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Volume 20/issue 8

A s i a P a c i f i c s L a r g e s t C i r c u la t e d D e f e n c e M a g a Z i n e

Regional News
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Sensing

Effects

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MISSION:
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| Asian Military Review |

Mission Support

Cyber

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Contents
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DECEMBER 2012/JANUARY 2013 VOLUME 20 / ISSUE 8

Naval Weapon Systems in Asia


Front Cover Photo: One of the two Raytheon Phalanx Mk15 Close-In Weapon Systems mounted on the stern of USS Makin Island (LHD-8), the eighth and final Wasp-class amphibious assault ship. While retaining a core capability to defeat sea skimming anti-ship missiles the Phalanx has found more recent application in defeating swarm attacks mounted by small fast attack craft (c) DoD

Ted Hooton The cost of new warships has risen steadily, driven not by the price of steel and metal fabrication but rather by electronics and weapons systems which can now account for two-thirds of the cost of a new ship

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Asia-Pacific Flight Training Capabilities & Requirements


David Oliver
With this rapid acquisition of high-tech weaponry, there is an increased focused on pilot training to ensure it remains compatible with fifthgeneration aircraft

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Ground Surveillance: 24/7 All Weather Demands
The nature of the mission or the role of the military forces used, determines the type of surveillance used rather than one size fitting all and consequently, militaries are establishing inventories that will allow them to match the sensor type to circumstances or effect that they are trying to achieve

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Regional Corvette Requirements

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Adam Baddeley

Air Power - A Role to Play in Counter Insurgencies


Gordon Arthur Recent operations have produced major shifts in thinking about the role of manned aircraft, helicopters or drones, providing consistent mobility, resupply, medevac, strike and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities, in countering insurgencies

Tom Withington The corvette is an attractive choice for limited budgets and is currently enjoying something of a renaissance as navies around the Asia-Pacific area pour investment into the renewal of their corvette fleets

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AFV and Vehicles: Protection Solutions


Adam Baddeley Armoured vehicles are the best protection for troops but relying on sheer weight of metal rather than tactics, techniques and procedures and other technology is counterproductive

Cyber: 46 Regional Defence and Offence

Adam Baddeley Cyberspace has been called many things. Whatever the term used, it will nonetheless join ground, sea, air and space as the key domains that militaries and governments must contest and ultimately dominate in current and future conflicts from the battlefield to the home front

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| Asian Military Review |

Editorial

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Advertising Offices Australia Peter Stevens, Publishers International Tel: (61) 8 9389 6601 Email: peter.stevens@pubintl.com.au France/Spain Stephane de Remusat, REM International Tel: (33) 5 3427 0130 E-Mail: sremusat@aol.com Germany/Austria/Switzerland/Italy/UK Sam Baird, Whitehill Media Tel: (44-1883) 715 697 Mobile: (44-7770) 237 646 E-Mail: sam@whitehillmedia.com India Vishal Mehta, Media Transasia India Limited Tel: (91) 124 4759625, Fax: (91) 124 4759550 E-Mail: vishal@mediatransasia.com Tarun Malviya, Media Transasia India Limited Tel: (91) 124 4759609, Fax: (91) 124 4759550 E-Mail: tarunmalviya@mtil.biz Israel Liat Heiblum, Oreet - International Media Tel: (97 2) 3 570 6527 E-Mail: liat@oreet-marcom.com ME Asia/ Pakistan/Turkey Kamran Saeed, Solutions Inc., Tel/Fax: (92 21) 3439 5105 Mobile: (92) 300 823 8200 E-Mail: kamran.saeed@solutions-inc.info Russia Alla Butova, NOVO-Media Ltd, Tel/Fax: (7 3832) 180 885 Mobile : (7 960) 783 6653 Email :alla@mediatransasia.com Scandinavia/Benelux/South Africa Tony Kingham, KNMMedia Tel: (44) 2081 445 934 Mobile : (44) 7827 297 465 E-Mail: tony.kingham@worldsecurity-index.com South Korea Young Seoh Chinn, Jes Media Inc. Tel: (82-2) 481 3411/13 E-Mail: jesmedia@unitel.co.kr USA (East/South East)/Canada Margie Brown, Margie Brown & Associates. Tel : (+1 540) 341 7581 Email :margiespub@rcn.com USA (West/South West)/Brazil Diane Obright, Blackrock Media Inc. Tel: +1 (858) 759 3557 Email: blackrockmedia@cox.net

ince 1947, India has seen itself as a champion of the non-aligned role and historically has favoured the Soviet Union then Russia in its arms acquisition. India has acquired effective equipment, suitable to its environment, effective against its enemies and supportable by its industry and troops. Its flow has not been cut or threatened at the times when India has most needed it. The strategic relationship between India and the Soviet Union and now Russia has remained strong.

But nothing is forever. As Indias economy has flourished so its defence budget has grown. Rather than being a regional curiosity for many defence suppliers, Indias defence markets have become key to many companies export plans as domestic markets shrivel. This has seen advanced equipment, hitherto denied due to overseas security concerns and modest Indian modernisation budgets, offered in the numbers and quality to transform the countrys military. Russian solutions are being squeezed out of the largest new programmes. In many categories such as defence electronics, Russia would struggle to fill Indias needs but even on platform requirements it has lost out too. European suppliers have won key programmes, with the MMRCA going to Dassaults Rafale and the Advanced Jet Trainers to BAE Systems not to mention Swiss Pilatus trainers and EADS tankers. So have US firms; India will become the largest non-US operator of the C-17, more C-130Js are on the way while CH-47 and AH-64 helicopters have recently been selected for Indian service. These selections are hardly negligent. Excellent solutions have been chosen. Russian kit has its issues too. The story of escalating price tags for the Vikramaditya from $947 million to $2.3 billion shows that contracts with Russia are not set in stone. However, each time Russia is unsuccessful the ties that bind the two countries fray a little. And, when India seeks other sources of supply, so to can Russia seek other defence markets. If India expects to wield a veto on its partners potential sales to and co-operation with Pakistan, Delhi apparently nixing Putins participation in a four nation summit that involved Afganistan, Tajikistan, Russia and most importantly Pakistan, then it may have to look more favourably on Russian sourced equipment itself.

Adam Baddeley, Editor

Editor: Adam Baddeley E-mail: adam@baddeley.net Publishing Office: Chairman: J.S. Uberoi Media Transasia Ltd, Room No. 1205-1206, Hollywood Centre 233, Hollywood Road, Central, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2815 9111, Fax: (852) 2815 1933 Operations Office: President: Egasith Chotpakditrakul Sr. Manager International Marketing: Vishal Mehta Deputy Manager Marketing: Tarun Malviya Sales & Marketing Coordinator: Atul Bali Designer: Arijit Das Choudhury Production Manager: Kanda Thanakornwongskul Group Circulation Manager: Porames Chinwongs Media Transasia Thailand Ltd. 75/8, 14th Floor, Ocean Tower II, Soi Sukhumvit 19, Sukhumvit Road, Klongtoeynue, Wattana, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. Tel: 66 (0)-2204 2370, Fax: 66 (0)-2204 2390 -1
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MILITARY FLIGHT
T R A I N I N G

Asia-Pacific Flight Training Capabilities & Requirements


With growing tension over territorial disputes in and around the China Seas and the United States commitment to increase its presence in the Asia Pacific region, there is something of an arms race breaking out, and the latest state of the art combat aircraft are heading the charge. by David Oliver

KAIs T-50 Golden Eagle is in service the Republic of South Korea Air Force and ordered by the Indonesian Air Force and selected by the Philippines Air Force. (c) David Oliver

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T R A I N I N G

MILITARY FLIGHT

The Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master Advanced Jet Trainer/Lead-in Fighter Trainer has been selected by the Republic of Singapore

mongst the runners is South Korea which has recently requested Foreign Military Sales (FMS) from the US government of 36 AH64D Apache Longbow Block III attack helicopters and 36 AH-1Z Cobra attack helicopters, worth a total of $6 billion.
Boeings AH-64D Apache flight simulator installed in its Mesa facility in Arizona. (c) Boeing

This is in addition to its F-X requirement for 60 fifth-generation fighter aircraft. In the meantime it has signed a $1 billion contract with BAE Systems to upgrade the Republic of Korea Air Force F-16 fleet. Indonesia is also on course for rapid expansion of its air assets having requested an FMS for eight AH-64D Apache Longbow Block III attack helicopters, has recently taken delivery of the first of eight A-29 Super Tucano light attack aircraft and in May 2011 signed a $400 million contract for 16 Korean Aerospace Industries (KAI) T/A-50I light attack jets to 10 Hawk Mk.53 subsonic trainers, and supplement or replace the Air Forces remaining F-5E/F fighters. Indonesia is also involved in KAIs stealth jet programme, which is designed to be a contender for South Koreas proposed KF-X fight.

Philippine Air Force officials as saying they will buy 12 KAI TA-50s in order to restore the Air Forces ability to secure Philippines airspace
Philippine Air Force officials as saying they will buy 12 KAI TA-50s in order to restore the Air Forces ability to secure Philippines airspace. That ability was lost when the country retired its remaining F-5 aircraft in 2005, and the United States no longer bases fighter aircraft at Clark AB or USNB Subic Bay. Chinese violations of Philippine airspace and claimed maritime zones have been creating a lot of tension, and the country has been looking at its

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requirements for a light attack aircraft. The T/A-50 contract is reportedly worth approximately $590 million, which it plans to sign by the end of 2012. All twelve fighter aircraft are expected to be delivered by the end of 2013 when the Philippines would join its neighbor Indonesia as a KAI Golden Eagle customer. Given the T/A-50s 2-seat design and ability to use laser-guided weapons, another possibility would be to add options to any T/A-50 contract, and use it in both roles. This would be less effective for counter-insurgency, or as an intermediate trainer, but contribute more to airspace policing and defence. With this rapid acquisition of high-tech weaponry, Air Vice Marshal Sohail Aman, Deputy Chief of Air Staff (Training) for the Pakistan Air Force, recently voiced the concerns that there must be an increased focused on the transformation that his military is undergoing and how pilot training must remain compatible with fifth-generation aircraft. This challenge can be met in several different ways. Firstly, most contracts, and all FMS for new aircraft include the provision of training devices, simulators and maintenance personnel training. In most cases the supplier trains the customers initial cadre of flight instructors and maintenance personnel. This may be at the companys factory or under contract with its military. Boeing has an AH-64D flight training centre at its Mesa facility in Arizona while Sikorskys international Black Hawk customers are trained under contract by a company at Huntsville, Alabama while the US Army Aviation Center of Excellence at Fort Rucker, Alabama trains international personnel in aviation and leadership skills. The FMSs of Black Hawks for Brunei Taiwan, Thailand include provision of air crew and technicians training in the United States. Few combat helicopter operators in the region have their own flight simulators, the exceptions being South Korea which has an L-3 Apache FMS, and Australia where Thales Training & Simulation provides a Tiger ARH training system consisting of a Full Flight and Mission Simulator (FFMS), two Cockpit Procedures Trainers (CPT) and

Australian Army Tiger ARH air crews use a Thales Full Flight and Mission Simulator (FFMS) for the majority of their flight training (c) Commonwealth of Australia

options for a new combat aircraft. It has attempted to acquire twelve used American F-16s, as well as evaluating the KAI T/A-50 and Alenia Aermacchis M-346 Master. An armed variant of the M-346 is not yet on the horizon and the United States has not yet issued a formal Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) clearance, the Philippine Department of National Defence announced in September 2012 that it had selected the KAI T/A-50 to meet its

Few combat helicopter operators in the region have their own flight simulators, the exceptions being South Korea... and Australia
| Asian Military Review |

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T R A AEROSPACE I N I N G

MILITARY FLIGHT

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Full Mission Simulator

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ground crew training devices. An order for delivery of two Full Flight & Mission Simulators (FFMS) for the Australian Army variant of the NH90, the MRH90, has been placed with CAE Australia Pty Limited for delivery in 2013, The only other NH90 operator in the region, New Zealand, will also use the Australian training facility. The Indonesian armed forces have access to Frasca Full Flight Simulators (FFS) for the Bell 412 and BO 105 helicopter that are built by under licence by Indonesian Aerospace. Japan uses Mitsubishi-built FFSs for the Armys Bell AH-1J Cobra and the Air Force UH60J Black Hawks while Indian Dhruv flight training is carried out at the CAE/ HAL Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying (HATSOFF) at Bangalore, India. Initial fast pilot training is mainly carried out carried out by the manufacturer while the problem of continuation training is addressed by acquiring two-seat advanced training variable of the aircraft. The Royal Thai Air Force has taken delivery of four twoseat Gripen D aircraft while a second group of Thai pilots are being trained at the Swedish Air Force Skaraborg Wing, F 7, in Sweden where the four-month course includes 20 hours on the Gripen simulator. Although the KAI T-50 is an advanced trainer/light attack aircraft, the types Indonesian instructor pilots are being trained in Korea on the T-50 integrated training system that includes simulators, computer-based training, cockpit and maintenance trainers, and a training management system. It is anticipated that the Philippine Air Force will use the same system, or it may rely on Indonesia to train its T/A-50 aircraft although it has requested that two aircraft are delivered as soon as possible after the order is confirmed. For the introduction of the Indonesian Air Forces recently delivered Embraer A-29B Super Tucanos, which are also dual role tactical trainers and light attack aircraft, twelve Indonesian pilots are being trained in Brazil and an FFS is being installed at Lanud Abdul Rachman Saleh air base. Again, the Philippines have announced its intension to procure six Super Tucano aircraft plug into
The recently delivered Royal Thai Air Force Gripen fleet includes four two-seat advanced tactical training aircraft. (c) David OIiver

Indonesias training system for the type. Singapore has comprehensive integrated training for its new fleet of aircraft. In September 2010, the Alenia Aermacchi M-346 was selected

Singapore has comprehensive integrated training for its new fleet of aircraft
by Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) to replace the A-4SU Super Skyhawks in the Advanced Jet Training (AJT) role. The contract for 12 M-346 Master advanced trainer aircraft is being acquired through a consortium comprised of ST Aerospace as prime contractor, and Boeing Aircraft. The first Singaporean Master was rolled out at Venegono Superiore in Italy on 7 August while the first batch of RSAF pilots began their training began their training on the M-346 at Lecce Air Base in southern Italy. Singapore Technologies (ST) Aerospace is the prime contractor which contracted Boeing teamed with Alenia Aermacchi to provide an immersive M-346 training system for the RSAF.

This was the second phase of re-equipping Singapores training fleet. The first was the award in 2006 of a contract by the Singapore Ministry of Defences Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) to operate the RSAF Basic Wings Course (BWC). Nineteen PC-21 advanced turboprop trainer aircraft and a 20year engineering and logistics support service are being provided by the Swiss aircraft manufacturer, Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. as part of a turn-key training package awarded to Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training and Support (LMSTS). The training is being conducted at the Royal Australian Air Force Base Pearce, north of Perth in Western Australia. The contract included the provision of Pilot and Weapons System Operator ground-school, simulator hours and flying from July 2008. The PC-21 replaced the Alenia S-211, 32 of which were delivered in the 1980s, most of which have been sold off to private jet warbird owners. The value of full flight mission simulators that can reduce flying hours on expensive combat aircraft by up to fifty per cent, is set to impact of stretched defence budgets and synthetic training systems are becoming a vital component of the acquisition process. An example is BAE Systems awarding

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T R A I N I N G

MILITARY FLIGHT

to design, and build and FMS for the Malaysian Air Force Sukhoi Su-30MKM jet fighter bought by the Government from Russia. The 13-year contract also required HeiTech to commission and maintain the simulator, provide training for use of the system and provide the operational support services. The FMS is equipped with HeiTechs Synthetic Visual Solution (SYVES) image generators, software and display system that delivers a combination of multi resolution of Geo-Typical and GeoSynthetic representation of the entire earth. Its image generators provide real time continuous colour scenes on high resolutions together with simulated sensors images such as night vision goggles (NVG), forward-looking infra-red (FLIR) sensors and radar.
Thai Gripen pilot training includes 20 hours on a Saab PETRA simulator in Sweden (c) Saab

However, Chinas Peoples Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) is now expanding the use of flight simulation technology to hone its fighter pilots skills and air battle tactics. The Flight Simulation Technology Research Institute of the Air Force has been developing a range of state-of-the-art simulators for the latest generation of combat aircraft that China is producing. Pilots at the Air Force Flying College at Harbin practice their skills in a flight simulators that can simulate bad weather, engine failure and other procedures and emergencies. China began to train fighter pilots with simulators a decade ago and to date some 70 flight simulators have been delivered to the PLAAF and other forces, which have provided 15,000 hours of training since 2002. According to the Director of the Institutes simulation training centre, a number of PLAAF pilots who flew the first-generation fighters spend more than 50 days in flight simulators before making a successful transition to flying third-generation fighters. The Institute has recently developed an improved visual system for simulators in which pilots can challenge the worlds major combat aircraft alone or in joint force network. The system, which took the Institute three years to develop, was the result of feedback from PLAAF pilots and instructors who complained that the visual images of target aircraft generated in previous simulators were difficult to identify. In addition to modern synthetic training systems, the PLAAF has formed an aggressor unit to emulate the US Navys Top Gun programme. The 8th PLAAF Flight Academy is home to the Su-30MKK fighter-bomber Blue-Army Aggressor Squadron. It is trained to act as the enemy in war-games by simulating the USAF F-15E or other Su30 equipped Asian air forces. There are a total of three Blue-Army Aggressor squadrons within the PLAAF, the other two are equipped with J-10A and J-7E to simulate lighter, single engine, opponents. These squadrons operate under the PLAAF Flight Test & Training Base (FT&TB) at Cangzhou-Cangxian Air Base in Hebei. The PLAAF is now raising its flight training capabilities to AMR a new level.

CAE a five-year contract to provide maintenance and support services for Indias Hawk synthetic training equipment. CAE India will provide onsite maintenance and support services at Indian Air Force Base Bidar where the IAF operates a Hawk flight training device, two Hawk cockpit procedures trainers, and a Hawk avionics part-task trainer. CAE India will provide a range of training support services, including hardware and software engineering, troubleshooting, and logistics support. The Malaysian company HeiTech Defence was contract by its government

Until recently China has lagged behind in the development of synthetic training equipment compared to the West where CAE, L-3 and Thales dominate the market.

China began to train fighter pilots with simulators a decade ago and to date some 70 flight simulators have been delivered to the PLAAF

The Indian Air Force has recently increased its order for BAE Systems Hawk 132 AFTs which includes a synthetic flight training package (c) BAE Systems

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A ROLE TO PLAY IN COUNTER INSURGENCIES


by Gordon Arthur

AIRPOWER

Few countries can afford the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk, but many armed forces have opted for smaller and cheaper UAVs (c) Gordon Arthur

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Insurgencies, organised movements aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict, are the most common form of war in the world today. Around 80 insurgencies currently rage in countries like Afghanistan, India, Iraq, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Syria and Thailand. Counterinsurgency (COIN) operations are usually considered the domain of ground forces, a notion most air forces subscribe to.
owever, Iraq and Afghanistan combat has produced a major attitudinal shift within many air forces regarding the integral part airpower plays in counter insurgencies. Airpower whether manned aircraft, helicopters or drones provides consistent mobility, re-supply, medevac, strike and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities . Insurgencies are typically invulnerable to classic air campaigns because the enemy is hard to pinpoint and governments rarely possess the most appropriate assets to carry out missions. Consequently, COIN airpower operations are often undervalued in a support role. In fact, airpower brings many advantages speed, range, persistence, flexibility and lethality. What exactly does airpower contribute

| Asian Military Review |

COUNTER

INSURGENCY

to COIN operations? Firstly, it constrains an adversarys conventional options. Because aircraft can conduct wide-area surveillance, insurgents cannot mass or escalate operations because they know they will be picked off. Secondly, airpower helps balance the insurgents advantage, namely his ability to choose the time and place to initiate attacks. The speed and range of aircraft makes his ability to hit and run more challenging. A third advantage is enduring airborne surveillance that provides opportunities for COIN forces to take the initiative. Air mobility is central to COIN missions, and air lift occurs at both inter-theatre and intra-theatre levels. Poor transportation networks in underdeveloped countries put a premium on air mobility to deliver troops, food, ammunition, fuel and equipment to hotspots. The intratheatre airlift role is arguably the most important for COIN operations. For instance, the airdrop poundage of the US Air Force (USAF) doubled yearly from 2006-10. Meanwhile, medical evacuation is another vital form of airlift. Indeed, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) helicopters average just 40-45 minutes to evacuate casualties to hospital.

While Philippine ground forces bear the burden of combat against communist and Islamic insurgents, they rely heavily on air support
For airstrikes, the ability to loiter over the battlefield and rapidly provide fire support to ground troops is important. Well over 200,000 close air support (CAS) sorties have been conducted in Iraq and Afghanistan to date. In Afghanistan the USAF seeks a twelveminute response time for CAS missions, but in 2011 an eight-minute average was achieved. Last year, NATO fixedwing aircraft dropped ordnance or strafed in 5.8 percent of 34,286 combat sorties flown there. Aerial platforms also commonly conduct bomb damage assessment. In Iraq and Afghanistan, USAF aircraft

like the RC-135 Rivet Joint, U-2 Dragon Lady, MQ-1 Predator, RQ-4 Global Hawk and MC-12W Liberty have provided round-the-clock ISR coverage. In Afghanistan, the USAF alone provides 560-600 hours of full-motion video footage per day. New roles are also developing. Since the start of 2012, Italy has been operating the C-27J Spartan fitted with airborne counter-improvised explosive device equipment. Special forces are good at exploiting airpower, and the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) brings a lot of useful skills, tactics and platforms, for example the AC-130 gunship) that relate to counterinsurgency situations. However, the US example is exceptional because few air forces can afford their own dedicated special force squadrons. Local case studies The Philippines is simultaneously fighting two conflicts: the New Peoples Army has been waging the worlds longest-running communist insurgency, while Islamic secessionists agitate trouble in Mindanao. The Philippine Air Force (PAF) has been criticised for being all air and no force - in 2010

Perhaps the greatest contribution airpower makes is in terms of airlift, of the type the Alenia Aermacchi C-27J Spartan can provide (c) Gordon Arthur

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Out of budgetary necessity, the Philippine Air Force has got good COIN mileage from its vintage OV-10A Bronco fleet (c) Gordon Arthur

only 27 percent of its aircraft inventory was mission-capable! However, the PAF is growing in capability and will soon receive new assets to prosecute COIN missions. Among these are lightattack helicopters capable of nightflying to replace elderly MD 520s. In July 2012 the PAF chief reported Italy was the frontrunner to supply ten AgustaWestland AW109 helicopters. One of the PAFs main CAS assets is the ageing OV-10A Bronco, which require replacement by six light-attack turboprops. Three contenders are the Beechcraft AT-6B Texan II, Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano and Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) KA-1. The PAF retired its F-5 jet fighters in 2005, but to regain its mojo it has been seeking twelve modern fighters for both the lead-in flight trainer and lightattack roles. Two candidates were the KAI T/A-50 Golden Eagle and Alenia Aermacchi M-346. On 1 August, the government announced the selection of twin-seat T/A-50s for this requirement. While Philippine ground forces bear the burden of combat against communist and Islamic insurgents, they rely heavily on air support. The PAF scored a major success on 2 February 2012 when two Broncos conducted a bombing raid on

an Abu Sayyaf hideout on Jolo. The attack killed 15 terrorists including Marwan (Southeast Asias most-wanted terrorist), Mauwiyah and, allegedly, Umbra Jumdail. Major General Jose Tony Villarete commands the 3rd Air Division in Mindanao. He told Asian Military Review that capabilities have been enhanced with upgraded Super Huey UH-1HII helicopters and he praised the skill of his pilots. Under American tutelage, they have become proficient in using night vision goggles, thus allowing helicopters to medevac and insert/extract troops in darkness. As well as COIN missions, air forces must not neglect their territorial protection mandate; it is this failure that has contributed to current Philippine maritime disputes with China.

Thailand is another country trying to subdue a Muslim-inspired insurgency. The three southern provinces of Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat experienced a sharp upswing in violence in 2004 and more than 4,100 have died to date. Historically, Thai troops were passive in the south but a new counterinsurgency approach features increased surveillance and a more visible presence. The Royal Thai Air Force relies heavily on Diamond DA42 aircraft to support army units in the south. Thailand ordered six aircraft in 2009 for the training role, but some have been fitted with surveillance cameras in a nose pod. These DA42s conduct reconnaissance missions for example, overflying troops patrolling along roads, and taking photographs of areas of interest. The army also uses Black Hawk and UH-1H helicopters for general transport in jungle areas. Hardware Air forces are leveraging evolutionary improvements in technology such as sensors, connectivity and precision weapons originally developed for conventional warfare. Common precision-guided munitions (PGM) used in Iraq and Afghanistan include the JDAM, Paveway II/III, AGM-114 Hellfire, and GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb that destroy targets with minimal collateral damage. Technological shortfalls remain in medium-altitude airborne sensors able

Technological shortfalls remain in medium-altitude airborne sensors able to penetrate foliage, monitor activities inside/ outside structures, and detect hidden weapons/explosives
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AD

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operations. However, the LAAR project was effectively suspended earlier this year. As a cost-effective alternative to modern jets, Boeing was also considering restarting OV-10X production too. Drones An important technological innovation is the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for multiple applications. A common role is ISR. For example, Rear Admiral Armando Guzman, a Philippine Navy commander, enthused about UAVs like the Insitu ScanEagle. We could use UAVs on ground operations so we dont need to send troops into harms way. Amazingly, there has been a 45-fold increase in American UAV numbers since 2002, with more than 7,500 now in service! The USA purchases around 1,400 UAVs annually and the USAF will be performing 65 daily combat air patrols of General Atomics MQ-1 Predators and MQ-9 Reapers by 2013. The Gorgon Stare wide-area airborne surveillance system is now being used operationally aboard MQ-9 Reapers in Afghanistan. The USA has also been running its controversial CIA drone war in Pakistan since 2004, with an estimated 3,000 victims to date. However, such unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAV) raise ethical dimensions when exerting lethal force. Reality cannot but be simulated for a pilot sitting safely in a ground control centre thousands of miles away from Afghanistan, and who is cut off from the consequences of his actions. The increased use of UCAVs in Afghanistan may be an indication of the impersonal direction airpower is heading. The US Army planned to deploy Boeing A160T Hummingbird rotary-winged drones equipped with the Autonomous Real-time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance Imaging System (ARGUSIS) to Afghanistan. However, a stopwork order has essentially killed this project. Nevertheless, since 2011 the US Marine Corps has been successfully using unmanned Kaman K-MAX craft to deliver supplies to remote locations, with 1.6 million pounds of cargo delivered to date. Another recent innovation is the use of lighter-than-air vehicles, whose advantage lies in their staying power relative to acquisition and operational

Lower-tech platforms such as this Korea Aerospace Industries KA-1 are perfectly sufficient for many militaries mired in COIN operations (c) Gordon Arthur

to penetrate foliage, monitor activities inside/outside structures, and detect hidden weapons/explosives. However, militaries do not always want expensive high-tech equipment. Older aircraft may provide immense advantages, one successful example in Iraq/Afghanistan being the USAFs A-10 Thunderbolt II armed with laser-guided bombs and 30mm cannon. Even converted civilian aircraft can give commanders terrific surveillance advantages. The fact is

that most American systems are too expensive to buy and maintain for those countries combating insurgencies. For instance, an F/A-18 Super Hornet costs some $20,000 per flight hour! It was in this context the US Aircraft Corporation designed the easy-to-maintain, longendurance A-67 Dragon turboprop as a COIN solution. Interestingly, in 2009 the USAF initiated the Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance (LAAR) programme to find 100 aircraft for COIN-type

The Philippines seems set to acquire the armed KAI T/A-50 jet, a variant similar to the South Korean T-50 Golden Eagle pictured here (c) Gordon Arthur

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systems surveillance cameras and leaky envelope. Collateral damage All-weather sensors and PGMs have unrealistically increased public expectations that airpower is humane it is not. It is true that smart weapons reduce the risk of unintended deaths but they cannot remove it, especially in a COIN environment where it is difficult to discriminate combatants. India has only once used airstrikes against Maoists, this in 1966. India, like many countries, baulks at the prospect of using airstrikes against its citizens and running the risk they will aggravate the problem if civilian casualties occur. Such accidents also attract vigorous criticism from humanrights organisations. However, some air forces like those in Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Syria have not hesitated to attack countrymen. The Syrian Air Force is actively supporting President Bashar alAssad in repressing opposition. Mi-17 and Mi-24 helicopters fitted with rocket pods and machine guns, as well as L-39 jets, have attacked protestors. Craft have also been dropping homemade

Thailand makes widespread use of army helicopters like the UH-1H and Black Hawk (pictured) in its restive southern provinces (c) Gordon Arthur

costs. For example, in August it was announced the US Army was proceeding to field its optionally manned LongEndurance Multi-intelligence Vehicle

(LEMV) for surveillance. Filled with helium and air, the 3,000km-range Northrop Grumman airship can stay on station for 21 days. Thailand turned to similar technology when it bought an Aria International Aeros 40D airship for use in the south. Unfortunately, the army was dissatisfied with the tethered

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In places like Iraq and Afghanistan, the Boeing AH-64D Apache has proven equally adept at COIN as well as conventional warfare (c) Gordon Arthur

barrel bombs in Homs and Aleppo. Essentially, a barrel bomb contains explosives, oil and shrapnel packed inside a large oil drum to cause as much destruction as possible. Syria has also used cluster bombs in indiscriminate bombardments of cities. The media often shapes public perception and a single stray bomb can profoundly impact how a war is fought. ISAF knows well how easily an airstrike can go wrong. Just one example was an attack on a Pakistani border post that killed 24 in November 2011. This incident prompted Pakistan to close Afghan border crossings to military supplies for eight months. Of 14,500 air-to-ground weapon releases in Afghanistan from 2007-09, less than 0.1% resulted in civilian casualties. Regardless, CAS and helicopter close combat attack (CCA) missions in 2011 were still the highest cause of fatalities by pro-government forces. A total of 187 civilians died this way, a figure accounting for 44% of unintended civilian deaths. Apache helicopters have proved the most deadly in CCA missions gone wrong. Appropriately trained forward air controllers on the ground are important to ensure the accurate use of airpower. Generally, control of upper airspace

belongs unreservedly to air forces, but insurgents can contest airspace at lower altitudes. Pilots thus need to be aware of insurgents equipped with rocketpropelled grenades (RPG), or worse, man-portable antiaircraft missiles. In August 2011 a Taliban RPG shot down a CH-47 in Afghanistan and killed 38 mostly SEAL troops. Without full control of airspace, forces cannot fully leverage their airpower mobility and ISR advantages. Before the invasion of Iraq, the USAF had no inter-service COIN doctrine or processes. Thus, personnel had to relearn painful lessons acquired in previous conflicts. Iraqi and Afghan combat has given rise to a new generation of crewmen proficient in COIN operations. However, if full advantage is to be taken of this experience, knowledge has to be institutionalised and disseminated

in training curriculums. In August 2007 the USAF released Air Force Doctrine Document 2-3 Irregular Warfare to give guidance in the COIN spectrum. Interestingly, for all its capability, the USAF does not have a dedicated winglevel organisation to nurture COIN tactics and technology for itself or allies. The nearest thing is the small 6th Special Operations Squadron (6 SOS) of AFSOC, which provides internaldefence training, assistance and advice to partner air forces. 6 SOS puts together training packages in host countries, but of the squadrons six flights, only one is dedicated to Asia-Pacific. Regional beneficiaries have included Afghanistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka and Thailand. While there is little glory in this training role, it is probably the most effective means for the USAF to improve capabilities in friendly nations. Air-centric approaches in Bosnia/ Kosovo and Afghanistan in 2001 produced remarkable victories through the application of airpower, space-based assets, special forces, overwhelming ISR and the use of indigenous forces. Airpower does not solve insurgencies but it can play a truly important role, and its judicious use helps establish a secure environment in which other counterinsurgency instruments can AMR operate.

The media often shapes public perception and a single stray bomb can profoundly impact how a war is fought
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he best way to avoid roadside bombs is by travelling off road, by unpredictable routes. However, if the weight of armour limits vehicles only to metalled roads then protection will have failed because of increased susceptibility to attack. Furthermore, while the threat of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and mines is foremost in current thinking, this is primarily an insurgent weapon. In a more conventional conflict other, more complex and lethal systems will be used such as tank rounds and AntiTank missiles, each requiring their own means of defeat, making vehicle protection a wide and growing portfolio of capabilities.

Armour By Design Vehicles developed now and in the future will continue with current high levels of protection combined with increased levels of battlefield agility. Canada has been a recent nexus for vehicle modernisation and new vehicles. Textron and Rheinmetall are now beginning to build the 500 vehicle fleet - with an option for up to a hundred more - of Tactical Armored Patrol Vehicles (TAPV) ordered by Canada in a $207 million deal announced earlier this year. Production begins in July 2014 and concludes in March 2016 with an initial operational capability, due in late 2014 with 47 vehicles deployed.

A total of 750 Oshkoshs Mine Resistant Ambush Protected AllTerrain Vehicles (M-ATVs) will be delivered to the United Arab Emirates by July next year where it is being used for peacekeeping and security roles.

Not every customer needs the appearance of an MRAP like vehicles which can weigh 12-15 tonnes

| Asian Military Review |

VEHICLE
M-ATV will begin shipping the first of 750 M-ATVs to the United Arab Emirates in January (c) Oshkosh

PROTECTION

AFV and Vehicle

Protection SOLUTIONS

Armoured vehicles are the best protection for troops. Thereafter it gets more complex, endless up-armouring relying on sheer weight of metal and ceramics rather than tactics, techniques and procedures and other technology is counter-productive. by Adam Baddeley

Not every customer needs the appearance of an MRAP like vehicles which can weigh 12-15 tonnes. Government users may want to travel in a civilian car to avoid undue attention to their presence yet still include protection levels on the vehicles that protect them from ambush. Streit Group has converted several hundred sports utility vehicles and other civilian platforms for US and overseas customers, including the US Army. Features includes safe stowage of weapons and equipment, reinforced windows with 72mm laminated glass, key items within the engine compartment such as the battery shrouded with ballistic protection and the substitution of

civilian plastic skid plates on the underneath the vehicles with a metal alternative that is able to defeat smaller mines. It doesnt provide the protection of an MRAP, nor is it intended to either with a much lower the price tag of roughly $200,000 for an equipped Sports Utility Vehicle. A similar capability can be provided by the Volkswagen Amarok which Rheinetmall Defence has adopted for a military role where it is known as the Light Multi-Purpose Vehicle. Less covert options include electricallypowered ring-mount for a medium or heavy machine gun / automatic grenade launcher .

New protected mobility designs are appearing all the time. South Africas Paramount Group launched the Marauder Patrol earlier this year. The base vehicle has STANAG Level 1 protection against small arms and shell splinters, proof to standard 5.56mm and 7.62mm ball rounds for the nine personnel inside and is upgradeable to STANAG level 2 if required, Armour As an Afterthought Improving protection levels of platforms once in service provides a cost effective alternative to acquiring a new vehicle, although legacy platforms often have weight limitations which reduces the protection level that can be expected.

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that a 40 percent saving have been achieved via the upgrade versus the acquisition of a new Stryker offering the same protection. The need for an amphibious capability in the region where bridges are limited and may not hold a heavily armoured vehicles is self evident. The weight limitation this imposes can create vulnerabilities, particularly against mines. BAE Systems recently began an protection upgrade to the UK Royal Marines fleet of 99 amphibious BvS10 Viking all-terrain vehicles the Mk2 mine protected standard which comprises new front and real hulls and new v-shaped underbody and an uplift to the vehicles suspension, braking and other modifications to support a 12.4 tonne gross vehicle weight. 550 vehicles are being upgraded with further 66 new LAV III being acquired to replace combat losses and other attrition in the fleet. The upgrade also includes increased automotive performance, better handling, more powerful engine, driveline and suspension and a height-management system. The first US Army Stryker vehicle, refurbished and upgraded with a new double hull to replace its flat bottomed hull rolled out of the Anniston Army Depot in October. The users estimate Even MRAPS need upgrading too. Navistar Defense is currently upgrading MaxxPro Dash vehicles already deployed in Afghanistan. The upgrade is partly to support better effectiveness against in-theatre threats and builds on earlier upgrades work which saw over 2700 of the vehicles gain a new chassis and independent suspension retrofit kits and armour kits.
The LAV/Stryker family are seeing a number of protection upgrades, shown here with the Tophy APS

Canada is acquiring 500 of the Textron designed TAPV (c) Textron

Under the Modernized Expanded Capacity Vehicle-Survivability (MECV-S), the US Army is asking industry to present it with a substantial, systemic change in the protection and survivability levels in its HMMWV fleet to prepare it for future operations. There is no final word on the number of vehicles it will cover but the Army intend to approach modernisation via an incremental approach. The work is in parallel to the Army and Marine Corp Joint Light Tactical Vehicle programme. Upgrading the General Dynamics Land SystemsCanada LAV III armoured vehicles in service with the Canadian Army includes double-V hull technology, add-on armour and energyattenuating seats have extended the vehicles planned service life to 2035. A total of

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MBDAs Multisorb weighs no more than 3 Kg per square metre and reduces the signature of the vehicles equipped with it when viewed with the naked eye, thermal imager and ground surveillance radars (c)

With 11,000 of QinetiQs Q-Net now delivered in US, French and Polish forces and with vehicles carrying the Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) defeat system now travelling over 51 million kilometres, QinetiQ have brought out the Q-Net 2. Q-Net operates by installing a net in a lightweight frame a short distance from the main body of the vehicle. the net included embed metal nodes. When an RPG hits the

net, these metal nodes adversely affect the rounds fuze preventing detonation. The new version reduces overall system weight - the Q-Net is designed as an alternative to heavier bar armour - and further refines the design to improve effectiveness. Camouflage and Signature Management Advanced active signature management materials reduce the probability of detection or lock-on by

Saab and Curtiss Wright recently tested the High Speed Directed Launcher or HSDL-306 element to its scalable Land Electronic Defence System

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VEHICLE

PROTECTION

an attacking system. If a target cant be detected, it wont be hit. Capabilities are sought in four key areas; visual range masking the colour and shape of the vehicle; near infrared affecting spectral reflectivity and its shape; thermal infrared in the 3-5um and 8-14um affecting the warm and hot parts of the object and fourthly to defeat radars camouflage changes the spatial and angular distribution of the reflected radar signal. MBDA developed Multisorb by testing and combining a number of different commercial fabrics and coatings, the result being a fabric which can be attached to vehicles. It has two key layers; the initial ventilated layers which presents to the human eyes as natural camouflage such as undergrowth and is built upon a layer of conductive mesh. Beneath this is a layer of foam. In all it weighs between 1.5-3Kg and is no more than 10cm thick. It also reduces the vehicles signature to ground surveillance radars operating in the 4-100Ghz band and does the same with elector-optical viewers. SSZs Multi-spectral camouflage covers offer thermal infrared protection as well as wideband radar coverage in the 2-100GHz range and can defeat missile seekers using millimetric wave radar to find their target. The thermal camouflage used by the system requires significantly less cooling compensation inside the vehicles than other solutions. Armor Works TactiCam, still in development is a vehicle mounted random 3D camouflage designed to disrupt the planar sources of armour panels and can be coated with IR suppressive coating and is also allowing the introduction of insulation which can further improve its signature reduction capabilities. The product is still in development. APS Active Protection Systems (APS) offer the opportunity to significantly reduce the needs for armour though not eliminate it entirely. Cued by their sensors, APS detect incoming rounds beginning with RPGs, graduating to the faster and more complex Anti-Tank guided weapons with some of the latest systems offering capability to defeat high velocity tank rounds. They can in milliseconds calculate the fire solution to intercept, than fire a small rocket or blast effect
The first of the UKs new Foxhound vehicles, the General Dynamics Land Systems Ocelot, deployed to Afghanistan in June (c) AJB

against the round, defeating the warhead although at high velocity some armour will be needed to defeat residual impacts from what remains of the round as well as medium calibre cannon fire which APS are not designed to defeat. Of course this relies upon extremely high success rates and instead of being an alternative to armour they are becoming an protection system that the vehicle has to bear.

Saab and Curtiss Wright recently tested the High Speed Directed Launcher or HSDL-306 element to its scalable Land Electronic Defence System (LEDS) scalable soft and hard kill vehicles protection systems. The tests were held in South Africa with LEDS mounted on a Piranha vehicle, alongside an Etienne Lacroix GALIX 13 multispectral smoke, where the systems ability to operate Saab

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Israel Aerospace Industries ELTA Systems Ltd. (IAI/ELTA), EL/M-2133 WindGuard Radar costs of four phased array Pulse Doppler radar which detect antitank round up to and including tank round and used to cure APS or soft kill solutions. A similar capability is offered by Radas RPS-10 which uses a solid state and armoured active electronically scanned array with each sensor covering 120 degrees in azimuth and 70 degree in elevation and integrated with other vehicle systems via Ethernet cable. On a tank, the Rafaels Trophy setup weighs roughly 800kg in a vehicle with four radars providing complete coverage. these cue on of two launchers on the vehicle which then fired a cloud of counter-measures into the path, knocking out the warhead but allowing what remains of the round to hit the vehicle with little no significant effect. This heavy systems has been used operationally, stopping its first RPG attack in March 2011 and is deployed on a number of Israel Defence Force armoured formations. The system s scalable down to the Medium Vehicle and most recent, the Light Vehicle, simplified and weighing roughly 200 kg configured differently it defeats incoming RPG round via triggering fixed banks of countermeasures which are angled downwards. Israel Military Industries Iron Fist switches between integrated soft-kill via a directional E/O jammer mounted on the launcher which fires a blast interceptor. Cued by RF and passive IR sensors. For light vehicles, the company has developed the Bright Arrow which weighs just 250Kg and integrates the hard kill element into a 7.62mm remote weapon station with effectiveness against RPGs and ATGMs. It has been shown on light vehicles such as the Panhard PVP. China has developed an APS for its Type 98 tanks and could be transferred to Pakistan. Singapore for example is reported to have adopted the Rheinmetall AMAP (Advanced Modular Armour Protection) on new vehicles which uses a combination of passive and laser radar to locate rounds and then detonates one of several modules built up around the of vehicle on lighter vehicles which looks akin to a crown with the resulting explosive blast cutting down the around AMR ultra short range ranges.

The launcher for IMIs Iron Fist APS (c) AJB

and Curtiss Wright recently tested the High Speed Directed Launcher or HSDL306 element to its scalable Land Electronic Defence System (LEDS) scalable soft and hard kill vehicles protection systems. The tests were held in South Africa with LEDS mounted on a Piranha vehicle, alongside an Etienne Lacroix GALIX 13 multispectral smoke, where the systems ability to operate with reduced power consumption and recoil effects were monitored. The LEDS systems is designed to detect missiles at 5km then screen the vehicles with obscurant before the LEDS interceptors defeats the incoming missile at stand off ranges, reducing collateral damage and cutting dual penetration. Koreas work on APS has been focused on equipping the K2 Black Panther main

battle Korean Active Protection System (KAPC). Developed by the Defence Acquisition Program Administration the systems tracks the round with a combination of radar and thermal imaging before engaging with a 70mm rocket via a two shot launcher 10-15 metres from the vehicle. the DAPA have a goal of a unit cost of $600,000 pre vehicle.

Upgrading the General Dynamics Land Systems-Canada LAV III armoured vehicles in service with the Canadian Army includes double-V hull technology

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Naval Weapon Systems in Asia


Modern warships, especially combatants, are increasingly expensive as every naval officer and finance official knows. The cost of new warships has risen steadily over the past five or six decades driven not by the price of steel and metal fabrication but rather by electronics which can now account for twothirds of a new ships price.

by Ted Hooton
hey are also driving demands for ever greater electrical power generation in ships, to power sensors such as radars and sonars, ship monitoring and hotel services, and weapon systems. Seventy years ago weapons were aimed using the Mark 1 eyeball augmented by optics and, occasionally, an electromechanical calculator but now navies rely upon sophisticated weapons which are supported by electronic sensors, high speed processors and a combat system, such as the Lockheed Martin Aegis selected by Australia, Japan and South Korea. The combat system processes sensor data to develop a constantly updated tactical picture, assesses threats and assigns targets to the weapon system. Weapon systems are normally associated with missiles but also extend to guns of almost all calibres. Gun mountings are increasingly unmanned to reduce fatigue and health problems for the crew, and are now largely controlled from the combat data centre which assigns targets and selects ammunition to be fed into the breech by a loading

system fed by an on-mount, manually refilled, magazine. The much used Oto Melara 76mm gun adopted by 14 Asian navies typically has 80 rounds while the BAE Systems (formerly United Defense) 127mm Mk 45 used by six Asian navies has a 20-round drum in the basic mounting. The gun control console features a ballistic computer and screen for sensor display. This can be from the ships surface search radar but is more usually an I/J-band (8-12 GHz) weapon control radar such as the Japanese FCS 2 family or Russian MR-184 Kite Screech used in Indian Delhi class destroyers. Against surface targets radars are not always the most reliable sensor with signals reflected by waves or land while meteorological and environmental conditions can also effect performance. For this reason there is a growing tendency to augment gun electronic sensors with electro-optical ones, especially for targets within the radar horizon for faster response. Australias Adelaide class frigates, for example, have the Ultra (formerly Radamec)

Series 2500 with 3-5 micron thermal imager, which offers better performance in hot and humid conditions than the 8-12 micron sensor. The thermal imager has the advantage of rapidly detecting hot spots, objects which are warmer than their environment, such as boat hulls but as the image is a negative one a television camera is added to provide a positive image to assist identification and, in the case of this sensor, a laser rangefinder helps the ballistic computer by providing the exact range of the target which is tracked automatically at the operators command.

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The much used Oto Melara 76mm gun adopted by 14 Asian navies typically has 80 rounds [on board]
These sensors are usually to be found in the ships mast or superstructure but most close-in weapon systems for use against anti-ship missiles have onmount sensors. The Raytheon Phalanx,

used by eight Asian navies, features a J-band (12-18 GHz) radar which in later models is augmented by a thermalimager sensor with video tracker because the weapon has been given a secondary role against Fast Inshore Attack Craft (FIAC) targets. The prime weapon of surface combatants is the missile; both surfaceto-surface and surface-to-air but the very nature of the weapon means that it is part of an integrated weapon system. This consists of the missile, supporting sensors, the weapon control system including dedicated sensors

The Oto Melara 5 inch (127mm) is being prepared for a new range of very long range ammunition of the Vulcano family which is likely to be available within the next year or so Oto Melara

and the launcher-handling system. The operator in the combat data centre with his dedicated console must first warm up the missile (or missiles) which he selects and initiates to start the batteries and the on-board guidance system, diagnostics are then conducted and if the missile is operational launch and target co-ordinates can be downloaded and the weapon or weapons are ready for launch.

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the SM-3 missiles which will be embarked in Tokyos Kongou class destroyers. The concept is already finding its way into other Asian navies. Singapores Formidable class frigates have the MBDA Aster system, which is supported by the Thales Herakles multi-function radar which removes the need for dedicated target-illuminators. These ships have the DCNS Sylver A50 launcher for the local area defence Aster 15 missile. India and Israel are developing the Rafael Barak missile into an area defence version with booster as Barak 2 (Indian designation or Barak 8 the Israeli one) for the Indian Kolkata (Project 15A) and Rajput class destroyers and, possibly, the Shivalik class frigates.

The 5 inch (127mm) BAE Mk 45 gun is used by six Asian navies and is now available in the Mod 4 62 calibre version, shown, which can take extended range ammunition BAE Systems

A typical system is the 3K90 Shtil area defence surface-to-air system known as SA-N-7 Gadfly and used by Chinas Sovremenny class destroyers and Indias Delhi (Project 15) class destroyers as well as Talwar and Shivalik (Project 17) class frigates. This consists of the 9M38 or 9M317 missile, the MS-196 launcher-handling system with two 12cell loading drums and a ramp launcher, and weapon control system based upon MR-90 Orekh Front Dome H/I (6-10 GHz) target-illuminator radars with a console supporting each tracker. The later 9M317 missiles are designed for launch from vertical launcher-handling systems similar to the US Mk 41, used by five Asian navies and which can be used for a variety of surface-to-air missiles as well as anti-submarine missiles. Even greater versatility is shown by the local area Seasparrow/Evolved Seasparrow Missiles can be launched from adapted Mk 41s by all four Asian customers with Japan also launching them from the Mk 48 vertical and Mk 29 multiple ramp launchers. This weapon
The Raytheon Tomahawk provides a new naval capability for it can be used from the sea to strike targets deep inland Raytheon helicopters, drones and Fast Inshore Attack Craft Raytheon

is also not tied to a specific director, Thailands Naresuan class frigates, for example, using Thales Nederland STIR (Signaal Tracking and Illuminating adar). In an interesting trend in surface-to-air weapon systems are also showing even greater versatility in architecture. The US Navy in the 1960s developed a basic area defence weapon as the Standard Missile (SM) whose range could be enhanced through a booster; the SM-1 and SM-2 being used by Australia, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan and in the US Navy the SM-6 will enter service with a potential Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) capability. The United States and Japan are developing this concept as part of their BMD strategy using

Even greater versatility is shown by the local area Seasparrow/Evolved Seasparrow Missiles can be launched from adapted Mk 41s by all four Asian customers
For reasons which remain obscure, most anti-ship missiles are launched from dedicated slanted-cylinder launchers such as the Mk 141 in the AN/SWG-1A weapon control system used in the Boeing Harpoon which is in the inventory of eight Asian navies, although some also use the missile from a Mk 13 ramp launcher. MBDAs Excoet, which is used by seven Asian navies, has the ITL or ITS launcher and, with several versions of this missile now available, produces the Cat-Visac console which can operate two different

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Phalaanx is one of the most widely used close-in weapon systems to counter anti-ship missiles but it is being increasingly adapted for use against helicopters, drones and Fast Inshore Attack Craft Raytheon

models simultaneously. An exception to slant launching is the Russo-Indian Brahmos supersonic anti-ship missile in the Indian Kolkata, Talwar and Rajput classes in eight-cell vertical launchers, the destroyers having two launcher systems. Surface-to-surface missiles may operate beyond the radar horizon and therefore have greater autonomy than surface-to-air missiles. Their shipborne

Torpedoes feature passive and active sonars and are guided towards the vicinity of the target using its passive sonar
control systems will select the courses they will take to a target detected and located by on-board or offboard sensors, radar data by providing to the ship through links, with the object of arriving simultaneously from different directions to confuse the defences. The missiles altitude will also be varied for greater concealment and the operator will also select the terminal phase; sea-skimming or high angle dive. Land attack missiles such as Koreas Cheon Ryong, selected for the Sejong Daewang (KDX-3) class destroyers, tend to be vertically-launched. Here the weapon system not only provides launcher/target co-ordinates but also a course which will allow the weapon to fly at low level and with data to make key turns over land. With anti-ship missiles such as Exocet MM40 and Hapoon being given a land-attack capability this feature may also creep into their weapon control systems. Malaysia, Indian, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan embark Exocet SM39 or Sub-Harpoon anti-ship missiles which are launched from torpedo tubes while Chinese and Indian submarines use the Russian Klub system. These are supported by submarine weapon systems whose prime weapon is the underwater guided missile or torpedo which were once free running but are now carefully controlled. The prime sensors are passive sonars which aim to detect and to track targets feeding data into the combat data system to provide the general location. The weapon is launched and then controlled from the boats command/weapon control system through guidance wire; an F17 Mod 2 used by Pakistans Khalids having 9.5 nautical miles (18 kilometres) of wire while the submarine will have another 2 nautical miles (4 kilometres), although the copper wire traditionally used provides a narrow band width which

A Sylver launcher, similar to the one in Singapores Formidable class frigates DCNS

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WEAPONS restricts the amount of data which can be exchanged between the weapon and the submarine. Torpedoes feature passive and active sonars and are guided towards the vicinity of the target using its passive sonar. The weapon relays target data to the submarine which uses it to augment data coming from its own sensors with both being processed by the submarine combat data system. The submarine can then correct the torpedos course if necessary with the object of bringing it into the general proximity of the target. The problem is that if the target is manoeuvring and the weapon has to turn sharply it risks snagging or even cutting the guidance wires but torpedoes usually have sufficient processing power to conduct an search, with the submarines assistance if possible, until it can reacquire the target. Once this has been achieved the guidance wires may be severed and the torpedo can uses its active sonars for the terminal phase. While sonars remain the prime sensor in
The MBDA Aspide surface-to-air missile was selected by Thailand for its Rattanakosin class frigates and came with the former Italian-built Laksamana class corvettes to Malaysia MBDA

submarine weapon systems they are still augmented by optical and electro-optical means. The periscope remains a valuable tool against surface vessels, often supplemented by television cameras or image intensifiers, but mast-mounted systems are being introduced for example into the latest Japanese submarines. These may be raised to pierce the surface, rotate through 360 degrees and then be withdrawn beneath the waves while the recorded images are played back on a television camera and data fed into weapon systems. Sonars are clearly a key element in antisubmarine weapon systems, indeed the latter tends to be an extension of the former; for example the SQR-220K towed array sonar system used in KDX type destroyers has two tactical display and control consoles. Hull-mounted and towed array sonars feed

information into the combat data system for processing in a dedicated anti-submarine console which is usually linked to onboard lightweight torpedo systems. A few dedicated anti-submarine weapon systems do exist, mostly the US Mk 114 used by three Asian navies with the EDO AN/SQS26 medium-frequency search-attack sonar for use with both shipborne lightweight torpedoes and for Anti-submarine Rocket (Asroc) missiles which carry lightweight torpedoes. One of the most sophisticated naval weapon systems is a combined airborne/ naval anti-submarine one, using Shipborne helicopters and which in the United States Navy is designated the Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS). Australia, Japan, Taiwan and Thailand use the Sikorsky S-70 Seahawk helicopter, which is probably one of the best aircraft for this role but a description of this aircraft also covers the role carried out to a greater or lesser extent by other Shipborne helicopters. The S-70 acts as an extension of the ships anti-submarine sensors for distances up to 100 nautical miles (185 kilometres). It is directed from the ship and carries an array of sensors which are usually a couple of dozen active and passive sonobuoys supported by sonobuoy receivers and a tactical console, an air-to-ground radar as well as a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) and/or a dipping sonar. The aircraft is directed to the vicinity of a suspected submarine and deploys its acoustic sensors to detect and to track the target. In the US Navy LAMPS the ship actually directs the engagement through a data link but in other navies the aircraft operates autonomously. When the target is identified and located the aircraft can then engage it either with depth charges or, more usually, lightweight torpedoes. The technical sophistication of naval weapon systems is certain to increase over the coming years ensuring there is no prospect of new warships costing less than AMR their predecessors.

The Boeing Harpoon is in service with the US Navy, although its deployment seems to be reduced, and eight Asian navies Boeing

The MBDA Exocet MM40, and its earlier version the MM 38, is used by seven Asian navies MBDA

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THE BACKBONE OF
Many states see the problem of reliably monitoring exclusive economic zones and defending national interests at sea as one of the top priorities. Its military, economic and political aspects are equally important. This is the reason why experts forecast steady demand in the global market for combat ships of main types, especially for frigates and corvettes making up the core of modern navies. Russian shipbuilding enterprises are traditional leaders in this technology segment, and Rosoboronexport, the sole state arms exporter, promotes their products to the international market. Rosoboronexport pursues an active marketing policy based on the analysis of real needs of potential customers and offers a wide range of submarines, combat ships and boats. In many cases offers include not only delivery of finished items but also joint design and production either in customer shipyards. It is worthy of noting that Russia is among a few countries capable of building practically all types and classes of ships, including nuclear-powered submarines. This fact is a clear illustration of a high level of Russian science, design and shipbuilding technologies.

NAVAL POWER
Project 21632 Tornado small missile/gun ship is one of prospective articles of trade in the international naval systems market. Two ships of this project have been successfully commissioned by the Russian Navy. A number of foreign customers are also showing interest in such ships. Rosoboronexport is ready to supply three modifications of the Tornado ship based on a common platform displacing 560 tons. The first one is a gunship. Its main attack weapon is the 122-mm Grad rocket system designed to defeat coastal area targets. The second Tornado version is a missile ship armed with the UranE antiship missile system having the launch range of 130 km. Each version is armed also with one 100-mm A-190E artillery gun mount, two 30mm AK-630/AK-306 automatic sixbarrel artillery gun mounts, 14.7-mm and 7.62-mm large-calibre machine guns, one 3M-47 Gibka pedestal mount with Igla type missiles. The third Tornado version is a patrol ship armed with less powerful artillery systems and a helipad for operations of helicopters with up to 4-tons gross weight. The ship powered by the CODAD engines can develop a speed of up to 26 knots, and has high manoeuvrability in shallow waters thanks to its waterjet propulsors enabling operations even in navigable rivers and their estuaries. The adaptable architecture of the Tornado ship makes it possible to modify composition not only of its weapon set but also machinery plant, as well as to fulfil other specific customers requirements. Rosoboronexport also offers foreign customers the Gepard 3.9 frigate derived from Project 11661 patrol ship. The frigate is in service with the Russian Navy since 2003. In recent years ships of this project have been actively procured in the international market.The 2,100-ton Gepard 3.9 frigate develops a speed of up to 28 knots. The ship has high combat and operational capabilities allowing it to navigate for a long time (its sea endurance is 20 days) and control vast sea areas. The Gepard 3.9 frigate can operate autonomously or within a task force, perform escort and patrol missions, protect maritime borders and exclusive economic zones. The frigate is designed to search for and defeat surface, underwater and airborne targets, and has a balanced and diversified dedicated weapons set. It includes the Uran-E antiship missile system or unique Club-N in-

Project 20382 Tigr corvette

time zone. The 4,750-ton ship can develop a speed of up to 29.5 knots and navigate at a range of up to 4,500 n.miles with 30-days endurance. The first frigate of this type was built for the Russian Navy and set afloat in 2010. The frigates main weapon is the Club-N integrated missile system capable of launching both antiship and antisubmarine missiles. The frigate can effectively carry out all assigned missions thanks to a diversified weapons set including artillery, air defence and antisubmarine systems as well as Ka-28 or Ka-31 ship-based helicopters. Thanks to the optimised hull shape, sharp-rising stem and double bottom in the greater part of the hull the ship has excellent seagoing and protection qualities, while the application of advanced ship stabilisers with non-retractable fins allows unrestricted weapons employment at Sea States up to 5. The above mentioned ships offered by Rosoboronexport fully correspond to latest trends in shipbuilding, and can enhance combat capabilities of any countrys navy by many times. They are fitted with most advanced combat information management systems and underwater, maritime and airspace situation awareness systems; their designs incorporate stealth technologies to the full extent. In addition, all of them possess large upgrading potentials.

tegrated missile system, 76.2-mm A-190E/AK-176 universal artillery mount and Palma air defence missile/gun system with the Sosna-R missiles. The ship is armed with anti-submarine weapons including two 533-mm twin torpedo tubes. All types of weapons can be employed in Sea States up to 5. In addition, to enhance its attack and antisubmarine warfare capabilities the ship carries one helicopter with up to 12-ton gross weight. Project 20382 Tigr corvette unveiled in 2007 is also designed to defend economic zones and maritime state borders, and effectively struggle against submarines, surface ships and air attack weapons. The third such corvette intended for the Russian Navy was launched last June. The Tigr corvette boasts a totally new design. It features a flush-deck hull and a superstructure made of glass fibre and carbon fibre materials which greatly reduce its radar signature. Thanks to innovative technological solutions implemented in its design the Tigr corvette has only a 2,220ton displacement, which is small for its type, and boasts high seagoing characteristics (its speed attains 30 knots). As a result, thanks to the new underwater hull lines ships water drag is substantially reduced and required power of its main machinery plant is less by approximately 25 percent.

The corvette is armed with a powerful arsenal including the Uran-E antiship missile system (two other options are the Club-N integrated missile system or Yakhont missile system with the launch range of 300 km), 100-mm A-190E or AK-176M artillery gun mount, 30-mm AK630M automatic artillery gun mount, Kashtan-M air defence missile/gun system, Paket small-size antisubmarine torpedo system, all operable at Sea States up to 5. In addition, the corvette can carry one helicopter. Project 22356 multi-purpose frigate is designed to perform a wide range of missions in off-shore mari-

Gepard 3.9 frigate

Amr Marketing Promotion

NAVAL

Platforms

Regional Corvette Requirements


Although enjoying its heyday during the Second World War, the corvette is a stubborn survivor having proved its impressive utility during the Cold War. It is currently enjoying something of a renaissance as navies around the Asia-Pacific area pour investment into the renewal of their corvette fleets.

by Tom Withington

s with many aspects of naval warfare, hard and fast definitions as to what constitutes are corvette are difficult to ascertain. For the purpose of this article, a corvette is classified as typically displacing from 450 to 2,000 tonnes. In terms of capability, it can perform local area air defence; anti-surface warfare either via the employment of Anti-Ship Missiles (AShMs), or its main gun armament; and in some cases Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). As will be seen, some corvettes can also accommodate helicopters, being equipped with a stern -mounted flight deck to this end. Furthermore, some new designs of corvette have the wherewithal to operate Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) and to deploy fast boats for the delivery of commandos. It is this sheer range of missions which continue to make the corvette an attractive vessel. In a nutshell it is the smallest class of surface combatant capable of performing power projection far from a nations shores, and of sustaining such operations with underway replenishment for a prolonged period of time. Thus the corvette is an attractive choice for a

nation which may have a limited defence budget, but an existential requirement to perform long range, or longendurance naval operations. Similarly for larger navies, corvettes can be ideal for a host of missions such as antipiracy; combating narcotics trafficking and people-smuggling, Economic Exclusion Zone (EEZ) and territorial waters protection and environmental monitoring. This can enable larger surface combatants to concentrate on more strategic blue-water operations such as area air defence, high intensity war-fighting and naval task force protection. Essentially, the modern corvette has become a pocket frigate able to perform an array of operations, at less cost and with smaller personnel requirements compared to its larger counterparts. Bangladesh Bangladeshs fleet of seven corvettes is due for modernisation. The fleet currently has at its disposal two exRoyal Navy Castle class ships known locally as the Dhaleshwari class, alongside five former Island class ships also from the senior service which are locally designated as the Kapatakhaya class. These ships are now ageing, and the Bangladesh navy

will almost certainly have to renew them in the next decade or so. This anticipated corvette renewal takes on added importance as the corvette fleet is by far the most numerous collection of large surface combatants capable of performing a degree of power projection in the Bangladesh Navy; the frigate fleet consists of around two such vessels at present. Nevertheless, the force does not appear to have any immediate plans for the rejuvenation of the corvette force

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Platforms

in the short term, with the prospect that the Dhaleshwari and Island class ships will have to soldier on for some time yet. India India, on the other hand, operates a noticeably large corvette fleet, these vessels being particularly useful for the projection of power into the Indian Ocean, and showing the flag around the littoral regions of this expanse of water. The Navys corvette fleet

currently includes around 34 ships. Six Suyanka corvettes nominally fall under the control of the Coast Guard, while the Navy operates four Khukri, Kora and Abhay class ships; two Durg and Prabal plus twelve Veer class corvettes. The Kora class represent the latest addition to the Indian Navy corvette fleet. These relatively large vessels displace 1,500 tonnes and carry Zvezda Kh-35U (NATO reporting name SS-N25 Switchblade) AShMs. The Kora fleet

The Philippines Navy has tended to use second-hand corvettes sourced from the US Navy such as the Armenio Ricarte. Whether the force acquires new or second-hand vessels to update its corvette fleet in the future remains to be seen (c) US Navy

is currently being enhanced with the addition of four Kamorta class ASW corvettes which are being constructed locally, and which should enter service from 2015. The Kamorta class will carry 3M-54 Klub (NATO reporting

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NAVAL

Platforms

One member of Indias large corvette fleet is seen here. The INS Kulish was participating with US Navy warships during Exercise Malabar 2012 aimed at enhancing multinational naval cooperation (c) US Navy

name SS-N-27 Sizzler) AShMs, an OtoMelara 76mm Super Rapid gun and Israel Aerospace Industries Barak Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs). Indonesia

Given the spread of its archipelago, Indonesia finds a significant use for corvettes for power projection around its immediate locale and beyond. The fleet at present includes four Dipponegoro and 16 Pattimura class

corvettes; the latter being of an ex-East German design. A fifth Dipponegoro ship is being constructed locally. It is possible that the balance of the fleet, notably the 16 Pattimura corvettes could be replaced by a new light frigate displacing around 2,400 tonnes to be built in Indonesian shipyards and based upon the highly successful Dutch Sigma design; the Dipponegoro class ships are built using the same design. Like Indias Kamorta class corvettes discussed above, the Dipponegoro ships are equipped with a 76mm Super Rapid gun although the AShM armament is provided by MBDAs MM40 Exocet Block-II weapons. The same companys Mistral short-range, infra-red guided SAMs ensure local area air defence with a Thales MW08 air and surface-search radar providing surveillance and target acquisition. South Korea The replacement of corvettes with light frigates is a trend which is being
The Royal Malaysian Navy is another of the Asia-Pacific regions significant user of corvettes. It is enhancing its fleet with the delivery of new Gowind class corvettes designed by DCNS. (c) US Navy

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Platforms

ten new corvettes, with a programme perhaps being launched during the next decade to acquire these vessels. Malaysia While Seoul has yet to make a decision on its acquisition of a replacement class of ships to succeed its Po Hang corvettes, Malaysia has moved ahead with a programme to supplement its four Hand Nadim class ships, themselves based on a design from Italian shipbuilder Fincantieri. The four Hand Nadim class ships were originally destined for the Iraqi Navy before United Nations sanctions imposed on the regime of Saddam Hussein prevented their delivery. Displacing 650 tonnes, these corvettes can deploy AShMs and have short-range surfaceto-air missiles for local air defence; both of which are supplemented by a 76mm OtoMelara Super Rapid gun. A degree of ASW can be performed using the ships deck-mounted torpedo-launching system. The ships radar fit includes a Selex Sistemi Integrati RAN 12L/X air search Kelvin Hughes 1007 navigation radar. These vessels will be replaced by the four so-called Second Generation Patrol Vessels (SPGVs) which are based upon the Gowind class design of French shipbuilders DCNS. The Royal Malaysian Navy could acquire up to six ships with the first in the class expected to commission in circa 2017. These ships will be built locally at Boustead Naval Shipyard. The decision of move ahead with the construction of these ships represents an important success for the Gowind class design which has been heavily marketed by DCNS in the AsiaPacific region. Announced in 2006, the Gowind design was perceived as a family of four corvette designs displacing 1,0002,500 tonnes including the Sovereignty Enforcer (1,000 tonnes), High Seas Master (2,000 tonnes), Deterrent Warrior (2,000 tonnes) and the MultiMission Combatant (2,500 tonnes). As their names suggest, these vessels have been designed with different missions in mind from territorial waters and exclusive economic zone protection to high-intensity maritime operations. The ships can spend up to three weeks at sea, and have a maximum speed of 27 knots. Several clever design features have been built into the Gowind class including stern-mounted launch wells

DCNSs Gowind class family of corvettes is being aimed at the Asia-Pacific corvette market. Four distinct vessels comprise the series offering a range of capabilities according to the mission that they are to perform (c) Thomas Withington

followed by the Republic of Korea. The countrys Navy operates 20 Po Hang class ships which are in the process of being withdrawn. The navy is building six new Incheon class light frigates which displace 2,300 tonnes. These will also replace the existing Ulsan class

frigates. However, the introduction of the Incheon vessels will only replace some of the Po Hang class. It remains to be seen whether the Republic of Korea Navy will launch a new programme to acquire a replacement frigate? If so, this could see the acquisition of around

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NAVAL

Platforms

The Philippine Navy corvette Miguel Malvar is seen here as part of a flotilla of ships performing a United States Coast Guard-led training exercise. The Philippines Navy may soon perform an acquisition of additional corvettes (c) US Navy

to accommodate fast boats for use by marine commandos, or unmanned underwater vehicles for mine warfare and underwater inspection. Much of the specification of these ships can be determined by the customer via their highly modular design, while the bridge has a 360 view for all-round vision and comes equipped with the DCNS/Thales SETIS combat management system. In terms of weapons, the Gowind class can accommodate 12.7mm and 20mm machine guns, plus a 76mm main armament on the bow. The range of missions which can be performed by either vessel increases with the size of the ship. For example, the Sovereignty Enforcer has a hull length of 85m and carries the 76mm main armament, plus a launch well for fast boats. The High Seas Master adds a helicopter deck and the ability to sustain operations at sea for up to three weeks. The Deterrent Warrior can be equipped with
The Indonesian Navy operates a number of Sigma corvettes, and are expected to add an additional similar vessel in the near future. These ships are equipped with MM40 Exocet anti-ship missiles and Mistral surface-to-air weapons (c) US Navy

MBDA MM40 Exocet AShMs and VLMICA SAMs, while the Multi-Mission Combatant can perform ASW using a towed sonar array. Burma Burma has a notably smaller frigate fleet compared to Malaysia with just

two which represent the sum total of the large surface combatants deployed by the countrys navy. Over the next ten years, it is possible that these ships could be replaced particularly if the countrys current transition to democracy continues unimpeded. This could result in many of the international

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Platforms

The Republic of Singapore Navy operates one of the most modern corvette fleets in the Asia-Pacific. Here the corvette RSS Vigilance is seen underway with the Singaporean frigate RSS Steadfast (c) US Navy

restrictions in place regarding the sale of military equipment to the country being lifted. Similarly, the Philippines may decide to replace its corvette fleet over the long term. Currently, the countrys Navy operates two Rizal and seven Cebu class corvettes which are both former United States Navy Auk and PCE class vessels respectively. Current naval modernisation plans do not call for the purchase of new corvettes, although this could occur in the future and given that these ships are already second-hand they will inevitably need to be replaced at some point in the near future. This could give rise to a demand for up to four new corvettes. Whether these ships will be sourced from the existing stocks of another navy, or via the construction of a new design remains to be seen. Should any future corvette acquisition take place, it is possible that the Philippines Navy will acquire ships configured for ASW as reported in the press some years ago. Ex-US Navy vessels are also operated by the Royal Thai Navy which has two ex-

PF-103 class ships, known locally as the Tapi class. These are joined by two Rattanakosin class corvettes. Much like the Philippines, a decision could be taken to replace these vessels with either second-hand or new-build ships, with up to four corvettes being procured to this end. Vietnam may have a similarly-sized requirement given that its four Tarantul-II class corvettes will eventually need to be replaced, given their increasingly obsolete Soviet-vintage design. The Asia-Pacific region has been fortunate in avoiding much of the economic malaise which is gripping the West with the corresponding effect of leaving nations in this region comparatively free to continue programmes of naval modernisation. Allied to this is the fact that economies around the Asia-Pacific region now have an imperative to ensure that sea lines of communications and trade routes remain open and free-flowing. The corvette has an important role to play in this regard which may help the market for these vessels to remain buoyant as economic growth continues.

At the same time, corvettes have the attraction of requiring less manpower when compared to larger combatants. This factor is important as navies around the Asia-Pacific region may experience restraints on recruitment levels as economies grow and opportunities for young, talented people away from the armed forces proliferate. Strategic imperatives spurring the corvette market in this part of the world include Chinas continued investment into the Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), and the corresponding continued existence of a number of fractious naval disputes around the South China Sea . The corvette represents a cost-effective mechanism by which countries can strike a balance in terms of capabilities, if not in numbers vis-a-vis Chinas sea power enhancement. Moreover, with several nations around the Asia-Pacific in possession of sprawling archipelagos, the corvette provides a useful platform for demonstrating national sovereignty, showing the flag and having a deterrent effect where their maybe a risk of maritime sovereignty disputes developing. AMR

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ww

Who are you, Dr. ShVabe?


A new life of Russias optical industry. Historically speaking, Russian industry is relatively young. Large-scale industrialization of the country started in the latter third of the 19th century, and most industrial facilities were set up much later, in the Soviet times. It is a rare occasion when a hi-tech company can boast a history that spans over two hundred years.
Shvabe, a joint stock company Year of foundation: Principal products: Owner: Total earnings in 2012 (estimate): Net profit in 2012 (estimate):

Serguey Maxin, General Director of JSC Shvabe

1837 Electro-optical and laser instruments and devices for military and civilian applications Fully owned by the government-controlled corporation Russian Technologies 24 billion rubles 844 million rubles

Nevertheless, one such case is known, and its story is what we are about to tell here. Shvabe, the flagship company of the countrys electro-optic industry, carries on traditions that date back more than a century and a half ago. Some enterprises of the holding were established in the first half of the 19th century. The solution to the mystery of the companys venerable age is concealed in its name: Theodor Shvabe entered Russian history as a cofounder of the national optic industry. Everything started with a shop As a matter of fact, German expatriates have rendered outstanding services to Russia, as history tells us. One could cite the names of Empress Catherine the Great, Minister of Finance Georg Ludwig, Graf von Cancrin, military engineer Eduard Totleben, humanist and holy doctor of Moscow Friedrich Joseph Haass, famous intelligence officer Richard Sorge. Frequently, Germans were founders of new industries, previously non-existent in Russia. For instance, pharmacist Johann Gottfried Gregorius founded the first private pharmacy here. The history of the Shvabe name is no less interesting and instructive. Precisely 175 years ago, in late 1837, Theodor Shvabe came to Moscow, rented premises in Kuznetsky Most, a downtown street, and opened a small shop there, to trade in glasses and optic instruments. It was a new thing for those times, competition in the market was virtually non-existent, so the trade went well. At first, the shop offered only imported goods, but as business was growing, a repair shop was set up, and afterwards Theodor Shvabe established a firm to produce optic, geodesic, medical and other useful instruments and appliances. In Russia, Theodor Shvabe, who started to be called Feodor orisovich, following Russian naming conventions, had a modest rank of Merchant, Third Class. His humble antecedents, however, did not prevent one of the forefathers of Russias optic industry from winning recognition both in Russia and abroad. For instance, the records of the 1853 All-Russia Manufactory Exhibition read as follows: The Big Silver Medal is awarded to Feodor Shvabe,

Moscow Merchant, Third Class, for excellent optic instruments and tools manufactured at his workshop that has gained general acclaim in a short time, and at present leads in Moscow. Medals received at exhibitions, and supplies for the war office earned the worthy merchant the title of Supplier of the Imperial Court. The factory built in the Moscow district of Sokolniki became one of Europes largest optic enterprises. Through wars and revolutions For the Shvabe factory, as for the entire industry, the 1917 Revolution was a huge ordeal, but the enterprise managed to survive, and continued to live on in the Soviet times, although under a new name, Geofizika (Geophysics). Geofizika gave birth to several optic facilities that branched off it afterwards and still operate in the country. The national optic industry was at the top of its powerful prime at the time when the Soviet Union was implementing its first five-year plans. The foundation of the Vavilov State Optical Institute in 1918 gave a new impetus to revolutionary development of optical science in this country. In the 1920s to 1930s, the optical industry underwent restructuring, with existing facilities upgraded and construction of new enterprises started from scratch. World War II necessitated that adjustments be made to some of those plans. Many enterprises were evacuated from the central regions and transferred to the countrys interior, Urals and Siberia, and new optic industry centers emerged on the map, most notably in Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg) and Novosibirsk. The next period in the history of domestic optic industry enterprises started in 2007, after the Russian Technologies, a governmentcontrolled corporation, was set up. Within this umbrella corporation, enterprises of one type started to be united in industrial holdings. In 2009, a new holding called Optical Systems and Technologies was set up, and Sergei Maksin, General Manager of the Urals Optical and Mechanical Plant, the leading enterprise of

the Russian optic industry, was appointed its chief executive officer. In 2012, a new name was found for the holding, the one linked to Herr Shvabe, a co-founder of the Russian optic industry. Harnessed and ready for action Currently, the Shvabe brand is a common name for a conglomerate of 19 research and manufacturing associations, design bureaus, factories and institutes. The holdings geographical expansion is very wide and covers Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Vologda, Moscow and Moscow region. The companys total workforce is about 20,000 people, including nearly 500 holders of doctorates and associate professorships in science. In actuality, Shvabe Holding represents a vertically integrated structure, because it includes enterprises covering the full value chain, from processing of raw materials to development of hi-tech optical instruments. Today, we can say with assurance that the decision to set up the holding proved to be the right one. Since its inception, Shvabe has been continuously seeing improved performance. In 2009, the total earnings generated by the holdings enterprises were equal to 16.4 billion rubles, and this year it is expected to grow to 24 billion rubles, according to our es-

Theodor Shvabe

timates. Net profit is expected to rise from 493 million to 844 million rubles, and net assets, from 11.5 billion to 26 billion rubles. Even during the [recent financial] crisis, we increased output and showed profit, says Shvabe CEO Sergei Maksin. One could say that some of the enterprises within the holding are more profitable, others are less so, but in general the situation is stable. Net profit in the first nine months of 2012 climbed as high as 663 million rubles, and our plan for this year is to reach a profit of 844 million rubles. Totals sales in the first nine months of 2012 were 17 billion rubles in monetary terms, which means a 42-percent growth from the 2011 level. And theres another important thing. When we first started, the intragroup trading was equal to 100 million rubles, while today this figure has exceeded 3 billion rubles. Shvabe goes back to Switzerland The product range of Shvabe enterprises lists about 6,000 articles for a variety of applications. Among them, there are electro-optical and laser instruments and appliances for the army and law-enforcement agencies, for medicine and industry, for science and energy sector. Nowadays, defense items account for three quarters of the Shvabe products. Shvabe optical devices are installed on board seacraft, aircraft, and even spaceships. For instance, space vehicles are fitted with Shvabeproduced earth surface sensing apparatus, and the holdings land-based units monitor the space. It is common knowledge that in an air fight decisions must be made in a matter of mere fractions of seconds. And in that flyers are assisted by onboard equipment designed by Shvabe scientists and engineers. It helps complete military assignments effectively and on time. The equipment engineered by the holding for the new generation of aircraft is in no respect inferior to the systems of foreign competitors, and in some parameters, it even surpasses them. This is fully true about Shvabe-manufactured automatic units for armored vehicles, in particular, optical character recognition equipment based on an intricate mathematic model. Part of military products are exported under programs of military and technical cooperation with foreign countries. Shvabe has 84 nations among its buyers, including Switzerland, the country that Theodor Shvabe came from, according to one version. Shvabe Trade House in Kuznetsky Most, Moscow

Alongside military devices, Shvabe workshops produce incubators for newborn babies, medical lasers, binoculars, and many other types of civilian products. It means that the holdings inventions are not only intended for military purposes but also save human lives. The neonatal apparatus manufactured by Shvabe have been used to sustain lives of more than two million newborn infants. The company is Russias only producer of all types of neonatal equipment and holds about 30% of the Russian market of those products. Shvabe Holding today possesses unique technologies that enable its enterprises to manufacture products having no counterparts or equivalents anywhere in the world. Currently, Shvabe holds 672 patents, and their number is growing continuously, with 150-170 patents registered by Shvabe enterprises every year, including 5-9 international ones. Outlook into the future Now, whats next? The holding has put out a development strategy for the period of up to 2020. According to it, Shvabe purports to gain strong recognition worldwide. Shvabe plans to double its share of the global market of electro-optical military systems, raising it from 9.2% to 17.8%. Furthermore, the holdings enterprises will be upgraded before 2020, with 60 billion rubles to be invested in the overhaul, of which 61% will be the companys own funds and borrowed money, and 39% government budget outlays. To promote Shvabes innovative drive, 87 billion rubles will be provided to the holding until 2020. The holdings structure is to change. Several so-called competence centers are to be set up, each to include enterprises which have the highest potential for development and production of certain classes of products. For the time being, there are plans to create 13 competence centers at Shvabe. Those undertakings will cover the following product groups: electro-optical systems for armored vehicles, for military and civilian aircraft, for the navy, for air defense, etc. Additionally, R&D design centers will be established, because design today is an increasingly important factor contributing to the market success of industrial products. The holding is set to enlarge, with some other government-owned enterprises of the optic industry to be added to it shortly. This will help

focus effort on the most promising activities, eliminate redundancy and optimize production chains. Finally, after 2015, another event is scheduled to take place, one that is quite logical for any successful undertaking. Shvabe is to hold its IPO. By going public, the company will be able to raise additional funds and also to get an objective view of its value. Besides, the preliminary work leading to an IPO is generally a process that enhances business transparency and quality of corporate governance. Speaking at a recent presentation of the brand hosted by the Moscow Planetarium, Sergei Chemezov, General Director of the Russian Technologies, said, The initial public offering will contribute to the solution of the large-scale challenges, in particular, it will help attract additional investments. The income will be used to upgrade the holdings facilities, to further R&D, and to design new products. Another development venue is creation of joint ventures with international hi-tech companies. If the holding pulls this off, it will be able to get access to the newest technologies and establish its footprint in international markets. It is rumored that Shvabe may partner with a Silicon Valley company in order to start development of the Russian smartphone. Shvabe today is first and foremost a supplier of defense items, but there are plans to double the share of civilian produce within the income by 2020, by increasing it from 25.4% to 50.4%. The biggest sales growth is expected for medical equipment, which is to soar 34 times, from 350 million to 11.8 billion rubles. Sales of optical items of civilian applications are set to surge ninefold. According to projections, by 2020 Shvabe is to control 86% of the Russian optic market and 20% of the low-energy lighting technology market. By 2020, total sales, exports and the EBITDA margin are expected to grow several times. Compared to the 2012 plan, sales in 2020 will rise from current 24 billion to 82.3 billion rubles, and the EBITDA margin will be up tenfold to 8.3 billion rubles. The name of German-born Feodor Shvabe, who became a brilliant professional and a distinguished Russian citizen, is already getting worldwide recognition as a trademark. The undertaking that started as a glass shop in Kuznetsky Most, will be transformed into a major global hi-tech company.

Russian Technologies State Corporation General Director Serguey Chemezov, Mayor of Moscow Serguey Sobianin and Shvabe JSC Director General Serguey Maxin at the ceremony of medical equipment delivery to Moscow Department of Public Health

Amr Marketing Promotion

Ground Isr

Ground Surveillance: 24/7 All Weather Demands


The nature of the mission or the role of the military forces used, determines the type of surveillance used rather than one size fits all and consequently, militaries are establishing inventories that will allow them to match the sensor type to circumstances or effect they are trying to achieve. by Adam Baddeley
The US Army currently deploys three Combat Outpost Surveillance and Force Protection Systems in Afghanistan AJB

A small unobtrusive Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) is one way to establish the number of footfalls along a jungle path that is already known as a means of ingress and egress, allowing intelligence to be gathered, ambushes planned and warnings given of a likely attack. In contrast, a large, systemised surveillance system installed on a dominating feature of the landscape loses all claims to covert surveillance but maximises the performance of its sensors by its height and also acts as a deterrent because as the chance of detecting enemies is increased because of its overt presence, an attack or an activity predicated on stealth and the avoidance of detection may not take place within its area of coverage.

Covert
Detecting the enemy without yourself being detected is always important in warfare but it has become particularly vital for militaries seeking to succeed in combating terrorists, countering an insurgency or generally collecting intelligence in order to act decisively at a later date. In this role, UGS provide that real time persistent surveillance by virtue of their small size, ability to be hidden and remote operation. Seraphim Optronics Chameleon

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capability allows users to hide their surveillance assets in plain sight; built into walls along a busy street or intersection, dug into the ground and lasting for several months without the need to replace or recharge the battery. A

FLIRs Kraken system represents one of the latest systems designed for force protection
recent change to the system has been the addition of a second visual channel to the system, allowing day and night options within the system with a 90 degree field of view. The Chameleon 2 has recently been developed and will be used on Israels borders and can be matched with an integrated Elta radar and other UGS as required. Other UGS on the market include Elbits TALOS which is powered by an integrated solar panel and back up battery which can detect a crawling individual at 150m and can be included in scalable networks of up to 100 devices, McQs iscout, IAI Eltas E/LI-6001 which can be deployed by mortar, L-3s REMBASS-II and Selex Galileos Hydra systems adopted by Finland.

Radas new modular radar range includes the RPS-40 in the counter-RAM detection role RADA

any certainty, troops must test refuel, train and prepare for the next mission in a Forward Operating Base or similar facilities. There, in a static position they become uniquely vulnerable to attack although the ability to protected those same forces is considerable. A key focus is therefore detecting infiltration attempts and incoming mortar or rocket rounds and warning as early as possible and then acting to cue weapon systems or patrols outside the perimeter to that location. FLIRs Kraken system represents one of the latest systems designed for force protection which is systematised, bringing together multiple sensors types in a single system. Known as the Combat Outpost Surveillance and Force Protection Systems in US Army Service and delivered to the Army in Afghanistan via PM Guardian under the Rapid Fielding Initiative, FLIR delivered four systems between 2010 and 2011 with three systems now deployed in Afghanistan with three more due to be delivered for deployment in 2013. Its capabilities are split between longer range surveillance and short range local monitoring. Looking far beyond the

Force Protection
ESC Bazs manportable Rooster System takes a standard hand held thermal imager such as the Elbit Coral family or Sagem JIM LR and places it on a tripod. It is shown here in combination with an Elta radar AJB

Securing the safety of deployed troops is the start point of operations today. While the exact nature of the next operation and conflict cannot be determined with

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The hand held or tripod mounted Sophie UF2 is based around a 640x480 uncooled thermal imagers and incorporates a laser range finder, digital magnetic compass and optical day sight (c) Thales

wire are two mast mounted systems the companys own TacFLIR 380HD electrooptical sensors, equipped with a laser range finder and pointer for detailed cueing for other systems, coupled with an Elta EL/M-2112 (V10) radar which can detect a walking individual at up to 12km. The mast, power and other systems are housed are part of an ISO container. Also integrated on the container is one of FLIRs own R3D radars a dual mode doppler and Frequency-modulated continuouswave radar with a range of 2.8km. The Kraken also plugs and plays with existing sensors including the legacy battlefield anti-intrusion system unattended ground sensors as well as two shot detection sensors; the Raytheon Boomerang III and Shot Spotter 2. Fusing these sensors is the job of FLIRs Cohesion/Resolution Software as well as data fusion software from the Joint Battlespace Command and Control System for Manned and Unmanned Assets. Counter-fire sensors, providing surveillance, constantly allowing

The SRC AN/ TPQ-50 Light Weight Counter Mortar Radar is in widespread US service and is designed to deal with indirect fire with 360 degrees coverage from 500m to 10km.

operators to determine the point of origin and point of impact of rounds, classify them and then can connect to other systems both to warn people in the locale and cue counter-fire systems.

ThalesRaytheon Systems is currently upgrading the AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder radar in the counter-battery role for the US Army with the radar also in service with 11 export customers. Raytheon is also tasked with developing the Ku Band Multi-Function RF System (MFRFS) Sense and Warn radars for the same customer in support of Counter Rocket Artillery and Mortar initiatives with a wider area of coverage and upgraded to eliminate false alarms. An early version was deployed to Afghanistan earlier this year. The SRC AN/TPQ-50 Light Weight Counter Mortar Radar is in widespread US service and is designed to deal with indirect fire with 360 degrees coverage from 500m to 10km and able to support remote operation to 10km. RADA Electronic Industries new range of tactical land radar solutions, all based around Pulse Doppler, Multi-Mission, AESA Radars using different algorithms and implementations according to the mission. Within the Multi-Mission Hemispheric Radar category are deployed radars designed for base and border protection. The RPS-40 is designed to establish the point of origin of Hostile Fire covering the standard rockets, artillery, mortars as well as RPGs and other threats.

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Tactical Surveillance
Ensuring the ability to identify targets close in while those targets are camouflaged or otherwise obscured from natural view or to utilise the maximum range of modern munitions requires troops on operation have to bring their surveillance equipment with them. Whether hand held devices carried by dismounted forces, sensors integrated into accompanying vehicles or rapidly deployed sensors located at a strong points or high ground to help ensure the detection of small targets in clutter-filled environments. Ground Surveillance Radar (GSR) provides a volume coverage capability in both a sector scan and a 360 degree sweep providing a detailed categorisation of the track detected an enables focused cueing for other sensors. Elisras Foxtrack ground surveillance radar is a man portable design launched last year. Its man machine design allows non-specialists to operate and understand the results and can detected dismounted individuals at 6km and if armed can be detected at 8km with with systems alerting the operators to the presence of vehicles when they are 24km away from the radar. Aselsans ACAR GSR, operates in Ku band and scans in selectable swaths from 10 degrees out to 360 degrees all around with programmable friendly zone. Termas Scanter GSR is a 30Kg high-resolution pulse-Doppler radar developed from the companies radar technology base which has been focused on the maritime and littoral environments. Thales Lynx is another lightweight manportable radar, its modules spread over two soldiers when deploying and weighs just 35kg as a complete system. The Lynx can detect a moving enemy walking at distances of 6km and vehicles at around 10 km. Telephonics Advanced Radar Surveillance Systems Medium Range has an azimuth accuracy of 0.5 degrees, track while scan of over 100 targets and has a detection range of 5000m for individuals and 8000m for vehicles. Radas C-band RPS-15, now in company testing and due to be demonstrated in the US is designated a Compact Hemispheric Radar for use on combat vehicles providing 360 degree surveillance using three or four radar units and detects tracks, classifies and locates direct and elevated threats fired at combat vehicles. Visual identification moves the target from one that is simply detected the vehicle could be enemy, friendly or simply a civilian, to one in which they are positively identified, providing the operator with a range of options. ESC Bazs manportable Rooster System takes a standard hand held thermal imager such as the Elbit Coral family or Sagem JIM LR and places it on a tripod. This is is enabled with a motorised SMART pan and tilt unit and controlled by the users via the companys Max or Max II control units based around a 8.4 LCD display and enabling two-channel video input and integrated digital recording. The company report interest from a number of countries in the systems for Homeland security including Singapore. The Thales Margot 3000 and the ROTOS system is offered in the same category based around the Sophie and Catherine MP thermal imagers respectively. Vectronix is currently supplying the new US Handheld Precision Targeting

The US Armys new Handheld Precision Targeting Devices includes the Vectronix STERNA Precision Target Location Systems AJB

Seraphim Optronics Chameleon capability allows users to hide their surveillance assets in plain sight
Devices requirement for the US Army under its Rapid Equipping Force initiative. This takes a hand held thermal imager and targeting device however to provide the accuracy requirement additional capability is needed. This is delivered
via the STERNA system which attaches to the base of the device on a tripod and provides a true north even in GPS defined environments. Mobile vehicle mounted systems, reconnaissance and surveillance system. L-3 Wescams latest offering in this realm is its MX-RSTA designed as a host for multiple EO/IR camera types with the mounting allowing new sensor to be added when they become available without

The systems is in qualification now and has been bid into programmes in the Middle East. Raytheons LRAS3 and more recent eLRAS systems both provide high capability thermal imaging and geo-locations mounted on Strykers, HMMWVs and other vehicles. Thales Margot 5000 system, based around a mast mounted Catherine XD thermal imagers and has been installed on Belgian Army Pandurs and Luxembourgs Dingo vehicles.

Border Surveillance
In terms of the area coverage required, border surveillance poses the greatest challenges, particularly for those countries requiring the border to be a physical barrier to entry or exit rather than those simply seeking to monitor coming and goings. Systematised multi-sensor platforms for border security include Telephonics 1700kg Mobile Surveillance Capability which can be palletised on the rear of a small Sport Utility Vehicle and comprises a mast mounted radar and day and night camera and is in service

significant change to the mounting.

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airborne assets that provide area coverage and in the case of SUAVs, a backpack. Indonesias Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology and the countrys Ministry of Defence recently had a test of its latest UAV, the Wulung, at the Halim Perdanakusuma airbase in East Jakarta. Indonesia intends that the 73km Wulung be deployed at squadron level as part of a surveillance package on Indonesias borders. India has plans to issue SUAVs to all its infantry battalions, numbering roughly 350 with an active requirement

FLIR Systems new Mobile Surveillance Capability, border surveillance system supports a one-button to detection capability and is ready to operate within eight minutes AJB

L-3 Wescams latest offering in this realm is its MX-RSTA designed as a host for multiple EO/IR camera types AJB

with US Customs and Border Protection. The same organisation also worked with FLIR in the development of their new Mobile Surveillance Capability solution which uses an integrated TacFLIR 380-HD sensor and CommandSpace Adaptive C2 software. Rada offers the S-band RHS-44 Radar System for Border Protection which can detect individuals at 6km, UAVs at 25km and in the littoral, ships at 40km.

UAVs
Tactical Unmanned Aerials Vehicles (TUAVs) operated from extemporised airfields or launch rails and Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAV) dominate Asia-Pacific procurement. Rather than the strategic assets similar to Global Hawk or some of the larger Predators these are best seen as extensions of Army aviations organic

now in competitions for a SUAV that can operate over 8km away in the country in current acquisition plans from 2012-17 with the cost of 1000 of these systems put at Rs. 150 crore. India. India has recent concluded a $947 million deal with Israel Aerospace Industries to upgrade 150 of its TUAVs. Pakistan is developing a number of tactical UAVs of its own after initial work on the Selex Galileo Falco UAVs. These include the Pakistans Global Industrial & Defence Solutions Shahpar and Uqab TUAVs. AMR

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O p e r a t i o n s

he exact impact of Cyber warfare the hacking of online-information and the disruption of networks via computer intrusion by state and non-state actors has yet to be determined but while the United States government continues to describe its potential impact with the admittedly hackneyed term of, an Electronic Pearl Harbour, this necessitates taking it seriously. Three distinct categories

of actor are undertaking cyberoperations: Electronic Criminal groups that are organisationally skilled and financially driven - in 2008 the FBI found that organised crime made more money from online fraud and hacking than from drugs, State sponsored intelligence gathering US intelligence estimates that over 100 countries have the ability to conduct high level cyber intelligence gathering over extended periods and Non-state actors, a broad

Sailors on the watch-floor of the Navy Cyber Defense Operations Command monitor, analyze, detect and defensively respond to unauthorized activity within U.S. Navy information systems and computer networks DoD

category incorporating politically or issue motivated hacktivists to individuals driven by financial gain or deluded conspiracies.

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Regional Cyber: Defence and Offence


Cyberspace has been called many things; the fifth field of military operations, the new terrain for warfare and the new centre of gravity. Whichever term gains ascendancy in the lexicon for this area of operations, it will nonetheless join ground, sea, air and space as the key domains that militaries must contest and ultimately dominate in current and future conflicts while the same cyber-capabilities but also be utilised by other government agencies to secure Critical National Infrastructure on the home front.

by Adam Baddeley
does, really for the first time, is it explicitly talks about how we will use cyber-operations. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) efforts in developing an offensive capability are reported to largely lie in the so called Plan X, a five year project valued at $110 million and tasked with creating a real time map of cyberspace allowing commanders to locate targets and disable them with cyber attack. Reflecting the maturity of cyber capability, on November 13th the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency transferred its National Cyber Range (NCR) to the DoD after a year of testing, for it to be incorporated into the DoDs Test Resource Management Center. The NCR is as its name suggests a giant test range, hosted within a closed system to simulate local or wide area networks such as the Global Information Grid in which tactics, techniques and procedures can be honed both for defence

International Approaches
An undoubted sea change in cyberoperations will come from Presidential Policy Directive 20 signed in mid October by President Obama which authorises the US military to be more aggressive in countering cyberattacks on both government and private computer networks. A senior official was quoted as saying that What it

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to provide the tools to monitor analyse and understand enemy cyber operations in real and near real time to help develop specific counter measure and monitor threats. The Head of the UKs MI5 domestic intelligence agency Jonathan Evans in a recent speech outlining the growing cyber threats gave an example of a major UK firm that had sustained losses of $1.2 billion from a state sponsored attacks in terms of both the loss of intellectual property and the uncovering of details that were advantageous to competitors in contract negotiations. The UK is also seeking to bolster its cyber defences, recently issuing a Request For Proposals to commercial and academic organisations for innovative solutions under the aegis of the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The UK recently increased the duration of its contract for cyber security across the Ministry of Defence with British Telecom, reflecting an increased focus on the area under its National Security Strategy. The UKs National Security Strategy, announced $800 million of cyber-security investment in 2010. Stung by Stuxnet and other attacks, Irans Islamic Revolution Guards Corps has this year established a new Cyber division based in Tehran although it is publicly stated role is merely for monitoring cultural and social moveson the Iinternet. Iran claims to have stopped a recent attack against it National Iranian Offshore Oil Co., routed through China by Israel, trying to replicate an earlier attack on oil

producing facilities which took place in April. Then, the government was forced to disconnect the control systems of oil facilities on Kharg island and elsewhere On the other side of the Middle East Divide, Israels Prime Minster recently said the country was working to build a digital Iron Dome replicating the counter-rocket interceptor used on the countrys border but in the cyber domain with more funds being channelled to expand military cyber units and to recruit more soldiers with greater cyber expertise. Elsewhere in the region, Saudi Aramco, the worlds biggest oil producer had to shut down its internal network to sanitise just under 30,000 work stations that had been infected with a virus, responsibility for which was claimed by the Cutting Sword of Justice in response to pro-Sunni intervention in Syria and Bahrain.

Elbit Systems new cyber simulator, launched in June was developed specifically for the training of government, military and critical civilian infrastructure cyber defense agencies Elbit Systems

and offence. The move is portrayed by the White House as a key feature of the Presidential Comprehensive National Cyber-Security Initiative. A key node in the decision making process within the DoD is the Cyber Investment Management Board (CIMB), created to speed up cyber procurement. This is chaired by the Defense Undersecretary for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, the Defence Undersecretary for Policy and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. In addition to securing national water supplies, electrical grids and similar the military are increasingly concerned with the hacking of military systems. DARPA has tasked Rockwell Collins with work on developing software to secure US Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in real time to prevent airborne assets begin spoofed to put them off target or crash. The US Air Forces Sensor Shadow programme, primed by General Dynamics Advanced Informational Systems is handled by the US Air Forces 35th Intelligence Squadron tasked with Cyberspace Operations. Sensor Shadow is designed
DARPA has tasked Rockwell Collins with work on developing software to secure US Unmanned Aerial Vehicles DoD

A key node in the decision making process within the DoD is the Cyber Investment Management Board
Regional Activities
Australia recent announced that cyber attacks in Australia had increased by over 50 percent according to its Cyber Security Operations Centre, counting

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hacked via eight different viruses found on 45 servers and 38 computer terminals located throughout the company. Individual Hactivity in India has targeted Pakistan in recent months with the Indian Cyber Army attacking thousands of Pakistan government sites on the countrys Independence day. These attacks were in response to earlier attacks by the (unconnected) Pakistan Cyber Army against websites in India. In June, it was discovered that networks in Indias Eastern Naval Command tasked with any operations undertaken by the Indian Navy in the South China Sea - had been infiltrated by malware brought on by USB drives. These sat on infected computers,

China is seen by the US and others as a major cyber threat with Chinese companies that have links to the PLA being excluded from a number of overseas contracts DoD

both criminal and state actors in acting against public and private targets. Links to the Peoples Liberation Army have seen Huawei prevented from participating in Australias $37 billion national broadband network (NBN) following concerns expressed about security. Huawei has offered to open its source code and equipment for investigation if required but a change in policy does not seem to be forthcoming. A ban on similar grounds was put in place in Canada. In the US there is a strong strong effort is the Houses of Congress to limit Chinese technology providers being used in US programmes however, in the UK, Huawaei has set up a cyber security centre manned by UK security cleared individuals. In October, Northrop Grumman were given the contract to build a new joint Cyber test range for the Australian Defence Force which will be located at the Australian Defense Force Academy in Canberra and is tasked with both training and research in the cyber domain.

Currently cyber security in Japan is largely the responsibility of its selfdefence forces. However, in 2013 a new central cyberspace defence force will be formed with an initial staff of a hundred to act as a central hub to co-ordinate responses and develop expertise and training. Politically, the government has also established new rules governing the circumstances in which Japan may counter attack against a cyber threat. In recent months Japans cyber infrastructure has been reported to have been regularly probed by nearby states not to mention Chinese citizens incensed over Japans position of the Senkaku/ Diaoyu islands. The Anonymous hacktivist group also recently targeted Japan over changes to its piracy laws. Japan suffered a major cyber setback in October 2011 with the announcement that Mitsubishi Heavy Industries computer files covering nuclear power plant technology and its work on the countrys submarine and destroyer fleets as well as work on missile technology has been

Stung by Stuxnet and other attacks, Irans Islamic Revolution Guards Corps has this year established a new Cyber division based in Tehran
collecting information related to certain key words stored then on the drives and when they were connected to to an Internet connected computer any document they had collected were sent to an IP address located in China. Partly in response to this, the Indian Navy has set up a new cyber unit tasked with protecting its networks with training for the first recruits beginning their training

The Indian Navy recently began training its first officers for dedicated cyber operations in December. Earlier this year Indias Eastern Naval Command suffered a critical security lapse in its network DoD

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South Korea boosted their anticyber security threat level to Infocon 4 in response to the death of the Norths leader Kim Jong Il
Raytheon acquired Pikewerks last year for much the same reasons. The company has in depth knowledge of working with systems on Linux, increasingly being adopted by government entities and has two key offering on the market; the Electronic Armor anti-exploitation software tool and the Second Look solution used to provide detailed analysis of operating systems. Another recent Raytheon acquisition has been Trusted Computer Solutions. Raytheon is also working with DARPA on the Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales (ADAMS) programme which rather than help create a barrier to entry assumes that some malware will infiltrate whether through the barrier or via a determined or unwitting insider. ADAMS searches through very large data sets to identify anomalies and to do so in in a live environments using Raytheons SureView tool. Elbit Systems launched a new cyber security simulator in June. Athena GS3 Security Implementations CYHUMINT is an early warning system that monitors suspicious activities in Cyberspace. Ultra Electronics acquired cyber security firm AEP Networks in 2011.Others investments include Barron McCann Technology, Barron McCann Payments, Special Operations Technology and Zu Industries. Thales ECHINOPS, provides security for high-speed IP networks and received a NATO secret certification last year allowing it to be used for inflation exchange at the highest level. In 2010, Thales launched their CYBELS (CYBer Expertise for Leading Security) designed to offer a scalable modular solution for the defence of critical information systems designed with options for government, business as well as police and law enforcement agencies. AMR

In 2008 the FBI found that organised crime made more money from online fraud and hacking than from drugs DoD

in December. India and the US agreed to work together on cyber security in a 2011 agreement establishing a memorandum of understanding through which the two countries Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERT) could work together. South Korea boosted their anticyber security threat level to Infocon 4 in response to the death of the Norths leader Kim Jong Il illustrating that a significant cyber threat can be created
A new battlefield to contest? DoD

even from the country with the regions least Internet savvy population. US-RoK Cyber Policy has also been established enabling the scope of joint work in the are to be established both on a government to government basis and with industry. Singapores work in this domain has centred on a new national cybersecurity centre headed by the Singapore Infocomm Technology Security Authority initially working on monitoring critical information infrastructure for security and emergency services before expanding its remit.

Industry developments
In response to growing demand for cyber protection, traditional defence companies have sought to rapidly acquire capabilities not already held in house. Cassidian Cyber Security, formed in April was created in order to bring together all EADS expertise in this field. A recent addition is Netasq which offers cyber services which are EU and NATO certified to EAL4+. Cassidian is also working in Abu Dhabi with Khalifa University and Emiraje Systems in creating a new national Cyber Operations Centre of Excellence for that country under a 2010 agreement with the focus for the effort being on the protection of industrial control systems linked to energy infrastructure.

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Regional News
and Developments

Boeings CH-47 Chinook has come in as the lowest bidder in the competition for the Indian Air Forces heavy lift requirement (c) DoD

Asia Pacific Procurement Update


South Asia
India and Indonesia have agreed to continue high-level defence talks and co-operation following an inaugural meeting held in Jakarta in October. The two countries have also signed an agreement for India to help Indonesia in the support of their Su-27 and Su30 aircraft. Finmeccanica has denied allegations that it had used two agents in support of its successful bid for Indias 560 million VVIP helicopter programme which is now the centre of an anti-corruption investigation by authorities in India. Two Prithvi II short-range ballistic missiles and the Dhanush naval variant of the missile have been test fired by Indias Strategic Forces Command at the Chandipur missile range, off the coast of Odisha. The Indian Armys T-90 fleet is to gain a new missile capability with the government agreeing a deal to acquire 10,000 Invar anti-tank missiles from Russia with options for a future 15,000 built locally by Bharat Technologies. The Army also secured a deal in October for the acquisition of 10,000 Konkurs-M anti-tank guided missiles which will be operated by the Mechanised Infantry and Infantry battalions. The Army is preparing a tender due to be released later this year for an air and ground surveillance system on board an Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH) to act as the eyes and ears of new attack helicopter units. The Indian Air Force Su-30MKI fleet will gain a significant boost in offensive capability with the acquisition of 200 air launched BrahMos supersonic cruise missile variants as part of wider $1.5 billion missile deal. India has reached an agreement with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) to work with the Indian Air Force in a $947 million agreement to upgrade around 150 UAVs operated by all three Services. IAI supplies the Searcher and Heron UAVs to India. A total of 144 single seat PAK-FA fighters will be acquired by India according to a recent interview by Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne with delivery beginning in 2020. An agreement to jointly develop the Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA) by India and Russia, which will have payload of 20 tonnes has formally launched the project with the agreement signed in mid-October. Airbus A330 based solution has been selected as the preferred bid for Indias $1billion requirement for six inflight refuelling aircraft, beating competition from a lower costs Russian Il-78 tanker, six of which are already in service having been acquired from the Ukraine. Boeings CH-47F Chinook has come in as the lowest bidder in the competition for the Indian Air Force heavy lift requirement, beating the Russian Mi-26 design. A total of 15 aircraft are required. The Indian Air Force, working with the Army and Navy is to acquire 7000 new search and rescue beacons via a global tender to be issued to aircrew which will be able to transmit their location to receivers at ranges of 200km. A Request for Proposals to acquire 12 HAL Cheetal helicopters for use in the Siachen glacier region has been issued by the Indian Air Force, bridging the gap before the delayed new Light Utility Helicopter programme, which will replace the Cheetah/Chetak fleet, comes into sevice. The Cheetal is a version of the Cheetah with a more powerful engine. The INS Teg has tested a BrahMos missile off the Goa Coast, hitting a target over 290km away. An Indian Navy Chetak helicopter while landing at the Dabolim naval base in Goa state has crashed, killing three.

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Regional News
and Developments

East Asia
North Korea has fired one of its KN01 short range missiles into the Yellow Sea. The missile which hit nothing in its 90km trajectory was fired shortly after South Koreas President Lee Myung-bak warned the North over incursions by several fishing boat on the two countries maritime border. Lockheed Martin has been awarded a $1.85 billion US government contract to upgrade Taiwans 146 F-16A/B Block 20 fighters with new avionics, electronic warfare systems and a new active electronically scanned array radar. Taiwans Mirage 2000-5 fleet suffered a fatal crash during a training flight in France leading to the temporary grounding of the fleet while checks were made and the cause investigated. South Korea and the US held talks in October to discuss the formers wish to increase the range and payload of missiles. Currently these are limited to 300km missiles with a 500Kg payload under a deal originally struck in 1979

and revised in 2001. South Korea want to formalise an initial agreement to increase the range to 800km. South Koreas plans to issue a decision on its choice for its new fighter aircraft have been postponed until 2013. The countrys Defense Acquisition Procurement Agency (DAPA) has said it would announce the selection of either the Lockheed Martins F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, Boeings F-15SE Silent Eagle or the Eurofighter Typhoon in October. DAPA is currently in extended negotiations with the vendors. Koreas Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC) 2 missile systems, part of the ongoing Korean Air and Missile Defense (KAMD) network may be upgraded under plans now being considered by South Korea to improve interception rates beyond the currently reported 40 percent. If the plans progress, Korea will be able to use PAC-3 missiles and can be better integrated with US sensor networks. Despite its enthusiasm for its national network South Korea is reported to have demurred on joining a proposed multi-

lateral US led regional missile shield after talks between US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta South Korean Defence Minister Kim Kwan-jin in Washington. General Fang Fenghui has been appointed as the new Peoples Liberation Army Chief of Staff. The Peoples Liberation Army Air Force has received the final Q-5 strike aircraft from manufacturer Jiangxi Hongdu Aviation Industry Group. Based on the MiG-19, the first prototype was completed in 1960 and entered squadron service in 1970. Japan is to spend $31.3 million acquiring four amphibious assault vehicles to equip the Western Army Infantry Regiment, tasked with the defence of Japan outlying islands. They will be used to develop doctrine and determine future requirements. Japan has outlined its modernisation plans for its Coast Guard. Key procurement priorities are four 1000 ton patrol vessels by late 2014, three 30m patrol boats in 2013 and a single 350 ton patrol boat. These will be supported by three new helicopters with advanced on board video surveillance and transmission.

A Patriot Advanced Capability 3 (PAC-3) interceptor missile being test fired in October of this year (c) DoD

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Regional News
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Indonesia is acquiring two battalions of CAESAR 155/52mm truck mounted artillery from Nexter (c) Nexter

South East Asia


The latest Indonesian defence procurement budget allocates $2.3 billion for the Air Force, $2.1 billion for the Navy and $1.5 billion for the Army. The countrys plans include 103 Leopard 2A6 tanks, two ASTROS MLRS battalions, a new SAM unit, two battalions of Caesar self-propelled howitzer systems, three submarines, three 60m missile boats and two tugboats, the upgrade of 13 C-130s and acquire ten more from Australia and ASW helicopters from the US. Indonesia has announced plans to build three new military sites along the border with Malaysias East Kalimantan region, closing gaps in existing coverage. The new Wulung UAV developed by the Indonesian Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology and Ministry of Defence has conducted a flight demonstration at the Halim Perdanakusuma airbase in East Jakarta as part of a planned acquisition of a squadron of the aircraft for surveillance of Indonesias borders. The Wulung has a range of 73km, and a wingspan of 6m, Indonesia is currently working on a 300km range UAV. An Indonesian Air Force Hawk 200 aircraft crashed in Riau province in the west of the country, the first in well over decade of service. Thailands Defence Minister is reported to be considering drastic cuts in the number of serving generals with 1600 now in uniform, a figure that has risen from 1273 in 2003. Thailand is to benefit from the US Excess Defence Articles programme with a number of military items currently being offered. These include two FFG-7 Oliver Hazard Perry frigates, 1150 HMMWVs, five F-16 engines and three Blackhawk helicopters. Thailand has ordered two AgustaWestland AW139 Helicopters for use by the Army in the transport and utility role with delivery due in 2014. The Royal Thai Air Force has received a second Erieye radar equipped Saab 340 AEW aircraft. The plane landed at Surat Thani and will provide the smarts of Phase 2 of Thailands Air defence contract which includes an additional six Gripen C aircraft. The Philippines government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) are reported to have established a framework agreement to begin a peace process which will include a transition commission for establishing new laws in more areas. The Philippine Amphibious Landing Exercise or Phiblex 13, a joint event between the Philippines and the US took place and included elements relatively close to the disputed Scarborough Shoal. Malaysias Police Air Operations Force (AOF) has a requirement for 21 new medium and light helicopters. Currently, the police have ten Eurocopter Squirrel 355F2 and AS 355N helicopters as well as twin and single engined fixed wing aircraft. During US Navy Secretary Ray Mabus visit to Cambodia the two countries agreed to improved naval co-operation in the area of countering terrorism, drugs and arms and human-trafficking. Burma has been invited to join the joint US-Thai COBRA GOLD remaining exercise in 2013. Other countries participating are Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and South Korea. The Philippines Coast Guard has announced the acquisition of a single 82m and four 24m patrol boats, acquired from France in a $116 million contract.

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Regional News
and Developments

Rheinmetall Simulation Australia has acquired Sydac Pty Ltd, which currently provides simulation and training systems to the Australian Defence Force (c) Rheinmetall

Australasia
Australia and South Korea have both won non-permanent seats on the United nations Security Council from January 2013 for two year period. The countrys Prime Minster Julia Gillard called for improved defence co-operation in the area of sharing information, naval exercise and ministerial meetings during her recent visit to India. In addition, following the end of Australias ban on exporting uranium to India, the sale of the material was also discussed. An Australian, Major-General Rick Burns has been appointed to the position of Deputy Commanding-General for operations in the US Armys Pacific Command, the first time a senior position in the Command has been held by a foreign national. Australias Department of Defence has published its new strategy paper Australia in the Asian Century which emphasises partnership with the US and others as well as co-operation with China. Rheinmetall Simulation Australia has acquired Sydac Pty Ltd, which currently provides simulation and training systems to the Australian Defence Force, subject to final approval from the Australian Department of Defence. The Royal Australian Navy sent HMAS Sydney, a guided missile frigate to the Philippines for participation in a joint exercise. The hull of the Royal Australian Navys Landing Helicopter Dock Canberra has arrived in Australia on the heavy lift vessel Blue Marlin after having started its 12000 nautical mile journey from Navantias Ferrol shipyard in Galicia, Spain. Australia and India are acquiring Raytheons Mk 54 lightweight torpedo and associated support equipment as part of a $45.3 million US Navy contract for the weapon, which can be fired from the MH-60R helicopter and P-8 Poseidon aircraft. Australia has deployed two Saab Giraffe air surveillance radars to its base at Tarin Kot multinational base in Afghanistans Uruzgan province. The radars are tasked with supporting counter-rocket artillery weapon systems. Two batteries of M777A2 155-mm towed howitzers are being acquired for the Australian Army. A total of 19 guns are begin acquired, adding to the 35 ordered in October 2009. The new guns are being acquired to meet the capability that would have been provided by self propelled guns cancelled in May. Chemring has been awarded a contract by Australia for the supply of ten Husky Mounted Detection Systems (HMDS) by its subsidiary NITEK. The $6.9 million deal includes the VISOR Ground Penetrating Radar and will be delivered in November 2012. The US Navy has deployed five EA18G Growlers electronic attack aircraft to Amberley in Australia to help familiarise the Royal Australian Air Force ahead of the Service converting 12 of its F/A18E/F aircraft to the new standard. The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) has taken delivery of the third and fourth of eight NH90 helicopters. All aircraft in the order are due to be delivered by the end of 2012. The RNZAF has agreed a deal with Hawker Pacific to lease four King Air B200 aircraft over the next five years for the purposes of advanced pilot training and air transport.

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| Asian Military Review |

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