterial species are unique in terms of the environments they live in, the students will probably be able to tell which species they have if they did the research correctly. Allow the students to come up with a second trial to confirm their results and prediction. Encourage them to make this trial a little more narrowed by getting rid of some of the variables they need to test for (ex: if they think their species is a anaerobe, then they do not need the aerobic solution). Allow the students to run this trial and store the plate again. 15 minutes Personality Quiz: On the 5 iPads6, have students group together and take the online Microbe personality quiz. Each student should take the quiz and write down which microorganism they have for their projects. The project will entail the students making posters for their species with information about how and where that particular species lives. Encourage the students to think about what they learned in the video when creating and researching their species. Link: http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/education/kidskorner/microbe_quiz.htm Have the students take the 6th grade and up online quiz. Total Time: 50 minutes Homework: Start researching the bacteria species assigned by the quiz for the poster7 project, they will have time during class to work on it but it will be due at the end of the period.

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Day 4 Introduction: Tell the students that they will be finishing up their projects and then also be playing a simulation about creating microbes to fit an environment. Work-Time: Give the students time to work on their poster/pages. After the time is over, have the students turn them in. Bio-Hatch App: Form 5 groups, one for each of the iPads8. With one iPad per

If there hasnt been growth then plan for something else until growth has occurred. If we cannot get iPads or any sort of tablet, then maybe move to a computer lab for this portion of the lesson. 7 Poster is a loose term, a printer-page worksheet is acceptable if all of the requirements and information is present.

group, play the Bio-Hatch game and create microbes for EACH of the four environments. The purpose and description of the application is to create a microbe for each of the different environments so that the microbe can survive in the environment. Each microbe can have different special abilities that allow it to live in different environments around the universe that have difference characteristics. Each of the four environments has different chemicals available to it that would only allow a particular type of microbe to live in that environment. Description (from iTunes): The objective of Bio-Hatch is to engage the user to create an environment for microbes to thrive. The user starts by from four environments: Acerbus (a highly acidic ocean that contains iron and sulfur), Minor Aeris (an atmosphere that contains methane and sulfur), Siccus (an environment that has frequent dust storms, is extremely cold and has an icy surface), and Glacialis (an environment that is extremely cold and has a completely icy surface). From that point on, the user creates microbes that will be able to cope in these different environments. Total Time: 50 minutes Day 59 Introduction: Use the beginning of the class to tell the students that they will be looking at their second trials. Have them get into their groups for the lab and review their results from two days ago. Analyzing Second Trials: Students will analyze their second trial plates and record their results. Discussion: Have the students go back to their desks after they have cleaned up their lab areas. As a whole class, talk about the experiment. Before asking for the answers that the students got as to which of the unknowns are anaerobic and aerobic, ask them how they came up with their experiments. Was it difficult or easy and why? o Then ask the students about their findings, what did they notice? Any patterns? How did one unknown work versus a different unknown? What were their conclusions? Why did you conduct the experiment a second time? After talking about the experiment ask the following big picture questions: o Why should we care about the type of environment bacteria live? o Was there one unknown that worked well in both nutrient solutions? What does this mean? o What does this do to the bacteria in our body right now? What would happen to us if an aerobic bacterium suddenly got put into an anaerobic situation within our body? (Think about the video assignment). These next set of questions do not necessarily have a correct answer because the students have not gone through it yet. It is supposed to serve as a prior

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This activity NEEDS an iPad because of the app that was available only on iTunes. If there are no iPads then this activity cannot be done. 9 Similar to last time, this only works if there has been growth, otherwise something else would have to be done.

knowledge or what do you think? type of question to transition into the concept (which will occur in the next lesson, SMARTBoard Lesson). o What do you think the implications are for bacterial infections?10 What do you think the implications are for combating diseases? 11 05 minutes Lab Report : Tell the students that a formal lab report about the experiment is due in three days. Each student must turn one in and they cannot work together. They can discuss and talk about the results but each report needs to be different. Spend the last few minutes in class answering any questions about the assignment. Total Time: 50 minutes Homework: Lab report due in three days. Alternate Activities12: 1. Students can pick a podcast from this website: http://www.microbeworld.org/podcasts/microbeworld-radio Students can listen to the podcast and then research the species that it mentions to find out where it lives and how it grows. Students can then present that information to the class and also talk about what the podcast was talking about in terms of breakthroughs in the microbiology world. 2. Look at the iPad app, Mighty Microbes, and its gallery of microbes and their shape. Have the students find the one that they were matched up with through the quiz and have them draw a picture of what it looks like on their poster/sheet that they turned in. Discussion: I chose to have the experiment because I wanted the students to see the diversity amongst microorganisms. They saw diversity in bacteria shape when they did the demonstration lesson plan but this lesson focuses on diversity in how the bacteria species live and where they live. It goes beyond just physical characteristics and shows students that bacteria, like humans, live and function in different environments as well. I wanted them to realize that not all bacteria are the same and need the same things to survive, just like humans and other organisms. Bacteria are so diverse and so it is important that students understand this concept. This diversity also makes vaccine development and flu shot development more difficult and I wanted to include that in our discussion at the end of the class period because it is a connection to the real world. I chose to do the personality quiz and the Bio-Hatch application for a day so that the students can still have something to do while their second trial was growing. After observing at
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This last bullet point serves as transition into the SMARTBoard lesson plan. It is assumed that the students have done lab reports for other lessons/units before. 12 This is in case the bacteria has not grown and you need activities for the day because the students cannot observe/record anything.

Monticello Middle School, I am a big proponent of having the students modify and try something again. The 6th graders at MMS had to make a pinwheel that could pick up a pound of washers when it spun with the wind. The teacher had the students design their pinwheel however the wanted and then test their design. Then she had them modify it to make it better. I really liked this idea because the students got to think on how to improve and so I adopted that same reasoning when adding in the second trial component. I realize that a big part of this lab is making sure plates grow bacteria in a timely manner and so that is a downfall with a lesson like this. It is hard to come up with a lesson on microbes without actually seeing any of them and so they must be grown. The flip-side, growing microbes becomes time consuming and so it is important to utilize weeks that have long-weekends so that bacteria can grow over that period of time and you are not wasting time in class doing something else while the bacteria is growing. I would assess the students on the video while I was checking their design in order to save time and allow the students to have more time with the inquiry based portion of the unit. While it is important to make sure that the students have seen the video because it is important information that will help them understand the concept and develop a design, I think that the lab is more important. This can be a drawback later because if students did not understand the video then they do not have an opportunity to talk about it and ask questions.